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Numerical solution of Williamson fluid flow past a stretching cylinder and heat

transfer with variable thermal conductivity and heat generation/absorption


M. Y. Malik, M. Bibi, Farzana Khan, and T. Salahuddin

Citation: AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016); doi: 10.1063/1.4943398


View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4943398
View Table of Contents: http://aip.scitation.org/toc/adv/6/3
Published by the American Institute of Physics

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AIP ADVANCES 6, 035101 (2016)

Numerical solution of Williamson fluid flow past


a stretching cylinder and heat transfer with variable
thermal conductivity and heat generation/absorption
M. Y. Malik, M. Bibi, Farzana Khan, and T. Salahuddina
Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
(Received 6 January 2016; accepted 22 February 2016; published online 2 March 2016)

In this article, Williamson fluid flow and heat transfer over a stretching cylin-
der is discussed. The thermal conductivity is assumed to be vary linearly with
temperature. Heat generation/absorption effects are also taken into account. Modeled
partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential form by using
appropriate transformations. Shooting method in conjunction with Runge-Kutta-
Fehlberg method is used to find the solution of the problem. Moreover, the effects
of different flow parameters γ, λ, ϵ, β and Pr on velocity and temperature profiles
are shown graphically. Local Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient are shown
in tabular and graphical form. C 2016 Author(s). All article content, except where
otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4943398]

I. INTRODUCTION
For the study of non-Newtonian behavior of fluids, pseudoplastic fluids are commonly in extru-
sion of polymer sheets, preparation of emulsions and adhesives etc. It has number of applications in
petroleum industry and power engineering. Most of the non-Newtonian models have been proposed
incorporated with Navier-Stokes equations for the explanation of rheological properties of fluids.
Several models have been introduced to explain the pseudoplastic fluids (e.g. Power law model,
Carreaus model, Cross model, Ellis model and Williamson fluid model). In Williamson fluid model,
minimum viscosity (µ◦) as well as maximum viscosity (µ∞) both are considered. Williamson1 ex-
plained the pseudoplastic materials and introduced a model equation to describe the pseudoplastic
fluid flow. He obtained the results experimentally. Lyubimov and Perminov2 discussed the thin layer
of a Williamson fluid over an inclined surface with effects of gravitational force. Malik et al.3 stud-
ied the numerical solution of MHD stagnation point flow of Williamson fluid over a stretching cyl-
inder. Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in Williamson fluid model over a stretching cylinder
was discussed by Malik et al.4 Combined effects of variable thermal conductivity and MHD flow on
Williamson fluid over a stretching cylinder by using Keller box was discussed by Salahuddin et al.5
The stretching cylinder has great importance in the extrusion of plastic and metal indus-
tries. Sakiadis6 initiated the two-dimensional fluid flow over a stretching surface moving with
constant velocity. Crane7 proposed the exact solution of two-dimensional Navier Stokes equa-
tions for stretching surface. Wang8 extended the concept of Crane and presented the solution for
three-dimensional stretching surface. Fang et al.9 have observed the flow between two stretching
disks. Numerical solution of boundary layer flow with effects of heat transfer over the stretched
porous cylinder was discussed by Xinhui et al.10
Incompressible viscous fluid flow and heat transfer through a stretching surface has gained
much attention during manufacturing processes, such as drawing of copper wire and glassblowing.
In the study of heat transfer the most valued application is extrusion of plastic or metal sheets.
During extrusion processes observation of cooling and heat transfer is very important because of

a Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Electronic mail: taimoor_salahuddin@yahoo.com

2158-3226/2016/6(3)/035101/13 6, 035101-1 © Author(s) 2016.


035101-2 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

its effects on final product. Conventionally water and air are used as cooling mediums but recently
it has been proposed that water should be replaced by a medium with slower rate of solidifica-
tion. Carragher et al.11 investigated the boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a stretching
surface with the assumption that temperature difference between the surface and an ambient fluid
is proportional to the power of distance from a fixed point. Tsou et al.12 extended the study of
Sakiadis’ and considered the heat transfer over a continuous stretched surface and verified the
Sakiadis’ results experimentally. Afterwards, many researchers extended the work of Crane’ such
as Gupta and Gupta,13 Dutta14 by considering the heat transfer phenomena under different physical
aspects. Ishak15 and Nadeem16 also discussed the results of heat transfer. Recently, experimental and
numerical study of heat transfer and flow friction is presented by Rao et al.17
In recent few years the study of heat generation becomes more popular due to uncountable
applications in nuclear reactor engineering and scientific instrumentation. Heat absorption chillers
and heat pumps are important in industry due to advantages in renewable utilization and waste
heat recovery. Due to the importance of energy conservation, it is discussed remarkably by many
researchers. Efforts in absorption technologies play important role in global energy and environ-
mental issues. Some of the absorption technologies are absorption heat pump (AHP), generator
absorber heat exchange (GAX), compression-absorption heat pump (CAHP), Open-cycle absorp-
tion heat pump (OAHP) etc. There are many residential and commercial applications of absorp-
tion heating systems because of huge amount of energy consumption. For example direct-fired
absorption chiller/heater works on absorption pump theory, latent heat recovery of vapor works
on OAPH, Hybrid CAHP heating systems, district heating systems, thermal energy storage and
transportation etc are civil applications. Absorption-assisted drying, absorption-assisted evapora-
tion, absorption-assisted distillation, etc are industrial applications. Internal heat generation with
multi-boiling effects on cylindrical bodies was discussed by Rybchinskaya et al.18 Uniform and
non-uniform heat generation results for cylindrical, rectangular and longitudinal surfaces was exam-
ined by Ünal.19,20 The effects on unsteady flow in the presence of heat generation with mixed
convection and magnetic force was numerically examined by Mahapatra et al.21 Recently, boundary
layer flow problems with effects of thermal conductivity and heat generation was solved numeri-
cally and to handle the non-linearity of momentum and heat equation, differential transformation
method (DTM) was used by Torabi et al.22
As thermal conductivity is a material property that changes with the variation in temperature.
It depends on material, if fluid is electrically conducting then temperature flow is increased. Study
of variable thermal conductivity is important in electrolytes which have importance in preparation
of batteries. Salahuddin et al.23 studied that MHD flow of tangent hyperbolic fluid over a stretch-
ing cylinder with variable thermal conductivity. Majority of the above studies focused on either
boundary layer flow or peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid model.
In this study we are investigating the Williamson fluid past a stretching cylinder with com-
bined effects of variable thermal conductivity and heat generation/absorption. Numerical solution
is obtained by using shooting method in conjunction with Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. C f Skin
friction and Nu x is Nusselt number are computed. The effects of pertinent physical parameters e.g;
curvature parameter γ, Prandtl number Pr, thermal conductivity variable ε and heat generation
coefficient β are discussed in detail.

II. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION


Consider the steady, axisymmetric, incompressible and two dimensional boundary layer flow of
Williamson fluid over a stretching cylinder as shown in Fig. 1. The flow is generated due to linear
stretching. The continuity, momentum and energy equations are stated as follows:
∇.V = 0, (1)
DV
ρ = ∇.T, (2)
Dt
DT
ρc p = ∇.(k∇T) + Q(T − T∞). (3)
Dt
035101-3 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

FIG. 1. Physical model.

Where V and ρ are velocity and density of fluid. T is the Cauchy stress tensor. In the heat equation
c p is the specific heat capacity at constant pressure, k is the thermal conductivity and T is the
temperature of flow field. Constitutive equations for Williamson fluid model are as follows
T = −pI + τ, (4)
where,
(µ◦ − µ∞)
τ = [µ∞ + ]A1. (5)
1 − Γ γ̇
p, I and τ are the pressure, identity vector and extra stress tensor. Where Γ is a positive time
constant i.e, Γ > 0. µ◦ is the viscosity at zero and µ∞ is the viscosity at infinity shear rate and γ̇ is
defined as

1
γ̇ = π, (6)
2
where
1
π= trace(A12). (7)
2
Here we consider only the case for µ∞ = 0 and Γ γ̇ < 1. Now extra stress tensor reduced to:
µ◦
τ=[ ]A1. (8)
1 − Γ γ̇
Apply binomial expansion to Eq (8) and get following expression
τ = µ◦[1 + Γ γ̇]A1, (9)
∂v 2 v 1 ∂v ∂u 2 1
2
γ̇ = [() + 2+ ( + ) ]2, (10)
∂r r 2 ∂ x ∂r
∂v
τr r = 2µ◦[1 + Γ γ̇]( ), (11)
∂r
∂v ∂u
τr x = µ◦[1 + Γ γ̇]( + ), (12)
∂ x ∂r
v
τθθ = 2µ◦[1 + Γ γ̇]( ), (13)
r
∂u ∂v
τxr = µ◦[1 + Γ γ̇]( + ). (14)
∂r ∂ x
Component form of governing equations can be defined as
∂(rv) ∂(ru)
+ = 0, (15)
∂r ∂x
035101-4 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

∂u ∂u 1 ∂ 1 ∂
(u +v ) = (rτr r ) + (τr θ )
∂x ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ

+ (τr x ), (16)
∂x
∂u ∂u 1 ∂ 1 ∂
(u +v = (rτr x ) + (τθ x )
∂x ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ

+ (τx x ). (17)
∂x
Where u(r, x) and v(r, x) are the velocity components along the flow direction and normal to the
flow direction respectively. In the absence of pressure gradient T = τ. After applying boundary
layer approximations Eq (15)-(17) takes the following form
∂(rv) ∂(ru)
+ = 0, (18)
∂r ∂x
∂u ∂u 1 ∂u ∂ 2u Γ ∂u
u +v = ν[ + 2 + √ ( )2
∂x ∂r r ∂r ∂r 2r ∂r
√ ∂u ∂ u 2
+ 2Γ ], (19)
∂r ∂r 2
∂T ∂T 1 ∂ ∂T
u +v = (αr )
∂x ∂r r ∂r ∂r
Q(T − T∞)
+ , (20)
ρc p
Respective boundary conditions are
u = U(x), v = 0, T = Tw at r = R,
u → 0, T → T∞ r → ∞. (21)
Where U(x) = U◦ x
l denotes the stretching velocity in which U◦ is reference velocity and l, Tw and T∞
are the characteristic length, surface temperature and the extreme temperature. We can introduce a
stream function which satisfy the continuity equation, such that
1 ∂ψ 1 ∂ψ
u= , v=− (22)
r ∂r r ∂x
Similarity transformations for the governing equation are defined as

r 2 − R2 U √
η= , ψ = U νx R f (η), (23)
2R νx
T − Tw
φ= , α = α∞(1 + εφ). (24)
Tw − T∞
In the above expression α∞ is the thermal conductivity at a large distance away from the cylinder
and ε is small number. After applying above transformations to the governing equations, we get the
following expressions
3 1
2γ f ′′ + (1 + 2ηγ) f ′′′ + (1 + 2ηγ) 2 γλ f ′′2
2
3
+λ(1 + 2ηγ) 2 f ′′ f ′′′ + f f ′′ − f ′2 = 0, (25)
φ ′′(1 + 2ηγ)(1 + εφ) + φ ′(2γ + Pr f + 2ϵ γφ)
+φ ′2ε(1 + 2ηγ) + Pr φ β = 0. (26)
Along with the boundary conditions
f (0) = 0, f ′(0) = 1, φ(0) = 1,
f ′ → 0, φ → 0 at η → ∞. (27)
035101-5 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

The dimensionless number Pr, γ, λ and β are the Prandtl number, curvature parameter, Weis-
senberg number and heat generation/absorption parameter, defined as

ν

1 xν 2U 3 Qx
γ= , λ=Γ , Pr = , β= . (28)
R U νx α∞ ρUc p

III. SKIN FRICTION COEFFICIENT AND LOCAL NUSSELT NUMBER


The skin friction coefficient is defined as
τw
Cf = , (29)
1
2 ρU 2
In the above expression τw represents the shear stress at the surface of cylinder. For the Williamson
fluid surface shear stress is defined as
∂u Γ ∂u
τw = µ[ + √ ( )2]r =R , (30)
∂r 2 ∂r
After putting the Eq. (30) in Eq. (29) we get following expression
1
C f Re x2 λ
= f ′′(0) + f ′′2(0). (31)
2 2
Now the local Nusselt number is defined as
xqw
Nu x = , (32)
α∞(Tw − T∞)
where qw is the measure of heat transfer at the surface of cylinder and defined as
∂T
qw = −α∞(
)r =R , (33)
∂r
Using Eq. (33) in Eq. (32) in order to get the expression for local Nusselt number that is
−1
Nu x Re x 2 = −φ ′(0). (34)
Here Re x = Ux
ν is the Reynolds number.

IV. METHOD OF SOLUTION


Current problem involves two nonlinear ordinary differential equations in which velocity pro-
file is of order three and temperature profile is of order two. (see Eqs. (25) – (26))
3γλ 1
f ′2 − f ′′[2γ + 2 (1 + 2ηγ) 2 f ′′ + f ]
f ′′′
= 1
, (35)
(1 + 2ηγ)[1 + 2λ(1 + 2ηγ) 2 f ′′]
−φ[2γ + Pr f + 2εγφ] + φ ′2ε[1 + 2ηγ]
φ ′′ =
[1 + 2ηγ][1 + εφ]
Pr φ β
+ . (36)
[1 + 2ηγ][1 + εφ]
Shooting method in conjunction with the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method is used to obtain numer-
ical solution of the system of equations. In order to solve this problem by shooting method,
Eqs. (25) – (26) are converted to the system of five first order ordinary differential equations.
Reduction of higher order equations to five first order ordinary differential equations is shown as:
f = y1, f ′ = y2, f ′′ = y3, f ′′′ = y3′,
035101-6 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

φ = y4, φ ′ = y5, φ ′′ = y5′, (37)


Hence the system of first order simultaneous ordinary differential equations are
y1′ = y2, (38)
y2′ = y3, (39)
3γλ 1
y22 − y3[2γ + 2 (1 + 2ηγ) y3 + y1]
2
y3′ = 1
, (40)
(1 + 2ηγ)[1 + 2λ(1 + 2ηγ) 2 y3]
y4′ = y5, (41)
− y4[2γ + Pr y1 + 2εγ y4] + y52ε[1 + 2ηγ]
y5′ =
[1 + 2ηγ][1 + ε y4]
Pr y4 β
+ . (42)
[1 + 2ηγ][1 + ε y4]
where prime represents the derivative with respect to η and the transformed boundary conditions are
y1(0) = 0, y2(0) = 1, y2(u(1)) = 0,
y4(0) = 1, y4(u(2)) = 0. (43)
Now the above system of first order ODEs given in Eqs. (38) – (42) are solved by using Runge-
Kutta-Fehlberg method of fifth order and the unknown initial conditions given in Eq. (43) are
obtained numerically by applying Newton’s Raphson method in a way that the solution satisfies the
given boundary conditions with the truncation error satisfying required accuracy which is less than
10−6 for present problem.

V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


For the analysis of the model Fig. 2 to Fig. 14 are plotted for different values of physical
parameters. Fig. 2 shows that there is no change in transverse component of velocity due to curva-
ture parameter γ. But after the dynamic region [0, 1.25] the velocity component decreases with
the decrease in curvature γ i.e, the outer surface of cylinder tends to flat surface and it means that
viscosity effect reduces due to which area of contact with fluid becomes tangential. Fig. 3 shows
the effect of Weissenberg number λ on transverse component of velocity. Also with the decrease in
λ the transverse component of velocity increases. As we know that Weissenberg number λ is the

FIG. 2. Transverse component of velocity f for different values of γ.


035101-7 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

FIG. 3. Transverse component of velocity f for different values of λ.

ratio of relaxation time to specific process time therefore the increase in specific process time will
decrease the Weissenberg number λ which shows the increase in velocity component. Fig. 4 reflects
the effect of Weissenberg number λ on horizontal component of velocity. The velocity component
approaches to zero asymptotically as η → ∞, in this case velocity is free stream velocity. Also
with the increase in Weissenberg number λ the velocity component decreases. As we know that
Weissenberg number λ is the ratio of relaxation time to specific process time therefore the decrease
in specific process time will increase the Weissenberg number λ which shows that there is decrease
in velocity component as well as decrease in boundary layer thickness and vice versa. Fig. 5 shows
the change in velocity profile f ′(η) due to curvature parameter γ. It is analyzed that there is a
small change in the dynamic region [0, 0.75] and after this region i.e. within [0.75, ∞) the velocity
profile approaches to zero, that means the velocity becomes free stream in the region [0.75, ∞).
The velocity profile f ′(η) increases with the increase in curvature parameter γ. Because increment
in curvature parameter γ causes reduction in the radius of curvature which leads to decrease the
resistance to flow. Boundary layer thickness increases with the increase in curvature parameter γ.
−1
From Table I. we see that C f ∝ Re x 2 . Inverse relation shows that C f decreases as Reynolds
number increases. It is obvious that increase in Re x causes the decrease in viscous forces, and due

FIG. 4. Horizontal component of velocity f ′ for different values of λ.


035101-8 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

FIG. 5. Horizontal component of Velocity f ′ for different values of γ.

TABLE I. Skin friction for different values of γ and λ.

λ γ f ′′(0)+ λ2 f ′′(0)

0.1 0.1 -0.9776


0.2 -1.0117
0.3 -1.0456
0.2 0.1 -0.9118
0.2 -0.9401
0.3 -0.9680
0.3 0.1 -0.8413
0.2 -0.8634
0.3 -0.8847

FIG. 6. Skin friction for different values of γ and λ.

√ of C f is on curvature parameter γ.
to this, there is reduction in |C f |. In this case the dependence
We see that increase in curvature parameter γ increases | 12 C f Re x | which means that as curvature
parameter γ increases, the viscous forces decrease. Graphical behavior is shown by Fig. 6. Table. II
presents the comparison of different values of skin friction coefficient with previous results.
035101-9 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

In Fig. 7 different values of curvature parameter γ shows that with the increase in curvature
parameter there is increase in temperature profile and temperature boundary layer. So increase in
curvature parameter γ accelerates the heat transfer rate. Thus thermal boundary layer increases with
the increase in curvature parameter γ. Fig. 8 shows that increase in thermal conductivity ε increases
the temperature profile and temperature boundary layer which results spark in heat transfer. Fig. 9
shows that increase in Prandtl number Pr decreases the boundary layer thickness. In heat transfer
problem Pr plays an important role to control the relative thickening of momentum and thermal
boundary layer. Small value of Pr shows that heat diffuses quickly as compared to the velocity
(momentum). Therefore, Prandtl number Pr can be used to increase or decrease the cooling rate

TABLE II. Comparison of different values of skin friction coefficient for different values of λ with previous results.

λ Nadeem et al.24 [2013] Present results.

0 1 1.005
0.1 0.976558 0.965285
0.2 0.939817 0.927877
0.3 0.88272 0.887909

FIG. 7. Influence of curvature parameter γ on temperature field.

FIG. 8. Influence of thermal conductivity ε on temperature profile.


035101-10 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

FIG. 9. Influence of Prandtl number Pr on temperature profile.

in conducting flows. Fig. 10 shows that the temperature field increases with the increase in heat
source β > 0, because exothermic reactions occurred and heat releases during these processes due
to which heat of the system increases and thermal boundary layer increases. Fig. 11 shows that
temperature field decreases with the increase in heat sink β < 0, because endothermic reactions
occurred and heat absorbed from the system due to which heat of system reduces and thermal
boundary layer also reduces. This depicts that heat source β has prime importance in heat transfer
problems. Eq. (34) defines the relation between the coefficient of conventional heat transfer, i.e,
1
Nusselt number Nu x and Reynolds number Re x , we note that Nu x ∝ Re x2 and Re x = Uνx , these
relations shows that increase in viscosity decreases the Reynolds number and vice versa. So due to
increase in curvature parameter γ viscosity decreases and Re x increases which leads to increase in
Nusselt number. Also increase in Nu x enhances the magnitude of rate of conventional heat transfer
in case of stretching cylinder. Also, Nusselt number Nu x depends on β, Pr and ε, and their effects
are studied in Table. II. Graphical behavior are also shown in Fig. 12, 13, and 14.
Table. III shows the effect of different parameters on local Nusselt number. Increase in heat
source β causes increase in temperature of fluid due to which heat transfer rate reduces from wall
to fluid. Table. III also shows the effect of Prandtl number Pr on local Nusselt number. Increase

FIG. 10. Influence of heat source β > 0 on temperature profile.


035101-11 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

FIG. 11. Influence of heat sink β < 0 on temperature profile.

FIG. 12. Heat transfer rate for different values of γ and β.

FIG. 13. Heat transfer rate for different values of γ and Pr .


035101-12 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

FIG. 14. Heat transfer rate for different values of γ and ε.

TABLE III. Temperature gradient −φ ′(0) for different values of γ and β.

γ ϵ β Pr -φ ′(0)

0.1 0.1 0.5241


0.2 0.5739
0.3 0.6340
0.2 0.9695
0.3 0.9162
0.1 0.2 0.5530
0.3 0.4631
0.1 2 0.8322
3 1.0315

in Prandtl number Pr causes decrease in temperature of fluid, which will create a temperature
gradient between wall and fluid and heat transfer rate increases. It is noticed that increase in thermal
conductivity ε reduces the local Nusselt number. Because conductivity ε increases the temperature
of fluid due to which temperature difference reduces between wall and fluid, so ultimately the rate of
heat transfer reduces.

VI. CONCLUDING REMARKS


In this analysis, momentum and heat transfer characteristics of steady flow of Williamson fluid
over a stretching cylinder with variable thermal conductivity and heat generation/absorption has
been studied numerically. Our computations have indicated that:
• Increase in curvature parameter γ increases both the velocity and the temperature profile.
• Increase in Weissenberg number λ reduces the velocity profile.
• Increase in thermal conductivity parameter ε enhances the temperature profile.
• Increase in Prandtl number Pr reduces the temperature profile.
• Heat generation/absorption parameter β shows two types of results, for β > 0 shows that is
the heat source enhances the temperature profile φ(η) and for β < 0 heat sink reduces the
temperature profile.

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