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research paper on fluid

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M. Y. Malik, M. Bibi, Farzana Khan, and T. Salahuddin

View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4943398

View Table of Contents: http://aip.scitation.org/toc/adv/6/3

Published by the American Institute of Physics

Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in Williamson fluid model over a stretching cylinder by using Keller

box method

AIP Advances 5, 107227 (2015); 10.1063/1.4934937

Mixed convection flow of MHD Eyring-Powell nanofluid over a stretching sheet: A numerical study

AIP Advances 5, 117118 (2015); 10.1063/1.4935639

Flow of Sisko fluid over a stretching cylinder and heat transfer with viscous dissipation and variable thermal

conductivity: A numerical study

AIP Advances 6, 045118 (2016); 10.1063/1.4948458

Dual stratified mixed convection flow of Eyring-Powell fluid over an inclined stretching cylinder with heat

generation/absorption effect

AIP Advances 6, 075112 (2016); 10.1063/1.4959587

Impact of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux in the flow over a stretching sheet with variable thickness

AIP Advances 5, 087159 (2015); 10.1063/1.4929523

Magnetohydrodynamic flow of Sisko fluid over a stretching cylinder with variable thermal conductivity: A

numerical study

AIP Advances 6, 025316 (2016); 10.1063/1.4942476

AIP ADVANCES 6, 035101 (2016)

a stretching cylinder and heat transfer with variable

thermal conductivity and heat generation/absorption

M. Y. Malik, M. Bibi, Farzana Khan, and T. Salahuddina

Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad 44000, Pakistan

(Received 6 January 2016; accepted 22 February 2016; published online 2 March 2016)

In this article, Williamson fluid flow and heat transfer over a stretching cylin-

der is discussed. The thermal conductivity is assumed to be vary linearly with

temperature. Heat generation/absorption effects are also taken into account. Modeled

partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential form by using

appropriate transformations. Shooting method in conjunction with Runge-Kutta-

Fehlberg method is used to find the solution of the problem. Moreover, the effects

of different flow parameters γ, λ, ϵ, β and Pr on velocity and temperature profiles

are shown graphically. Local Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient are shown

in tabular and graphical form. C 2016 Author(s). All article content, except where

otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4943398]

I. INTRODUCTION

For the study of non-Newtonian behavior of fluids, pseudoplastic fluids are commonly in extru-

sion of polymer sheets, preparation of emulsions and adhesives etc. It has number of applications in

petroleum industry and power engineering. Most of the non-Newtonian models have been proposed

incorporated with Navier-Stokes equations for the explanation of rheological properties of fluids.

Several models have been introduced to explain the pseudoplastic fluids (e.g. Power law model,

Carreaus model, Cross model, Ellis model and Williamson fluid model). In Williamson fluid model,

minimum viscosity (µ◦) as well as maximum viscosity (µ∞) both are considered. Williamson1 ex-

plained the pseudoplastic materials and introduced a model equation to describe the pseudoplastic

fluid flow. He obtained the results experimentally. Lyubimov and Perminov2 discussed the thin layer

of a Williamson fluid over an inclined surface with effects of gravitational force. Malik et al.3 stud-

ied the numerical solution of MHD stagnation point flow of Williamson fluid over a stretching cyl-

inder. Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in Williamson fluid model over a stretching cylinder

was discussed by Malik et al.4 Combined effects of variable thermal conductivity and MHD flow on

Williamson fluid over a stretching cylinder by using Keller box was discussed by Salahuddin et al.5

The stretching cylinder has great importance in the extrusion of plastic and metal indus-

tries. Sakiadis6 initiated the two-dimensional fluid flow over a stretching surface moving with

constant velocity. Crane7 proposed the exact solution of two-dimensional Navier Stokes equa-

tions for stretching surface. Wang8 extended the concept of Crane and presented the solution for

three-dimensional stretching surface. Fang et al.9 have observed the flow between two stretching

disks. Numerical solution of boundary layer flow with effects of heat transfer over the stretched

porous cylinder was discussed by Xinhui et al.10

Incompressible viscous fluid flow and heat transfer through a stretching surface has gained

much attention during manufacturing processes, such as drawing of copper wire and glassblowing.

In the study of heat transfer the most valued application is extrusion of plastic or metal sheets.

During extrusion processes observation of cooling and heat transfer is very important because of

035101-2 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

its effects on final product. Conventionally water and air are used as cooling mediums but recently

it has been proposed that water should be replaced by a medium with slower rate of solidifica-

tion. Carragher et al.11 investigated the boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a stretching

surface with the assumption that temperature difference between the surface and an ambient fluid

is proportional to the power of distance from a fixed point. Tsou et al.12 extended the study of

Sakiadis’ and considered the heat transfer over a continuous stretched surface and verified the

Sakiadis’ results experimentally. Afterwards, many researchers extended the work of Crane’ such

as Gupta and Gupta,13 Dutta14 by considering the heat transfer phenomena under different physical

aspects. Ishak15 and Nadeem16 also discussed the results of heat transfer. Recently, experimental and

numerical study of heat transfer and flow friction is presented by Rao et al.17

In recent few years the study of heat generation becomes more popular due to uncountable

applications in nuclear reactor engineering and scientific instrumentation. Heat absorption chillers

and heat pumps are important in industry due to advantages in renewable utilization and waste

heat recovery. Due to the importance of energy conservation, it is discussed remarkably by many

researchers. Efforts in absorption technologies play important role in global energy and environ-

mental issues. Some of the absorption technologies are absorption heat pump (AHP), generator

absorber heat exchange (GAX), compression-absorption heat pump (CAHP), Open-cycle absorp-

tion heat pump (OAHP) etc. There are many residential and commercial applications of absorp-

tion heating systems because of huge amount of energy consumption. For example direct-fired

absorption chiller/heater works on absorption pump theory, latent heat recovery of vapor works

on OAPH, Hybrid CAHP heating systems, district heating systems, thermal energy storage and

transportation etc are civil applications. Absorption-assisted drying, absorption-assisted evapora-

tion, absorption-assisted distillation, etc are industrial applications. Internal heat generation with

multi-boiling effects on cylindrical bodies was discussed by Rybchinskaya et al.18 Uniform and

non-uniform heat generation results for cylindrical, rectangular and longitudinal surfaces was exam-

ined by Ünal.19,20 The effects on unsteady flow in the presence of heat generation with mixed

convection and magnetic force was numerically examined by Mahapatra et al.21 Recently, boundary

layer flow problems with effects of thermal conductivity and heat generation was solved numeri-

cally and to handle the non-linearity of momentum and heat equation, differential transformation

method (DTM) was used by Torabi et al.22

As thermal conductivity is a material property that changes with the variation in temperature.

It depends on material, if fluid is electrically conducting then temperature flow is increased. Study

of variable thermal conductivity is important in electrolytes which have importance in preparation

of batteries. Salahuddin et al.23 studied that MHD flow of tangent hyperbolic fluid over a stretch-

ing cylinder with variable thermal conductivity. Majority of the above studies focused on either

boundary layer flow or peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid model.

In this study we are investigating the Williamson fluid past a stretching cylinder with com-

bined effects of variable thermal conductivity and heat generation/absorption. Numerical solution

is obtained by using shooting method in conjunction with Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. C f Skin

friction and Nu x is Nusselt number are computed. The effects of pertinent physical parameters e.g;

curvature parameter γ, Prandtl number Pr, thermal conductivity variable ε and heat generation

coefficient β are discussed in detail.

Consider the steady, axisymmetric, incompressible and two dimensional boundary layer flow of

Williamson fluid over a stretching cylinder as shown in Fig. 1. The flow is generated due to linear

stretching. The continuity, momentum and energy equations are stated as follows:

∇.V = 0, (1)

DV

ρ = ∇.T, (2)

Dt

DT

ρc p = ∇.(k∇T) + Q(T − T∞). (3)

Dt

035101-3 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

Where V and ρ are velocity and density of fluid. T is the Cauchy stress tensor. In the heat equation

c p is the specific heat capacity at constant pressure, k is the thermal conductivity and T is the

temperature of flow field. Constitutive equations for Williamson fluid model are as follows

T = −pI + τ, (4)

where,

(µ◦ − µ∞)

τ = [µ∞ + ]A1. (5)

1 − Γ γ̇

p, I and τ are the pressure, identity vector and extra stress tensor. Where Γ is a positive time

constant i.e, Γ > 0. µ◦ is the viscosity at zero and µ∞ is the viscosity at infinity shear rate and γ̇ is

defined as

1

γ̇ = π, (6)

2

where

1

π= trace(A12). (7)

2

Here we consider only the case for µ∞ = 0 and Γ γ̇ < 1. Now extra stress tensor reduced to:

µ◦

τ=[ ]A1. (8)

1 − Γ γ̇

Apply binomial expansion to Eq (8) and get following expression

τ = µ◦[1 + Γ γ̇]A1, (9)

∂v 2 v 1 ∂v ∂u 2 1

2

γ̇ = [() + 2+ ( + ) ]2, (10)

∂r r 2 ∂ x ∂r

∂v

τr r = 2µ◦[1 + Γ γ̇]( ), (11)

∂r

∂v ∂u

τr x = µ◦[1 + Γ γ̇]( + ), (12)

∂ x ∂r

v

τθθ = 2µ◦[1 + Γ γ̇]( ), (13)

r

∂u ∂v

τxr = µ◦[1 + Γ γ̇]( + ). (14)

∂r ∂ x

Component form of governing equations can be defined as

∂(rv) ∂(ru)

+ = 0, (15)

∂r ∂x

035101-4 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

∂u ∂u 1 ∂ 1 ∂

(u +v ) = (rτr r ) + (τr θ )

∂x ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ

∂

+ (τr x ), (16)

∂x

∂u ∂u 1 ∂ 1 ∂

(u +v = (rτr x ) + (τθ x )

∂x ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ

∂

+ (τx x ). (17)

∂x

Where u(r, x) and v(r, x) are the velocity components along the flow direction and normal to the

flow direction respectively. In the absence of pressure gradient T = τ. After applying boundary

layer approximations Eq (15)-(17) takes the following form

∂(rv) ∂(ru)

+ = 0, (18)

∂r ∂x

∂u ∂u 1 ∂u ∂ 2u Γ ∂u

u +v = ν[ + 2 + √ ( )2

∂x ∂r r ∂r ∂r 2r ∂r

√ ∂u ∂ u 2

+ 2Γ ], (19)

∂r ∂r 2

∂T ∂T 1 ∂ ∂T

u +v = (αr )

∂x ∂r r ∂r ∂r

Q(T − T∞)

+ , (20)

ρc p

Respective boundary conditions are

u = U(x), v = 0, T = Tw at r = R,

u → 0, T → T∞ r → ∞. (21)

Where U(x) = U◦ x

l denotes the stretching velocity in which U◦ is reference velocity and l, Tw and T∞

are the characteristic length, surface temperature and the extreme temperature. We can introduce a

stream function which satisfy the continuity equation, such that

1 ∂ψ 1 ∂ψ

u= , v=− (22)

r ∂r r ∂x

Similarity transformations for the governing equation are defined as

r 2 − R2 U √

η= , ψ = U νx R f (η), (23)

2R νx

T − Tw

φ= , α = α∞(1 + εφ). (24)

Tw − T∞

In the above expression α∞ is the thermal conductivity at a large distance away from the cylinder

and ε is small number. After applying above transformations to the governing equations, we get the

following expressions

3 1

2γ f ′′ + (1 + 2ηγ) f ′′′ + (1 + 2ηγ) 2 γλ f ′′2

2

3

+λ(1 + 2ηγ) 2 f ′′ f ′′′ + f f ′′ − f ′2 = 0, (25)

φ ′′(1 + 2ηγ)(1 + εφ) + φ ′(2γ + Pr f + 2ϵ γφ)

+φ ′2ε(1 + 2ηγ) + Pr φ β = 0. (26)

Along with the boundary conditions

f (0) = 0, f ′(0) = 1, φ(0) = 1,

f ′ → 0, φ → 0 at η → ∞. (27)

035101-5 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

The dimensionless number Pr, γ, λ and β are the Prandtl number, curvature parameter, Weis-

senberg number and heat generation/absorption parameter, defined as

ν

1 xν 2U 3 Qx

γ= , λ=Γ , Pr = , β= . (28)

R U νx α∞ ρUc p

The skin friction coefficient is defined as

τw

Cf = , (29)

1

2 ρU 2

In the above expression τw represents the shear stress at the surface of cylinder. For the Williamson

fluid surface shear stress is defined as

∂u Γ ∂u

τw = µ[ + √ ( )2]r =R , (30)

∂r 2 ∂r

After putting the Eq. (30) in Eq. (29) we get following expression

1

C f Re x2 λ

= f ′′(0) + f ′′2(0). (31)

2 2

Now the local Nusselt number is defined as

xqw

Nu x = , (32)

α∞(Tw − T∞)

where qw is the measure of heat transfer at the surface of cylinder and defined as

∂T

qw = −α∞(

)r =R , (33)

∂r

Using Eq. (33) in Eq. (32) in order to get the expression for local Nusselt number that is

−1

Nu x Re x 2 = −φ ′(0). (34)

Here Re x = Ux

ν is the Reynolds number.

Current problem involves two nonlinear ordinary differential equations in which velocity pro-

file is of order three and temperature profile is of order two. (see Eqs. (25) – (26))

3γλ 1

f ′2 − f ′′[2γ + 2 (1 + 2ηγ) 2 f ′′ + f ]

f ′′′

= 1

, (35)

(1 + 2ηγ)[1 + 2λ(1 + 2ηγ) 2 f ′′]

−φ[2γ + Pr f + 2εγφ] + φ ′2ε[1 + 2ηγ]

φ ′′ =

[1 + 2ηγ][1 + εφ]

Pr φ β

+ . (36)

[1 + 2ηγ][1 + εφ]

Shooting method in conjunction with the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method is used to obtain numer-

ical solution of the system of equations. In order to solve this problem by shooting method,

Eqs. (25) – (26) are converted to the system of five first order ordinary differential equations.

Reduction of higher order equations to five first order ordinary differential equations is shown as:

f = y1, f ′ = y2, f ′′ = y3, f ′′′ = y3′,

035101-6 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

Hence the system of first order simultaneous ordinary differential equations are

y1′ = y2, (38)

y2′ = y3, (39)

3γλ 1

y22 − y3[2γ + 2 (1 + 2ηγ) y3 + y1]

2

y3′ = 1

, (40)

(1 + 2ηγ)[1 + 2λ(1 + 2ηγ) 2 y3]

y4′ = y5, (41)

− y4[2γ + Pr y1 + 2εγ y4] + y52ε[1 + 2ηγ]

y5′ =

[1 + 2ηγ][1 + ε y4]

Pr y4 β

+ . (42)

[1 + 2ηγ][1 + ε y4]

where prime represents the derivative with respect to η and the transformed boundary conditions are

y1(0) = 0, y2(0) = 1, y2(u(1)) = 0,

y4(0) = 1, y4(u(2)) = 0. (43)

Now the above system of first order ODEs given in Eqs. (38) – (42) are solved by using Runge-

Kutta-Fehlberg method of fifth order and the unknown initial conditions given in Eq. (43) are

obtained numerically by applying Newton’s Raphson method in a way that the solution satisfies the

given boundary conditions with the truncation error satisfying required accuracy which is less than

10−6 for present problem.

For the analysis of the model Fig. 2 to Fig. 14 are plotted for different values of physical

parameters. Fig. 2 shows that there is no change in transverse component of velocity due to curva-

ture parameter γ. But after the dynamic region [0, 1.25] the velocity component decreases with

the decrease in curvature γ i.e, the outer surface of cylinder tends to flat surface and it means that

viscosity effect reduces due to which area of contact with fluid becomes tangential. Fig. 3 shows

the effect of Weissenberg number λ on transverse component of velocity. Also with the decrease in

λ the transverse component of velocity increases. As we know that Weissenberg number λ is the

035101-7 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

ratio of relaxation time to specific process time therefore the increase in specific process time will

decrease the Weissenberg number λ which shows the increase in velocity component. Fig. 4 reflects

the effect of Weissenberg number λ on horizontal component of velocity. The velocity component

approaches to zero asymptotically as η → ∞, in this case velocity is free stream velocity. Also

with the increase in Weissenberg number λ the velocity component decreases. As we know that

Weissenberg number λ is the ratio of relaxation time to specific process time therefore the decrease

in specific process time will increase the Weissenberg number λ which shows that there is decrease

in velocity component as well as decrease in boundary layer thickness and vice versa. Fig. 5 shows

the change in velocity profile f ′(η) due to curvature parameter γ. It is analyzed that there is a

small change in the dynamic region [0, 0.75] and after this region i.e. within [0.75, ∞) the velocity

profile approaches to zero, that means the velocity becomes free stream in the region [0.75, ∞).

The velocity profile f ′(η) increases with the increase in curvature parameter γ. Because increment

in curvature parameter γ causes reduction in the radius of curvature which leads to decrease the

resistance to flow. Boundary layer thickness increases with the increase in curvature parameter γ.

−1

From Table I. we see that C f ∝ Re x 2 . Inverse relation shows that C f decreases as Reynolds

number increases. It is obvious that increase in Re x causes the decrease in viscous forces, and due

035101-8 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

λ γ f ′′(0)+ λ2 f ′′(0)

0.2 -1.0117

0.3 -1.0456

0.2 0.1 -0.9118

0.2 -0.9401

0.3 -0.9680

0.3 0.1 -0.8413

0.2 -0.8634

0.3 -0.8847

√ of C f is on curvature parameter γ.

to this, there is reduction in |C f |. In this case the dependence

We see that increase in curvature parameter γ increases | 12 C f Re x | which means that as curvature

parameter γ increases, the viscous forces decrease. Graphical behavior is shown by Fig. 6. Table. II

presents the comparison of different values of skin friction coefficient with previous results.

035101-9 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

In Fig. 7 different values of curvature parameter γ shows that with the increase in curvature

parameter there is increase in temperature profile and temperature boundary layer. So increase in

curvature parameter γ accelerates the heat transfer rate. Thus thermal boundary layer increases with

the increase in curvature parameter γ. Fig. 8 shows that increase in thermal conductivity ε increases

the temperature profile and temperature boundary layer which results spark in heat transfer. Fig. 9

shows that increase in Prandtl number Pr decreases the boundary layer thickness. In heat transfer

problem Pr plays an important role to control the relative thickening of momentum and thermal

boundary layer. Small value of Pr shows that heat diffuses quickly as compared to the velocity

(momentum). Therefore, Prandtl number Pr can be used to increase or decrease the cooling rate

TABLE II. Comparison of different values of skin friction coefficient for different values of λ with previous results.

0 1 1.005

0.1 0.976558 0.965285

0.2 0.939817 0.927877

0.3 0.88272 0.887909

035101-10 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

in conducting flows. Fig. 10 shows that the temperature field increases with the increase in heat

source β > 0, because exothermic reactions occurred and heat releases during these processes due

to which heat of the system increases and thermal boundary layer increases. Fig. 11 shows that

temperature field decreases with the increase in heat sink β < 0, because endothermic reactions

occurred and heat absorbed from the system due to which heat of system reduces and thermal

boundary layer also reduces. This depicts that heat source β has prime importance in heat transfer

problems. Eq. (34) defines the relation between the coefficient of conventional heat transfer, i.e,

1

Nusselt number Nu x and Reynolds number Re x , we note that Nu x ∝ Re x2 and Re x = Uνx , these

relations shows that increase in viscosity decreases the Reynolds number and vice versa. So due to

increase in curvature parameter γ viscosity decreases and Re x increases which leads to increase in

Nusselt number. Also increase in Nu x enhances the magnitude of rate of conventional heat transfer

in case of stretching cylinder. Also, Nusselt number Nu x depends on β, Pr and ε, and their effects

are studied in Table. II. Graphical behavior are also shown in Fig. 12, 13, and 14.

Table. III shows the effect of different parameters on local Nusselt number. Increase in heat

source β causes increase in temperature of fluid due to which heat transfer rate reduces from wall

to fluid. Table. III also shows the effect of Prandtl number Pr on local Nusselt number. Increase

035101-11 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

035101-12 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

γ ϵ β Pr -φ ′(0)

0.2 0.5739

0.3 0.6340

0.2 0.9695

0.3 0.9162

0.1 0.2 0.5530

0.3 0.4631

0.1 2 0.8322

3 1.0315

in Prandtl number Pr causes decrease in temperature of fluid, which will create a temperature

gradient between wall and fluid and heat transfer rate increases. It is noticed that increase in thermal

conductivity ε reduces the local Nusselt number. Because conductivity ε increases the temperature

of fluid due to which temperature difference reduces between wall and fluid, so ultimately the rate of

heat transfer reduces.

In this analysis, momentum and heat transfer characteristics of steady flow of Williamson fluid

over a stretching cylinder with variable thermal conductivity and heat generation/absorption has

been studied numerically. Our computations have indicated that:

• Increase in curvature parameter γ increases both the velocity and the temperature profile.

• Increase in Weissenberg number λ reduces the velocity profile.

• Increase in thermal conductivity parameter ε enhances the temperature profile.

• Increase in Prandtl number Pr reduces the temperature profile.

• Heat generation/absorption parameter β shows two types of results, for β > 0 shows that is

the heat source enhances the temperature profile φ(η) and for β < 0 heat sink reduces the

temperature profile.

1 R.V. Williamson, “The flow of pseudoplastic materials,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 11, 1108–1111

(1929).

2 D.V. Lyubimov and A.V. Perminov, “Motion of a thin oblique layer of a pseudoplastic fluid,” Journal of Engineering Physics

035101-13 Malik et al. AIP Advances 6, 035101 (2016)

3 M.Y. Malik and T. Salahuddin, “Numerical solution of MHD stagnation point flow of Williamson fluid model over a stretch-

ing cylinder,” International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation 16, 161–164 (2015).

4 M.Y. Malik, T. Salahuddin, Arif Hussain, S. Bilal, and M. Awais, “Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in Williamson

fluid model over a stretching cylinder by using Keller box method,” AIP Advances 5, 107227 (2015).

5 T. Salahuddin, M.Y. Malik, Arif Hussain, S. Bilal, and M. Awais, “Combined effects of variable thermal conductivity and

MHD flow on pseudoplastic fluid over a stretching cylinder by using Keller box method,” Natural Sciences 5, 11-19 (2015).

6 B.C. Sakiadis, “Boundary-layer behaviour on continuous solid surfaces: I. Boundary-layer equations for two-dimensional

7 L.J. Crane, “Flow past a stretching plate,” Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Mathematik und Physik 21, 645-647 (1970).

8 C.Y. Wang, “The three-dimensional flow due to a stretching flat surface,” Physics of Fluids 27, 1915-1917 (1984).

9 T. Fang and Zhang, “Flow between two stretchable disks an exact solution of the Navier Stokes equations,” International

10 X. Sia, L. Lia, L. Zhenga, X. Zhangb, and B. Liua, “The exterior unsteady viscous flow and heat transfer due to a porous

11 P. Carragher and L.J. Crane, “Heat transfer on continuous stretching surface,” Zeitschrift fr Angewandte Mathematik und

12 F.K. Tsou, E.M. Sparrow, and R.J. Goldstein, “Flow and heat transfer in the boundary layer on a continuous moving surface,”

13 P.S. Gupta and A.S. Gupta, “Heat and mass transfer on a stretching sheet with suction or blowing,” The Canadian Journal

14 B.K. Dutta, P. Roy, and A.S. Gupta, “Temperature field in the flow over stretching sheet with uniform heat flux,” International

15 A. Ishak, R. Nazar, and I. Pop, “Heat transfer over a stretching surface with variable heat flux in micropolar fluids,” Physics

16 S. Nadeem, A. Hussain, and M. Khan, “HAM solutions for boundary layer flow in the region of the stagnation point towards

a stretching sheet,” Communications in Non-linear Science and Numerical Simulation 15, 475 (2010).

17 Y. Rao, Y. Feng, B. Li, and B. Weigand, “Experimental and numerical study of heat transfer and flow friction in channels

with dimples of different shapes,” Journal of Heat Transfer 137, 031901 (2015).

18 G.B. Rybchinskaya and S.A. Kovalev, “Prediction of the stability of pool boiling heat transfer to finite disturbances,” Inter-

19 H.C. Unal, “Temperature distributions in fins with uniform and non-uniform heat generation and non-uniform heat transfer

20 H.C. Unal, “The effect of the boundary conditions at a fin tip on the performance of the fin with and without heat generation,”

21 T.R. Mahapatraa, D. Pala, and S. Mondalb, “Mixed convection flow in an inclined enclosure under magnetic field with

thermal radiation and heat generation,” International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 41, 47-56 (2013).

22 M. Torabi and K. Zhang, “Heat transfer and thermodynamic performance of convective–radiative cooling double layer walls

with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and internal heat generation,” Energy Conversion and Management 89,

12–23 (2014).

23 T. Salahuddin, M.Y. Malik, Arif Hussain, S. Bilal, and M. Awais, “Effects of transverse magnetic field with variable thermal

conductivity on tangent hyperbolic fluid with exponentially varying viscosity,” AIP Advances 5, 127103 (2015).

24 S. Nadeem, S.T. Hussain, and Changhoon Lee, “Flow of a Williamson fluid over a stretching sheet,” Brazilian Journal of

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