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AIRFRAME ESSAY QUESTIONS

1. List the inspections to be carried out on a control cable run.


-Before examine the cable it must be clean be wiping with a cloth.
Ref to the relevant m/m:
-The cable system as a whole should be check for full and free range of movement.
-Check for broken wires by drawing a cloth along the length of the cable in both directions.
-If the cable is bent in a curve as it passes from one hand to another, any broken internal wires will
protrude from the surface.
-Visually check cables for corrosion by twisting the cable.
-Check for shiny portions indicating flattening of the wire due to external wear at fairleads or
jammed pulleys.
-Inspect end fittings, and fittings that are spliced for security of attachment and broken wires.
-Examine the cable for bird-caging. This is caused when the cable was subject to a sudden tensile
load which although insufficient to break the cable, causes performed strands to straighten out at the
point of maximum stress.
-Examine cables for kinking. The heart strand will protrude from between the performed strands.
-Check for broken heart strand indicated by thinning of the cable or lost of cable tension.

2. Pilot reports poor climb out. With the engine assumed to be satisfactory list the causes from an
airframe point of view.
-Ref to the relevant m/m.
-Flight controls system needs adjustments.
-The aircraft is not configured for takeoff IAW m/m. (flaps, elevators, etc not in their correct
positions).
-A/c is over-weight.
-A/c is loaded incorrectly.
-The aircraft has a rough paint finish with bolts, screws, rivets protruding a/c surface. Doors, LDGs,
flight control surfaces are not fitted flush to the aircraft structure causing excessive drag.
-A/c has missing panels or slack panels.
-Faulty instrument giving incorrect readings.
-Engine cowlings and fairings are fitted incorrectly causing excessive drag.
-Vertex generators and wing fence are defective
-For a pressurised aircraft, cabin leakage causing considerable drag

3. Pilot reports excessive force is needed to turn aileron in flight. Describe checks and
certification?
-Ref to the m/m for instructions.
-The need for excessive force to turn the aileron would be likely result of some form of obstruction
in the control run between the control column wheel and the surface or control surface unbalance.
Firstly the M/M should be consulted for diagrammatical layout of the control run and for
troubleshooting procedures. Secondly, the ailerons should be operated from the cockpit so as to get a
feel of the amount and type of resistance present in the system. Observe any sounds of chafing or
knocking that might be heard. Next disconnect the control run at the points just before the ailerons
and physically move them up and down through their full travel so as to verify the serviceability of
the hinge point and bearings.
-Should the bearings and hinge points be found in good condition the entire control run would have
to be inspected, starting at one end and moving to the other.
-Checks should be made for:
-Check cables for over tension.
-Seized bearings or rollers on all bell cranks and rod end.
-Seized cable pulleys and guiding rollers. Check for Shine spots on the cable, which would indicate
chafing, and broken wires or bird caging all which obstruct free movement.
-All fairleads and surfaces through or near to which cables pass must be checked for any signs of
grazing such as nicks, which may cause the cable to stick.
-Check control surface balance IAW m/m.
-Should any faults be identified, it should be certified IAW the relevant M/M. The system should be
rigged IAW m/m and check for free, full range and correct sense travel. A static friction test should
be completed IAW m/m.
-Ensure a duplicate inspection is to be performed by two appropriately type rated engineers. Finally,
the snag should be cleared in the Tech Log as well as a work sheet prepared then a CRS completed
and signed by a type rated engineer before the a/c returns service.

4. Draw a typical flight control system and explain the rigging procedure.
-Diagram of aileron control system flying control manual pg 61.

-Ref to m/m.
 Slacken the control cables throughout the system.
 Set the control column in the neutral position with control locks and rigging pins.
 Set the aileron operating sprockets in neutral position.
 Ensure that the chains are equally disposed around the sprockets, and then lightly tension the control
cables.
 Adjust the operating rods until the ailerons are in neutral.
 Check tension in cables and adjust if necessary.
 Remove control locks and rigging pins.
 Check the static friction.
 Check the operation of ailerons for full and free movement in the correct sense.
 Measure range of movement and adjust on stops as necessary.
 Record all travel values and range of movements.
 Examine complete control run to ensure that it is not fouling the airframe structure and that the cable
and rods are correctly fitted on pulleys and fairleads. Check that, turnbuckles adjustable end fitting,
fork joints and limit stops are in safety and locked. Ensure that shackle pins and nuts are correctly
split pinned and that fairleads, pulley brackets and chain and pulley guards are secure.
 Lubricate system as necessary.
 Carry out duplicated inspection by two approved engineers.
 Complete all paper work Sign off the CRS by approved engineer.

5. What is the relationship between ‘C of G’ and ‘C of P’?


- Center of gravity is said to be the point at which all downward forces (weight) are acting through.
-Center of pressure is the point at which all lifting forces are acting through.
-The relationship between these two abbreviations is that all their forces act through one point but in
opposite direction

6. What are the reasons for establishing weight and balance? What are the considerations when
weighting an aircraft?
-Weight and balance is required by aviation regulations.
-To establish the centre of gravity of the aircraft so that it can be loaded properly and the centre of
gravity limits not exceeded.
-To achieve figures to complete the load sheet. This ensures that the MTWA and max landing weight
not exceeds.
-For flight manoeuvrability-fight control, take off, cruise, landing, and service ceiling
-For best fuel consumptions.
-And for overall safety.
-Considerations when weighting an aircraft: Ref to the relevant m/m.
-The aircraft should be in an enclosed area, free from wind.
-All safety precautions should be followed when weighting the aircraft.
-The scale and other equipment used for weighing should be serviceable.
-The aircraft must be level.
-The basic equipment and inconsumable fluids must be on board IAW m/m.
-The temperature must be within limitations with m/m.
-The aircraft must be dry, clean and clear of frost and dew.
-Several reading must be taken and an average calculated.
-All relevant m/m, flight manual must be updated with the new weight and balance information.

7. After complete painting of an aircraft, what considerations should be followed?


-Ref to the relevant m/m.
-All tape, masking should be removed.
-All parts such as bearings, vents, drains, hinges, pitot probes, sealant, aerials and insulators must
never be painted. They should be check and if any paint is found it should be removed IAW m/m.
-Moveable parts, control surfaces, doors must be check for full and free travel.
-All control surface must be rebalance and friction test.
-The aircraft must be reweighed and the C of G calculated.
-The m/m, flight manual must be updated with new information.
-Check that all relevant markings are replaced IAW m/m.
-Duplicate inspection should be made on all control systems that were disturbed and signed by two
type rated engineer.
-All paper work completed.
-A CRS must be completed and signed be an approved engineer.
-A flight test to prove aircraft serviceability.
-The C of A should be renewed.

8. List the inspections to be carried out on a chain in situ.


-Ref to the relevant m/m.
-Check that the chain engages smoothly and evenly with the wheel teeth and there is no tendency for
the chain to ride on top of the teeth.

-Check that the chain is free from kinks and twists, by looking along the length of the chain.
-Check the connectors and attachments points for security.
-Check the chain wheel mountings for freedom and play.
-Ensure that the chain is lubricated and free from corrosion. If the chain is defective it should be
removed.
-Check the links of the chain for flats which would indicate rubbing at some point.
-Tension check the chain and if adjustment is necessary care should be taken no to leave the chain
twisted after adjustment.

9. Draw and describe an aircraft construction, name the type of aircraft and list the checks to be
carried out on that construction type.

-Diagram for semi-Monocoque in structures manual pg 6.


- The BN islander has a semi-monocoque construction primarily made from aluminium alloys and
magnesium. Steel and titanium are found in areas of high temperatures. The construction is made up
of:
-Longerons-They run longitudinal and take the primary bending loads. They prevent tension and
compression from bending the fuselage. Longerons hold bulkheads and formers and are
supplemented by other longitudinal members called stringers.
-Stringers-They are smaller and lighter that longerons and are used to shape the fuselage and for
attachment of the skin. They also take a small amount of tension and compression loads and prevent
the fuselage from bending.
-Bulkhead, frames and formers – These run vertical and aid in giving strength and rigidity to the
structure, the heaviest of them (bulkhead) carries concentrated loads and are fitted at points where
wings, power-plant and stabilisers are attached.
-Skin-The skin thickness varies with the load carried by the aircraft and they are riveted to the
longerons, bulkhead and other structural members. All members add to the strength and rigidity of
the structure and because of its stress-skin construction it may withstand considerable damage and
still be strong enough to hold together.
-Checks on aircraft structure.
-Refer to m/m
-Inspection for corrosion-Check cabin walls, drain valves, In-blind or in-boxed structures where
accessibility is difficult, honey comb structures around screws holes, skin joints, fuselage keel areas,
structure conceal by upholstery, spots welded joints, structure exposed to exhaust gases, dissimilar
metal joints, skin surface for defects, fretting of structure with rivets and bolts, where spillage can
occur in-flight, battery compartment. Any signs of corrosion should be treated IAW m/m at its early
stages.
-Examine structure for security of attachment, metal fatigue and cracks with approved methods IAW
m/m.
-Structure should be kept clean and loose fasteners and bolts should be replaced IAW m/m.
10. Considering the engine is serviceable, if an aircraft airframe has excessive vibration on climb
out, what could be the possible causes?
-The aircraft could be in a stall condition.
-Flight control surfaces are unbalance, fluttering or controls cables slack.
-Airframe has loose rivets, skin and panels.
-Cowlings and fairings not installed properly causing vibration with the oncoming airflow.
-Turbulent airflow over the aircraft structure.
-The engine mounting and vibration dampers not damping out the engine vibration. They are
unserviceable.

11. Draw and explain a pitot/static system.


PITOT HEAD

MACH
VSI ASI ALT
METER

PORT STATIC VENT STARBOARD STATIC VENT

Drain Valve

-Diagram in basic instrument manual pg 6.


-This system consists of two probes located left and right side forward the aircraft, or on the leading
edge of the wings. It has static vents at the side, pitot vent at the front, drain holes at the side and a
heating element inside to prevent icing. Pitot pressure is the pressure of the incoming airflow and
static pressure is the pressure of the normal atmosphere. Pitot and static pressures are applied to the
appropriate instruments via light alloys pipes which includes drain valves at low point for collecting
moisture. The instruments require pitot and static pressure are the ASI and mach meter. The integrity
of the system is essential for correct operation and regular maintenance is stipulated by the m/m. A
leakage check is carried out on the system any time there is disturbance.

12. Why is it necessary to have two static ports? List the serviceability checks.
-Two pitot/static ports is necessary to reduce compressibility errors in the pitot/static measuring
instrument due to a pressure unbalance when yawing of the aircraft takes place.
REF to the relevant m/m
-Pitot/static probes should be inspected for security of mounting and any distortion.
-Pitot entry hole, drain holes and static vents inspected to ensure that they are unobstructed.
-Static vents should be inspected to ensure that the exposed surfaces are free from scratches,
indentation and paint.
-Pipelines should be check for freedom of corrosion, kinks and other damage and connections are
tight and locked.
-Electrical heaters should be check by operating and ensuring they warm up when the switch is on.
-All instruments should read zero on the ground.

13. On Preflight the Pitot is found blocked. Discussed rectification and certification.
-Firstly, upon finding this fault, the appropriate M/M must be referred to for the correct procedure or
guidelines for clearing the pitot. Then, the pitot line should be disconnected from behind the RSI
instrument. Using moisture free air supply, a positive pressure, as stipulated in the M/M, should be
applied to the line so as to force any obstruction out of the pitot tube. This is done until there is a free
flow of air felt coming out of the pitot. The line is then reconnected to the instrument. The pitot
system should then be recalibrated and leak check as outlined in the M/M. If required, the use of test
equipment should be performed by an appropriately trained and Licensed Engineer. Finally a
worksheet, documenting the defect and subsequent steps of rectification should be should be
prepared and the affixed CRS signed by the appropriately type rated engineer.

14. How are crack identified using a Dye-Penetrant Test?


-Ref to the m/m for instructions.
-Dye Penetrant tests identify cracks and other surface defects on materials by using dyes to create a
colour contrast against a background. The Penetrant used is dyed bright red. When applied to the
surface it seeps into any cracks or holes present in the surface. After a specified dwell time
(penetration time), any excess penetrant is removed from the surface by the specified method. A
developer agent (white chalk) is then applied in a thin, even coat across the surface. This developer
serves to absorb any penetrant that would have seeped into the cracks. Thus the cracks would be
identified by the red stain (usually a thin line) that would show up against the white background of
the developer.
-Some penetrants contain fluorescent particles, making even more visible under ultra violet lights.
This allows for even better identification of minute cracks. It is imperative, to the success of the
process, that the surface being examined has been thoroughly cleaned and degreased so as to ensure
full penetration of the penetrant.

15. State three defects revealed by the colour contrast dye penetrant inspection & their indications.
-Scattered dots of dye indicate fine porosity or pitting whilst gross porosity may result in an entire
area becoming stained.
-Closely spaced dots of dye in a line, or curved indicate tight cracks or laps.
-Continuous lines of dye indicate wide crack, lack of fusion in welded parts.

16. Draw and explain a DC twin generation system (with emergency backup).
-Diagram in basic electrical systems book pg27.
-Generators – supply 28volts D.C. power to the bus bar for aircraft use.
 Voltage Regulator – regulates the generator output volts to 28 volts D.C. (typical value) by increasing
or decreasing generator field strength.
 Cut – Out – connects the generator to the bus bar when the generator voltage exceeds the bus bar
voltage and provides a reverse current from flowing to the generator in the event of a generator
failure.
 Over voltage relay – If an overvoltage is detected this circuit will open the generator field, taking the
generator off line.
 Bus Bar – receives volts and supply to the aircraft systems.
 Battery Relay – supply battery voltages to the bus bar when the relay is closed.
 Battery – supplies emergency power to the bus bar if both generators fail.
 Equalizing Circuit – equalize the circuit when one generator gives more load than the other generator.

17. Draw and explain a simple hydraulic system.

A
V

RETURN FLUID
INLET
R-RESERVOIR- stores hydraulic fluid
P-PUMP- draws fluid from the reservoir to create the flow
V-SELECTOR VALVE- controls the flow and direction of the fluid
A-ACTUATOR- converts fluid power (pressure energy) to mechanical movement

Operation: The pump draws fluid from the reservoir and directs it under pressure to the four way
selector valve. When the selector valve is in the position shown the fluid will flow to the left end of
the actuating cylinder (A) and force the piston to the right moving the piston rod and any device
connected to it.
As the piston moves to the right, the fluid to the fluid to the right of the piston is displaced and flow
out the port and at the right end of the cylinder from the selector valve to the reservoir. For the
reverse to happen the selector valve is rotated ¼ turn.

18. Draw & explain a hydraulic retractable landing gear system.


-Diagram in wheel and brake manual pg 40
-The hydraulic pump sends pressured fluid to the system.
-As the selector valve moves to the up position, pressurised fluid is directed into the gear up line.
-The fluid moves the piston upwards in the actuator and the attachment connections raises the
landing gear.
-The return line ports the fluid to the reservoir. When the gear is extended the reverse happens, the
selector valve ports fluid to the down line and the attachment drops the landing gear.
-Hydraulic pressures for emergency operation of the landing gear may be provided by an auxiliary
hand pump, an accumulator, or an electrically driven hydraulic pump.
(b) If one gear fails to retract list the possible causes & inspection to be carried out.
-Ref to the m/m.
-Blocked or damage hydraulic line.
-An unserviceable selector valve.
-Broken LDG mechanical linkage.
-Low system pressure or system fluids.
-A faulty indication system.
-A damage or unserviceable pump.
-Checks to be made:
-Check system for broken lines, mechanical linkage and leaks.
-Inspect indication system for faults (test).
-Pressure tests the system.
-Check filters and pumps.
-Carry out a duplicate inspection.
-Do a retraction test
-complete CRS

19. Draw a simple brakes system & list checks to ensure serviceability before flight.
-Diagram in CAIPs AL3-19.

-Check fluid quantity in reservoir to make sure that it is adequate.


-Check that the area is clean to prevent dirt from entering the brake system.
-Brake component and pipelines should be inspected for security, fluid leakage and correct operation.
-flexible fitted between brake unit and LDG leg should be check for freedom of movement
throughout the LDG.
-Brake should be tested for spongy operation which will indicate air is in the system. Loss of brake
pressure or the inability to hold the brake may be due to faulty or worn seals in the master cylinder or
shuttle valves.
-Check brake unit for security, leaks and brake pads for wear limitations IAW m/m

20. Draw & explain a de-icer system?


-Diagram ice & rain protection manual pg 5 & CAIP AL/11-1.
-When icing conditions is present the pilot put on the de-icer switch which is biased to the off
position.
-The routing of pressure and vacuum to the boots is control by a solenoid valve and a shuttle valve.
-The solenoid is now energised and air pressure is applied to the shuttle valve which ports air
pressures to the de-icer boots.
-A pressure switch senses this pressure and illuminates a light on the instrument panel.
-When the solenoid valve is de-energised the pressure air is routed overboard through a breather line.
-When there is less that 1pis pressure at the shuttle valve port, it allows vacuum source to the boots
which hold them to the leading edge.
- When the switch is selected to cycle, an electronic timer controls a six second inflation cycle at the
end of which the solenoid valve is de-energized.
- Sequential inflation of the boot’s tube breaks up the ice and the air flow sweeps it away.

21. Draw & explain a vacuum system.

FILTER
SUCTION REDUCER
AIR IN

TURN & SLIP INDICATOR CENTRAL AIR FILTER

GYRO HORIZON
DIRECTIONAL GYRO

SUCTION REGULATOR SUCTION GAUGE

OIL SEPERATOR
AIR IN AIR OVERBOARD OR TO
DE-ICER DISTRIBUTIOR
VALVE

VACUUM PUMP

Engine oil metered into


pump for cooling & sealing

-Drawing in basic instruments manual pg 29.


-The engine driven suction pump produces a vacuum pressure to supply gyroscopic instrument.
-Oil is metered into the pump for cooling and sealing for the aircraft lubrication system. The oil is
returned to the engine through the air/oil separator where all air is extracted.
-The suction regulator and filter is required to regulate and filter the vacuum pressure in the system
for correct operation of instruments.
-There is a suction reducer to reduce the pressure to operate the turn and slip indicator which operate
at a lower pressure.

22. List part inspection you would carry out in the battery area of an aircraft?
-Ref to m/m.
-The battery compartment should be clean, dry and free of acid corrosion or damage. The structure
adjacent to the battery compartment should be treated with acid-resistance paint.
-When battery is located in compartment, ensured that it is secured and attached with the appropriate
clamps or bolts and they are not over-tightened.
-Battery cables should be secure and examine for signs of chafing or other damage.
-The compartment should be vented to dilute gases given off by the battery.
-Ventilation systems should be check to ensure there is no obstruction and integral venting is used.
-Drain system should be check for correct operation and fitted away from the a/c structure in the
event of acid drainage.

23. Describe how you will rig a throttle control. Drawing on pg 371 in Jeppesen power-plant.

-REF to m/m for all instructions.


-loose the serrated throttle control arm and back-off the throttle stop until the throttle valve is in the
fully closed position.
-lock cable drum into position with the locking pin and adjust connecting rod so that one end fits the
locked cable drum and the other the throttle control arm to the carburetor.
-Loose the cable turnbuckles until the throttle control can be locked at the quadrant with the locking
pin.
-Adjust the cables to the correct tension IAW m/m and Remove all locking pins.
-Adjust throttle control at turnbuckles so that it will have a slight cushion action in full-open position
and closed or idle position.
-Check system for correct function, freedom of movement and range of travel. Check that
turnbuckle, ends fittings are secured and safety. Check cables for fouling with parts of the structure.
-Carry out duplicate inspection.
-Ground run engine and check parameters IAW m/m.
- Complete all work sheets and complete a CRS.

24. What are the possible causes for the appearance of wrinkles under the wing?
-Ref to the m/m for instructions.
-The appearance of wrinkles on the skin beneath the wing is a definite indication of the wing having
been subjected to excessive bending or compression loads. These excessive loads could have been
imposed as the result of a heavy or Overweight or the a/c flying through heavy turbulence. A heavy
landing would have occurred if the a/c was put down with either a high vertical descent velocity and
or more than the max landing weight stipulated. This landing would have caused great flexing of the
wing on touchdown, most likely exceed structural design limitations.
-Flying in heavy turbulence would cause excessive flexing of the wings due to the large aerodynamic
loads imposed on the a/c.
-Both of the above occurrences would be responsible for the wrinkling of the skin of the wing due to
the excessive amount of loads imposed on the structure.

25. Describe the check after a hard landing (read up in CAIPs AL 7-1).
-Ref to the m/m for instructions
-Landing gear – examine tyres, wheels, hubs, shocks, struts, attachment points, linkage, bolts, brake
unit, brake lines for cracks, leakage and any defects. Do nose wheel steering test and retraction test if
applicable IAW m/m.
-Fuselage – Examine skin for wrinkling, loose rivets, damage skin panels, fuel leakage, structural
members for cracks and damage, flight control surfaces for freedom of movement and balance,
instrument panel for damage instruments and security, electrical defects.
-Engine – examine engine mounting for cracks, signs of stress, loose bolts, fluid leakage, check
propeller and counter-weight for attachment, check oil filters for metal particles.
-Conduct a duplicate inspection.
-Ground run engine and check that all systems are functional IAW m/m.
-Complete all paper work and CRS