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# Chapter 8…

## Human population increases from time to time. Needs of each

person also vary. In order to full their needs, people utiiize their
environment maximally. what are the influences of human
population density on environment?

Learning objectives
By learning this capter, you will be able to :
1. estimate the relationship between total population and
needs on clean water and air.
2. estimate relationship between total population and needs on
food as well as land availability.
3. explain the influence of increasing total on environmental
damages.
Concept map …
Population dynamics caused by:
- natality
- moralitas
- migration
Influencing:
- human population density
influencing on:
- fresh air and availability
- needs on food and land availability
- Environmental damage
Keywords…
· abrasion
· environmental damages
· erosion
· reclamation
In 1650, total population on the world was predicted about 500
millions people. In the next to the hundred years, it is twice to be
one billion people. Land area where people live there does not
increase since long time ago. For centuries, total population is
relatively constant therefore, people have no difficulties to find
any place for living. what will happen if total population on the
world increase? In 2000 total population on the word was more
then 6,5 billions people. Problems started appearing as a result
of rapid increase in total population. For example dangerous
starvation, difficulty in obtaining land for dwelling. Fresh and
air water are also difficult to obtain.
A. POPULATION DENSITY
When Thomas Robert Maltus published his book
entitled An Essay on the Principle of Population in 1798,
total population on the word is not as high as now. Since
1900s, population grows relatively fast, will and land area
does not expand. various problem appeared such as food
supply, clothes, and housing. Research on population also
increasingly develops. It is aimed at solving problems
generated by very rapid population growth.
Population is a groupof people residing in certain
please/area at certain time. Relationship between population and
area generates term population density. In demography,
population density is number of people occupying any region at
certain area, usually 1 km

## To calculate population density we can use following formula :

D = population density
n = number of people
A = area
1. population dinamis
Population density in certain area usually changes from time
to time. This change can be descrease in population density.
However, it usually increase in population density. However, it
usually increase in population density. Change in population
density from time to time is caled population dynamis.
population dynamis is affected by three factor, namely natality,
mortality, mortality, and migration.
A. Natality
In relation to birth, we have term natality (birth rate), that is any
number showing number of live birth per 1.000 population per
year. Natality is expressed by formula:
Natality = number of live birth x1000
Total population
There are three criteria of natality as follows:
1. birth rate is high if the natality >30
2. birth rate is medium if natality rangers between
20 and 30
3. birth rate is low if natality <20
B. mortality
In relation to birth, we have term mortality (birth rate), that is
any number indicating number of live birth per 1.000
population per year. Natality is expressed by formula:
Mortality = total death x1000
Total population
1. mortality rate is high if the natality >18
2. mortality rate is medium if natality rangers
between 14 and 18
3. mortality rate is low if natality <14
In addition to morality, we also have term infant mortality that
can be calculated using following formula:
1. infant mortality is high if it is >125
2. infant morality is high if it ranger from 75-125
3. infant morality is medium if it ranges between 35-
75
4. infant motality is low is low if it is <35
C. Migration
1. Migration is movement of population from certain area
or coumtri, migration can be distingusihed into, among other
things, as follow:
A. Transmigrasi
B. Urbanization
C. ruralization
2. CROSS-COUNTRI MIGRATION COVERS:
A. immigrasi, population movement entering other
country with the purpose to settle in the country
B. emigration, population movement leaving any country
to sttle in other country
By three components as explained above and formulated as
follow:
P = ( l-m ) + ( i-e )
P = population growth
l = birth rate
m = mortality rate
i = number of immigration
e = number of emigration
2. calculation of population growth
population growth can be calculation by comparing total
population from year to year. By understanding total population
in two censuses, population grow rate for ten years can be
calculated. Therefore, calculating population grow rate any can
be country can be performed every ten year.
Based on annual population grow rate prediction total
population in following and years can be estimated using
following formula:
Pt=Po(1+r) n
Pt = total population to devine in following n years
Po = initial population
r = population grow rate
n = year difference

Population Explosion
Population Explosion is very rapid Population growth.
Population Explosion is caused by among orther things, as
follows
a. Very high birth rate (natality)
c. Very good society health level
d. Growing economy so that public welfare increases
e. Low educational level of the Population
Population Explosion may causes problems is many sector, such
as those on clothes, food and housing, education, employment,
envirwonment and health sector
B. Influence of Population Density on Fresh Air ang Fresh
Water Availability

## Invention of steam engine by james watt (1776-1819) had

generated the birth of industrial revolution. Factories are
estabilished every where. Those Factoriesrelease smoke makje
the air dirty. The invention of vehicles utilizing fossil oil as the
fuel, such as car, make air dirtier since the cars relese residual
substance of combustion in form of carbon monoxide in big
cities with dense population, the availability of fresh air a
serious problem. Why the denser population is, the more
activities will be, Some activities have negative impact on
availability of fres air, For example, more motor vehicles
releasingtheir combustion residue make air dirty, In fact, more
people mean More Fresh air Is required in order to solve those
problems, some big cities construct city parks. City forest, and
green belt functioning as lungs of the cities, This condition is
made worse by decreasing forest area, In fact, foresty are known
as the world lungs. In order to increases fresh air availability,
diffestation and reforestation are performed.
In addition to discharring waste to air, the factories also
dischanger their was to the river. Descrease in forest area as
fresh water reserve will reduce availability of clean water.
C. influence of population to needs on food and land
availability.
food is one primary needs of human being. Human being cannot
survive. More people needs more food to produce. In developed
countries can produce more food fore same land area. In
addiction, population grow rate in developed countries can be
controlled.
People needs lands for two main reasons, that is for dwelling
and for cultivation. In other to fulfil needs on food. In your
opinion, what will happen if population growth is uncontrolled?
D. influence of human density on environmental damages
environmental damages my be caused by natural factors such as
earthquake, typhoon, flood and landslide.
In order to fulfil needs on dwelling and cultivation, people
clearing forest. Do you remember the functions of forests related
to environment ? Tropical forest on the world have decreased
very much. In fact, only a few countries have Tropical forest like
Brazil and Indonesia. Uncontrolled logging has negative impacts
on environment. By decrerease in forest area, plant roots
arresting water will be less. As a consequence, rain water will
fast flow and bring sop fertile soil layer. Deforestation at
beadwaters area may cause erosion. Landslide and flood that
destructs areas they pass. Clearing by burning may reduce
biodieversity and it’s smoke may pollute the air
The forrest damages are not only caused by forest fired done by
moving farmer (nomad) but also by companies holding forest
empowering title (HPH) those cut forest illegally. Other actions
that may destruct environment are mangrove felling and convert
the area into dwelling area at coastal area, coastal reclamation
for dwelling area. Mangrove forest felling may cause abrasion,
that is coastal erosion by sea wave, decrease in fish and shrimp
production. Loss of habitat such as bird. What is consequence of
coastal reclamation, fishing by means of assembled bomb, and
lake piling up? You can find other examples based on your
direct observation, literary study or from mass media