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Yayasan Sayangi Tunas Cilik
Partner of
Dani, Deni, Gugun, Nofi (left to right)
as students, and Fajar as a teacher, are
sitting together in a non-formal
education for junior and senior high
school level in an Integrated Child
Friendly Space in Rawa Badak Utara.
Every day, Dani, Deni, and Gugun have
to work to help their families. They
are out-of-school children and have
missed their lessons since in primary

(Barbara Davidson/Save the Children)

Excluded Children Mapping ave the Children (SC) global strategy, The prime focus of this study is to highlight
in Indonesia Core Team 'Ambition for Children 2030' and and analyze what do people know about
campaign, 'Every Last Child' have a key excluded children? Who are the excluded
Rosdiani Rachim mission to ensure that all children survive, children? Why are they being excluded? And
Research Advisor
learn and are protected. Save the Children how to solve the exclusion of the children?
will focus on reaching the most deprived and This is the new effort of SC to collect data
Taufik Hidayat marginalized children, who are too often and credit the most deprived and
Research and Advocacy Officer excluded due to poverty, geography, gender, marginalized children, who are too often
taufik.hidayat@savethechildren.org ethnicity or disability. being excluded from development.
Ratna Yunita As part of these strategy and campaign, SC This research was developed by a team at
Child Right Governance Advisor
United Kingdom (SCUK) provided funding YSTC. The executive summary result of the
for Yayasan Sayangi Tunas Cilik (YSTC) research is presented within this booklet. I
Under the direction of: partner of Save the Children in Indonesia to apologize if any error is found which was not
conduct an exclusion mapping through a deliberately made. If the booklet can help
Tata Sudrajat research starting from 2016 to 2017. any person in providing information, I will
Advocacy and Campaign Director feel that the purpose of the booklet has
tata.sudrajat@savethechildren.org The process of conducting the quantitative been fulfilled. Please feel free to contact me
and qualitative approaches of the research and the research team if any question arises.
Published in April 2018 by: will be the main parts of a diagnostic toolkit
to be produced by a team comprises of SC All the best,
Yayasan Sayangi Tunas Cilik Indonesia together with SC Tanzania and
Partner of
SCUK. Jakarta, February 2018

Cover Photo
Anisa and her father, Afandi, were having a morning
routine daily activities in their bed that be their
place to stay every day. Afandi was homeless since
2012 and stay with his three children in this place. Selina Patta Sumbung
At the same time Afandi got visual impairment and Chairperson of Yayasan Sayangi Tunas Cilik
it becomes worse and makes him blind and
depending on his children. Anisa and her two
brothers are out-of-school children and have missed
their education rights.

(Barabara Davidson/Save the Children)

Background Objectives

ince mid-2016,Yayasan Sayangi Tunas The objectives are explored through three

1 2
Cilik partner of Save the Children main questions probed to informants of the
under the auspice of Save the research, namely:
Children United Kingdom conducted
Exclusion Mapping Project. i. What do you know about
excluded children? Who are the
Excluded children within this research excluded children?
refers to ‘children who are severely To map the To identify
disadvantaged across a range of their extent of groups of ii. Why are they being excluded?
human rights because of deliberate acts of children’s children who are
commission (e.g. legal, policy or cultural exclusion in deprived of iii. How to solve the exclusion of the
discriminations or denial of human rights) Indonesia education children?
or omission (e.g. administrative neglect,
failure to provide minimum acceptable The results of this research will contribute
access to basic services) by other members to the development of a toolkit that aims
of their society. to assist in diagnosing, planning, and

3 4
evaluating the policies and programs for
Experiencing a combination of achieving Sustainable Development
discrimination – any distinction or Objectives (SDGs) from the perspective of
restriction based on who they are and child rights fulfillment.
where they live and that prevents them
enjoying their rights – plus poverty means a To explore the To examine the
child is excluded. That exclusion is stopping nature of underlying
millions of children getting the food, children’s social factors behind
healthcare and education they need. What's exclusion in children’s
more, these children and their communities Indonesia exclusion and
generally have little power to change this discriminatory
and little influence over the decisions that barriers that
shape their lives. they faced
Why Focusing on Excluded Children?

ll children depend on adults for their well-being especially at The first steps towards meeting the SDGs to leave no one behind is
very critical stage of cognitive, social and emotional to identify which groups are suffering the worst deprivations, such
development. Any shock in their childhood, like experiencing as child labor, neglected children including street children, children
discrimination, marginalization, and exclusion, directly impact with disabilities, unregistered children, indigenous children, and child
children and the consequence of that experience can last through marriage.
their life.
Although there is increased concern for social inclusion in
The added value of working on social exclusion is tied to Indonesia, knowledge of who exactly is excluded and the nature of
the following issues: the particular barriers they face remains a blind spot in most
interventions to date.
A clear violation of children’s rights. The exclusion mapping project aims to demonstrate how excluded
groups of children can be identified by combining existing data and
Social Cost available evidence on exclusion in a particular context through
Long term psychological damage, lack of community trust due to consultation with local stakeholders and children themselves.
social inequalities, and poor access to basic services.

Economic Costs
Significant loss of potential labor productivity and increase of
poverty cycle.

Fuelling Conflicts
Grievances due to disparities between the rich and the poor.
About Social Exclusion Mapping Toolkit

his toolkit is intended as a resource including for least developed countries and development intervention, or in the setting
for anyone seeking to better small island developing States, to increase of targets for particular groups in efforts to
understand the prevalence of significantly the availability of high-quality, meet the SDGs or other national plans for
exclusion in a given area, whether at a timely, and reliable data disaggregated by development.
community level or at a national level, and income, gender, age, race, ethnicity,
the underlying factors driving this exclusion migratory status, disability, geographic Crucially, the qualitative research tools
of particular groups in that area. location, and other characteristics relevant explored in this toolkit can be used to
in national contexts. incorporate the knowledge and
The breadth of the Sustainable perspectives of excluded groups themselves
Development Goals (SDGs) Agenda 2030 This toolkit presented the importance of who will have first-hand knowledge about
suggests for “data revolution” to able to data in order to map out the most specific barriers to accessing development
reach no one left behind and to track the excluded children to ensure no child left interventions and potential solutions to
accomplishments of SDGs. The data behind in the development regardless their addressing these barriers.
revolution for sustainable development will economic, geographical, abilities, gender, age,
require new data with traditional data to race, ethnicity and migratory status.
produce high-quality information that is
more detailed, timely, and relevant for Furthermore, the guidance provided in this
purposes and users, especially to foster and toolkit may be used by government
monitor sustainable development. agencies and institutions, CSOs, NGOs,
researchers and academia to map the
Specifically, SDG goal 17 target 18 prevalence and nature of exclusion in a
mentioned that by 2020, enhance capacity- particular area of development, to identify
building support to developing countries, groups at risk of exclusion from a particular
16 years old girl just had a baby and
was still confused about taking care of
her child. Assisted by her parents and
local social workers, the baby of the
child is being cared.

(Barbara Davidson/Save the Children)

Research Design
Literature Quantitative Qualitative Triangulation

1 2 3 4
Reviewing the literature to 1. Number of children Participatory research
identify excluded groups: deprived relative to with children, focus group 1. Gaps in quantitative
their group size. discussions, and exploring data identified through
1. Research report. 2. Overlapping markers of life histories to broaden qualitative data.
2. Academic literature. exclusion with a focus analysis beyond available 2. Comparative analysis.
3. Project Documents. on regions/provinces. quantitative data.


Garut (West Java)

Brebes (Central Java)
Southwest Sumba (NTT) Majene
Belu (NTT) Bulukumba
Majene (West Sulawesi)
Bulukumba (South Sulawesi) Garut Brebes
Southwest Sumba Belu
Gita lives with her parents and one
Research Phases younger sister at the little space
under the highway in Penjaringan sub-
November 2016-December 2017 district in Nothern Jakarta. Gita's
hobby is playing soccer but her home
environment and culture are not
Phase I supporting her to fulfil her potential.
To test the research methods designed globally.
(Barbara Davidson/Save the Children)

Research Areas:
1. Lampung, Lampung
2. Bandung, West Java
3. Yogyakarta, DI Yogyakarta
4. West Sumba, East Nusa Tenggara (NTT)
5. Soppeng, South Sulawesi

Phase II
To find out who the excluded children are and what drivers
behind their exclusion.

Research Areas:
1. Garut, West Java
2. Brebes, Central Java
3. Southwest Sumba, East Nusa Tenggara (NTT)
4. Belu, East Nusa Tenggara (NTT)
5. Majene, West Sulawesi
6. Bulukumba, South Sulawesi

Informants of the Research

227 children (108 boys and 119 girls)
234 adults (147 males and 97 females) consisted of
government, teachers, parents, and community leaders.
House of Marthen’s family in Raihat,
Belu, East Nusa Tenggara. This family
has become Yayasan Sayangi Tunas
Cilik partner of Save the Children's
beneficiaries and joined community-
based parenting for years.

(Barbara Davidson/Save the Children)

Their Stories
“...I can’t mingle with my friends anymore. I want to be like them, being “...Usually my mother bathed me, but sometimes my father too. But I
success and able to work independently so I can help my parents...” don’t like to be bathed by my father because he often beats me...”

Habiba (19) Ramadani (18)

Child Marriage Children with Disability
Majene, West Sulawesi Brebes, Central Java

“...When I graduated to third grade, my teacher abused me.That’s make “...The main problem of children in Kajang Village is education. Lots of
me reluctant to go back to school. Now I'm just wandering around them are not going to school because they have to help their parents
because I do not like being at home. I'm sad to see my friends can go to working in the agricultural sector.While the others are out of school
school comfortably while I'm not...” because of child marriage...”

Agung (14) Rosmawati (45)

Neglected Children & Out of School Community Leader
Garut, West Java Bulukumba, South Sulawesi

“...After my father died, my mother have to support me and my six “...I want going to school again as when I was in Timor Leste, but now I
siblings alone. But one time, I fell down while helping her to do household can’t. My family needs my help to do household works... I have no birth
works.That’s make me breathless and limp. After that, I can’t go to school certificate, my siblings too. My mom said, there is no money for getting
again because I can’t walk anymore. I am really sad. I want to be able to it...”
go to school again...”

Gerson (13) Jeorjina Vicenti (15)

Children with Disability & Out of School Out of School & Unregistered Children
Southwest Sumba, NTT Atambua, NTT
Current Status of Children in Indonesia

otal population of Indonesian children in 2016 based on
Statistical Bureau Center (BPS) is 83,412,200 including
42,673,000 boys and 40,739,200 girls.

For the school-aged, the number of school-aged children in 2016 is
54,275,800, comprising of 27,574,000 in primary school, 13,425,000
in junior high school, and 13,276,000 in senior high school.1 children
in Indonesia are out of school
or never attending school.
They come from poor family.2

1.7 MILLION children are considered

as child labor in Indonesia.3 More than 280.000 of them
aged 5-14 years4 work in hazardous environments
and agriculture industry such as rubber, palm oil, and
tobacco farms.

11 MILLION children
in Indonesia (13.31%) live in poverty
BPS dan UNFPA. 2014. Proyeksi Penduduk Indonesia Umur Tertentu dan Umur Satuan 2010-2025.
TNP2K. 2016. Basis Data Terpadu. Jakarta: TNP2K.
or less than Rp.12,400 per day.

BPS dan ILO. 2010. Pekerja Anak di Indonesia 2009. Jakarta: BPS. 57.05% of them live twice
TNP2K. 2016. Basis Data Terpadu. Jakarta: TNP2K.
BPS dan Unicef. 2017. Analisis Kemiskinan Anak dan Deprivasi Hak Hak Dasar Anak di Indonesia. below the poverty line.5
Jakarta: BPS.
More than 2 MILLION children6
in Indonesia are neglected and more than
half among them are unable to go to school
for financial reasons.7

1 OUT OF 4 women
aged 20-24 years old married before the age of 18.
The prevalence of the child marriage from
the poorest households is almost twice
compared to the most prosperous ones.8

More than 15 MILLION in Indonesia

do not have birth certificates. It will be potentially
losing their civil rights and access on education, health,
and social security service from the government.9

Pusat Data dan Informasi Kesejahteraan Sosial. 2012. Rekapitulasi Data Penyandang Masalah
Kesejahteraan Sosial (PMKS) per Provinsi. Jakarta: Kementerian Sosial.
Kementerian Sosial. 2012. Kementerian Sosial dalam Angka. Jakarta: Kementerian Sosial.
43.87% of school-aged
children with disability (7-17 years old)
Badan Pusat Statistik dan Unicef. 2016. Kemajuan yang Tertunda: Analisis Data Perkawinan Usia Anak in Indonesia never attended school.10
di Indonesia. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.
Badan Pusat Statistik. 2015. Statistik Kesejahteraan Rakyat 2015. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.
SMERU. http://www.smeru.or.id/cpsp/Paper,%20Abstact,%20CV/0105_rini-paper.pdf
Definitions of Concept
Out of School Indigenous Children
Children age of 7-18 years who dropout from school or never Children who have a distinct social or cultural identity from the
attending school or education. dominant or mainstream society, which makes them vulnerable to
being disadvantaged in the processes of development.14
Child Labor
Children age of 5-12 years regardless of their working hours, and Children with Disabilities
children age of 13-14 years who work more than 15 hours per Children who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual, or
week, and children age of 15-17 years who work more than 40 sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may
hours per week.11 hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal
basis with others.15
Neglected Children
Children who live in an environment where parent or other person Unregistered Children
with responsibility for the child are failed to provide needed food, Children who do not have birth certificate.
clothing, shelter, medical care, or supervision to the degree that the
child’s health, safety, and well-being are threatened with harm.12

Child Marriage
Children who are experiencing a formal marriage or informal union
before the age of 18 years.13

ILO. 2010. ILO dan BPS Keluarkan Data Nasional Mengenai Pekerja Anak di Indonesia.
http://www.ilo.org/jakarta/info/public/pr/WCMS_122351/lang--en/index.htm. Data accessed on
October 15, 2016.
Child Welfare Information Gateway. 2016. Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington DC:
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Badan Pusat Statistik dan Unicef. 2016. Kemajuan yang Tertunda: Analisis Data Perkawinan Usia Anak
di Indonesia. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.
Plant, Roger. 2002. Indigenous Peoples/Ethnic Minorities and Poverty Reduction: Regional Report.
Manila: Asian Development Bank.
UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
Key Findings
Excluded Group Drivers of Exclusion Solution to Exclusion
Ÿ Children in emergency situations, Ÿ Economic barriers (poverty). Ÿ Provide more funding allocation from
especially related to family separation, Ÿ Limited or no access to quality education government for social protection
refugee, and unaccompanied asylum- such as school distance from home. programs.
seeking children. Ÿ Lack of parental and community Ÿ Simplify the process of obtaining birth
Ÿ Children with disabilities. awareness on the importance of and marriage certificates.
Ÿ Minority, isolated, or indigenous children. education. Ÿ Establish an education system that takes
Ÿ Children who are victims of abuse and Ÿ Social norms and traditional cultural into account the local context and
neglect, especially related to neglected or practices that gender bias cause girls are indigenous groups in order to not harm
abandoned children, including street forced to get married quickly to improve their values.
children. the social status of the family. Ÿ Raise awareness on EVAC (Ending
Ÿ Out-of-school children. Ÿ Discriminatory policies and attitudes. Violence Against Children) in school and
Ÿ Children with no birth certificate and Ÿ Violence against and exploitation of community level, and promote
stateless children. children at home, school, and within community-based child protection
Ÿ Child or underage marriage. community so that children are not system.
Ÿ Economically or sexually exploited willing to go to school. Ÿ Strengthen and widely disseminate the 4T
children, especially related to child labor. Ÿ In some areas, difficulty of processes and programs that emphasizes the
expensive cost in obtaining birth importance of family planning program by
certificates are still in place. While to avoiding: too young to get pregnant, too
attend elementary school, a birth young to get married, too dense in
certificate is needed. delivering babies (close birth spacing) and
Ÿ The education system is not adapted to too old to get pregnant.
suit the needs of groups and capacities of Ÿ Judicial review of Law No. 1/1974 on
indigenous children or children with Marriage related to the minimum age of
disabilities. children to marry (16 years for girls and
Ÿ Lack of community-based child 19 years for boys) by taking into
protection system resulting in neglect of consideration of children’s health and
children used as labor. education aspects.
Provinces/Region Ranking on the Excluded Children

Out of Child Neglected Child Indigenous Children with Unregistered

School Labor Children Marriage Group Location Disabilities Children Notes:

Sumatra 3 Out of School

The ranking is based on number
North Sumatra 1 5 5 5 of out of school children,
including never attending school,
Java from the 25 million poorest
households in Indonesia.
West Java 4 2
Child Labor
The ranking is based on number
Central Java 1 of child labor (aged 5-14 years
old) from the 25 million poorest
East Java 5 3 3 households in Indonesia.

Kalimantan 1 Neglected Children

The ranking is based on number
Central Kalimantan 2 of neglected children including
street children.
Bali/Nusa Tenggara 5
Child Marriage
West Nusa Tenggara 2 The ranking is based on the
prevalence of women (aged 20-
East Nusa Tenggara 2 4 2 24 years old) who have married
before the age of 18 years old.
Sulawesi 2
Indigenous Group Location
The ranking is based on number
West Sulawesi 2 1 of ethnic minorities in the area.
South Sulawesi 4 Children with Disabilities
The ranking is based on number
Central Sulawesi 3 3 3 of children with disabilities under
the age of 15 years old from the
Gorontalo 1 4 25 million poorest households in
Maluku/Papua 4
Unregistered Children
West Papua 5 4 The ranking is based on
percentage of children aged 0-17
Papua 4 3 1 5 1 years old who have no birth
Provinces/Region Ranking on the Excluded Children

Out of School Child Labor Neglected Child Marriage


1. Gorontalo 1. North Sumatra 1. Papua 1. West Sulawesi

2. West Sulawesi 2. East Nusa Tenggara 2. West Nusa Tenggara 2. Central Kalimantan
3. Central Sulawesi 3. Papua 3. East Java 3. Central Sulawesi
4. Papua 4. South Sulawesi 4. West Java 4. Gorontalo
5. West Papua 5. East Java 5. North Sumatra 5. Papua

Indigenous Children with Unregistered

Group Location Disability Children

1. Kalimantan 1. Central Java 1. Papua

2. Sulawesi 2. West Java 2. East Nusa Tenggara
3. Sumatra 3. East Java 3. Central Sulawesi
4. Maluku and Papua 4. East Nusa Tenggara 4. West Papua
5. Bali and Nusa Tenggara 5. North Sumatra 5. North Sumatra
Excluded Children Data Based on Province

Group of Excluded Children (Based on number/prevalance/percentage)

No. Province Out of Child Neglected Child Indigenous Children with Unregistered
School Labor Children Marriage Children Disabilities Children Out of School
The data is based on number of
01 Aceh 99,390 6,028 11,068 17.2% n/a 3,985 17.65% out of school children, including
never attending school, from the
25 million poorest households in
02 North Sumatra 211,354 60,524 186,205 15.2% n/a 7,119 29.56%
03 West Sumatra 78,523 3,336 91,254 17.5% n/a 3,711 22.73% Child Labor
The data is based on number of
04 Riau 86,293 2,254 37,773 20.7% n/a 2,436 23.19% child labor (aged 5-14 years old)
from the 25 million poorest
05 Riau Islands 14,948 206 33,671 17.2% n/a 548 4.35% households in Indonesia.

06 Jambi 49,631 1,885 513 30.3% n/a 1,639 9.77% Neglected Children
The data is based on number of
07 South Sumatra 153,898 6,011 39,296 25.7% n/a 3,449 11.73% neglected children including
street children.
08 Bangka Belitung Islands 14,466 848 2,790 28.1% n/a 416 6.18%
Child Marriage
09 Bengkulu 31,340 1,391 1,620 25.6% n/a 1,189 13.34% The data is based on the
prevalence of women (aged 20-24
179,131 7,263 57,288 18.6% n/a 3,839 14.63% years old) who have married
10 Lampung
before the age of 18 years old.
11 Banten 204,788 1,738 4,545 26.1% n/a 2,343 25.11% Indigenous Children
No data available.
12 DKI Jakarta 54,415 535 9,333 13% n/a 1,548 3.88%
Children with Disabilities
13 West Java 958,599 8,581 195,852 30.5% n/a 14,035 20.38% The data is based on number of
children with disabilities under
14 Central Java 677,642 16,706 165,224 21.1% n/a 19,184 7.26% the age of 15 years old from the
25 million poorest households in
15 DI Yogyakarta 35,217 1,526 26,871 12.2% n/a 1,792 2.7% Indonesia.

16 East Java 609,131 17,435 214,599 27.8% n/a 13,080 14% Unregistered Children
The data is based on percentage
17 Bali 38,846 7,539 25,039 15.6% n/a 1,775 15.34% of children aged 0-17 years old
who have no birth certificate.
Excluded Children Data Based on Province

Out of Child Neglected Child Indigenous Children with Unregistered

No. Province
School Labor Children Marriage Children Disabilities Children

18 West Nusa Tenggara 113,835 7,212 231,549 25.4% n/a 3,092 26.25% Data Sources:
19 East Nusa Tenggara 150,054 47,327 68,495 20.5% n/a 7,363 46.06%
Out of School
TNP2K. 2016. Basis Data Terpadu.
20 West Kalimantan 107,792 6,211 51,378 29.8% n/a 3,255 18.36%
Jakarta: TNP2K.
21 Central Kalimantan 33,772 1,737 1,285 34.9% n/a 1,090 20.29% Child Labor
TNP2K. 2016. Basis Data Terpadu.
22 South Kalimantan 52,612 1,565 12,612 32.7% n/a 1,797 13.51% Jakarta: TNP2K.

23 East Kalimantan 33,125 755 37,265 26.6% n/a 1,163 7.43% Neglected Children
Pusat Data dan Informasi
24 North Kalimantan 9,984 554 37,265 n/a n/a 305 10.32% Kesejahteraan Sosial. 2012.
Rekapitulasi Data Penyandang
25 North Sulawesi 36,459 1,141 3,154 24.7% n/a 1,553 13.58% Masalah Kesejahteraan Sosial
(PMKS) per Provinsi. Jakarta:
26 Central Sulawesi 72,921 5,254 93,715 34.9% n/a 2,034 32.53% Kementerian Sosial.

27 South Sulawesi 185,953 22,181 149,558 30.5% n/a 4,961 14.85% Child Marriage
Badan Pusat Statistik dan Unicef.
2016. Kemajuan yang Tertunda:
28 Southeast Sulawesi 56,726 9,032 6,448 31.8% n/a 1,986 20.58%
Analisis Data Perkawinan Usia
Anak di Indonesia. Jakarta: Badan
29 Gorontalo 32,538 830 22,604 32.2% n/a 924 13.36%
Pusat Statistik.
30 West Sulawesi 38,060 4,310 5,778 37% n/a 1,124 16.76% Indigenous Children
No data available.
31 Maluku 36,741 3,144 30,389 22.2% n/a 1,480 27.13%
Children with Disabilities
32 North Maluku 16,960 1,072 13,287 27.7% n/a 511 26.89% TNP2K. 2016. Basis Data Terpadu.
Jakarta: TNP2K.
33 West Papua 23,607 2,747 859 27.3% n/a 378 29.58%
Unregistered Children
34 Papua 87,581 22,365 340,664 33.6% n/a 459 57.85% Badan Pusat Statistik. 2015.
Statistik Kesejahteraan Rakyat
Total 4,586,332 280,879 2,209,246 25% n/a 115,563 18.05% 2015. Jakarta: Badan Pusat
1. The findings of this research can be a reference in developing an 5. The thirteen provinces identified from this research with
advocacy toolkit for social exclusion mapping as mentioned excluded children should be taken into consideration as the
earlier in this booklet. For this purpose, the involvement of an prioritized locations for the SDGs dissemination and
excluded children representatives is required in the process of socialization on the first run as a commitment to leave no one
developing the toolkit and advocacy materials. behind.

2. The research result can assist national and local policy makers in 6. The research could be used as a push for prioritizing the national
designing policies and programs for excluded children by action plans of SDGs especially goals point 5 and 16.2 (Ending
prioritizing data on exclusion groups of children owned by violence against children and ending child marriage) in Indonesia.
governments and civil society organizations.
7. The data obtained from this research can be used as a reference
3. Investing in education for all children to reach all excluded for civil society organizations to map the other forms of
children. exclusion and its drivers.

4. Counting all children regardless of who they are or where they

are based on age, economic group, gender, race, ethnicity,
geographic, or minority status is significant to pursue.