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AN RANGE EXTENDED ELECTRIC VEHICLE (REEV): A NEED OF SMART CITY

Aditya Mathankar 1

Final year student

Aditya Jaypurkar 2

Final year student

Sachin D. Thakre 3

Lecturer

Diploma in Automobile Engineering 1, 2 Government Polytechnic Nagpur 1, 2, 3

Abstract:

A range extender vehicle is a battery electric vehicle that includes an auxiliary power

unit (APU) known as a 'range extender’. Due to the problems caused by the gasoline engines

on the environment and people, the automotive industry has turned to the electrical powered

vehicle, but range autonomy is one of the main barriers for the commercial success of electrical

vehicle. To overcome this difficulty automotive industry has shift to Extended-range electric

vehicles. This paper describes the range extension of an electric vehicle. In this vehicle, an

Internal Combustion(IC) Engine is coupled to a Permanent Magnet Direct Current (PMDC)

Motor and the generated electricity is used to charge the battery when the charge of the battery

is very less through a charging circuit. It results in improved range, as the overall distance

travelled per charge of the vehicle will increase and thus make ita viable proposition for daily

commuting. Increased energy security, as the vehicle will not run on IC engine directly. This

leads to lower consumption of fuel.

Keywords:

Electric vehicle, Generator, Hybrid vehicle, PMDC motor, range extension.

Introduction:

A smart city, certain parameter such as “Smart Mobility’’ with efficient and world class automotive service and last miles connective are compelling element that will bring it to life. Smart mobility also applies to public transport. Hence, end-to-end integrated mobility solutions across commercial and passenger vehicles are the need of the hour. Connected vehicles will

bring the digital lives of customers into the cars they travel in from predictive services to the

ones personalized

taste.

With regards to sustainability, range extended electric vehicles (REEVs) will be an integral part of Smart City transportation, as well. Automakers can make the most of the impending

especially

to

their

REEV wave, given that goal is planning to achieve 100% e-mobility by 2030. Expertise in REEV manufacturing is an ideal way to make a difference in building Smart Cities across the country.

The range extender drives an electric generator which charges a battery which supplies

the vehicle's electric motor with electricity. This arrangement is known as a series hybrid drive

train. The most commonly used range extenders are internal combustion engines, but fuel-

cells or other engine types can be used. Range-extended electric vehicles (REEV) were

designed to be run mostly by the battery, but have a petrol or diesel generator to recharge the

battery when charge becomes low. However, range extension can be accomplished with either

series or parallel hybrid layouts. In a series-hybrid system, the combustion engine drives an

electric generator instead of directly driving the wheels. The generator provides power for the

driving electric motors by charging batteries. In short, a series-hybrid is a simple vehicle, which

is driven only by electric motor traction with a generator set providing the electric power. The

Extended Range Electric Vehicle(E-REV) is unique vehicle, where battery and propulsion

system are sized such that the engine is never required for operation of the vehicle when energy

is available from the battery. As a full-performance electric vehicle, battery, motor and power

electronics must be sized for the full- capability of the vehicle. An REEV does not need to

Start the engine for speed or power demands and therefore does not need to be on when battery

energy is available. The engine is used only when the battery charge is low and to charge the

battery in such cases. Unlike an internal combustion engine, electric motors are highly efficient

with exceptionally high power-to-weight ratios providing adequate torque when running over

a wide speed range.

Internal combustion engines run most efficiently when turning at a constant speed. An engine

turning a generator can be designed to run at maximum efficiency at constant speed.

Conventional mechanical transmissions add weight, bulk and sap power from the engine with

automatic shifting being complex. Unlike conventional transmission mechanism, electric

motors are matched to the vehicle with a simple constant-ratio gearbox hence multiple-speed

Transmission can be eliminated.

Literature Survey:

A. Energy Consumption per Vehicle:

As per survey it is clear that the electricvehicles use the least amount of energy, while the

hybrids made up the middle range. The diesel engines consumed the most amount of power,

followed by the hybrid vehicles owing to their increased weight, and hence lowering their power to weight ratio.

B. Tank-to-Wheel CO2 Emissions:

As electric vehicles have no emissions at the exhaust, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles emitmerely water vapour, tank to wheel emissions only have to be calculated for all the ICE and hybrid vehicles.It is observed that the CO2 emissions produced by hybrid engine and the diesel engine aredepended on the category, and the model of the vehicle. Also, it is observed

that although the entry regulations specified a maximum of 110g CO2/km for ICE vehiclesas measured by the official European drive cycle, 9 out of 14 ICE entries actually exceeded the threshold despite the fact that the nature of the event encouraged eco-driving.

C. Distance between consecutive charging events v/s Percentage:

It is very important to note that about 32% of Electric vehicles offer a range or distance covered

per charge of about 40-45 km. To cover any distance beyond that the Electric vehicle has to be

charged once again usinga Plug-In source this is the main drawback of the electricvehicle. A range extender in the electric vehicle will ensure an extension in the travelling distance. •35 miles (56 km) of each segment would be driven in EV mode if all charging events end with

a full battery.

•Vehicle’s EV mode range is exactly 35 miles (56 km) •Of course EV mode operation varies based on: Charging duration, power level, battery state of charge at beginning of charge, driving style, conditions, and etc.

D. Components of extended Range Electric Vehicle:

D . Components of extended – Range Electric Vehicle: Fig 1: Components of extended – Range

Fig 1: Components of extended Range Electric Vehicle

There are two operation modes: the pure EV and the range extended EV. For daily short- distance travel, the EV operates in pure battery EV mode without the range extender. The range extender can be assembling on the EV for a long distance travel. A system operating strategy is such that the Range Extender is to be activated during estimated low battery State-of-Charge (SOC) and operates until a desired SOC has been achieved. The generator set is controlled with constant speed and its output is constant voltage and Frequency, such as 220V, 50Hz. The output of the generator set is connected to the interface of the charger. Unlike a conventional generator set, this generator set provides rated output by controlling the output current of the charger. This ensures that the generator set works at the highest efficient point and has a low emission. The battery can also be charged by the charger with a household outlet or fast charged at charging station. There are two electric drive system solutions: four-wheel hub motor drive system and single motor drive system. 1. PMDC Motor:

Permanent Magnet DC Motor These types of motor are essentially simple in construction. As the magnetic field strength of a permanent magnet is fixed it cannot be controlled externally, field control of this type of dc motor cannot be possible. Thus permanent magnet dc motor is used where there is no need of speed control of motor by means of controlling its field.

of speed control of motor by means of controlling its field. Fig 2: Permanent Magnet DC

Fig 2: Permanent Magnet DC Motor with controller

2. Charging Circuit Pulse Width Modulation Charging Circuit (PWM):

When the charge level in the charge indicator shows less, then the Engine is switched on mechanically. The power developed from the engine generates electricity through the PMDC motor and charges the batteries through the Charging Circuit.

3. Types of Batteries:

In terms of battery, there are various batteries to choose from:- 1) Lithium ion phosphate batteries 2) Lithium ion batteries 3) Lead acid batteries 4) Nickel metal hydride batteries

Lithium ion phosphate batteries:- One important advantage over other lithium-ion chemistries is thermal and chemical stability, which improves battery safety. LiFePO is an intrinsically safer cathode material than LiCoO 2 and manganese spinel. The Fe-P-O bond is stronger than the Co-O bond, so that when abused, (short-circuited, overheated, etc.) the oxygen atoms are much harder to remove. This stabilization of the redox energies also helps fast ion migration. A a result, lithium iron phosphate cell are much harder to ignite in the event of mishandling (especially during charge) although any fully charged battery can only dissipate overcharge energy as heat. Therefore, failure of the battery through misuse is still possible. It is commonly accepted that LiFePO4 battery does not decompose at high temperatures. The difference between LFP and the LiPo battery cells commonly used in the aero modeling hobby is particularly notable.

used in the aero modeling hobby is particularly notable. Fig 3: The structure of lithium iron

Fig 3: The structure of lithium iron phosphate battery

Advantages:

1. Savings: These cars can be fuelled for very cheap prices, and many new cars will offers great incentives you to get money back from government for going green .Electric can also be great way to save money in your own life.

2.

Less Emissions:EREV’s are eco-friendly as they run on electrically powered engines .It

does not emit toxic gases or smoke in the environment as it runs on clean energy source .They are even better than hybrid cars as hybrids running on gas produce emissions .You’ll be contributing to a healthy and green climate.

3. Popularity: EREV’s are growing in popularity .With popularity comes all new types of

cars being put on the market that are each unique, providing you with wealth of choices moving

forward.

4. Safe to Drive:EREV’s undergo same fitness and testing procedures test as other fuel

powered cars .In case an accident occurs, one can expect airbags to open up and electricity supply to cut from battery this can prevent you and other passengers in the car from serious

injuries.

5.Cost Effective:The mass production of batteries and available tax incentive have further brought down the cost , thus ,making it much more cost effective.

6. Low Maintenance:EREV’s runs on electrically powered engines and hence there is no

need to lubricate the engines .Other expensive engine work is a thing of past. Therefore, the maintenance cost of these cars has come down.

7. Reduce Noise Pollution: EREV’s put curve on noise pollution as they are much quieter.

Electric motors are capable of providing smooth drive with higher acceleration over longer

distance.

8. Range Extension: Increased energy security meaning, the useof electric scooters to travel

80km in a single chargeusing Range Extender.

Disadvantages:

1. Electricity Isn’t Free: EREV’s can also be a hassle on your energy bill if you’re not

considering the options carefully. If you haven’t done your research into the electric car you want purchased, then you may be making an unwise investment.

2. Battery Replacement: Depending on the type and usage a battery, batteries of almost all EREV’s are required to be changed every 3-10 years.

Conclusions:

As seen in this report, the EREV’s has many advantages and benefits over the internal combustion engine and hybrid vehicle and electrical vehicle. It is cleaner and much more efficient. The future of the EREV’s relies on its battery. If researchers can produce or find the “super battery”. The EREV’s future is promising. As of today, each vehicle has its own characteristic that makes it better than the other. Only time and technological improvements will tell which vehicle will excel in the future. The EREV is the technology to improve the old concepts of the EV is still being worked on to make it more promising for the smart city of today’s fast paced world. References:

1. Er.javec Jack, Automotive technology a systems approach 3 rd edition.

2. Automotive technology, Dr. H.M. Sethi, Head of Automobile engineering, tata McGraw Hill publishing company limited, in 1991.

3. V. Ganesan, Internal combustion engines. 1994, TaTaMc-Graw Hill Publishing company limited.

4. The Automotive Research Association of india. (ARAI, August 2015),

5. Anderman, M 2007 Gap analysis far Li-ion-batteries for Automotive applications advanced Automotive Batteries conference 2007 long Beal California.

7. Yatheesha R. B, Anarghya A, Ranjith B. S, NitishRao, Extended-range electric vehicles, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT) ISSN: 2249 8958, Volume-4 Issue-1, October 2014.