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(An Autonomous Institution, Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai)

Approved by AICTE New Delhi, Accredited by NBA and an ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Institution

QUESTION BANK

Cryptography and Network

PROGRAMME B.E / B.Tech COURSE NAME Security

YEAR / 40 CS 602

III/VI COURSE CODE

SEMESTER

MODULE-1

1. a. Differentiate Diffusion and Confusion. 03 CO1

Comparison Chart

BASIS FOR

CONFUSION DIFFUSION

COMPARISON

texts. texts.

the ciphertext and the value of the between the plaintext and

BASIS FOR

CONFUSION DIFFUSION

COMPARISON

possible. as possible.

b. Apply play fair cipher algorithm, encrypt the word “balloon” using the key "MONARCHY". 05 CO1

c. Describe the Encryption process of AES. 12 CO2

The more popular and widely adopted symmetric encryption algorithm

likely to be encountered nowadays is the Advanced Encryption

Standard (AES). It is found at least six time faster than triple DES.

A replacement for DES was needed as its key size was too small. With

increasing computing power, it was considered vulnerable against

exhaustive key search attack. Triple DES was designed to overcome

this drawback but it was found slow.

The features of AES are as follows −

Stronger and faster than Triple-DES

Provide full specification and design details

Software implementable in C and Java

Operation of AES

AES is an iterative rather than Feistel cipher. It is based on

‘substitution–permutation network’. It comprises of a series of linked

operations, some of which involve replacing inputs by specific outputs

(substitutions) and others involve shuffling bits around

(permutations).

Interestingly, AES performs all its computations on bytes rather than

bits. Hence, AES treats the 128 bits of a plaintext block as 16 bytes.

These 16 bytes are arranged in four columns and four rows for

processing as a matrix −

Unlike DES, the number of rounds in AES is variable and depends on

the length of the key. AES uses 10 rounds for 128-bit keys, 12 rounds

for 192-bit keys and 14 rounds for 256-bit keys. Each of these rounds

uses a different 128-bit round key, which is calculated from the

original AES key.

The schematic of AES structure is given in the following illustration −

Encryption Process

Here, we restrict to description of a typical round of AES encryption.

Each round comprise of four sub-processes. The first round process is

depicted below −

Byte Substitution (SubBytes)

The 16 input bytes are substituted by looking up a fixed table (S-box)

given in design. The result is in a matrix of four rows and four

columns.

Shiftrows

Each of the four rows of the matrix is shifted to the left. Any entries

that ‘fall off’ are re-inserted on the right side of row. Shift is carried

out as follows −

First row is not shifted.

The result is a new matrix consisting of the same 16 bytes but shifted with

respect to each other.

MixColumns

Each column of four bytes is now transformed using a special

mathematical function. This function takes as input the four bytes of

one column and outputs four completely new bytes, which replace the

original column. The result is another new matrix consisting of 16 new

bytes. It should be noted that this step is not performed in the last

round.

Addroundkey

The 16 bytes of the matrix are now considered as 128 bits and are

XORed to the 128 bits of the round key. If this is the last round then

the output is the ciphertext. Otherwise, the resulting 128 bits are

interpreted as 16 bytes and we begin another similar round.

Decryption Process

The process of decryption of an AES ciphertext is similar to the

encryption process in the reverse order. Each round consists of the

four processes conducted in the reverse order −

Mix columns

Shift rows

Byte substitution

Feistel Cipher, the encryption and decryption algorithms needs to be

separately implemented, although they are very closely related.

b. Encrypt and decrypt the message "pay" using the Hill cipher with the key 12 CO1

17 17 5

21 18 21

02 02 19 Show the calculations and the result.

c. Differentiate mono alphabetic and poly alphabetic cipher. 02 CO1

Comparison Between Monoalphabetic and Polyalphabetic Cipher(Tabular

Form)

character of plaintext is mapped onto can be mapped onto “m” alphabetic

a unique alphabetic character of a characters of a ciphertext.

ciphertext.

in the plaintext and the characters in the plaintext and the characters in the

the ciphertext is one-to-one. ciphertext is one-to-many.

cipher if the value of ki does not cipher if the value of id does depend on

depend on the position of the plaintext the position of the plaintext character in

character in the plaintext stream the plaintext stream.

additive, multiplicative, affine and Playfair, Vigenere, Hill, one-time pad,

Monoalphabetic Cipher Polyalphabetic cipher

3. a. Enumerate in detail about Electronic Code Book Mode and Cipher Block Chaining mode. 08 CO2

Computer Network | Block cipher modes of operation

Encryption algorithms are divided into two categories based on input type, as block

cipher and stream cipher. Block cipher is an encryption algorithm which takes fixed size

of input say b bits and produces a ciphertext of b bits again. If input is larger than b bits it

can be divided further. For different applications and uses, there are several modes of

operations for a block cipher.

Electronic Code Book (ECB) –

Electronic code book is the easiest block cipher mode of functioning. It is easier because

of direct encryption of each block of input plaintext and output is in form of blocks of

encrypted ciphertext. Generally, if a message is larger than b bits in size, it can be broken

down into bunch of blocks and the procedure is repeated.

Procedure of ECB is illustrated below:

encryption.

Simple way of block cipher.

Disadvantages of using ECB –

Prone to cryptanalysis since there is a direct relationship between plaintext and

ciphertext.

Cipher Block Chaining –

Cipher block chaining or CBC is an advancement made on ECB since ECB compromises

some security requirements. In CBC, previous cipher block is given as input to next

encryption algorithm after XOR with original plaintext block. In a nutshell here, a cipher

block is produced by encrypting a XOR output of previous cipher block and present

plaintext block.

The process is illustrated here:

Advantages of CBC –

CBC works well for input greater than b bits.

CBC is a good authentication mechanism.

Better resistive nature towards cryptanalsis than ECB.

Disadvantages of CBC –

Parallel encryption is not possible since every encryption requires previous cipher.

Comparison Chart

BASIS FOR

ACTIVE ATTACK PASSIVE ATTACK

COMPARISON

BASIS FOR

ACTIVE ATTACK PASSIVE ATTACK

COMPARISON

information

Harm to the system Always causes damage to the Do not cause any harm.

system.

Attack awareness The entity (victim) gets The entity is unaware of the attack.

Task performed by The transmission is captured Just need to observe the transmission.

portion of a link.

c. List and briefly define types of cryptanalytic attacks based on what is known to the attacker. 05 CO1

4. a. Explain the various types of cryptanalytic attacks. 10 CO1

b. Describe the design principles of Block Cipher. 08 CO2

c. State Avalanche effect. 02 CO1

5. a. Differentiate symmetric and asymmetric key cryptography. 02 CO1

b. 10 CO1

Encrypt and decrypt the message "meet" using the Hill cipher with the key . Show the

c. Explain the key expansion algorithm of AES. 08 CO2

6. a. Define SubBytes , SubWord, ShiftRows and RotWord. 06 CO2

3. Briefly describe Sub Bytes.

Sub byte uses an S-box to perform a byte-by-byte substitution of the block. The left most

4 bits of the byte are used as row value and the rightmost 4 bits are used as a column

value. These row and column values serve as indexes into the S-box to select a unique 8-

bit value.

4. 4. What is the difference between Sub Bytes and Sub Word?

Sub Bytes:

Sub Bytes uses an S-box to perform a byte-by-byte substitution of the block.

Sub Word:

Sub Word performs a byte substitution on each byte of its input word,using the Sbox.

b. Compare Cipher Feedback Mode and Output Feedback Mode. 08 CO2

Cipher Feedback Mode (CFB) –

In this mode the cipher is given as feedback to the next block of encryption with some

new specifications: first an initial vector IV is used for first encryption and output bits are

divided as set of sandb-s bits the left hand side sbits are selected and are applied an

XOR operation with plaintext bits. The result given as input to a shift register and the

process continues. The encryption and decryption process for the same is shown below,

both of them use encryption algorithm.

Advantages of CFB –

Since, there is some data loss due to use of shift register, thus it is difficult for

applying cryptanalysis.

Output Feedback Mode –

The output feedback mode follows nearly same process as the Cipher Feedback mode

except that it sends the encrypted output as feedback instead of the actual cipher which

is XOR output. In this output feedback mode, all bits of the block are send instead of

sending selected s bits. The Output Feedback mode of block cipher holds great

resistance towards bit transmission errors. It also decreases dependency or relationship

of cipher on plaintext.

Counter Mode –

The Counter Mode or CTR is a simple counter based block cipher implementation. Every

time a counter initiated value is encrypted and given as input to XOR with plaintext which

results in ciphertext block. The CTR mode is independent of feedback use and thus can

be implemented in parallel.

Its simple implementation is shown below:

c. Illustrate the structure of Feistel Cipher. 06 CO1

model from which many different block ciphers are derived. DES is

just one example of a Feistel Cipher. A cryptographic system based on

Feistel cipher structure uses the same algorithm for both encryption

and decryption.

Encryption Process

The encryption process uses the Feistel structure consisting multiple

rounds of processing of the plaintext, each round consisting of a

“substitution” step followed by a permutation step.

Feistel Structure is shown in the following illustration −

The input block to each round is divided into two halves that can be denoted as L

and R for the left half and the right half.

In each round, the right half of the block, R, goes through unchanged. But the left

half, L, goes through an operation that depends on R and the encryption key.

First, we apply an encrypting function ‘f’ that takes two input − the key K and R.

The function produces the output f(R,K). Then, we XOR the output of the

mathematical function with L.

In real implementation of the Feistel Cipher, such as DES, instead of using the

whole encryption key during each round, a round-dependent key (a subkey) is

derived from the encryption key. This means that each round uses a different

key, although all these subkeys are related to the original key.

The permutation step at the end of each round swaps the modified L and

unmodified R. Therefore, the L for the next round would be R of the current

round. And R for the next round be the output L of the current round.

Above substitution and permutation steps form a ‘round’. The number of rounds

are specified by the algorithm design.

Once the last round is completed then the two sub blocks, ‘R’ and ‘L’ are

concatenated in this order to form the ciphertext block.

function ‘f’. In order to be unbreakable scheme, this function needs to

have several important properties that are beyond the scope of our

discussion.

Decryption Process

The process of decryption in Feistel cipher is almost similar. Instead of

starting with a block of plaintext, the ciphertext block is fed into the

start of the Feistel structure and then the process thereafter is exactly

the same as described in the given illustration.

The process is said to be almost similar and not exactly same. In the

case of decryption, the only difference is that the subkeys used in

encryption are used in the reverse order.

The final swapping of ‘L’ and ‘R’ in last step of the Feistel Cipher is

essential. If these are not swapped then the resulting ciphertext could

not be decrypted using the same algorithm.

7. a. Convert the plaintext message “meet me after the toga party” into ciphertext using Caesar cipher. 02 CO1

b. Explain the Key Generation, Encryption and Decryption of DES algorithm in detail. 12 CO1

The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a symmetric-key block cipher

published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology

(NIST).

DES is an implementation of a Feistel Cipher. It uses 16 round Feistel

structure. The block size is 64-bit. Though, key length is 64-bit, DES

has an effective key length of 56 bits, since 8 of the 64 bits of the key

are not used by the encryption algorithm (function as check bits only).

General Structure of DES is depicted in the following illustration −

Since DES is based on the Feistel Cipher, all that is required to specify

DES is −

Round function

Key schedule

Any additional processing − Initial and final permutation

The initial and final permutations are straight Permutation boxes (P-

boxes) that are inverses of each other. They have no cryptography

significance in DES. The initial and final permutations are shown as

follows −

Round Function

The heart of this cipher is the DES function, f. The DES function

applies a 48-bit key to the rightmost 32 bits to produce a 32-bit

output.

Expansion Permutation Box − Since right input is 32-bit and round key is a 48-

bit, we first need to expand right input to 48 bits. Permutation logic is graphically

depicted in the following illustration −

specification illustrated as shown −

XOR (Whitener). − After the expansion permutation, DES does XOR operation

on the expanded right section and the round key. The round key is used only in

this operation.

Substitution Boxes. − The S-boxes carry out the real mixing (confusion). DES

uses 8 S-boxes, each with a 6-bit input and a 4-bit output. Refer the following

illustration −

There are a total of eight S-box tables. The output of all eight s-boxes is then

combined in to 32 bit section.

straight permutation with rule shown in the following illustration:

Key Generation

The round-key generator creates sixteen 48-bit keys out of a 56-bit

cipher key. The process of key generation is depicted in the following

illustration −

The logic for Parity drop, shifting, and Compression P-box is given in

the DES description.

DES Analysis

The DES satisfies both the desired properties of block cipher. These

two properties make cipher very strong.

Avalanche effect − A small change in plaintext results in the very great change

in the ciphertext.

It can be considered as a counter-based version of CFB mode without

the feedback. In this mode, both the sender and receiver need to

access to a reliable counter, which computes a new shared value each

time a ciphertext block is exchanged. This shared counter is not

necessarily a secret value, but challenge is that both sides must keep

the counter synchronized.

Operation

Both encryption and decryption in CTR mode are depicted in the

following illustration. Steps in operation are −

Load the initial counter value in the top register is the same for both the sender

and the receiver. It plays the same role as the IV in CFB (and CBC) mode.

Encrypt the contents of the counter with the key and place the result in the

bottom register.

Take the first plaintext block P1 and XOR this to the contents of the bottom

register. The result of this is C1. Send C1 to the receiver and update the counter.

The counter update replaces the ciphertext feedback in CFB mode.

Continue in this manner until the last plaintext block has been encrypted.

The decryption is the reverse process. The ciphertext block is XORed with the

output of encrypted contents of counter value. After decryption of each ciphertext

block counter is updated as in case of encryption.

It does not have message dependency and hence a ciphertext block

does not depend on the previous plaintext blocks.

Like CFB mode, CTR mode does not involve the decryption process of

the block cipher. This is because the CTR mode is really using the

block cipher to generate a key-stream, which is encrypted using the

XOR function. In other words, CTR mode also converts a block cipher

to a stream cipher.

The serious disadvantage of CTR mode is that it requires a

synchronous counter at sender and receiver. Loss of synchronization

leads to incorrect recovery of plaintext.

8. a. Compare the relationships between Security services and Security mechanisms. 05 CO1

b. Explain in detail about evaluation criteria of AES. 07 CO2

c. Compare and contrast Double DES with Triple DES. 08 CO2

MODULE-2

1. a. Apply Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange algorithm to find the secret key for the public keys 08 CO 3

XA=97,XB=233,where q=353.

b. Using RSA algorithm, perform encryption and decryption, where ,p=11,q=3,e=3 and M=13 08 CO 3

c. Describe the counter measures for timing attack in RSA. 04 CO 4

2. a. Enumerate the algorithm of RSA and explain with an example. 12 CO 4

b. List the applications of public key cryptosystems 02 CO 4

c. Describe in detail about Traffic Confidentiality. 06 CO 3

3. a. Apply RSA algorithm to perform encryption and decryption, where p=3,q=11,e=7 and M=5. 06 CO 4

b. Illustrate the various ways for distributing public keys. 08 CO 3

c. Describe the encryption and decryption process of Elliptic Curve Cryptography. 06 CO 3

4. a. Enumerate how the “Man in Middle Attack” performed on Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange 08 CO 3

algorithm.

b. Apply Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange algorithm to exchange the Secret key between users A and 08 CO 3

B with following elements.

User A’s private key XA=97

User B’s private key XB=233

Global public elements q=353 & Primitive root 3.

c. Illustrate the confidentiality and authentication of public key cryptosystem. 04 CO 4

5. a. Explain Diffie – Hellman Key exchange algorithm. 08 CO 3

b.1. Describe the encryption and decryption process of RSA ,where p=17,q=11 and plaintext as 88. 08 CO 4

c. Describe the properties of Abelian group. 04 CO 3

6. a. Consider a Diffie-Hellman scheme with a common prime q = 11 and a primitive root a= 2. 08 CO 3

i. Show that 2 is a primitive root of 11.

ii. If user A has public key YA = 9, what is A's private key XA?

iii. If user B has public key YB = 3, what is the shared secret key K, shared with A?

b. Explain key exchange in Elliptic Curve Cryptography. 06 CO 3

c. Describe the four possible approaches to attack the RSA algorithm 06 CO 4

7. a. List any two methods to check the given number is prime or not. 02 CO 3

b. Using RSA algorithm, perform encryption and decryption, where 12 CO 4

i. p=5,q=11,e=3 and M=9

ii. p=7,q=11,e=17 and M=8

c. Differentiate conventional and public key cryptosystems. 06 CO 4

8. a. Users A and B use the Diffie-Hellman key exchange technique with a common prime q= 71 and 08 CO 3

a primitive root a = 7.

i. If user A has private key XA = 5, what is A's public key YA?

ii. If user B has private key XB = 12, what is B's public key YB?

iii. What is the shared secret key?

b. Describe the Decentralized Key Control in detail. 06 CO 3

c. In a public-key system using RSA, the ciphertext C = 10 sent to a user whose public key is 06 CO 4

e = 5, n = 35. What is the plaintext M?

MODULE-3

1. a. State message authentication and its purposes. 04 CO5

b. Identify and review the requirements of message authentication. 10 CO5

c. Compute the padding bits in SHA 512 for the following message 06 CO6

a.1919 bits

b.2590 bits

c.4022 bits

2. a. Write the equation for the values of W16, W19 in SHA512. 04 CO6

b. Mention the requirements of Digital Signature. 06 CO6

c. Enumerate message authentication codes and its usages in different situations. 10 CO5

3. a. List the three classes of message authentication functions. 02 CO5

b. Describe variety of ways the hash code used in message authentication. 08 CO6

c. Enumerate security requirements for cryptographic hash functions. 10 CO6

4. a. Mention the two groups of attacks on message authentication codes. 03 CO5

b. Compare Message encryption and Message authentication with an example. 07 CO5

c. Illustrate the steps to generate the MAC value by using HMAC algorithm. 10 CO6

5. a. Compare second preimage resistant and collision resistant in hash function. 04 CO5

b. Justify: Message encryption itself can act as a Message authentication. 10 CO5

c. Discuss various attacks and forgeries on Digital signature. 06 CO6

6. a. Annotate the steps used in Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) for the generation of hash 10 CO6

value.

b. Describe Birthday paradox attack. 06 CO6

c. Compare message authentication and authentication with confidentiality. 04 CO5

7. a. Compare Message Authentication Code and Hash function. 04 CO5

b. Illustrate the round function of SHA in detail. 08 CO6

c. Specify the purpose of HMAC and its design objectives. 08 CO6

8. a. List the two disputes arise in the context of message authentication. 04 CO6

b. Illustrate Digital signature standard in detail. 10 CO6

c. Discuss the attacks that need the message authentication codes as a solution. 06 CO5

Module 4

1. a. Enumerate the overview of Kerberos and explain the Kerberos version 4 a simple (10) CO7

Authentication Dialogue and More Secure Authentication Dialogue.

b. Draw the frame format of IPSec authentication header and explain. (6) CO8

c. List the services provided for authentication application. (4) CO7

2. a. Analyze the components of Secure Electronic Transactions (SET) and illustrate (10) CO8

how SET is carried out.

b. Elucidate the key rings and significance in PGP in detail. (6) CO7

c. Compare Transport mode and Tunnel mode in IPsec. (4) CO8

3. a. Analyze the three different Authentication Procedures in X.509 Certificate. (8) CO7

b. Enumerate Encapsulating Security Payload with neat diagram. (8) CO8

c. Describe Kerberos Realm. (4) CO7

4. a. Enumerate the concept of Web security consideration in detail. (10) CO8

b. Summarize the S/MIME capabilities. (6) CO7

c. Mention the protocols used by IPSec to provide security. (4) CO8

5. a. Illustrate the operational description of PGP. (10) CO7

b. Illustrate the SSL Specific protocol – Handshake action in detail. (6) CO8

c. Give the general format of X.509 certificate. (4) CO7

6. a. Illustrate how Secure Electronic Transaction is used for E- Banking with suitable (8) CO8

block diagrams in terms of card holders purchase request and verification by the

merchants.

b. Enumerate the PGP services and it security options. (8) CO7

c. List out the services provided by IP sec. (4) CO8

7. a. Enumerate the functions of S/MIME. (8) CO7

b. Illustrate the operation of Secure Socket Layer with neat diagram. (8) CO8

c. State the requirements of Kerberos. (4) CO7

8. a. Illustrate the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) architecture and SSL record protocol. (10) CO8

b. Elucidate how the messages are generated and received by PGP. (6) CO7

c. Specify the parameters that identify the Security Association. (4) CO8

Module 5

1. a. Illustrate how intrusion prevention is achieved through password management. (8) CO9

b. Annotate the term viruses, Enumerate the virus related threats with example. (8) CO10

c. List files access activities used for intrusion detection. (4) CO9

2. a. Illustrate different types of firewalls with neat diagram. (8) CO10

b. Describe how hackers exploit vulnerabilities in the network-based computing (8) CO9

systems.

c. List four techniques used by firewalls to control access and enforce a security (4) CO10

policy.

3. a. Discriminate three benefits that can be provided by an intrusion detection system. (10) CO9

b. Enumerate counter measure for viruses and worms. (5) CO10

c. Differentiate statistical anomaly detection and rule–based intrusion detection. (5) CO9

4. a. Illustrate the types of Intrusion detection system in detail. (10) CO10

b. Examine how biometrics used instead of password for authentication. (6) CO9

c. List out design goals for a firewall. (4) CO10

5. a. Demonstrate techniques used to avoid guessable password. (7) CO9

b. Illustrate the different types of Viruses and its counter measures. (10) CO10

c. Predict the term Rule based penetration identification. (3) CO9

6. a. Illustrate the firewall design principles and also explain techniques in detail. (8) CO10

b. Enumerate the dual signature. State it is purpose. (6) CO9

c. List password selection strategies. (4) CO10

7. a. Enumerate the concept of Password management in system level security. (10) CO9

b. Illustrate the approaches used to proactive password checking. (7) CO10

c. State the three classes of intruders. (3) CO9

8. a. Illustrate the denial of service attack in detail. (10) CO10

b. Summarize the concept of Trusted system. (4) CO9

c. The question arises as to whether it is possible to develop a program that can (6) CO10

analyze a piece of software to determine if it is a virus.

Program CV :=

{ ……

main-program :=

{

if D(CV) then goto next: Else infect-executable;

}

next:

}

In the proceeding program, infect-executable is a module that scans memory for

executable programs and replicates itself in those programs. Determine if D can

correctly decide whether CV is a virus?

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