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ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING HVAC SYSTEM AND

INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN KTH PESHAWAR

SUBMITTED BY

TARIQ AZZIZ

SAUD ZAMAN

RIAZ UL ISLAM

AZEEM WAQAR

SYED MEHRAN ALI

Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for B.Sc.

Mechanical Engineering

Supervised by

Dr. Khurshid Ahmad

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

University of Engineering and Technology

Peshawar

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TITLE PAGE

ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING HVAC SYSTEM AND


INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN KTH PESHAWAR

Group Members:
Saud Zaman (13pwmec3648)

Tariq Aziz (13pwmec3617)

Azeem Waqar (13pwmec3610)

Riaz Ul Islam (13pwmec3636)

Syed Mehran Ali (13pwmec3615)

Supervisor:

Dr. Khurshid Ahmad

UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY PESHAWAR

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Date

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We hereby recommend that the thesis prepared under our supervision by Saud Zaman,Tariq
Aziz, Azeem Waqar, Riaz ul islam, Syed Mehran Ali.

Entitled

Be accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Bachlor of Science InMechanicalEngineering

Dr.Khurshid

Prof.Dr.Muhammad Naeem Khan

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DEDICATIONS
THIS EFFORT IS DEDICATED TO OUR LOVING PARENTS, OUR INSPIRING AND
SUPPORTIVE TEACHERS AND OUR PRISTEGIOUS INSTITUTION.

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ABSTRACT
Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems play an important role in assuring
occupant comfort and among the largest energy consumers in buildings. In hospitals we need
better quality of indoor air and also better indoor temperature both in summers and winter
because it directly effects patient health and specially in ICUs and for infants in labor rooms. The
concept of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is especially important with regard to the environments
within hospitals and other health care facilities. The patients within the facility and the staff
caring for those patients are all directly impacted by the quality of air in the building.

In this project we evaluated the existing HVAC system installed at Gyne Ward of Khyber
Teaching hospital. The ventilation and IAQ was assessed. The annual energy consumption was
estimated. It was found that the existing IAQ is not appropriate and remedial measures are
needed. The study showed the traces of carbon, silicon, aluminum, sulfur, sodium, potassium,
calcium, iron and chlorine. The percentage of carbon was very high as compared to other
contents. The presence of particles necessitates pre-filtration of air before it enter the building.
Moreover, the required rate of ventilation was estimated based on the existing occupancy of the
ward. The study also showed that required ventilation rate increases the space cooling load
significantly. In order to make the system energy efficient the use of energy recovery ventilation
(ERV) could be helpful. The energy saving analysis by using the ERV showed that considerable
energy could be saved.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all we thank to Allah the Almighty for giving us the strength and knowledge to reach in
this respected institute and achieving our goals.

It seemed impossible to complete our project without the guidance of Dr. Khurshid Ahmad. With
his keen interest in the project we are able to come up with different challenging goals. We are
also very thank full to the chairman of Mechanical Department Dr. Naeem khattak for allowing
us to perform this project.

We also thank Minister of Health Department KPK Mr. Shahraam Khan Tarakai and
Engineering section of KTH Hospital,Engineering section of HMC hospital and Our friends
whose constructive criticism on our project led us to work even harder to come up with positive
results.

Finally we are extremely thankful to our parents, who cared us and provided us with
motivational and financial support.

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11

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION TO HVAC AND IAQ ......................................................................9

1.1 HISTORY ...................................................................................................................9

1.2 HEATING......................................................................................................................10

1.2.1GENERATION ...........................................................................................................10

1.2.2 DISTRIBUTION ........................................................................................................10

1.3 VENTILATION ............................................................................................................11

1.3.1 MECHANICAL AND FORCED VENTILATION ....................................................11

1.3.2 NATURAL VENTILATION .....................................................................................12

1.3.3 AIR BORNE DISEASES ....................................... ……………………………….12

1.4AIR CONDIONING ......................................................................................................12

1.4.1AIR CONDIONING CYCLE .....................................................................................12

1.5 HVAC IN HOSPITAL ................................................................................................13

1.5.1 Hospital Air Conditioning and Hospital Ventilation...................................................13

1.5.2 Emergencies Management.......................... ……………………………… ..............13

1.5.3 Control of Infection ....................................…………………………………………13

1.5.4 Control of Hazards.......................................................................................................13

2 INTRODUCTIONS TO INDOOR AIR QUALITY .....................................................15

2.1 introductions ...................................................................................................................15

2.2 Dangers of bad air quality................................................................................................16

2.3 Regulatory actions............................................................................................................17

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2.4. EDX tests performed at KTH Hospital............................................................................18

3 LOAD CALCULATION OF GUYNE WARD AT KHYBER TEACHING


HOSPITAL…………………………………..……………………………………………19

3.1 introductions ...........................................................................................................20

4 LOAD CALCULATION OF GYNE WARD AT KHYBER TEACHING HOSPITAL


USING SOFTWARE...........................................................................................................27

4.1 Introduction.......................................………………………………………………….27

CHAPTER 5 ENERGY SIMULATION OF WARD A AND B USING


EQUEST..............................................................................................................................33

5.1 INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................33

CHAPTER 6 EFFECT OF ENERGY RECOVERY VENTILLATION ON ENERGY


SAVING IN GYNE WARD AT KHYBER TEACHING HOSPITAL……………….38

6.1 Introduction...........................................…..……………………………………….......38

6.2 Importance......................................................…………………………………………38

6.3 Ventilation Rate Procedure............................................................................................40

6.3.1 The Role of Energy Recovery.....................…………………………………………41

6.4 Types of energy recovery devices...................................................................................42

6.4.1 Rotary air-to-air enthalpy wheel...................................................................................42

6.4.2 Plate heat exchanger .....................................................................................................42

6.5 ENERGY RECOVERY VENTILATORS IN KTH PESHAWAR...................................43

Chapter 7 Summary and Future Work………………………………………………… 46

7.1 Observation ……………………………………………………………………………46

7.2 Permission ……………………………………………………………………………..46

7.3 Weather Data …………………………….…………………………………………….47

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7.4 Occupancy Details ……………………………………………………………………….47

7.5 Appliance Details ……………………………………………………………….………..47

7.6 Maps ……………………………..……………………………………………………….47

7.7 Construction Details …………………………………………………………………...…47

7.8 Ventilation Rate…………………………………………………………………………..48

7.9 Load Calculation……………………………………………………………………….. 48

7.10 Energy Simulation of Building ……………………………………………………..…..48

7.11 Testing Indoor Air Quality ……………………………………………………………..48

7.12 Installing ERV…………………………………………………………………………...49

7.13 Future Work………………………………………………………………………..……..49

References.....................................................................................................................................51

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Chapter 1

INTRODUCION TO HVAC AND IAQ


Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is the technology of indoor and
environmental comfort. It provides thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality. HVAC
system design is a sub discipline of mechanical engineering, based on the principles
of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer. HVAC is an important part of single
family homes, apartment buildings, hotels and senior living facilities, medium to large
industrial and office buildings and hospital and in marine environments, where safe and
healthy building conditions are regulated with respect to temperature and humidity, using
fresh air from outdoors.

The three central functions of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning are interrelated.
HVAC systems are used in both domestic and commercial environments. HVAC systems
provide ventilation, reduce air infiltration. The means of air delivery and removal from
spaces is known as room air distribution.

1.1 History

According to Swenson S. Don HVAC is based on inventions and discoveries made by


Nikolay Lvov, Michael Faraday, Willis Carrier, Edwin Ruud, Reuben Trane, James Joule,
William Rankine, Sadi Carnot, and many others.Multiple inventions within this time frame
preceded the beginnings of first comfort air conditioning system, which was designed in
1902 by Alfred Wolff for the New York Stock Exchange, while Willis Carrier equipped the
Sacketts-Wilhems Printing Company with the process AC unit the same year.

The invention of the components of HVAC systems went hand-in-hand with the industrial
revolution, and new methods of modernization were brought, higher efficiency, and system
control are constantly being introduced by companies and inventors worldwide.

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1.2 Heating

Heaters are appliances which generate heat for the buildings. This can be done via central
heating systems which contain a boiler, furnace, or heat pump to heat the water, steam, or air
in furnace room in a home, or a mechanical room in a large building. The heat can be
transferred by convection, conduction, or radiation.

1.2.1 Generation

Heaters exist for various types of fuel, including solid fuels, liquids, and gases. Another type
of heat source is electricity; Electrical heaters are often used as backup or supplemental heat
for heat pump systems.

1.2.2 Distribution.

Once air is warmed or cooled at the heat/cold source, it must be distributed to the various
rooms of your home. This can be accomplished with the forced-air, gravity, or radiant
systems explained below.

 Water / steam.

In the case of heated water or steam, piping is used to transport the heat to the rooms. Most
modern hot water boiler heating systems have a pump, to move hot water through the
distribution system. The heat can be transferred to the surrounding air using radiators, hot
water coils, or other heat exchangers. The radiators may be mounted on walls or installed
within the floor to produce floor heat.The use of water as the heat transfer medium is known
as hydronics. The heated water can also supply hot water for bathing and washing.

 Air

Warm air systems distribute heated air through duct work systems of supply and return air
through metal or fiberglass ducts. Many systems use the same ducts to distribute cooled air
by an evaporator coil for air conditioning. The air supply is filtered through air cleaners.

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 Dangers.

The use of furnaces, space heaters, and boilers as a method of indoor heating could result in
incomplete combustion and the emission of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde,
volatile organic compounds, and other combustion byproducts. Incomplete combustion occurs
when there is insufficient oxygen; the inputs are fuels containing various contaminants and the
outputs are harmful byproducts, most dangerously carbon monoxide, which is a tasteless and
odorless gas with serious adverse health effects.

Carbon monoxide can be lethal without proper ventilation at concentrations of 1000 ppm (0.1%).
However, at several hundred ppms, carbon monoxide exposure induces headaches, fatigue,
nausea, and vomiting. Carbon monoxide binds with hemoglobin in the blood, forming
carboxyhemoglobin, reducing the blood's ability to transport oxygen. The primary health
concerns associated with carbon monoxide exposure are its cardiovascular and neurobehavioral
effects. Carbon monoxide can cause atherosclerosis (the hardening of arteries) and can also
trigger heart attacks. Neurologically, carbon monoxide exposure reduces hand to eye
coordination, vigilance, and continuous performance. It can also affect time discrimination.

1.3 Ventilation

Ventilation is the process of replacing air in a space to provide indoor air quality which involves
temperature control, oxygen replacement and removal of smoke, heat, dust, airborne bacteria,
carbon dioxide, and other gases. Ventilation removes unpleasant smells and excessive moisture;
it introduces outside air and keeps interior building air circulating. Methods for ventilating a
building may be divided into mechanical/forced and natural types.

1.3.1 Mechanical or forced ventilation.

Mechanical, or forced, ventilation is provided by an air handler unit (AHU) and used to control
indoor air quality. Excess humidity, odors, and contaminants can often be controlled by
replacement with outside air. However, in humid climates more energy is required to remove
excess moisture from ventilation air.

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Kitchens and bathrooms typically have mechanical exhausts to control odors and sometimes
humidity. Factors in the design of such systems include the flow rate (which is a function of the
fan speed and exhaust vent size) and noise level.

1.3.2 Natural ventilation.

Natural ventilation is the ventilation of a building with outside air without using fans or other
mechanical systems. It can be via windows, louvers, or trickle vents when spaces are small and
the architecture permits. In more complex schemes, warm air is allowed to rise and flow out high
building openings to the outside (stack effect), causing cool outside air to be drawn into low
building openings. Natural ventilation schemes can use very little energy, but care must be taken
to ensure comfort. In warm or humid climates maintaining thermal comfort via natural Air
conditioning systems are used, either as backups or supplements. Hospital design standards use 6
to 12 air changes per hour. Using fans, ducts, dampers, and control systems to introduce and
distribute cool outdoor air when appropriate.

1.3.3 Airborne diseases.

Natural ventilation is a key factor in reducing the spread of airborne illnesses such as
tuberculosis, the common cold, influenza and meningitis. Opening doors, windows, and using
ceiling fans are all ways to maximize natural ventilation and reduce the risk of airborne
contagion. Natural ventilation requires little maintenance and is inexpensive

1.4 Air conditioning

Air conditioning and refrigeration are provided through the removal of heat. Heat can be
removed through radiation, convection, or conduction. Refrigeration conduction media such as
water, air, ice, and chemicals are referred to as refrigerants. A refrigerant is employed either in a
heat pump system in which a compressor is used to drive thermodynamic refrigeration cycle.

1.4.1 Refrigeration cycle

A simple stylized diagram of the refrigeration cycle:

1) Condensing coil, 2) expansion valve, 3) evaporator coil, 4)


compressor

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The refrigeration cycle uses four essential elements to cool.

The system refrigerant starts its cycle in a gaseous state. The compressor pumps the refrigerant
gas up to a high pressure and temperature.

From there it enters a heat exchanger (sometimes called a condensing coil or condenser) where it
loses energy (heat) to the outside, cools, and condenses into its liquid phase.

An expansion valve (also called metering device) regulates the refrigerant liquid to flow at the
proper rate.

The liquid refrigerant is returned to another heat exchanger where it is allowed to evaporate;
hence the heat exchanger is often called an evaporating coil or evaporator. As the liquid
refrigerant evaporates it absorbs energy (heat) from the inside air, returns to the compressor, and
repeats the cycle. In the process, heat is absorbed from indoors and transferred outdoors,
resulting in cooling of the building.

In variable climates, the system may include a reversing valve that switches from heating in
winter to cooling in summer. By reversing the flow of refrigerant, the heat pump refrigeration
cycle is changed from cooling to heating or vice versa. This allows a facility to be heated and
cooled by a single piece of equipment by the same means, and with the same hardware.

1.5 HVAC in Hospital

Hospital air conditioning and hospital ventilation systems are required to meet higher standards
of performance and serve a greater function than those in standard buildings. A hospital HVAC
system is probably the most important application of HVAC technology in terms of human
health, comfort and safety. Hospital HVAC system design presents unique challenges due to the
level of demands, the heating and cooling loads and hygiene.

1.5.1 Hospital Air Conditioning and Hospital Ventilation

In any building, part of the function of the HVAC system is to create a comfortable environment
for occupants. There's no place where occupants can benefit more from comfort than a hospital.
Like in other buildings, hospital air conditioning and hospital ventilation systems are tasked with
controlling air temperature, air flow, air quality and humidity. Hospital design standards use 6 to

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12 air changes per hour. It's essential to the healing and recovery process. Hospital HVAC
systems also work with in close coordination with specific medical practices. For example
operating rooms have specific requirements that include pressurization and higher levels of air
filtration in addition to temperature and humidity control. Other functions specific to hospital
HVAC systems include the following.

1.5.2 Emergencies Management

Hospital HVAC systems help to detect fires and eliminate smoke from exits and enclosures.
Complex engineered smoke control systems may be needed to aid in pressurization control.

1.5.3 Control of Infection

Hospital ventilations systems are used to control the spread of disease within a hospital.
Because hospitals have elevated levels of pathogens, stringent controls are necessary for the
safety of both patients and hospital staff.

1.5.4 Control of Hazards

Medical facilities routinely produce fumes and chemicals that are hazardous to patients and staff.
Hospital ventilations systems are part of a filtration system that helps to control the concentration
of contaminants to keep them at safe levels.

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CHAPTER 2

INDOOR AIR QUALITY GYNE WARD AT KHYBER


TEACHING HOSPITAL

2.1 Introduction

Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures,
especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants. Understanding and
controlling common pollutants indoors can help reduce your risk of indoor health concerns.
Health effects from indoor air pollutants may be experienced soon after exposure or, possibly,
years later. Poor indoor air quality is widely regarded as a significant health, environment and
economic problem. There is no authoritative definition of indoor air quality internationally .The
definition by Wesolowski (1987) which is ‗the totality of attributes of indoor air that affect a
person‘s health and well-being‘. Indoor air quality indicators must thereby determine how well
indoor air (a) satisfies thermal and respiratory requirements, (b) prevents unhealthy accumulation
of pollutants, and (c) allows for a sense of well-being.

2.2 Dangers of bad air quality

Overseas studies have established the occurrence of a range of building-related illnesses, many
with identifiable and diverse causes. A subset of these illnesses—termed the ‗sick building
syndrome‘ (SBS) includes mainly subjective symptoms (mild irritation of eyes, nose and throat,
headaches, lethargy). In KTH Peshawar the main problem arise due to improper maintenance
due to that reason there is problem in healthy ventilation, the leakage in inlet and outlets ducts
and a hindrance to natural ventilation causes the air to be poor and bad quality. Infants and
children are more vulnerable to respiratory illnesses associated with environmental smoke, house
dusts and natural gas combustion products such as nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide and
carbon monooxide.

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2.3 Regulatory actions.

Guidance has been provided by authorities such as the National Health and Medical Research
Council (NHMRC) and the National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC).
Development of improved ventilation codes and improved public education should be used to

improve indoor air quality. Indoor air quality indicators should reflect comfort and ventilation of
the hospital building air. Hospital Building investigation should use the following structured
step-wise strategy in Figure 1.

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2.4 EDX Tests performed at KTH Hospital

Tests are being performed by collecting dust samples of the Guyne A and B wards from the
ducts and diffusers. Tests were performed at CRL Peshawar. The results of the test showed that
we the traces of carbon, silicon, aluminum, sulfur, sodium, potassium, calcium, iron and
chlorine. It is quite visible from the results that large amount of carbon is also present.

The results in graph are the following

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Results can be summarized in the table as the following

Element Weight %
C 21.76
O 46.31
Na 0.70
Mg 1.55
Al 3.34
Si 10.28
S 0.83
Cl 0.86
K 1.50
Ca 10.02
Ti 0.29
Fe 2.55

Total 100.00

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CHAPTER 3
LOAD CALCULATION OF GUYNE WARD AT
KHYBER TEACHING HOSPITAL
3.1 Introduction
Load consists of both external load and internal load.
External are those in which heat transfer occur from surroundings
Internal is due to all internal heat gains.
Both load consist of sensible and latent load.
We calculate the load both manually and also with the help of software.
Manually Load Calculation
We calculate cooling load manually using CLTD method.
CLTD
CLTD stands for Cooling load temperature differential Method.
CLTD are widely used as they are simple, less time consuming and
Accurate method.
In this method the load is calculated while first finding the temperature
Differential. The formula for finding the temperature differential is
∆tE= (tem – ti)+λ(teτ-ϕ-tem)
Where the symbols represents
λ Decrement factor
ϕ Time lag factor
teτ-ϕSol=air temperature
tiInternal Temperature
After finding temperature differential we will put that temperature in the main
Formula to get the total load the main formula is
Q = UA∆tE
For finding the load we manually we also take proper care of air spaces,
Floors, Ceilings and Glasses both shaded and unshaded.

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 Load Calculation for Glasses

Considerable amount of heat comes from the glasses which increases a lot of cooling
load. So it have to be taken a lot of care like proper dimensions should be measured of
the glasses and also Shaded and unshaded area of the glass should be measured for this
purpose the formula which we use for finding cooling load through the glasses are given
below

Q = AunshadedSHGFmax.SC.CLF
SHGF stands for solar heat gain factor
SC stands for shading coefficient
CLF stands for cooling load factor

 Construction details

Construction details were also taken consider like wall thickness, materials, plaster
thickness, floor details, ceiling details, orientation of the building, door details and all other
affecting things like cracks etc.

 Occupancy

Occupancy details of the building are taken considered.

 Appliances Load

Appliances power are noted both sensible and latent.

 Construction Details of Our Ward Gymea A room

Date = 21 June
Design Temp = 25 C°
RHdesign= 50%
Air Speed = 5.56 m/s
RH= 43 %
WBT = 24.5 C°
Outdoor Temp Peak = 37.1 C°
Outdoor Temp Low = 26 C°

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Total height = 11.7 feet
Height up to Ceiling = 9.6 feet
Total width = 21.4 feet
Total length = 24.5 feet
Number of People = 22 persons
Wall thickness (bricks) = 7 inches
Plaster Thickness = .5 inches
Glass thickness = 5 mm
Door = Double doors
Door Glass area = 8.75 feet2
Door Wood Area = 4.88 feet2
Door thickness = 2 inch
Room orientation = West face
Rate Of ventilation = For hospital
Using table
𝑄°
= 0.84
𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑜𝑛𝑠
Q°= 0.84 * 22
=18.48 cfm
No of air changes
𝑁 = 𝑄° ∗ 60/𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒
N= 18.48 * 60 / 142.53 m3
=7.7 or ≈ 8
Calculating Overall heat coefficient U
We know that
1 1 𝑇ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 1
= + +
𝑈 𝑓𝑖 𝐾 𝑓
where f = film coefficient which depends on air velocity
For South , North and West Wall
Kplaster = 8.65 W m-1 K-1
Kblock = 1.28 W m-1 K-1
Fi= 7 W m-2 K-1( still air)
F = Fi

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So
U= 2.34 W m-2 K-1

For

Roof with Ceilling


U= 2.03 W m-1 K-1

For Floor
U= 3.16 W m-1 K-1
For Glass
U= 5.16 W m-1 K-1
Daily Range
Range = (37.1 – 26) = 11.1 C°

Temperature correctness for


Daily Range = (11.1 − 11.1)/2 = 0 C°

For design temperature 37.1 – 25 = 12.1 C°


= 12.1 − 8.3 = 3.9 C°

Total Temperature Correctness = 3.9 C°


Now we Find ∆tE from the tables for 33° North

For West North and south Wall we don‘t need it because it opens in conditioned space.
Also we don‘t need it for the floor because it below it is conditioned space.
For roof which is exposed to sun the
∆tE = 19.4 + 3.8 = 23.2 C°(5 pm)
∆tE = 6.1 + 3.8 = 9.9 C°(8 am)
For Glass Heat Gain we know that
Q = AunshadedSHGFmax.SC.CLF
A = .2

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From tables for 33° North and East faced Glass
SHGF = 675 Wm-2
SC for Single glass 5 mm thickness
SC = 0.95
CLF = 0.8 (8 am)
CLF = .16 (5 pm)
The Sensible Cooling load due to the cracks are find with the help of formula
Q = Voρ Cpm(to-ti)
Vo = (No of Air changes * Volume) / 3600
We combine All the answer in the form of Table which is given at the next page

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Overall heat Sensible Heat (W)
Walls coefficient U 8Am Sensible Heat (W) 5Pm
East 2.34 0 0
West 2.28 0 0
South 2.34 0 0
North 2.34 0 0
East Glass 5.28 2132.6 W 1138 W
West Glass 0 0
North Glass 0 0
South Glass 0 0
Floor 3.16
Roof 2.03 1545 W 3330.35 W
Humans 1650 W 1650 W
Appliances 345 w 345 W
Infiltration 15 W 15 W
Safety 20% 20%
Total 6825.12 W 7774.02 W
Latent Heat (W)
Humans 1210 W 1210
Appliances
Safety 15% 15%
Total 1391 W 1391 W
Total Cooling Load
8216 W 9165.02 W
Ventilation rate 2.34 Ton 2.6 Ton
For 22 Persons 18.48 cmm
No of Air Changes
For 142.52 m2 8

Table 1: load calculation

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In the gynaeA ward their 4 symmetrical rooms like we calculate for the above one.
And one is complete half room like.
We also calculate the Cooling Load for the Corridor of the ward which is present below

Table 1: Ward A load calculation

Ward A Total load 8 Am Total Load 5 Pm


All Rooms 36972 W 41242.59 W
Appliances 6449.07 W 6449.07 W
Corridor 9726.3 W 12720 W
Total Load Including All factors
8:00 AM 5:00 PM
In Watts 53147 W 60411.07 W
In Tons 15.11 Tons 17.18 Tons

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Gynae Ward B

Table 2: Ward B load calculation

Ward 2 Total load 8 Am Total Load 8 Am


All Rooms 33524.11 W 56815.22 W
Appliances 6449.07 W 6449.07 W
Corridor 9726.3 W 12720 W
Total Load Including All factors
8:00 AM 5:00 PM
In Watts 49699.48 W 75984.29 W
In Tons 14.13 Tons 21.61 Tons

Now Both Wards

Table 3: Both wards combine data

Ward A Total load 8 Am Total Load 5 Pm


All Rooms 86671.48 W 98057.81 W
Appliances 12898.14 W 12898.14 W
Corridor 19452.6 W 25440 W
Total Load Including All factors
8:00 AM 5:00 PM
In Watts 119022.22 W 136395.95 W
In Tons 33.84 Ton 38.75 Ton

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Chapter 4
LOAD CALCULATION OF GYNE WARD AT KHYBER
TEACHING HOSPITAL USING SOFTWARE
4.1 Introduction
We calculate cooling load through using software eQuest.
eQuest
eQuest is software which is design by energy design sources. It is a free software and can
be downloaded from website www.energydesignsources.com
The main focus of this software is not load calculation but energy simulation by
simulating energy of the building it also calculate the cooling load of the building.
Method

When we open the software it ask for new project or working on existing project.

Figure 1: eQUEST logo

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Screeen Shot From eQuest
Software
While selecting a new project another window opens which ask for the
Schematic Design wizard is for simple designs and design Development Wizard is for the
complex building.
We can also draw the architectural map of a building in Autodesk Revit software and
feed it to the eQuest.

Screen Shot From eQuest Software

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As our building is a simple rectangular so we select the first option after which a 41 step long
and comprehensive process starts and it requires great attention while completing the 41 steps.
In the software by default no weather data for Peshawar is give as our concern building is
in Peshawar so we download the Peshawar weather data from the website www.doe2.com .
It‘s in the format of. bin.
Than we feed it to the software and the software became familiar with our city
coordinates and yearly weather data.
After completing all the 43 steps a building design is formed in the 3D.

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Screen Shot From eQuest Software

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After getting this we press the simulation icon and the software starts the energy
simulation for the building We will discuss energy simulation in the next chapter but
now our concern is load calculation so after energy simulation all the data of the project
is stored in the eQuest Project folder in which there is a file in the format of .sim
We than upload that file to the website
http://energy-models.com/blog/9-22-11/using-equest-loads
Where we register ourselves on that website and upload the project file to find the
cooling load.

Screen Shot From eQuest Software

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So finally the software calculate the load for us which was in Btu .

The load which was in btu we convert it using internet to Ton of refrigeration.

Screen Shot From eQuest Software

Energy Simulations of Ward A and B

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CHAPTER 5
ENERGY SIMULATION OF WARD A AND B
USING EQUEST
5.1 INTRODUCTION
As mention earlier the main use or purpose of the eQuest is not load calculation but energy
simulation so we simulate the two wards of the third floor for energy to get the energy
consumption of the wards or desired section throughout the year. The method of the energy
simulation using eQuest is again a complex 43 step process by which at the end we will get the
3D block diagram of the building. After which we will press the simulate button in the software
through which we get our results which will be present both in the graph and tables form.
Those results can be studied for further results.
Method
eQuest
First we use as mention earlier eQuest which is a free software from energy design
resources which can be downloaded from www.energydesignresources.com its tag is Quick
energy simulator tool.

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When we open the software the first window which appears is asking to create a new
project or work in existing project.

Screen Shot From eQuest Software

After selecting the creating new project than again comes two option which ask for
Schematic Design Wizard and Design Development Wizard.
 Schematic Design Wizard: - It is or simples design building like rectangle and T shape
etc.
 Design Development Wizard: - It is used for complex design building.
We can also design an archicture map in Autodesk Revit and feed it to the eQuest.
Luckily our desired building section is same as rectangle so we use the Schematic Design
Wizard

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Screen Shot From eQuest Software
Than after selecting the option of Schematic Wizard a 43 step process started and we have to
carefully fill all the blocks are steps.

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After completing all the 43 steps we got a 3D geometry of the building. Than we perform
simulation on it by pressing simulation button.

Than we got all the Energy simulation of the desired wards.

Electric and Gas Consumption Graphs

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(We get the results both in the graph and tables format)

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CHAPTER 6

EFFECT OF ENERGY RECOVERY VENTILLATION ON


ENERGY SAVING IN GYNE WARD AT KHYBER
TEACHING HOSPITAL

The modern buildings are tightly sealed from the outside elements for the energy conservation
purposes. These tight constructions mean buildings now rely solely on mechanical ventilation to
bring in and condition the outside air. Now to provide standard Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), the
ventilation rates must be adequate. In this chapter we will discuss the need for adequate
ventilation

6.1 Introduction

The energy recovery ventilation (ERV) is the exchanging of the energy contained in normally
exhausted building or space air and using it to treat the incoming outdoor ventilation air in
residential and commercial HVAC systems. During the winter season, the system pre-cools and
dehumidifies the air while humidifying and pre-heating in the hotter seasons. The benefit of
using ERV is the ability to meet the ASHRAE ventilation standards, while improving the indoor
air quality and reducing the load. This technology has reduiced the hvac energy consumption.
Additionally, this system will allow for the indoor environment to maintain a relative humidity
of 45% to 55%. This range can be maintained under all conditions.

6.2 Importance
Nearly upto the half of global energy is used in buildings,and half of heating/cooling cost is
caused by the ventilation in the building when it is done with "open window" method according
to the regulations.To use proper ventilation; the energy recovery ventilation is the most cost
efficient and quick way to reduice the global energy consumption.

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6.3 Ventilation Rate Procedure
The ventilation rate procedure shows the rate at which outside air must be deliverd to
conditioned space. The table listed below shows the CFM required per person.

ASHRAE 62 Recommended Ventilation Rates

Application Ventilation Rate


per person(cfm)
Office Space 20
Restaurants 20
Restaurants 30
Hotel Rooms 30/room
Conference Rooms 20
Hospital Rooms 25
Operating Rooms 30

Application Ventilation Rate per


Person(cfm)
Smoking 60
Beauty Salon 25
Supermarkets 15
Auditorium 15
Classrooms 15
Laboratory 20
General Retail 15

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6.3.1 The Role of Energy Recovery

In the current standard the outside air required is more three or four times then what in the
previous standard. Using a traditional HVAC system, the outside air translates into higher
operating costs. Additionally in high humidity climates, the traditional HVAC system is not
capable of maintaining the desired indoor humidity levels throughout. Incorporating the Energy
Recovery Ventilators into HVAC Systems is becoming a popular choice for engineers to
economically comply to ASHRAE Standards. ERV benefit HVAC systems in the following
areas:

• Humidity Control – Energy recovery ventilators are suited to help control humidity. In the
hotter seasons, when the outside humidity is high, the energy wheel dehumidifies the outside air.
which greatly reduces the latent load on the air conditioning equipment and also reduces rising
the indoor humidity levels that can occur in hot, humid climates. In the cool seasons, when
outside air is dry, the wheel humidifies the outside air. This increases the comfort and reduces
the required amount humidification. More than 70% of all IAQ problems start with comfort
complaints.

• Economic Solution Low first cost and maximum energy savings combine to yield an extremely
attractive payback on Greenheck Energy Recovery Ventilators. By using the ERVs in the HVAC
system, the cost of air conditioning and heating equipment can be controlled. the energy recovery
ventilator costs are offset by the avoided increase in air conditioning equipment cost alone;
payback is immediate. In many other climates, payback is typically less that half an year.

• Maintenance – the Proper maintenance is the key to extending the life of any component of an
HVAC system and also improves the Indoor Air Quality. The energy recovery ventilators are
extremely low maintenance with blower, motor, energy wheel and all drive components.

 How It Works

Sensible energy transfer occurs simply because the wheel heats up in the warm air stream and
then transfers the heat to cool airstream. When the warm airstream cools down, the cool
airstream warms up. The moisture is also transferred in a same manner. The energy recovery
ventilator saves energy in both summer and winter conditions. During the hotter seasons, the
wheel cools the fresh outside air and rejects the moisture. During the colder seasons, the wheel
heats and humidifies fresh outside air.

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Efficiency:

The efficiency of an ERV system is the ratio of energy transferred between the two air streams
compared with the total energy transferd through the heat exchanger.With the variety of products
on the market, efficiency of erv can be vary from 50% to 70% or 80%. Depanding uponee the
requirmentof tonage of system the erv is also selected by considering the following factors which
are:

 Indoor air temperature


 Outdoor air temperature
 Design temperature
 Mass flow rate
 Ducts legth and size
 Static pressure
 Capacity of AHU

6.4 Types of energy recovery devices:

6.4.1 Rotary air-to-air enthalpy wheel


It is composed of a rotating cylinder filled with an air permeable material which results in large
surface area. This area is the medium for the sensible energy transfer. When the wheel rotates
btween the ventilation and exhaust air it picks us heat energy and releases into the colder air. The
driving force behind the exchanger is the difference in temperatures

rotating wheel

6.4.2 Plate heat exchanger:

In this heat exchanger there is no moving parts. It is consist of alternating layers of plates which
are separated and seald in which the mejority of plates are solidand non permeable.The core of
the exchanger is made of aluminum and plastic plates. In these exchangers the humidity level is
control through transferring of water vapours.

 Thermo siphon

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It is the method of passive heat exchange which based on natural convection and circulates a
fluid without the need of mechanical pump. The thermosiphoning is used fir circulation of
liquids and gases in cooling and heating application

(Thermo siphon circulation in a simple solar water heater)

6.5 ENERGY RECOVERY VENTILATORS IN KTH PESHAWAR

To illustrate the impact of sensible and latent recovery ventilators, two examples are provided.
The first example is a ―traditional‖ system without the use of energy recovery. The second
example shows the energy recovery solution to the same design challenge.

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Example without Energy Recovery

Design conditions:

Outside Air Room Air Supply Air


93 °F DB 75°FDB 54°FDB
79°F WB 50%RH 52°FWB
41Btu/lb 28.2Btu/lb 21.0Btu/lb

Mixed Air

Room Air (7,000 cfm) and Outside Air (3,000 cfm) combine to become Mixed Air (10,000 cfm).
The Mixed Air point on the psychrometric chart lies on a straight line between the Room Air and
Outside Air points. Since the Room Air is 70% of the total airflow after mixing, the Mixed Air
point is located at a point 70% of the distance from Outside Air to Room Air. At this point, the
air properties are:

78.8°F DB 67.4°F WB 32 Btu/lb

The air conditioning unit must be capable of cooling the 10,000 CFM from mixed air conditions
down to supply air conditions to handle both room load and outside air loads. The total cooling
load is dependent on cfm and enthalpy difference. In this case, the enthalpy difference (∆h) from
mixed air (79.8°F DB/67.4°F WB) to supply air (55°F DB/53°F WB) is:

∆h = hmixed air - hsupply air = 32 Btu/lb. - 21.0 Btu/lb. = 11 Btu/lb.

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Therefore, the air conditioning load is:

Total Cooling Load = (4.5 * Airflow Rate (CFM) * ∆h)/12,000

= (4.5 * 10,000 CFM * 11 Btu/lb)/12,000

= 41 tons

now

Example with Energy Recovery

This example uses the same design conditions as the previous example. The only difference is
that this case will incorporate energy recovery into the system design. Model ERV-521S will be
used to recover the energy from the 3,000 cfm exhaust airstream with an efficiency of 75%. This
will result in pre-treating the Outside Air prior to entering the air conditioning equipment.

Design conditions:

Outside Air Room Air Supply Air


93 °F DB 75°FDB 54°FDB
79°F WB 50%RH 52°FWB
41Btu/lb 28.2Btu/lb 21.0Btu/lb

The ERV-521S exhausts 3,000 cfm of return air and supplies 3,000 cfm of fresh, Outside Air. As
this happens, the properties of the exhaust air are transferred to the outside air with an efficiency
of 75%. The result is outside air leaving the wheel at a point 75% of the way from the outside air
point to the room air point. Therefore, the Air Leaving Wheel conditions are:

78°F DB 67.5°F WB 32 Btu/lb

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Mixed Air

After the outside air is pre-conditioned by the energy wheel, it mixes with the return air. The
Mixed Air point is located 70% of the way from the Air Leaving Wheel point to the Room Air
point. At this point, the conditions are

76.2°F DB 63.9°F WB 29.0 Btu/lb

In this case the enthalpy difference from mixed air (29.0 Btu/lb.) to supply air (21.0 Btu/lb.) is
8.0 Btu/lb. Therefore, the air conditioning load is:

Total Cooling Load = (4.5 * Airflow Rate (CFM) * ∆h)/12,000

= (4.5 * 10,000 CFM * 8.0 Btu/lb)12,000

= 30.25 tons

So this system would require a 30-31 ton HVAC unit. The ERV reduces the total cooling load by
over 10 tons. Which indicates that the erv can provides upto 70% of efficiency whaich results on
economy.

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Chapter 7

Summary and Future Work


We select the Khyber Teaching Hospital for our research project on HVAC because KTH is a
public hospital in which thousands of patient comes on monthly basis not only from Peshawar
and surrounding areas but also from the far sides of the KPK, FATA and considerable amount of
patient from our neighbor country Afghanistan.

As a public hospital it is our responsibility to tell the hospital administration and Ministry of
Health or recommend them possible improvements in their hospital. For this purpose as an
engineering students we have to fallow a scientific and professional way so first we Observe the
problem in their HVAC system than we Study them than we analyze them and find the possible
solution and then on the basis of this study we recommend them improvements.

7.1 Observation

As general observation we observe in the KHT that the space cooling and Indoor Air Quality is
miserable. The cooling inside the KTH is not desired to the design condition. Both the cooling
and heating system was not working in the hospital. The indoor air quality was worst there was
odor its was commonly reported that the attendants also got infected due to poor indoor air
quality.

After observation than we decide to start our study to find out the solution for this we have to
take the permission from both the KTH administration and ministry of health.

7.2 Permission

We write a formal letter to the administration office of the KTH and Ministry of health asking
them to grant us a permission to work inside the KTH. Before submitting the latter to the concern
authorities we first take permission from our project supervisor and mechanical department
chairman which they give us instantly.

The KTH administration also finally give us permission for work inside the hospital after
approval from the Ministry of health.

7.3 Weather Data

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After getting the permission the first task was to get the weather details of the Peshawar city for
previous years. Without weather data it is like going blindly on a dark path. So it was an
important task to complete it for our farther progress in project. Foe this we write a formal
application signed both from our supervisor and department chairman to the regional
metrological department asking them to provide us previous weather data of Peshawar. They
accept our application and provide us a previous three year comprehensive weather data.

7.4 Occupancy Details

The next task was to get the occupancy details of the hospital and specially our concerned
section area or wards. So we contact the hospital administration to provide us the occupancy
details of the hospital which the provide us instantly.

7.5 Appliance Details

Next our task was to get the appliances details of the desired ward. Which we ourselves visit the
site and find a single detail ourselves even we did not ignore a single bulb.

7.6 Maps

For our progress in the project another main thing was to get the arctictural maps of the building
of the hospital. For this we again contact with engineering department of the KTH but they told
us that we lost the maps.

After this we decide to draw the map for ourselves as drawing a map of the building as a
mechanical engineer is not our scope we draw a rough map from which we can only extract
details which we need not for any professional purpose.

7.7 Construction Details

After all these task a long and time consuming task started that was to get the construction details
of the wards. That includes the thickness of walls, roofs, floor, glasses and doors.

To find the material used in the walls, types of glasses used in windows and doors, materials
used in the construction of the roof and floor.

To find out the material used in the ceilings and ceiling thickness.

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To find the orientation of the building that it is north south east or west face building.

To find out any cracks in the building any broken glass any missing door etc.

And we complete our this task successfully.

7.8 Ventilation Rate

After finding the occupancy details and building area we calculated the ventilation rate of the
building and number of air changes per hour in the building.

7.9 Load Calculation

After obtaining the weather data, occupancy load, appliances, maps and construction details we
find the space cooling load of the building.

For this purpose we have two ways one was manually and through computer aided software. So
we decide to choose both the ways. First we decide to calculate it manually so we start
calculating it manually we with the help of our supervisor and other beloved teacher and relevant
book successfully calculated the space cooling load of the building.

After this we decide to calculate it through a computer software and compare it with the
manually calculated load. So for this purpose we use eQuest software and after a 43 step process
we calculate it.

We compare both the loads and the difference was approximately null.

7.10 Energy Simulation of Building

After load calculation we than using a computer software eQuest we find energy simulation of
the building through which we got the full year energy consumption of the building.

This was an important step in our project because to make a building energy efficient we use this
data later in our project extensively.

7.11 Testing Indoor Air Quality

Collecting Samples First we collect the samples in dust format from different places in the ward.

And then we properly put it in plastic bag.

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Testing Samples For testing the samples we write a formal application to the CRL section of the
Physics department of the University of Peshawar signed from both supervisor and department
chairman. Than their in CRL lab we tested our samples on the EDX machine and we got our
results in the form of tables and graphs which tells us the amount of other elements which is
hazadorious to health in the air.

7.12 Installing ERV

After getting the results it comes to our mind that the situation is not good in terms of quality of
the indoor air quality. So after a long study and research we come on conclusion that the Indoor
air quality can be improved proper ventilation in the building.

If we do ventilation directly that is to draw a fresh air from the surrounding and letting some
volume of conditioned air outside. So as the fresh air enter its temperature will be high from the
inside design temperature so it will increase the cooling load. And letting the conditioned air
outside means losing the precious energy wasting.

To overcome we install Energy Recovery Ventilator (ERV) in which we install HEPA filter
which filter both incoming and outgoing air and also ERV have heat exchanger so the heat
transfer occur between the outgoing and incoming fresh air and thus Indoor air quality is
improved and also a lot of precious energy is saved.

7.13 Future Work

We put our best in the project our goal was to help the general public specially health sector
using our little knowledge and also to get the knowledge and education of the HVAC field.

But no work in the world is perfect there are a lot of missing work in our project which due to
small time duration we were unable to complete it. So there are a future work need in our project
that the general public get more benefit from the project.

The future work which is need in this project we hope our following batches will continue is
given below in the sequences are

•Complete load calculation of the whole building is required followed by the efficiency analysis
of the current HVAC system

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•Continuous indoor air quality (IA) could be monitored to give deeper insight into the quality of
the air

• Analysis of energy recovery for the whole hospital may help in understanding the overall
energy saving potentials

• The similar kind of study may be extended to other hospitals of the province

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REFRENCES
1 Swenson, S. Don (1995). HVAC: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. Homewood,
Illinois: American Technical Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8269-0675-5.
2 "HVAC". Merriam–Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2015-01-12.
3 Ventilation and Infiltration chapter, Fundamentals volume of the ASHRAE Handbook,
ASHRAE, Inc., Atlanta, GA, 2005
4 Designer's Guide to Ceiling-Based Air Diffusion, Rock and Zhu, ASHRAE, Inc., New
York, 2002
5 Environment Australia S.K Brown
6 ACGIH (1989). Guidelines for the assessment of bio aerosols in the indoor environment.
ACGIH,Cincinnati, Ohio.
7 ACGIH (1994). 1994–1995 Threshold limit values
8 for chemical substances and physical agents and
9 biological exposure indices. ACGIH, Cincinnati.
10 Ahlstrom, R. et al. (1986). Formaldehyde odour and its interaction with the air of a sick
building.
11 ASHRAE. 1989. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air
Quality. Atlanta, Georgia: ASHRAE
12 ―Davison Molecular Sieves,‖ publication of Davison Chemical Company, Baltimore,
Maryland.
13 Jack Dozier, ― Meeting ASHRAE 62-89 at Lowest Cost,‖ HEATING/PIPING/AIR
CONDITIONING, January 1995, pp. 115-116, 118-119.
14 Robert Eade, ―Humidification Looming Larger in IAQ,‖ Engineering Systems, January
1996, p. 49.
15 Roger W. Haines, Control Systems for Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (New
York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1983), pp. 249-254, 260-261.
16 Sam Harper, ― Available Equipment and Applications for IAQ.‖
17 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_recovery_ventilation

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