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AGuideto

The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings


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A Guide to
THE PREPARATION OF CIVIL
ENGINEERING DRAWINGS

M. V. THOMAS
C.Eng., M.I.Mun. E.

M
© M. V. Thomas 1982

Softcover reprint ofthe hardcover 1st edition 1982978-0-333-28081-2

All rights reserved. No part of this publication


may be reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by
any means, without permission.

First published 1982 by


THE MACMILLAN PRESS LTD
London and Basingstoke
Companies and representatives
throughout the world

Typeset in Great Britain by


PINTAll STUDIOS LTD
Ringwood, Hampshire

ISBN 978-0-333-32699-2 ISBN 978-1-349-86103-3 (eBook)


DOI 10.1007/978-1-349-86103-3

To Glenys
Catherine
Lynette
and Clare

The paperback edition of the book is sold subject to


the conditon that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise,
be lent, resold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without
the publisher's prior consent in any form of binding or
cover other than that in which it is published and without
a similar condition including this condition being imposed
on the subsequent purchaser.
CONTENTS

Introduction 1 5. Graphie and Pictorial Methods of


Design and Presentation 73
1. General Principles 3 5.1 Introduction 73
1.1 Introduction 3 5.2 Charts, Graphs and Diagrams 73
1.2 Drawing Instruments 3 5.3 Models 82
1.3 Drawing Office Practice 6
1.4 Health and Environment 18 6. Computer Graphies 86
1.5 Layout 18 6.1 Introduction 86
1.6 Draughting, Tracing and Colouring 19
7. Drawing Applieations 97
2. Drawing Offiee Layout, Control 7.1 Introduction 97
and Reproduction 25 7.2 Surveying 98
2.1 Introduction 25 7.3 Si te Investigations 106
2.2 Offiee Layout 25 7.4 Detailing 107
2.3 Drawing Control and Filing 28 7.5 The Design and Construction of a
2.4 Drawing Reproduction 29 Small Pedestrian Subway 135
7.6 Records 156
3. Projections and Basic Geometry 37 7.7 Conclusion 163
3.1 Introduction 37
3.2 Orthographie Projection 37 Appendix 1 Examples of Constructed Perspective 164
3.3 Auxiliary Projection 40
3.4 True Lengths 40 Appendix 11 The Use of Calcu/ators in the Design Office 172
3.5 Plans, Elevations and Sections 42
3.6 Basic Geometry 44 Appendix 111 Public Uti/ities 175

4. Three-dimensional Drawing and Sketehing 54 Index 178


4.1 Introduction 54
4.2 Sketching 54
4.3 Constructed Three-dimensional Drawings 60
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The author particularly wishes to acknowledge the assistance


of S.W. Farmer & Son Ltd, Tektronix (U.K.) Ltd, Building
Computer Services Ltd, Computer Aided Design Centre, the
London Borough of Ealing, Ove Arup Partnership and
Thamesdown Borough Council.
He is also grateful for information supplied by the Public
Utility organisations, the Department of Transport, Robert
Watson & Co., the British Standards Institution, Benson
Electronics Ltd, British Constructional Steelwork Association
Ltd, Building Design Partnership (Preston), Loughborough
University of Technology, Cement and Concrete Association,
Hartley Reece & Company, British Thornton Ltd, Elite
Manufacturing Co. Ltd, Dow-Mac Concrete Ltd, Sanders &
Forster Ltd, Wild Heerbrugg (U.K.) Ltd, Spectra Alignment
Ltd, Acrow (Engineers) Ltd, the National Reprographic Centre
for documentation, Caps Microfilm Ltd, Cartographical
Services Ltd, Addressograph-Multigraph Ltd, Gaf (G.B.) Ltd,
Regma Ltd and Lamwood Ltd.
The author would also like to thank A. E. Hurren of
Portsmouth Polytechnic for his helpful and constructive com-
ments on the manuscript.
This project could not have been undertaken without the
helpful cooperation of the publisher and the help,
encouragement and best wishes of family and friends.
INTRODUCTION

Although this book is intended primarily as an aid to the drawing and the furthest point from wh ich it will be
young engineer, technician or draughtsman working in a civil viewed. For example, drawings may be (a) displayed on a
engineering design office, the needs of the construction board, (b) adapted to a form which will facilitate projec-
student have also been strongly borne in mind. tion on to a screen, or (c) reproduced and copies handed
The author's aim is not only to describe the general to each person. Different emphasis will be given to con-
principles of good drawing office practice, but also to struction drawings as opposed to presentation drawings
illustrate how these principles are applied in many specialised and this emphasis is dealt with in some detail in chapters 1
branches of civil engineering. This book should therefore and 5.
prove a useful source of general reference for both the
student and the more advanced reader. There are several stages involved with any civil engineering
As with any means of communication, drawings must be scheme between its inception and completion, and the draw-
clear and capable of being interpreted correctly. This can ings involved at each of these stages will be distinctly
only be achieved by the adoption of recognised standards different, as described below.
and conventions and by giving careful attention to style, pre-
sentation and layout.
(1) Preliminary Design
Before even putting pencil to paper, the student reader will
Sketch drawings, preliminary calculations and site investiga-
gain a better idea of how to decide on the form and presenta-
tions are carried out to assess various alternatives for achiev-
tion of a drawing by seeking the answers to the following
ing the basic objective. Sufficient information will be
three basic questions.
required at this stage to consider the feasibility, aesthetics and
cost of each alternative.
(1) What is the drawing intended to convey?
The answers to this question will influence the choice of (2) Approvals
many factors including the size of the drawing, presenta- Because of the size and scope of most civil engineering pro-
tion and layout, the scales to be used, the degree of detail, jects, and their impact on the environment and on the public
the style, size and spacing of lettering, the drawing in general, a large number of professional disciplines may be
standards and conventions to be adopted. involved in the process of gaining approval for the whole
(2) Who will read it? scheme or various aspects of it. The project must receive the
Drawings may have to be studied by a large number of approval of the promoter, who may be an individual, private
people each with varying degrees of technical knowledge company, government department or Local Authority, so that
and quite different requirements. For example, photo- the necessary funds are allocated to finance the scheme. A
graphs, models and three-dimensional drawings may be variety of statutory bodies, and members of the general
more appropriate than detailed plans and sections for public affected by the proposals, are likely to be among those
exhibitions, meetings and display in public places. who need to be consulted.
(3) Where will the drawillg be seen? Considerable care must be paid to the presentation of the
The presentation of the drawings and charts for meetings, proposals at this stage so that the necessary approvals are
public enquiries and for similar purposes, requires special gained in time to allow an adequate period for the all-
consideration. The size of the drawing and the lettering important task of completing the detailed design, drawings
on it may be dictated by the distance between the and contract documents.

1
2 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings
(3) Detailed Design BS 1192:1969 Building Drawing Practice - for the
The planning of any project must take into account the time architpct and builder.
and resources required for the preparation of the detailed
drawings. Engineering drawings will obviously need to be
There are several standards on detailing, of wh ich the most
clear, direct, legible, unambiguous and accurate.
commonly used are probably the following.

(4) Contract Documents (1) The Standard Method of Detailing Reinforced Concrete
Drawings are combined with a specification and a bill of prepared by the Concrete Society and the Institution of
quantities which together give the contractor sufficient infor- Structural Engineers. Prior to this standard the many
mation to price and construct the permanent works. methods wh ich were used for the detailing and schedul-
ing of reinforcement gave rise to a great deal of con-
(5) Construction fusion.
A very important aspect of the construction will be the (2) Metric Practice for Structural Steelwork by the British
temporary works required. The contractor will usually be Constructional Steelwork Association Limited.
responsible for the design and safety of the temporary works,
and he must be allowed sufficient time to prepare his own
This book divides broadly into four parts. The first deals
detailed drawings.
with the basic general principles of drawing office practice,
including recognised conventions. The second briefly
(6) Information and Advertising
describes sketching techniques and three-dimensional draw-
Information about the project will usually be given in the
ings. (A knowledge of the basic principles of perspective and
promoter's and contractor's own internal magazines and may
sketching will be useful to any engineer, technician or
be of sufficient general interest to be included in a relevant
draughtsman, since sketching is a commonly used form of
technical journal. Drawings prepared for this purpose will
communicating ideas during discussions on both aesthetic
need to be simple and adapted to the extent of the descrip-
and technical matters.) The third deals with developments in
tions in the text.
the use of the computer for drawing and detailing. The fourth
shows drawing examples typical of those prepared in so me of
Perhaps because of its broad scope, civil engineering
the special ist branches of civil engineering. In order to
drawing practice has not yet been made the subject of a
achieve continuity and to simplify descriptions in the text,
British Standard. However the revision of BS 1192 planned for
most of the detailing illustrations have been drawn from just a
1981 is likely to contain parts more relevant to the needs of
few typical, but smalI, civil engineering projects.
the structural and civil engineer. The recommended title for
The author believes that the frequent references to the
the new Standard is 'Construction Drawing Practice'. The two
relationship between drawing preparation and construction
current Standards are
practice, and photographs of a variety of civil engineering
BS 308:1972 Engineering Drawing Practice - for the works, will promote in the student an interest in civil engineer-
mechanical engineer, and ing in general and the preparation of drawings in particular.
1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES

1.1 INTRODUCTION squares, ruling and lettering pens, compasses, protractor and
pocket scales. Other instruments and materials will usually be
There are many principles associated with drawing office provided by the employer.
practice that can be applied generally to most branches of The reader is advised to be selective and to buy the best
civil engineering. It is with these principles that this chapter is quality instruments that he can afford. Every draughtsman will
chiefly concerned. For ease of reference, most of the more have his own ideas about the number and type of drawing
commonly used conventions have been gathered together in instruments he will need. It would be impossible to describe
section 1.3.6. here all the different instruments available and the following
selection reflects the author's own preference.

1.2 DRAWING INSTRUMENTS


1.2.1 Pump Bow Compasses (figure 1.2)
Every draughtsman will need his own personal set of drawing This pair of compasses is used for very small circles up to
instruments (figure 1.1) which will probably include small set approximately 10 mm in diameter and its vertically adjustable

Figure 1.1 Drawing instruments for personal use

3
4 A Guide to The Preparation of Ci vii Engineering Drawings

o
<:::>
o
G;'\
Figure 1.2 Pump bow compasses
Figure 1.3 Large spring bow compasses

compass point allows the pencil or ink blade to be raised


above the drawing sheet while the point is located at the
required circle centre.

1.2.2 Large Spring Bow Compasses (figure 1.3)


The knee joint on the blade arm enables the blade to be set
perpendicular to the drawing sheet. This pair of compasses is
used for small circles between approximately 10 mm and
200 mm diameter.
Note that with the pump bow and spring bow compasses
the arms are positively held apart by the spindie of the adjust-
ing screw, thus preventing movement of the arms while the
circle is being drawn.
Figure 1.4 Beam compasses

1.2.3 Beam Compasses (figure 1.4)


Beam compasses give a range of radii between 200 mm and
1.2.4 Drawing Pens
1200 mm and have the advantage that both the point arm and
blade arm are not only positively held but remain at right Adjustable-blade ruling pens have generally been replaced
angles to the sheet no matter how large the arc. by pens with interchangeable nibs. There are two basic types:
General Principles 5
1.2.7 Tee Squares
A large number of drawing offices now have either drawing
boards fitted with parallel motion straight edges, or draught-
ing machines. These have generally superseded tee squares,
which are more difficult to manipulate and less efficient. Tee
squares will, however, be found useful for home and site
office use and in college dassrooms where space may be
limited . The author recommends a single bevel-edged, trans-
parent Perspex type with the bl ade fixed to the handle with
countersunk screws. Tee squares will need to be checked fre-
quently for straightness and squareness.

1.2.8 Protradors
A fully divided, complete-cirde type of at least 150 mm
diameter is recommended.

1.2.9 Scales
Scale rules should preferably be fully graduated. The oval-
section four-scale type will be adequate for most purposes.
For plotting and measuring survey and similar small detail,
however, a narrow-edged scale graduated on one side only
and flat on the other is more suitable. The graduations will
then be dose to the drawing sheet, the scale can be held
Figure 1.5 Ro/ring Graphos drawing pen more firmly against the sheet, and the figures are less likely to
be worn off through abrasion. (Scales are intended for
one has nibs with tubular points, and the other has both nibs measurement only and should not be used as a paper knife or
with pivoted bl ades for ruling and nibs for lettering. The for drawing lines.)
Rotring 'Graphos' pen (figure 1.5) can be fitted with 3 nib
styles and a total of 25 different nibs.
1.2.10 French Curves
Smooth, non-circular and irregularly shaped curves are best
1.2.5 Proportional Dividers
drawn by means of French curves.
These are used for transferring dimensions from one drawing
to another of differing scale. The following drawing instruments will probably be
supplied by the employer for the use of the drawing office as
a whole .
1.2.6 Set Squares
A large (300 mm long at least) 45° set square, a 30/60° set
1.2.11 Steel Straight Edges
square for pencil and ink work, and a large adjustable type for
pencil work will be indispensable. Most draughtsmen will Steel straight edges are important items of drawing office
probably prefer the single bevel-edged Perspex type, with the equipment and should be deaned after every use and re-
bevel facing the drawing sheet for ink work. However, square- turned to a dosed box. They are durable and less susceptible
edged set squares, with some attachment for raising the edge to temperature changes and humidity than other straight
slightly above the surface of the drawing sheet, may be more edges, and are therefore useful for very accurate drawing
suitable for use in conjunction with parallel motion straight measurements and for checking the straightness of set
edges. squares, tee squares and drawing board surfaces and edges.
6 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings
If a steel straight edge is required for cutting then it should Table 1.1 Drawing sheet sizes
be used only for this purpose, a separate straight edge being
Designation Size (mm)
reserved for drawing. Only the thick square edge should be
used for cutting. (The tip of many a finger has been sliced off AO 841 x 1189
using a cutter against the bevel side of a straight edge.) A1 594 x 841
A2 420 x 594
A3 297 x 420
A4 210 x 297
1.2.12 Railway Curves
An AO sheet has an area of 1 m2 •
Railway curves are circular curve templates, each of wh ich has All sheets in the Aseries have
been formed to a different radius in regular increments. They sides in the proportion 1 :..../2.
are commonly used in road and railway design. The sides of 35 mm film have the
same proportions, which facili-
tates microfilming.
Pencils, rubbers, erasers, sand-paper blocks, stencils, large
beam compasses, and flexible rules are among the equipment
usually supplied for general office use.
clarity then becomes the predominant factor in the choice of
the scale.
1.3 DRAWING OFFICE PRACTICE When a drawing is to be reproduced in a reduced or
enlarged form (for example, microfilming or photocopying) it
The two British Standards relating to drawing practice have may be advisable to draw a diagram scale on the original
been referred to in the Introduction. Basic practice will vary drawing or negative. Examples of scale ratios used are shown
in so me respects between one organisation and another, in table 1.2.
depending on the nature of the work undertaken. The
recommendations of BS 1192 may, for example, be adopted
throughout an organisation which deals principally with the Table 1.2 Scale ratios
design of buildings. Most civil engineering drawings will
Type of Drawing Recommended Scale Ratios
probably combine recommendations given in both Standards
until the revised BS 1192 is available. Location plans 1 :5000,1 :10 000, 1 :10 560
Practice mayaiso vary in other respects. Where drawings Site plans 1:2500,1:1250,1:500
will only be required for relatively short periods, the practice Road and sewerage layout plans 1:1250,1:500,1:200,1:100
may be to draw in pencil directly on to tracing paper for sub-
Road and sewerage longitudinal Vertical-1 :5,1 :10,1 :20,
sequent reproduction. Alternatively, in another office, draw- sections 1:50
ings may be prepared first in pencil on cartridge paper, and Horizontal-1 :1250,1 :500,
then traced in ink on to sheets of polyester film or tracing 1 :200, 1 :100
paper. General arrangement drawings 1 :200,1 :100, 1 :50
Detail drawings 1:20,1:10,1:5,1:25,1:1

1.3.1 Drawing Sizes

Recommended drawing sheet sizes are shown in table 1.1.


1.3.3 Line Types and Thicknesses
Commonly used sizes are AO and A1, although smaller sizes
may be preferred for small standard or typical details and for The line types recommended in BS 308 and BS 1192 should be
ease of handling on the site of the construction works. adopted where applicable (figure 1.6). Une types relating to
reinforced concrete detailing are shown in chapter 7.
When drawings are to be microfilmed, wherever possible a
1.3.2 Scale Ratios
line thickness should be chosen so that the thinnest line on
The correct choice of scale is an important factor wh ich is the smallest print to be made from the microfilm will have a
decided after a careful consideration of the amount and form width of not less than 0.25 mm. Unes should be so spaced that
of the information to be conveyed on the drawing. Once the in the smallest print to be made from the microfilm they will
content and layout of the drawing have been established, not be less than 0.5 mm apart.
General Principles 7

OUTLINES REQUIRING EMPHASIS


d
a
I I
GENERAL OUTLINES I- 1 __ 6
·1
ala4alchain
I.. ..I
DIMENSION LINES, LEADER LlNES,
HATCHING ,GRID LlNES
I a 6 "I 1Q.. , running

e
b

r-! CUTTING PLANES l


1 1
l
L.,
- - HIDDEN OUTLINES
c
f

CENTRE LlNES

--'V"--- BREAK IN CONTINUITY Figure 1.7 Types of dimension fine

Figure 1.6 Types of line

separate component, or in some cases, aseries of com-


ponents. These planes will usually be coincident with the out-
1.3.4 Dimensioning ermost sides or, in the case of circular and other symmetrical
parts, the centre lines of the component.
There are three common methods of representing the ends
Generally the following conventions should be adopted.
of dimension lines (figure 1.7). The 'arrow' shown in figures
1.7a and d is recommended for civil engineering drawings.
(1) The least number of dimensions for the complete defini-
The 'dash' shown in figures 1.7b and e has particular
tion of the finished product should be shown, but each
advantages where there are a large number of short dimen-
should generally appear only once on the drawing.
sion lines on a drawing. The 'dot' shown in figure 1.7c is not
However there are exceptions as in (4) below.
recommended and should be confined to leader lines as
(2) It should not be necessary to deduce any dimensions.
shown in figure 1.7f. Note that figures on running dimension
Dimensions relating to a particular feature should pre-
lines are shown next to the arrowhead.
ferably be placed adjacent to a single view rather than on
Clear consistent and well-arranged dimensioning is
several.
particularlY important on detail drawings. The recommenda-
(3) Generally, dimensions should be given in millimetres jf
tions of BS 308 should be strictly followed when detailing
less than 1 m, and in metres and decimals of a metre if
machined metal components which need to be manu-
greater than 1 m. Dimensions on reinforced concrete and
factured to fine tolerances~ In addition to the accuracy of the
structural steelwork details are generally shown wholly in
dimensions themselves, the method of arranging the dimen-
millimetres. Metres should be written to three places
sions on the various views could also have an effect on the
of decimals.
accuracy of the finished product. Chain dimensioning should
not be used on such drawings. Three datum planes, from Examples: 31.500 m 12500 0.5mm
which all dimensions are taken, should be decided for each decimal point space zero
8 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

.
Co

Ir-------I~IprOjection line

l
Leader lines

Thin arrowhead
Arrowheads end on a line; dots within outlines
I
r Dimension lines weil spaced
Dimension line

~i9ht ~
Wrong

-
706

-,
/-- ,-r-

) CO
.r
CO
N

'"

I
CD
0

.. I.... I
N

-'-
'"
380
326

Chain lines unbroken where they cross

Figure 1.8 Dimensioning

Where drawings are dimensioned in one unit, the unit crossed or separated by any other line of the drawing.
abbreviation may be omitted provided the drawing Figures should be placed so that they can be read from
carries a note stating which units are used. the bottom or from the right of the drawing.
(4) Leader lines should not be parallel to adjacent dimension
or projection lines where confusion might arise. Long The conventions described above, and other dimensioning
leaders should be avoided even if this means repeating techniques, are illustrated in figures 1.8, 1.9, 1.10 and 1.11
dimensions or notes. although these dimensioning principles need not always be
(5) Dimension lines should be placed parallel to the line strictly applied to civil engineering drawings. For example,
being dimensioned. They should not coincide with a from a consideration of accuracy alone, chain dimensioning
centre line or the extension of a centre line. would be a suitable method of showing the arrangement of
(6) Projection lines should not cross other lines if this can be the mains in figure 1.12. The dimensioning shown is that
avoided. If they must cross, they should do so without a which is the most appropriate for the installation and location
break. Projection lines should be broken where they con- purposes. The needs of the various trades involved in the
flict with an arrowhead, but not when they cross a figure. construction should be considered when a civil engineering
(7) Figures and letters should be placed near the middle of structure is being detailed and these may necessitate more
(except for running dimensions) and above and clear of, dimensions on the drawing than are absolutely necessary to
the dimension line, and in such a way that they are not define the structure.
General Principles 9

{,
a
C40R

50 DIA HOLES f
0
0
'k
e ~5 1.5

;:
g
f
+ +

E 1.1------~1075 1 . - - - - t - - - - - - - - - - I..

Figure 1.9 Dimensioning principles Smooth curve defined by ordinates

a Centre lines are the datum lines.


b Single leader line to hole in order to avoid crossing other lines.
Leader underlines note.
c Arrowhead points towards the radius centre. Short horizontal tail
to leader wh ich extends towards the centre 01 the note.
d Projection line broken where it cross es an arrowhead. Ends 01
leaders at a lixed angle 01 approximately 60° to the horizontal
where possible gives a neater appearance to the drawing.
e Narrowarrowhead.
f Leaders taken within the outline 01 the view to avoid undue cross-
ing 01 dimension lines. An alternative method 01 indicating the
diameters would be to relerence each hole with a number or
letter which is then delined in the general notes. A relerence at Circular curves
each hole would not have been necessary il all the holes had been
the same size (see ligure 1.13).
g Direction 01 leader lines reversed to avoid conlusion with the
leaders to the large holes.
h Shortest dimensions placed nearest to the outline 01 the view.
Dimensions staggered to avoid congestion.
Leaders cross without a break.
Adequate and even spacing between dimension lines (approx.
10 mm). Over-all dimensions 01 plate situated so as to avoid cross-
ing leader lines.
k A more suitable method 01 dimensioning where a high degree 01
accuracy is required to locate the holes. One hole is dimensioned
lrom the centre line 01 the plate and the other hole is
dimensioned Irom the lirst hole. Figure 1.10 Dimensioning circular and non-circular curves
10 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

ctr= 32dia
22dia
73dia

Representing diame ter dImensions

(b)
60lA 3HOLES
Figure 1.11 (a) Dimensioning eire/es; (b) diameter dimen-
sions - diametral dimensions should not be plaeed within the
shaded areas hown; usually whole eire/es are defined by the
diameter, and eircular ares by the radius
(a)

1.3.5 Lettering building materials and components, geological data, land sur-
veying information and many more. A variety of statutory
lettering should be clear, simple and legible. Care should be
bodies and other large organisations have established con-
taken with the size, shaping and spacing of individualletters,
ventions for representing their own mains, services and plant.
and the arrangement of notes on the drawing.
Figure 1.16 shows the method of representing some com-
The size of lettering must be considered in relation to its
monly used constructional materials in section. Colour
purpose on the drawing. Table 1.3 shows suggested minimum
representation of materials is shown in table 1.4. Materials
character heights.
shown in section are coloured darker than those that are not
The style of lettering should be bold and in a consistent
upright or sloping form (figures 1.13 and 1.14). In certain types sectioned.
The way in which rocks and soils are represented on
of special presentation drawings, however, an ornamental
geological sections and borehole logs is shown in figure 1.17.
style may be appropriate (figure 1.15).
The hatching of metal components represented in section
The lettering on a finished drawing may be that of the
is shown in figure 1.18. In this case, hatching is used on
draughtsman or a tracer. Even if a drawing is to be traced, the
sections to identify different components of a product.
draughtsman must write clearly and arrange the lettering in
Separated areas of a section of a single component should be
the correct position on the original drawing.
hatched in an identical manner. The hatching of adjacent
lettering may be formed with (1) pencil (2) ink, using
components should be carried out at different angles. The
stencils or pens, or (3) transfers.
spacing of hatching lines should be in proportion to the size
of the hatched section, thus the spacing of the lines should be
greater on the larger components.
1.3.6 Conventions
In the case of large areas, the hatching may be limited to a
Although the layout and presentation of information on zone following the contour of the hatched area. Where sec-
drawings may vary, recognised standard conventions should tions of the same part in parallel planes are shown side by
be adopted wherever possible. side, the hatching lines should be similarly spaced, but offset
There are standard conventions for the representation of along the dividing line between the sections. The use of
General Principles 11

2.000

810

p.
:...:...::: T;. .E;: ;.l~: EP;.. ;H:..: .O: . N:..: E:. S: : . . .- - -t'
0 ..;...;
, t
~
GAS

ElECTRICITY

STREET UGHTING

Figure 1.12 Oimensioning: typical seetion showing layout of Public Utilities mains
12 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

ABCDEFGHIJ KLM N
OPQRSTUVWXYZ
1234567890
ABCDEFGH/JKLMN
OPQRSTUVWXYZ
/234567890
DRAWING PRINCIPLES
DRAWI NG PPJNCIPLES
DrRwing Pr/neiples
Figure 1.13 Hand lettering

PARTICULAR ATTENTION SHOULD BE PAID TO THE SPACING


OF CERTAIN LETTERS AND FIGURES

635 6
t t t t ROUNDED
BOT TOM

GENERALLY THE GAPS BETWEEN THE


OUTLINES ENCLOSING EACH LETTER
SHOULD BE niE SAME •••

WATERWRONG WATERRIGHT
••• BUT THERE ARE EXCEPTIONS
Figure 1.14 Lettering 17 :-;..:-:>:;
18Stencils 19
UC 3 PEN 2
..
Table 1.3 Character heights (BS 308)
Figure 1.15 Sty/es of lettering
Minimum Charactef
Application Drawing Sheet Size Height (mm)

Drawing numbers, etc.

Dimensions and notes


AO, A1, A2 and A3
A4
AO
7
5
3.5
E:Z?:J BRICK STONE

A1, A2, A3 and A4 2.5

CONCRETE

Table 1.4 Colour representation of materials

Material

Brick
Colour

Vermilion or brick red


1><1 WOOD(UNWROTI

Concrete (in situ) Hooker's green

WJ\ß
Earth Sepia or Vandyke brown
Hardcore
Wood (unwrot)
Chrome yellow medium
Rawsienna HARDCORE ~ WOOD(WROTI
Wood (wrot) Burnt sienna

ER
Concrete (precast)

KXm
Yellow
Cast iron Payne's grey
Steelwork Steel PARTITION BLOCK LOOSE INSULATION
Mortar, screed, render Sap green
Glass Pale blue
Figure 1.16 Representation of building materials in seetion
General Principles 13

Rocks

(11
.. Q
. Conglomerate I I
SEOIMENTARY

Mudstone ...• •...Icoal


... :, : ~ .....,;•• J:."
~. ~ ~., . ~ .' ;I" :"-;:":.""'j
.:. \;.v: ~ .J~'. "! >
Sandstone I : :I : Limestone & Chalk I P J ; j I Gypsum. Rocksalt etc

IGNEOUS METAMORPHIC

Plutonic (Granite) ~
~ GneiSS

~ SChist
Hypabyssal (Ouartz porphyry)
~ QUartlite

_ Volcanic (Basalt)
I~ y~>- : IMarb~
...:....:. ..
R S,ate

IT2ZJ
. ' .' '. : : . Pyroclastic (Volcanic ash)
' '':' '.'
M HardSha,e

Soils
NON COHESIVE COHESIVE ORGANIC

EF-il
~~~
Silt clay Peat

Uncemented calcareous matter (including shell beds'

Composite types
Sandy gravel Sandy peat

Silty peat

I B HOggin
l& Boulder clay ~ Clayey peat
_ Calcareous clay (mari'
Silty sand

_ Still fissured clay

lIiI Loam
. . Weathered clay Made ground

Figure 1.17 Representation of rocks and soils


14 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

I SUCTIOO SlDEPLATE
2 CASING

35 1
I
36 COUPLING SCREW
I -
Figure 1.18 Section through a pump

hatching, leader lines to components, and a component various bodies use for their own purposes when, as is often
schedule are iIIustrated in figure 1.18. the case, information on all these mains needs to be shown
Commonly used abbreviations and graphical symbols are on the same drawing. Where this is necessary, the following
given in BS 1192. Abbreviations may be misinterpreted and points should be considered.
should be used with care.
Recognised symbols for use on land surveying plans are (1) Use a key (as shown in table 1.5, for example) on negatives
shown in figure 1.19. and distinguish different mains from each other by using
The importance of showing both existing and proposed gas, different line types. Do not rely on colouring alone,
water, electricity, postal telecommunications, sewerage and otherwise reference will have to be made to the office
other mains and plant clearlyon drawings cannot be over- copy each time a copy print is prepared.
stressed. The organisations that have been established by Acts (2) Different mains belonging to the same Undertaker can be
of Parliament (Statutes) to provide these services are called distinguished from each other by using different line
Statutory Undertakers and abrief description of their thicknesses coupled with notes describing each main at
activities and powers has been included in appendix 111. It intervals along its route and either side of points at wh ich
may not be possible to adopt the same conventions that these there is a change of description.
General Principles 15

----------
-= -. hedge 0 Q orchard

<> Q ~I
post and boarded fence .....,
....., ....
w
.......... rough pasture
"'"

--1--1 - - post and wire fence ~ t,i:!) brushwood


Cl

~- ~ >llL..
unspecified fence marsh
_>oll!. A&_

wall ---=-== river


~

--- --- ---


------ --- road
-- railway

~ ~
bui lding cliffs and quarries

TTTT1TT bank
~
glasshouse

0 =- -=»
tree

gate
-------
'---/

-~--

, Q 0(,)9
bridge

wood
\ Q Q .---

__ ..2 0..!!. ___


contour line --------- path

Figure 1.19 Symbols used on land surveying plans

Table 1.5 Representation of Statutory Undertakers' mains

MAIN LINE TYPE COLOUR


(3) Ensure that the line type proposed cannot be confused
PURPLE
with other features, for example, fences and kerb lines. ELE CTRICln
_ _ __ fu!.u.l. Liog~ _ _ __
MAuve
This can be achieved, if necessary, by adjusting the line
WAT[R - - - - - - - --- GREEN
thicknesses and spacing.
GAS -- -- -- -- ORANGE
(4) Standardise on the colours used to represent each of the
BROWN
Undertakers' mains and plant. Use contrasting colours. POST OFFICE - - - - - - - ----

FOUL WATER SEWER • ___ • _ . _ _ _ _ _ _ ..... RED


There are limits to standardisation, and the adoption of the
BlUE
above suggestions may not be desirable or possible in every
case.
.---------------L---------------------------~-------------------------~.-L------
\['\

M H SI02

0/RECT/ON Of
IZOWAR-ROW

LOCATI(

SEC!lONAL PLAN 50 ;a
'PLAN

25 452 57 rr)
MO-Io.O!) ~I.. CNT IUIII C. ... T 'JOC ~M CO\I E.Il
.t.NO rtt.t.loiC ~>.N O !),V't.TV CA lC

1
r·~~o:;:,•;:·:::..

Sf'EC!/1{ NOTES _ ____,

16 Figure 1.20 Layout of views


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SCALE 1/0tJ---
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CENERAL NOTES I I I
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--- ---- --'-1 ----""=T"-"-,- ' - - - - - - - _ _ : _ _ -- -- I

17
18 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings
1.4 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 1.5 LAYOUT

Before dealing with the mechanical techniques of drawing, The c1arity of a drawing will depend to a major extent on the
the various needs of the draughtsman will be discussed. The correct choice of scale, and the layout of the views, lettering
health of the draughtsman must be considered to be of and dimensions.
paramount importance. Eye strain, back ache and foot com- The student draughtsman may be tempted immediately to
plaints are the obvious ailments which can result from start drawing in the detail of the views before first giving
working under poor lighting conditions with equipment that careful thought to their arrangement on the drawing. Such a
requires an unsatisfactory working posture. mistake is likely to lead to a complete redrawing of all the
Equipment should be provided that permits comfortable details. Ten minutes spent in calculating the positions of
working at all points of the drawing board with the minimum views, notes and dimensions may save several hours of
of hand movement, and which allows the draughtsman to redrawing (see figure 1.20).
change his position without loss of efficiency. An upright The following procedure is suggested in order to achieve a
drawing board, which can be adjusted in both height and good result at the first attempt.
angle of tilt, will make for the greatest efficiency and comfort.
(1) Determine the scale ratio or alternative ratios that will be
The use of tee squares and set squares on large detailed draw-
required to show all the details on the drawing c1early.
ings can be particularly fatiguing and inconvenient when
Use as a guide the recommendations given previously in
working at the right-hand side of the board.
this chapter and in chapter 7.
Horizontal boards necessitate a bad working posture, and
(2) Decide on the amount of information that should be
can result in a greater number of draughting errors near the
shown on the drawing. If a set of drawings for the same
top of the drawing where the maintenance of a convenient
structure is required, the information to be shown on
working position is most fatiguing. Survey plotting and similar
each drawing should be determined, if possible, before
intricate work, for which. illuminated boards are often used,
the layout on any of the drawings is finalised.
must be done on a horizontal surface - the periods during
(3) Calculate the over-all dimensi~ns of the sheet required to
which this type of work is carried out should not be
enable all the views, dimensions and notes to be shown
prolonged.
c1early. Consider only the rectangles touching the
Basic equipment may, however, be quite adequate for
extremities of each view and allow for the positioning of
those engineers who do not spend long periods at the
dimension lines, title and notes, and for ample space
drawing board, and who might in fact consider draught-
between the views. Standardisation of the drawing size
ing machines to be an encumbrance when they are not
may be desirable for ease of filing and handling. The
drawing.
content of each drawing will then also be influenced by
Ventilation, temperature and Iighting must be carefully
this consideration.
considered. Natural light is better than artificial light. There
(4) Draw in feintly the basic outlines of the views, dimension
should be a good over-all standard of Iighting throughout an
lines and any centre Iines. List all the notes that will be
office, while use of diffusers and screens may sometimes be
required, separating those that are specific to a particular
necessary to reduce glare.
part of the structure from the general notes. Arrange the
A reference bench large enough to accommodate AO sized
position of the notes on the drawing by means of feint
drawings should, if possible, be provided adjacent to each
guidelines only. Sketch out the basic arrangement on
drawing board. In addition to this there should be sufficient
scrap, or cheap detail paper, together with the complete
space available for placing drawing instruments when not in
written descriptions of all the notes, titles and dimensions,
use. Reference facilities at the side of the drawing board,
and place it at the side of the board for reference.
rather than behind the draughtsman, will be far more con-
(5) Complete the details, then the dimensions, followed by
venient.
the notes and titles.
It should be borne in mind that some people may put
physiological and safety considerations at the bottom of their Careful consideration should be given to the description
list of priorities if other needs are being met - the fact that no and composition of titles, and their arrangement in the title
one in an office is complaining may not necessarily mean that block. Figure 1.21 shows a typical title block arrangement
the working conditions are satisfactory. using both stencils and transfers.
General Principles 19

' ••• II ••• ts BOROUGH OF THAMESDOWN

SOIT. IIIGII
lIlll IRIII SI.IU UI
RETAININB WINB WALLS 3 AND 4
DETAILS
SClLE DRAWIIIO 110.

I: 20 E84/10/1
Drawn Traeld
M.Y.I U.D N.A. Pr itchard., C.Eng., F.I.C.E., F.I.Mun.E.,
Cheeked Date
P.D DeI. 1977 Director, Technical Services.

Amendmlnts BOROUGH OF THAMESDOWN

SOUTH DORCAN
LlDEN DRIVE SUBWAY U9
RETAINING WING WALLS 3 AND 4
DETAILS
SClLE DUWIMG Mo.

1: 20 E84/1O/l
Drawn Traeed
M.V.T. S.M.D. N.A. Pritchard., C.Eng., F.I.C.E., EI.Mun.E.,
Cheeked Date OCT. 1977
P.S. Director, Technical Services.

Figure 1.21 Title block

Notes on drawings should be as brief as possible consistent draughtsman is usually responsible for the correct arrange-
with clarity. General notes should be collected together and ment of the views, dimensions and notes. In the case of
arranged in a panel at the edge of the drawing. Specific notes structural steelwork and reinforced concrete in particular, the
should be situated near the detail to which they relate. detailers will translate the rough designs into practical details
- a process which also involves an element of design.
There are three basic types of drawing equipment
1.6 DRAUGHTING, TRACING AND COLOURING
(1) drawing board and tee squares
Most civil engineering drawings are produced in negative (2) drawing board fitted with parallel motion equipment
form to facilitate reproduction. The quality of the final print (3) draughting machine.
will depend on
The parallel motion equipment consists of a straight edge
(1) the graphic presentation ability of the draughtsman and
fixed to a weighted wire cable arrangement which enables
tracer
the straight edge to be moved up and down parallel to the
(2) the quality of the drawing materials and equipment used
lower edge of the board (figure 1.22).
(3) the method of reproduction used.
Draughting machines consist of a straight edge fixed to
The drawing process may involve either a pencil draught on horizontal rails which enable the straight edge to be moved
paper which is then traced in either ink or pencil, or a pencil sideways parallel to the sides of the board (figure 1.23). A
or ink drawing directly on to the negative. draughting head, which slides on the straight edge, has two
Specialist tracers and detailers are employed in many arms set at right angles which can be rotated to a set angle
offices. Although the standard of the linework and lettering and positioned anywhere on the board by means of the
on a final drawing may be those of the tracer, the horizontal movement and vertical carriage, both of which are
20 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

Figure 1.22 Office with parallel motion equipment Figure 1.24 Rectangular coordinatograph (Courtesy of R.
(Courtesy of the Elite Manufacturing Co. Ud) and A. Rost, Vienna)

lockable. Different scales can be fitted to the arms. Draught-


ing heads can also be fitted to parallel motion straight edges.
The addition of a lower extension rail will enable the whole of
the board surface to be used.
For intricate work, glass boards with internal illumination
are available.
Precision equipment is available for plotting orthographie
and polar coordinates, and is used mainly for survey work.
Note that this equipment must be used on a level board. The
rectangular coordinatograph is shown in figure 1.24. The X
and Y-carriages run on ball-bearings on cold-drawn profile
rails. The plotting and measuring of coordinate values is
carried out by an interchangeable prieking unit and reading
microseope.
The polar coordinatograph shown in figure 1.25 is designed
for high-accuracy plotting of tacheometric surveys. Both the
rotary movement of the graduated circle and the distance
carriage run on ball-bearings in ground profile rails to ensure
an accuracy of l' = 0.04 mm in distance, and an angular
accuracy of 1'. The instrument has a covered graduated metal
circle, with a scaled reference ring, a centring device and a
fine adjustment to the vernier and zero-point stop.
If a large number of the drawings being produced in an
office are relatively small and have a graphie form, a board
incorporating a rotating table (figure 1.26) may be an
advantage. In this ca se all the drawing can be carried out from
the one seated position with the board tilted to a near
Figure 1.23 Draughting machine (Courtesy of the Elite horizontal position, wh ich is better for scaling dimensions.
Manufacturing Co. Ud) The equipment is portable and this is c1early an advantage
General Principles 21
large protractor scale, combined with the vernier scale
attached to the base of the board . Alarger model, fitted with
a parallel motion arrangement, is also available.

1.6.1 Drawing Media

A wide range of high-quality papers, doths and film is avail-


able to the draughtsman for drawing and tracing. The factors
that will influence the choice of material indude cost,
durability, opacity, surface texture, translucency for diazo
printing, weight, stiffness, pencil and ink acceptance,
dimensional stability and the effects of heat, damp and
erasures.
Cartridge paper is a frequently used medium for drawing,
and can be obtained in a variety of colours, thicknesses and
surface textures.
Figure 1.25 Polar coordinatograph
Detail paper, which is semi-transparent and has a surface
with good pencil and ink acceptance, is suitable for many
purposes, particularly preliminary draft sketches. The material
can be either rag or wood pulp based and is rendered
translucent by the application of specially formulated syn-
thetic resins to the surface. Several grades can be obtained,
varying in weight from between 50 and 95 g/m 2 approx-
imately.
Natural tracing paper has a higher transparency than detail
paper and is therefore more suitable where good-quality
diazo prints are required. The surface can be matt or smooth
and the grades vary between 63 and 112 g/m 2 approximately.
Tracing and detail papers have a number of disadvantages:
they tear easily if the edges are not protected with binding
tape, they need careful handling and they are susceptible to
weather changes.
Tracing linen is more durable than tracing and detail paper
but does not accept pencil; it shrinks and expands under the
Figure 1.26 Rotobord (Courtesy of Rotobord Ud) effects of heat and damp. Clear diazo prints can be obtained
from the very good ink tracings which are possible on linen.
Tracing linen is, however, very expensive and is now almost
where there are space /imitations. The board can be adjusted unobtainable.
in height or slope. The straight edge is fitted to a unit which Polyester film has alJ the advantages, and none of the
slides up and down freely by pushing a knob, which, if turned disadvantages, of tracing linen. The base material of the film
when depressed, also locks the unit in position. There is a was developed by Du Pont in the United States under the
facility for enabling the straight edge to be moved up the trade name Mylar, and by ICI under the name Melinex.
board at apre-set increment each time a second knob on the Melinex sheet has a glossy, tough and impervious surface
unit is depressed; this is particularly useful for hatching. Large which requires special treatment to make it receptive to ink
vertical movements of the calibrated straight edge can be or pencil. The usual method of achieving a suitable draught-
measured using the fixed vertical scale and an adjustable ing surface is by applying a special coating to either one or
pointer on the unit. The rotary table can be locked in any both sides of the sheet. The advantages of a double coating
position and there are dick stops at 0, 30, 45 and 600 angles - are that the coating on one side counteracts the pult of the
thus set squares are not necessary. Angles can be set using the coating on the other side so that the sheet lies flat at all times,
22 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

the tendency for the sheet to stretch or shrink is minimised


and dimensional stability is also improved; pre-printing can
be carried out on the reverse side, thus avoiding the risk of
removing the pre-printed images if erasures are made on the
face side.
Addressograph-Multigraph Ud have developed two
materials, under the trade names Permatrace and Super Per-
matrace, which have a matt surface (either on one side or on
both sides of the sheet) that is mechanically produced by shot
blasting. The base material of Super Permatrace is a silicate-
filled polyester which, despite repeated erasure, leaves a
surface with good ink and pencil acceptance. Because these
materials have a surface that is an integral part of the base
material, they do not crack or peel, and retain a high
translucency enabling high-quality copies to be made using
slow-speed dyeline materials.
Most of the above drawing media can be obtained in roll or
standard plain or pre-printed sheet form. Pre-printed
sectional materials, and standard sized sheets with pre-
printed titles and borders, can save a great deal of draughting
and design time. Grey and green are the accepted colours for
sections on non-translucent materials. Red, fast red and sepia
on translucent materials give good diazo reproduction; sepia
and red are removed by erasure, but fast red is not. Green
and blue are generally considered least likely to induce eye
strain . Grey is the most unobtrusive background. Materials
with blue lines, which are invisible to ultraviolet light, are
used when Iines are not required on diazo copies taken from
the original master. Figure 1.27 shows standard sections
typical of a wide range available.
Special markers are required for drawing on transparent
foil, which is frequently used for diagrams that have to be
projected on to a screen.

1.6.2 Draughting

Draughting principles, techniques and materials will vary Figure 1.27 Seetional papers : (a) square eoordinate,
according to the type of drawings being prepared. (h) isometrie, (e) perspective, (d) rectangular, (e) logarithmie,
Most drawings will be traced for the purpose of reproduc- (f) polar coordinate, (g) rectangular, (h) triangular, (i), (j) chart
tion, in which case the original draught is sometimes form
discarded or microfilmed after the tracing has been com-
pleted. The paper used in this instance only needs to be of survey work or where it is in fact the final drawing, a high-
sufficient quality to allow erasure without undue disturbance quality ca rtridge paper, linen-backed paper, or heavy-duty
of the surface, and the linework must be clear enough for the polyester film, all of which are durable and dimensionally
tracer to interpret. Medium-quality cartridge paper, or even stable, should be used. Survey plots made directly on heavy
detail paper, will be suitable for this purpose. The use of polyester film will facilitate print reproductions, and
sectional papers may greatly simplify the task of drawing eliminate the inaccuracy that would result from a copy tracing
cross-sections, longitudinal sections, charts and details, etc. (intermediate) .
When it is necessary to retain the original draught, as in Most detail drawings will be produced on cartridge paper
General Principles 23

using a hard 2H or 3H pencil or even a 4H in the case of survey draw any outlines that are symmetrical about the centre
plots which require a high degree of accuracy. Retained lines.
survey masters should be inked in. Softer pencils, H or HB, (3) Next draw the outlines. Where circular curves and straight
may be necessary on tracing or detail paper in order to lines meet, draw the curves first. Mark the ends of the
produce lines dense enough for dyeline reproduction. curves lightly in pencil so that the lines can be described
Where a drawing is being prepared in its final form directly in a continuous movement. Because outlines are thick
on cartridge paper, a wide range of pencils may be used for they take a long time to dry. Hence, draw either (a) all the
contrast and shading. A soft pencil, although it produces a horizontal lines, starting at the top and moving pro-
darker line that is easier to erase without disturbing the gressively down the sheet, followed by all the vertical
surface of the paper, is more likely to cause smudges on the lines starting from the left hand side, or (b) all the vertical
drawing, and will have to be sharpened more frequently. A lines, followed by the horizontalIines.
3H pencil is recommended for dimension and leader lines, (4) Hidden detail or other broken lines.
and a 2H pencil for outlines. A softer pencil may be preferred (5) Dimension lines.
for the lettering which can be left untillast in order to reduce (6) Lettering and arrowheads.
smudging. Generally, pencils should be sharpened to a long (7) In order to avoid crossing internal dimensions, section
fine point. If glasspaper is used for sharpening, the point lines are best left untillast.
should be wiped clean on a piece of scrap paper before use.
Tracing is a skill that requires a great deal of practice to
A chisei point will not have to be sharpened so frequently and
acquire, and if done properly, it involves more than merely
may be preferable for linework. The points of compasses
copying. In addition to being capable of neat lettering and
should be bevel edged. An adjustable set square will be
linework, a tracer should be able to
found useful for drawing inclined parallelIines.
If parallel straight edge boards or draughting machines are (1) visualise the information shown on the drawings, follow-
not available, a high degree of detailing accuracy can be ing abrief discussion with the draughtsman;
achieved by first constructing a square grid on the drawing, (2) draw all the lines to their correct thicknesses and
using beam compasses and steel straight edge. Each section of understand the reasons for the different weightings;
detail can then be related to the nearest construction lines of (3) check all line lengths against the dimensions and make
the grid, using a tee square and set squares in the normal way. minor adjustments if necessary - any major discrepancies
must be referred back to the draughtsman;
(4) draw lines truly vertical or horizontal where it is obvious
1.6.3 Tracing Techniques
to do so without assuming that the lines on the original
Tracings may be prepared on linen, polyester film, tracing drawing are perfectly correct;
paper or detail paper. Black ink on polyester film will facilitate (5) locate exactly the centres of circles;
the production of good diazo prints with dense black (6) understand basic geometrical principles.
linework on a white background. Polyester film is abrasive
Careful consideration should be given to the arrangement
and the use of special nibs incorporating tungsten carbide
of notes and dimensions. Pencil guidelines, or a piece of
tips is advisable on this medium.
squared paper placed beneath the tracing sheet, should be
The correct choice of ink is important and will depend on
used to enable the formation of consistent freehand lettering.
the nature of the medium used.
Clear lettering can be achieved quickly using stencils. Stencils
The following sequence of operations should enable a
may be preferred, particu larly where several tracers are
tracing to be completed quickly and with minimal movement
working on a set of drawings, because this achieves a more
of drawing instruments over completed work.
uniform style of presentation. Transfers can be obtained in a
(1) Fix both the original drawing and the tracing sheet, matt very wide range of lettering types, but they take longer to use
side uppermost, to the board with draughting tape. If than stencils, and are liable to become partly erased after the
artificial light is necessary, arrange for this to come from tracing has been in use for a time. The latter objection of
the top left-hand corner of the board. Ensure that any course does not apply to a diazo copy negative (intermediate)
surface grease is removed from the sheet, applying tale if taken from the original. Transfers are indispensable when
necessary. preparing presentation drawings.
(2) Complete centre lines first - this will make it easier to All instruments should be thoroughly cleaned before and
24 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings
after use. Each time the pen is filled with ink the top should ings should be coloured in order to delineate particular
be returned to the bottle. If mistakes are made while tracing, features and facilitate better understanding of the informa-
they should be marked in pencil, and then corrected all tion shown (for example, in legal documents and drawings for
together when the drawing has been completed. This will public display).
allow more time for the ink to dry, and erasures can then be The drawing board should be slightly tilted for colouring on
made easily, using a hard rubber, safety razor blade, or sharp paper prints. A light colour wash should be worked down the
cutter. An erasing paste will probably be more suitable for sheet, using as large a brush as practicable, with the edges
rubbing out on linen. slightly in advance of the centre until the part has been com-
lines must be drawn to their correct width in accordance pleted. The excess wash at the bottom of the section should
with their function on the drawing. long lines should be then be removed with the tip of a dry brush held just clear of
drawn 'with an arm movement finishing with a short finger the surface of the paper. If the part is too large to complete in
movement. There should be sufficient ink in the pen to com- one application, work down to a conveniently positioned
plete a line in one continuous movement. If a line is very feint pencil guideline. Note that materials represented in
thick it is better to draw thin lines to mark the edges and then section are coloured darker than those that are not. A dark
fill in the space between them. colour is better achieved by applying several light washes on
When the tracing has been completed it should be placed top of each other - this will avoid patchiness. This will be even
on a white sheet of paper at the side of the drawing board, more important when colouring linen prints.
and carefully checked against the original draught. Colour linen prints in the same manner as paper, but adjust
the drawing board to a near horizontal position and add a
1.6.4 Colouring little ox-gall to the water:
Drawings are rarely coloured because of the additional time
and cost involved. In certain circumstances, however, draw-
2. DRAWING OFFICE LAYOUT; CONTROL AND
REPRODUCTION

2.1 INlRODUCTION sensible management structure, adequate working condi-


tions and a good communcations system will go a long way
The layout of a drawing office, and the system of drawing towards ensuring that people are happy in their work. The
control operating within it, will depend on the structure and basic physiological needs of most people living in advanced
size of the organisation of which it forms an integral part. industrialised societies have been attained and the chief
The nature of the work undertaken will influence the remaining needs, often unfulfilled, are those which relate to
choice of (1) filing, recording and retrieval systems for draw- self-esteem: needs for self-respect and self-confidence,
ings, and (2) methods of reproduction and distribution. autonomy, achievement, competence, knowledge, status,
Many large organisations will contain several special ist recognition and appreciation. It could be argued that a
technical groups each with their own drawing office. All these successful organisation is likely to be biased towards satisfying
groups will probably be serviced by one central section wh ich these needs.
deals with communications, purchasing, stores, general
administration, distribution, printing, dyeline reproduction,
the microfilm unit and the library. If all the drawing offices 2.2 OFFICE LA YOUl
are dose together, centralisation of the drawing control and
filing systems mayaiso be an advantage. Even if this is the Many new offices are being designed on the open-plan
case, however, each drawing office will still need facilities for principle, wh ich should provide for greater efficiency and
easy reference, such as print and film filing cabinets, or a flexibility, and ease communication. However, if such layouts
microfilm viewer. are not carefully designed, the resulting disadvantages could
Some of the factors that should be considered in determin- outweigh the merits. Draughtsmen, in order to work
ing the basic structure, and the drawing control and other efficiently, need a workplace that is quiet and free from
procedures that should operate within each group, are through traffie. In an open-plan office, thought may need to
be given to the provision of acoustic and free-standing
(1) industrial relations screens and to ensuring that adequate light levels, both
(2) working conditions and ergonomics natural and artificial, exist throughout the office. It should
(3) reduction of monotonous work also be borne in mind that some people may prefer to work in
(4) simplification of drawing procedures a small group without the feeling that they may be over-
(5) standardisation looked. Carpeting throughout the office will reduce noise,
(6) efficiency in general assist in providing an attractive working area, and is likely to
(7) reduction of draughting errors be the cheapest form of covering in the long term.
(8) security The office of Building Design Partnership in Preston,
(9) communications created in 1968 within the walls of a 100-year-old biscuit
(10) filing, recording and retrieval methods factory, is a good example of what can be achieved by careful
(11) draughting costs planning.
(12) reproduction methods Architects, engineers and quantity surveyors, housed in two
(13) available space. large open-plan office areas, have been arranged in small
groups distributed and intermixed so that professions can act
The most important consideration in any workplace is the as job teams and at the same time receive stimuli from fellow
establishment of a good industrial relations environment. A professionals. Each designer has a four-sided workplace, the
25
26 A Guide to The Preparation of Ci vii Engineering Drawings
four sides being drawing board, reference unit with storage, accommodates the office information section and library
desk, and additional storage with pin-up surface above service with direct staircase links to the centre of two of the
formed by the back of the next person's reference unit. technical floors .
Quantity surveyors and secretarial staff each have an l- Other functions including town planning, graphie design,
shaped workplace incorporating storage and again the fur- photography and printing and the central accounts with
niture is assembled in groups. service areas including cloakrooms and toilets are located on
A considerable number of indoor plants are provided, three separate floors of an adjoining wing. The central
together with free-standing screens at key points to offer accounts department has a style of design consistent with the
some privacy to people in positions adjoining main routes main office areas.
through the office. See figures 2.1 and 2.2. The ceiling and lighting of the first-floor room (figure 2.2)
Secretarial staff have been sited in the centre of each large have been integrated in a coffered design so that the ceiling
floor thus avoiding the accentuation of typing noise by reflec- becomes the light fitting itself providing cut-off to the
tions from hard wall surfaces. exposed tubes and avoiding glare conditions associated with
The main ground floor office also has a gallery whieh the conventional light fitting inserted in a flat ceiling, the

First lIoor plan

/A6.tL

g D~wllVt: 80.4"1'

~ Nf"U~Nt"E VN/r
c:::::J ADIJl7"leNAi. Sr(1~A&E Oll r/i./NC V/wr
o ,/,4CKfr N"~DFIl
S«.&rN

figure 2.1 first-floor layout (courtesy of Building Design Partnership, Preston)


General Principles 27

Figure 2.2 Open plan office (courtesy of Building Design Partnership, Preston)

slopes of the coffers being directly illuminated. An underly- side reference bench if possible, will usually prove to be the
ing design theme runs through all the items of furniture, the most suitable equipment for draughtsmen and tracers; on the
chief characteristic being the use of light coloured materials- other hand engineers, detailers and technicians will need
Finnish birch plywood tops and white end panels, which both desk and drawing facilities. Seats should be weil
increase reflections on to the ceiling, combine with the lime upholstered, have an adequate back rest, be adjustable in
green carpeting to give good eyesight conditions and provide height, and have a foot rest where necessary.
a cheerful atmosphere for the staff. Adequate space must be provided for filing, reference and
storage purposes. Plan chests with drawers, located near each
drawing board, will provide for both storage and reference.
Chapter 1 has already referred to various types of drawing Generally , drawer chests should not be placed adjacent to the
equipment and their arrangement in the office. Separate draughtsman or tracer, otherwise he will be disturbed each
draughting machines, or parallel motion equipment with a time someone else requires drawings.
28 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

2.3 DRAWING CONTROL AND FILING separate filing compartment, and their use for reference
purposes can be minimised by keeping up-to-date print
2.3.1 Control copies of all drawings. An efficient and systematic drawing
control system is more likely to be achieved if there is one
There are substantial costs involved in producing the simplest person solely responsible for filing and general administrative
of drawings, therefore control procedures and security will office duties.
be of paramount importance in any design office. One of the main problems in drawing control concerns
Every drawing should be given a reference number by amendments to drawings. Some drawings, by their very
which it is uniquely identified. This may be a simple sequen- nature, are likely to be added to or amended frequently, and
tial number or may have coded into it such basic information if these can be identified at the outset, at least the funda-
as the status of the drawing, the scheme for which it was mental requirement of providing sufficient space on the
produced, the size of the sheet and the design department. original drawings for entering details of the alterations can be
The coding significance of the drawing number, E84/10/1, met.
shown in figure 1.21 is as follows

Eidentifies the department 2.3.2 Filing


84 identifies the scheme
10 is the sequential master reference number (negative Any filing system must be readily accessible and must enable
number) any required drawing to be located quickly. Working draw-
1 is the sequential number of a copy taken from the ings will usually be placed in labelIed horizontal drawers.
original. This number is not introduced until a copy is Masters, office copies and incoming drawings should be
to be distributed. Each time a change is made to the stored in vertical cabinets (figure 2.3); these take up less floor
master or copy negative, or whenever the information
on the print is not identical to the master, this number
will change. An alternative that may be preferred
when the negative is modified is to add a letter to the
negative number which relates to the amendment
reference letter of the title block. The oblique strokes
between the numbers have the effect of reducing the
number of digits which would otherwise be needed in
the reference .

Other information on the drawings will include the initials


of those involved in its production, the dates of completion of
the origina) drawing and of any subsequent amendments, the
title, and a standard drawn scale of at least 150 mm length
giving the ratios used.
All drawings should be scheduled on a card indexing
system, the prime function of wh ich is to enable each drawing
to be identified and located quickly. Similar information to
that given in the drawing title blocks should be entered, and
all drawings adequately cross-referenced. In addition,
records should be kept of the names of all those to whom
drawings have to be sent, the date of issue, and the number of
copies. Amendment details mayaiso be entered, and a state-
ment as to whether the drawing has been microfilmed and
the master destroyed.
A copy, and issue details, of each drawing distributed and
all incoming drawings, should be filed. Masters can be Figure 2.3 Vertical fi/ing cabinet (courtesy of the Elite
safeguarded against excessive handling if they are kept in a Manufacturing Co. Ud)
Drawing Office Layout, Control and Reproduction 29
humidity and temperature and from handling; all dimensions
should therefore be clearly marked. Also, dimensions should
not be scaled directly from a drawing. This is particularly
important in the case of plans used for setting-out purposes
on development sites, or for conveyance plans where land
costs are high. Each print from a negative or original may
introduce further dimensional error, unless polyester or
other stable materials are used all the time. If dimensions are
always given, any variations due to print processing will not
matter so much.

2.4.1 Diazo
The three diazo processes, all of which require translucent
masters and the use of copy media coated with sensitised
diazonium sahs, are

(1) dry or ammonia (figure 2.5)


(2) wet or chemical
(3) pressure.

The most common of these is the dry process, in which


Figure 2.4 Horizontal fi/ing cabinet (courtesy of the Elite both the negative and print material are fed through a
Manufacturing Co. Ud) machine which first exposes them to actinic light. The
sensitised areas that remain beneath the lines on the master
space, are easy to operate, enable drawings to be filed and are transferred into an azo dye by ammonia fumes when the
located quickly and afford better drawing protection. print is passed through the developing section of the
Small drawings are difficuh to store satisfactorily in machine.
horizontal drawer or vertical cabinets; they are more effec-

-
tively filed in folders stored in a sectioned shutter cabinet.
If a horizontal filing system is preferred for all drawings
(figure 2.4) the cabinet drawers should be as shallow as
possible to reduce the amount of time searching for drawings
and the consequent wear and tear caused by excessive hand-
ling.
Most organisations will at some stage experience storage
problems with conventional filing systems; microfilming may
then ofter a solution . In addition to reducing storage require-
ments by as much as 95 per cent, microfilming has other
benefits, such as greater security and the advantages of
automated filing and retrieval facilities (see section 2.4.2).

2.4 DRAWING REPRODUCTION

The most widely used processes for drawing reproduction are


dyeline (diazo) and microfilming. It should be borne in mind
at the outset that reproductions will not be exact copies of the
original negatives. Any drawing on a paper or linen base is
subject to dimensional variation resulting from changes in Figure 2.5 Dry or ammonia process.
30 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings
In the wet process the developing stage involves immersing deteriorates with age and subsequent reproduction from
the print in a chemical solution. them may be difficult.
The pressure process does not involve chemicals or Drawings can be recorded on roll film, but the most con-
ammonia gas; it is therefore advantageous where space is venient method for ease of filing, retrieval and reproduction
limited and good ventilation is difficult to provide. is for each drawing to be reproduced on a separate film which
The dry process provides the greatest reproduction output is then mounted in an aperture card containing abrief
and permits the use of a wider range of printing media. The description of the drawing. At least two complete sets of
clarity of each reproduction depends on the nature of the aperture cards should be prepared - one for reference ancl
sensitised coating (fast or slow), the translucency and density the other for security. Exact microfilm copies can be taken
of linework on the master, the lighting power of the machine from the card mounted originals for the purpose of obtaining
and the speed at which the print is fed through the machine. print reproductions.
The extent to which a print will fade depends on the quality Microfilming requires
of the developing, the length of time that it is exposed to
(1) a camera and processor for exposing and developing the
direct sunlight and the type of diazo material used. There are
film;
materials available that are 'ultraviolet screened' and provide
(2) inspection equipment for checking the quality of the film;
a very high resistance to the fading effects of direct sunlight.
(3) mounting equipment for cutting the microfilm frames
The lower the material speed the higher the quality of con-
and fixing them into the aperture cards;
trast and density of line. 'High-speed' materials allow higher
(4) a printer for making copies;
reproduction rates, while 'medium-speed' materials aim at a
(5) areader for viewing the information recorded on the
balance between quality and rate of production.
microfilm;
Reproductions from diazo materials can be obtained in
(6) filing equipment.
(1) polyester for intermediates, aluminised polyester (foil) for
A large organisation producing or receiving perhaps many
intermediates and overlays; also paper, linen and lac-
thousands of documents each year may have all the equip-
quered film paper;
ment listed above, but the average firm will probably rely on a
(2) a variety of thicknesses;
service company for filming and the provision of print
(3) several background colours - white, red, orange, yellow,
reproductions, using aperture card files and readers for its
green, blue;
own general reference purposes. If a service company is used,
(4) black, blue or red linework wh ich gives the facility for
it may still be necessary to inspect and check film quality to
distinguishing between drawings of differing status;
ensure long-term information retrieval needs.
(5) different weights - low-weight prints reduce postal
Although it may be decided to microfilm all drawings,
charges and need less storage space; heavier-weight
original negatives that are in constant use may be kept so that
papers give better handling qualities and may be more
cheap full-size diazo prints can be produced. If full-size prints
suitable for presentation drawings that are colour washed.
are unnecessary, smaller copies obtained from microfilm may
be cheaper and mayaiso reduce postage costs. It is important
2.4.2 Microfilming to ensure that the information shown at the reduced size is
still comprehensible and the standard scale is easily readable
The security benefits of microfilming become apparent when
so that rough measurements of any undimensioned areas can
one attempts to establish the true value of drawings. This
be made. Supplement No.1 to BS 308 gives guidance on the
value may be assessed as the cost involved in preparing new
preparation of drawings suitable for microfilming. BS 4210,
drawings should the originals be lost or destroyed. This may
5525 and parts of 3429 are also relevant for preparing standard
be correct if the information required for redraughting is
drawing sheets.
readily available, but what if the original drawing is the only
The main advantages of microfilming are
record of data that have taken many months or even years to
compile? (1) reduction of filing space;
Documents that are the only record of a particular event (2) security against fire, theft or damage;
are irreplaceable. The loss of a drawing could have serious (3) low operating costs;
financial, technical and legal implications. Also, prints from (4) low print costs if drawings smaller than original size are
diazo processes have only a limited life because the material adequate;
Drawing Office Layout, Control and Reproduction 31
(5) lower postage costs in distributing small aperture cards installed in the offices of the London Borough of Ealing. The
and prints; microfilm is stored in an automated filing and retrieval unit
(6) quick duplication of aperture cards; (figure 2.6), controlled by a single operator who is able to
(7) quick and convenient reference to drawings by means of retrieve any one of thousands of microfilm cards at the touch
a viewer; of a button. A large electrostatic printing unit accommodates
(8) faster retrieval from single-sized small-drawer filing any drawing up to 900 mm wide. The drawing can be copied
systems; at between 100 per cent down to 45 per cent of its original
(9) reduced wear and tear on drawings; size. The finished print from the machine has a maximum
(10) punched aperture cards facilitate automatie coding, width of 450 mm. The machine can print on ordinary paper,
sorting and retrieval of drawings; tracing paper or special polyester map or transparent films.
(11) long life, at high quality, if film has been produced to The input can be on any material up to 4 mm hardboard. The
standard. machine works within a tolerance of 0.5 per cent which, com-
pared with the error on normal dyeline printing of some 5 to
Ink drawings provide the best results for microfilm record- 6 per cent, enables more accurate copies to be produced for
ing. Rotring drawing pens that are suitable for microfilming master work, such as Ordnance 5urvey sheets. (Machines
carry the symbol m. The line thicknesses are graduated in with variable reduction and enlargement facilities - from 45
accordance with the Aseries drawing sizes. The letter sizes of to 145 per cent of original size - are available.)
stencils carrying the symbol lIi are graduated in the same By careful planning of the drawing process, it is possible to
proportion and the lettering system conforms to the inter- eliminate the tracing stage and also to incorporate parts of all
national standard ISO 3098/1. the drawings where only the dyeline print exists (figure 2.7).
Figures 2.6 to 2.10 iIIustrate a range of microfilm equipment The printer (figure 2.8) enables print copies to be made of

Figure 2.6 Automated microfilm filing and retrieval unit (courtesy 01 the London Borough 01 Ealing)
Drawing Office Layout, Contral and Repraduction 33

Figure 2.9 High-speed printer with automatic document feed and collation (courtesy of the London Borough of Ealing)

the microfilm at the rate of 5 per minute on to translucent The microfilm equipment includes a 35 mm camera capable
polyester or paper. of filming at resolutions of 160 lines/mm from an AO size
A combined electrostatic printer and sorter (figure 2.9) can drawing (figure 2.10). Several thousand images are filmed
sort prints into up to 50 bins each capable of holding 150 every year, giving aspace saving of more than 95 per cent
copies. compared with hard copy.

Figure 2.7 Electrostatic printing unit for large plan reduction and copying (courtesy of the London Borough of Ealing)

Figure 2.8 Electrostatic printer for microfilm (courtesy of the London Borough of Ealing)
34 A Guide 10 The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

Figure 2.10 35 mm microfilm camera with e/ectronic exposure metering and enlarging facilities (courtesy of the London
Borough of Ealing)
36 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

Figure 3.1 The Shahyad Ariamehr Monument, Tehran, Iran

As the basis for the geometry, four setting out points were as points of intersection of circular arcs and radial lines from
established : three on the apexes of an equilateral triangle of the four original setting out points. The final structural
side 80 m, and the fourth at the centroid of this triangle. Arcs analysis was carried out by computer using a three-
of radius 36 m were swung from these points in defining the dimensional plate bending and shell analysis finite element
basic plan shape. The roof surface is entirely composed of program. Geometry data checks were carried out using a
triangular planes, the apexes of which were defined on plan computer perspective plot.
3. PROJECTIONS AND BASIC GEOMETRY

3.1 INTRODUCTION case the projection lines must be at right angles to the planes.
The term 'orthographie' is derived from the word
Diagrams have always been one of people's most effective 'orthogonal' meaning 'at right angles to'. The sides of the
aids to communication. Anyone who has tried to describe the object are then viewed in the three directions indieated.
sequence of operations necessary to construct the simplest of When the object is placed in the first quadrant the faces A, B
objects will appreciate the truth of this statement. Most and C are those directly in front of the view points and must
people will at some time in their lives benefit from an ability be projected through and beyond the object in order to
to interpret simple three-dimensional diagrams correctly. appear on the planes. This is termed first-angle orthographie
Diagrams are included with the assembly instructions for projection (see figures 3.2 and 3.3).
most household artieies and the user will be annoyed and When the object is placed in the third quadrant the faces A,
frustrated if illustrations are unclear or ambiguous. Band C must be viewed 'through the planes' and projected
As a means of conveying technical information, drawings backwards on to the planes. This is termed third-ang/e
are essential and must be prepared in accordance with striet orthographie projection (see figures 3.2 and 3.3).
rules and/or conventions to ensure that their meaning cannot The planes are finally imagined to be opened out (this is
be misinterpreted. Although three-dimensional drawings are called rebatement) to give the required arrangement for
an invaluable aid to visualisation they are not suitable for practical representation on a flat sheet of paper. It should be
representing the information necessary for the construction noted that orthographie projection only requires that the
of buildings and ci vii engineering structures. Two- planes be at right angles to each other and that projection lines
dimensional related views ca lied plans, e/evations and be at right angles to the planes; the object can be orientated
sections, which are drawn to scale and dimensioned, are in any way within the quadrants. From figure 3.4 it can be seen
generally prepared for this purpose. that only lines parallel to the planes on to which they are
The plan is the view looking down on the object and the projected will be true lengths. Other lines will appear
elevations are the side views. Sections are the shapes of foreshortened on the views. Only true lengths will be
imaginary cuts taken through the object and the position of dimensioned on the views. The object is usually orientated so
the cut and the direction in which it is viewed must be that its principal side is parallel to the plane on to which it is
identified on the plan and elevations. In order to appreciate projected, as in figure 3.5. If, as an exercise, the reader places
how these views are prepared and arranged, abasie the object in either the second or fourth quadrants he will
understanding of planes and projections is necessary. (see find that the views cannot be arranged without a detachment
figures 3.2 to 3.7). of one of the planes. The resulting arrangement can at best
only be interpreted as an improper mixture of first- and third-
angle projection systems.
First-angle projection is recommended in both BS 1192 and
3.2 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION BS 308. This may be quite suitable for buildings and
mechanieal objects but, in the author's opinion, a strict
The arrangement of the various two-dimensional views of an adherence to either system of projection is rarely appropriate
object is usually defined by the manner in whieh they are pro- to civil engineering drawings. For example in figure 7.23
jected on to three interconnected planes whieh are at right (p. 116) the views have been arranged in the way that a
angles to each other. The object is imagined to be placed in tradesman would expect to see them. Jf a steelfixer or
one of four possible quadrants as shown in figure 3.2. In each carpenter were working on the column shown on the left-
37
38 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

--
Planes used tor the projections :
5
y
1
PROJECTIOf L 1-
---
..... - 111
_'>1_
FIRST
...... =!.--- I ANGLE
3-2-5-6 1-2-3-4 3-6-7-4
1
THIRD 13-14-9-3 13-3-11-15 3-9-12-11
ANGLE
~
~~ ~
17
16

2 Z
2 5

C
1IUlDIl-- --- A
, FIRST

@
I

I-- --
4
I I
6 ANGLE
I I 3 I
I
./
I
I PROJECTION
I
/
./
Y 8

7 6

r-i
9 12

/-
/ THIRO
/ / r- I I ANGLE
9 I /3 I 1
I I I
I PROJECTION
1 I I
~-- r.=-Jnmm
A C

14
15 13 15

13

Figure 3.2 Orthographie projection


Projeetions and Basic Geometry 39

!
[]
ld --
1 ,
1 1

fiS
I 1
1 I

A ----[]' ----rn' I-t----~--


------- ---ill-
11 "1 1
------ - - I ---
C A: 0 F
---- '-t---E--------ill
, ---- - - - - - - ---- ---- ---
o A:
,, , - - - - C F 1
I
I 1
1 I

o ßj
----I ---- I I I
I I'

THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION


FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION
denoted by the symbol -$- ~ denoted by the symbol -$--E3-
Figure 3.3 First and third-angle orthographie projeetion

hand side of the front elevation, then he would also expect to viewed from above in accordance with the Standard Method
see other views of that eolumn on the left-hand side of the of Detailing Reinforeed Concrete.
drawing. The elevations and deck plan have therefore been No matter which arrangement is adopted, however, all
represented in third-angle projection. It would not be logical directions of viewing must be shown, and both arrows and
to show the base plan strietly in accordance with this projec- views must be clearly referenced on the drawing.
tion system because the base would never be viewed in this In order to present fully dimensioned views of the sides of
way (that is, upwards). The base has been viewed looking the object which are not parallel to the three orthogonal
downwards as would be expected. This also conforms with planes, additional planes ca lied auxiliary planes are required
the reinforcement detail drawing, where the base must be and the method of projection is called auxiliary projeetion.
40 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings
3.3 AUXILIARY PROJECTION

Auxiliary projection is a projection on to a plane whieh is not


parallel to any of the three orthographie planes.
An auxiliary plane is usually made parallel to a number of
principallines on a view so that those lines can then be drawn
to their true length and dimensioned (see figure 3.6).

Auxiliary views
Figure 3.4 Orthographic projection

Orthographie projeclion 01 ___ _

____ aointp

'--- '- Auxiliary plane


parallel to la ce
a -b-e-d-e-I

Figure 3.6 Auxiliary projection

____ a line
3.4 TRUE LENGTHS

A line can only be represented as a true length if it is parallel


to the plane on to which it is projected. The true length of any
straight line can be obtained from orthographic views by a
process ca lied rebatement. See figure 3.7. The determination
of the true shapes of surfaces is dealt with later in this chapter.
Anyone making a model or following a dress pattern is using
___ _asolid true shape views, called developments. In the case of the
dress the complex shapes can be measured directly from the
model. The true shapes of surfaces on simple objects may be
determined graphically as shown later in this chapter, but
mathematical calculations will be required for complex civil
Figure 3.5 Projection of points, fines and surfaces engineering structures (see figure 3.1).
Projections and Basic Geometry 41

ß' ____

A' ___ J_
1
I
I

1
2

---/iBO
----I."I I
I
5

;----
A' ---~----
I
2

---~
5

I
I I 1 1
I I I I
1
I I I I
4 6 4 6
3 I 3
I I
I I 1 / I
/ /
True length 01 A-- ß I

I~
--"1"----

--
/

Bill
./ r ___
I
-- ./
/

7 6 7 6

Alternative methods 01 determining the true length 01 a line


Figure 3.7 True lengths of a fine by rebatement
42 A Guide 10 The Preparalion of Civil Engineering Drawings
3.5 PLANS, ELEV ATIONS AND SECTIONS design purposes, for showing the routes of sewers, roads and
similar projects wh ich extend over long distances, and for
Buildings will usually be iIIustrated by means of plans and indicating the location of more confined sites in relation to
elevations arranged in accordance with one of the three pro- the surrounding area. The positions of borrow pits, tips,
jections mentioned above, plus vertical and horizontal sec- access points and similar information mayaiso be shown on
tions to show the interior layout and construction details (see small-scale plans. large-scale survey plans, frequently pre-
figure 3.8). pared from aerial photogaphs, will show such features as
Most civil engineering drawings iIIustrate construction fences, manholes, telegraph and electricity poles, street light-
details on carefully chosen sections. The nature and scale of ing columns and trees (see figure 7.13). Geological maps,
plans and sections will depend on the project to be Statutory Undertaking records and other reference sources
illustrated. Major roadworks drawings will include large and will supplement this detail by providing information on pipes,
small-scale plans, typical detail sections, cross-sections and cables, nature of the soil, tunnels, coal workings, under-
longitudinal sections. Sewerage schemes require longitudinal ground streams and similar hidden features. Grid levels, spot
sections, plans and detail sections. For structures above levels and contours will generally also be incorporated on
ground, where the exterior appearance is important, eleva- these large-scale plans to define the ground topography.
tions, photo-montages and perspective drawings mayaiso be It should be borne in mind that, although most of the
prepared in addition to plans and sections. required information on existing features can generally be
For all civil engineering schemes there will be the need to obtained from records and surveys, no civil engineering
show existing features and proposed layouts on plan views project should ever be undertaken without first carrying out a
(see figure 3.9). thorough site investigation.
Ordnance Survey plans are frequently used for preliminary General arrangement plans for large structures are usually

'"' ,--~- _ .

""
""
"
""
""
""
l!
::"

0-0 PlAN

,,: ,I , I
I
I
I
I
I
I I , I I
I I : I I
I
,
I
I
I I li
, I I I I I
I I I I I I
I, I I I I
I I I I I I
, I I I I I
:I :I (/
;..:f-\,
. "'->-1---
~
I

~
I
q · -"t-,... ... -""
~-r Z-t: ~
I I

-.t{
*_J.
. . . ___)
\
: I I I
:~
I \ ___ J __
~\~ ~J: I
11 I iII~ rU--l ~ I -l i
Lr-l.~_-:.:...J___ :':-j-_-:f+_l
L ________________ J L ________________ ,

SOUTH ELEVATION EIST ElEVATION


Figure 3.8 Flow-recording chamber: elevation and sections
Projections and Basic Geometry 43

\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\

Figure3.9

A proposed junction layout is shown superimposed on a survey plan by footways and open space. This is likely to affect Public Utility
of the existing features. Generally, thin lines represent existing apparatus and the survey of existing features should also include
features, while Public Utilities mains are shown thicker. Thick lines mains below ground, which are then represented on sections. For
have been used to show building outlines, in order to avoid the need greater clarity, setting out levels and dimensions, proposed road
for hatching or shading transfers which would take longer to apply. surface contours and road markings are better represented on
Thick lines have been used to emphasise the proposals and dis- separate large-scale plans. Each drawing should make reference to
tinguish them from the existing layout. It will be necessary to colour other related drawings for the scherne. All the plans should pre-
prints taken from the original, in order to indicate the proposals ferably have the same orientation and a north point should always be
clearly. Note that for most types of drawing, colouring will be quite shown. A suggested method of representing Public Utilities mains is
unnecessary. It is worth noting that the proposals involve excavation described in chapter 1- see also appendix 111.
and the construction of carriageways over areas previously occupied
44 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

isolated from the elevations and sections in order to show as Drawing applications are dealt with in greater detail in
much as possible, if not the complete area of the structure, on chapter 7.
the same drawing. For relatively small structures, plans and
the main sections can probably be incorporated on the same
drawing (see figure 7.57).
3.6 BASIC GEOMETRY
Although preliminary layouts will usually be drawn up on Geometry is the science of the properties and relationships
contoured survey plans, it is by means of sections that (1) any
of lines, surfaces and solids in space. A knowledge of
problems likely to arise from the proposals are highlighted, geometrical principles will be required both for the draught-
and (2) most of the constructional details are iIIustrated. The ing process and for the graphical solution of many design
ability to take sections through existing features and the problems. Graphical solutions can be far simpler than
proposed structure, so as to show all the information required mathematical ones and are easier to visualise. The scale and
in the most effective manner, is probably one of the most accuracy of the drawings, however, must be suited to the
important skills associated with civil engineering drawing. In design requirements for the completed structure.
the early stages of a scheme the feasibility of various alterna- Most of the curves likely to be used in civil engineering are
tive proposals can often be assessed quickly from a study of derived from the properties of a simple right circular cone.
small-scale contoured plans and a few weil-chosen sections. Horizontal curves in roads are usually either cireular or spiral.
There are recognised methods of taking sections, depend- Vertical road eurves, and the shape of bending moment
ing on the type of structure. Also, standard conventions apply diagrams for simply supported uniformly loaded beams, are
for the representation of materials, soils and geological strata. parabolic. Angled sections through eylindrical objeets are
The use of typical sections will avoid a considerable amount elliptieal.
of detailing, but there are problems associated with using The geometrieal development of surfaees is often neeessary
typical details that should be borne in mind. For example, for determining the areas and shapes of shuttering and
although the section shown in figure 1.12may be a true moulds used in eonerete eonstruction. The complex eurved
representation of the position of the mains in 90 per cent of roofs of prestige buildings are frequently based on a network
cases, complications will arise where there is a sharp bend in of interconnected straight steel or timber members.
the road or the mains are a lot larger than those shown. In this
situation the gas and water mains, for example, cannot always
3.6.1 Lines
be laid parallel to the kerb without using very expensive
special pipe bends and the size of the mains may be such that To draw a line parallel to a given line (figure 3.10)
they cannot be accommodated in the space available. Some
typical details will require a large column of notes to supple-
;> "< 7'
A B
ment the drawing details and these must be kept under con-
stant review. It is always advisable to produce quick sketches Figure 3.70
whenever typical details are used, to establish whether draw-
With two widely spaced points A and B (on the first line) as
ings showing variations from the typical details are required.
centres, draw ares with a radius equal to the required spacing
Most of the information necessary for road and pipeline
between the lines. Draw the seeond line to touch the eurves
construction will be shown on longitudinal sections. Cross-
as shown.
sections at fixed distances (called chainages) along the route
will usually be included for town cent re and major roadworks
schemes (see figure 7.52). It is debatable whether cross-
To divide a line into a given number of equal parts
(figure 3.11)
sections at regular intervals are required for minor roads con-
structed through virgin land, and most of the setting out
information can often be adequately represented on the
longitudinal sections (see figure 7.48b). Draft cross-sections
A
\\
drawn on graph paper will, however, usually be necessary for
Figure 3.77 To divide a line into a number of equal parts
the purposes of computing excavation and fill quantities,
even if they are not incorporated in the final contract draw- It is required to divide line AB into three equal parts. Draw
ings. line AB at a eonvenient angle and set off three equal divisions
Projeetions and Basic Geometry 45

along it. From the third division B draw a line to B'. Draw lines With the interseetion of lines at A as centre, draw an are to
parallel to BB' as shown. (Greater aeeuraey will be aehieved if interseet the lines at Band C. With Band C as centres, draw
these paralleis are nearly perpendicular to AB.) equal ares to interseet as shown. This proeess ean be repeated
at other points (D and E). Note that it is far easier to loeate the
To draw a fine at right ang/es to a given line (figure 3.12) interseetion point when the ares cross at right angfes. The fine
AF through the interseetions biseets the angfe between the
two fines AD and AE.

To find the junetion of a straight fine and a tangential are


8
(figure 3.15)

Figure 3.12 To draw a line at right ang/es to a given line

With a point 0 (near the middle of the line) as centre, draw


an are to cut the line at A and B. With points A and B as
centres, draw equal ares to intersect at P and Q. The line
joining P, Q and 0 is perpendicular to line AB. Greater
aeeuraey is aehieved if the ares at P and Q cross nearly at right
angles to eaeh other. Figure 3.15 To find the junetion of a straight fine and a
tangential are
To find the eentre of a given are (figure 3.13)
Drawa fine between the eentre of the circle, 0, and any point
N on the straight line. Biseet fine ON and draw an are to pass
through 0 and N. Where this are crosses the original eurve is
the point of tangeney, P.

To find the junetion of two tangential ares (figure 3.16)


o

Figure 3.13 To find the eentre of a given are


From two points on the eurve draw ares to cut the eurve at A,
B, C and D. With points A, B, C and D as centres, draw equal
ares to interseet at P, Q, Rand S. Lines drawn through P and Q
and through Rand 5 will interseet at 0, the eentre of the are.
Figure 3.16 To find the junetion of two tangential ares
To biseet an angle (figure 3.14)
The centres, 0 and Q, of eurves Ro and Rq and the tangent
point P willfie on the same straight line.
::-A

Figure 3.14 To biseet an angle


46 A Guide 10 The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

3.6.2 Construction of Ellipses

To draw an ellipse (figure 3.17)

Figure3.17 Todrawanellipse

Draw two perpendicular lines, and with their point of


intersection as centre, draw two circles with diameters equal
to the major axis AB and minor axis CD of the ellipse. Draw
radials from the centre using a 30° set square or protractor.
From the points of intersection, n, between the radials and the
small circle draw horizontalIines. From the points of intersec-
tion, k, between the radials and the large circle draw vertical
lines. The points, m, at wh ich the horizontal and verticallines
cross, lie on the ellipse.
There are several other methods of drawing ellipses.

3.6.3 Construction of Polygons

To draw any regular polygon when one side is given


(figu re 3.18)
Draw a semi-circle of radius equal to one side AB of the
polygon as shown. Divide the semi-circle into the same
number of equal parts as there are sides to the polygon. Join B
to the second division, C, of the semi-circle. Bisect, and draw
lines at right angles to, sides AB and BC and extend these lines
to intersect at O. With 0 as centre, draw a circle to pass
through points A, Band C. Complete the polygon as shown
with the aid of compasses or dividers. Figure 3.18 To draw a regular polygon given one side
Projections and Basic Geometry 47
To draw any regular polygon within a given circJe (figure 3.19) To draw any regular polygon around a given circJe
(figure 3.20)

(a)

Figure 3.20 To draw a regular polygon around a given circJe

Proceed as for figure 3.19 but draw tangents at the points of


(b)
intersection between the radials and the circumference as
shown.
A B

To draw an octagon within a given square (figure 3.21)

Figure 3.19 To draw a regular polygon within a given circJe

Draw radials from the eentre of the circle using a protraetor to


divide the cireumferenee into the same number of equal
parts as there are sides to the polygon (figure 3.19a).
Divide the diameter of the circle, AB, into the same number
of equal parts as there are sides to the polygon, (figure 3.19b).
With A and B as eentres, draw ares equal to the diameter of Figure 3.21 To draw an octagon within a given square
the circle. From the point of interseetion, P, of the ares draw a
line through the second division of AB to interseet the Draw diagonals to locate the eentre, 0, of the square. With
cireumferenee at C. loin A to C wh ich is then one side of the the corners A, B, C and D as centres, draw arcs through 0 to
polygon. Mark off equal divisions around the cireumferenee interseet the sides of the square. loin the intersections as
and complete the figure as shown. shown to complete the octagon.
48 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

3.6.4 Conics curve; for this reason spirals are commonly used on high-
speed roads to join a straight balanced section of carriageway
The drele, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola and spiral are
to a fully super-elevated drcular bend.
obtained from the properties of a cone.
Para bolas and hyperbolas are the vertical curves used to
Spirals give a smooth transition between two drcular curves
join road gradients.
of different radius, or between a straight line and a circular

0-0

Hight Circular CODe

figure 3.22 Conic seetions


Projections and Basic Geometry 49
Conic sections (figure 3.22) o
A circle is obtained by taking a section AA through the cone
at right angles to the axis.
When a complete section BB through the cone is taken at
an angle other than at right angles to the axis, the resulting
curve is an ellipse.
A section CC parallel to the side of the cone produces a
parabola.
A section DD parallel to the axis of the cone produces a
hyperbola.

Figure 3.24 To construct a hyperbola


To construct a spiral (figure 3.23)
nearly tangential to lines parallel to the asymptotes. Distances
PC and PD are equal. Determine further points p on the curve
by marking off equal distances from the asymptotes, as
shown.

To construct a parabola given the width and vertex


(figure 3.25)

Figure 3.25 To construct a parabola given the width and


vertex

Draw a rectangle ABCD with AB equal to the width, a, and


Figure 3.23 To construct a spiral
sides AC and BD equal to the height, b. The apex, 0, is
located at the mid point of CD. Divide OC, OD, AC and BD
Draw radials from the centre of the circle using a 30° set
into the same number of equal parts. Draw radials from 0 to
square. Divide the radius into 12 equal parts and with 0 as
the divisions on AC and BD. The curve drawn through the
centre draw circles to pass through these points. The line
intersections p of the radials with the verticallines as shown is
drawn through the points of intersection of the radials and
a parabola.
circular arcs is a true spiral (curves OA and BC).

To construct a parabola between two given equal tangents


To construct a hyperbola given the asymptotes and a point on (figure 3.26)
the curve (figure 3.24) let OC and OD be the equal tangents. Divide OC and OD
Draw a line through the given point p. The distances along into the same number of equal parts. Draw lines between the
this line between the asymptotes OA and OB and points on divisions on the tangents as shown. The smooth curve drawn
the curve, will be the same. At points C and D the curve is just to touch these lines is a parabola. The curve will meet the
50 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

3.6.6 Developments, Interpenetrations and Sections

Developments are the true shapes of surfaces when laid out


flat.

Deve/opment of a hexagonal prism (figure 3.29)

Figure 3.26 To construct a parabola between two given


equal tangents

tangents at A and B beyond points C and D. A curve drawn


through the intersections of the Iines p will touch the
tangents at C and D.

To construct a parabola between two given unequal tangents


Figure 3.29 Deve/opment of a hexagonal prism
(figure 3.27)
The construction is similar to that described for figure 3.26.
Each of the sides is vertical and at right angles to the base.
Hence horizontal Iines can be projected directly from the
elevation to enable the completion of the development as
shown. The true shape of the section RS is obtained by pro-
jecting an auxiliary view as shown .

Figure 3.27 To construct a parabola between two given Deve/opment of a cy/inder (figure 3.30)
unequal tangents

3.6.5 Construction of a Helix

To construct a helix (figure 3.28)

.~ l?>\
/' "- Rrrm?1~
." " .
'."':: ':.
:":"':': '~
" ~
x:z1\)1-
V ."-
V 1'\
/' i'-.
1........ - - - - - Piten - - -.... ..,1
Figure 3.28 To construct a helix

Draw radials from the centre of the circular plan of the


cylinder using a 30° set square as shown to divide the
circumference into 12 equal parts. On the elevation divide Figure 3.30 Deve/opment of a cylinder
the pitch into 12 equal parts. Project horizontallines from the
divisions on the plan to the vertical divisions on the elevation. Divide the circumference of the plan view into equal parts as
Draw a curve to pass through the points of intersection as shown and draw vertical projections to intercept the cut line
shown. RS. Draw horizontal projectors from the intersections and
Projections and Basic Geometry 51

complete the development as shown. Note that TU is equal to Draw a curve through the intersection of the radials pro-
the cireumferenee of the plan view and that a is measured jected towards 0 and the arcs scribed from the points on
along the curve. the sloping side OT as shown. The developed shape of the
complete cone will be the segment of a circle wh ich has a
Development of a cone (figure 3.31) radius equal to the sloping side of the cone OT and a base
length, UT, equal to the circumference of the base of the
u cone.
The plan outline of seetion RS is obtained by projecting
vertieal lines, shown broken, to intersect the radials on the
plan view. The true shape of section RS can be obtained by
projecting an auxiliary view in a manner similar to that shown
in figure 3.30.

Interpenetration of cylinders
Figure 3.32 shows the development of a small cylinder wh ich
is connected obliquely to a larger cylinder.
Draw the front and side elevations of the oblique connec-
tion . Draw a semi-circle below the front elevation with a
diameter equal to that of the small cylinder. Draw radials
dividing the semi-circle into equal parts. Project a verticalline
from a to intersect the circumference of the large cylinder at
b.
Draw a semi-circle beyond the end of the small cylinder in
the side elevation as shown. Divide the semi-circle into the
same number of equal parts used in the front view. Project a
line from c parallel to the side of the cylinder to intersect the
horizontal projector from the front view at point d. From d
draw a projector at right angles to the side of the small
cylinder. Loeate point g and complete the development in a
manner similar to that shown in figure 3.30.
Vertieal lines are projeeted from the side elevation as
shown to determine the development of the hole in the large
eylinder. Note that the distances between r, 5, t and u are
measured along the eireumferenee of the large eylinder in
the front elevation.

Figure 3.31 Development of a cone Development of a sphere (figure 3.33)


Divide the plan into twelve equal segments. Projeet vertieal
Draw radials to divide the plan view into equal parts as shown. lines from the divisions on the cireumference to interseet line
Project vertical lines, from the divisions on the cir- OB. With 0 as eentre draw arcs to pass through these
eumferenee, to the base line on the elevation. Continue the interseetions. Draw a projector through 0 and bisecting
projectors towards the apex, 0, of the cone to intersect the angle AOB. Draw projeetors parallel to this line from the
section li ne RS. interseetions of the eircles with the two radials OA and OB as
Draw horizontal lines from the intersections on RS to the shown .
sloping side OT. With 0 as centre, draw arcs to pass through Develop the shape of one gore of the sphere as shown. The
the points of intersection as shown. With 0 as centre, draw an length of each go re is equal to the cireumferenee of the
arc to pass through T and then mark off equal divisions, a, as sphere. The development shown is an approximation. If
shown. measurements are taken along the ares in the plan view to
a:
w
o
z
:::;
~

...o
....
z
w
~
g
w
>
w
o

a:
~
z
:::;
o>

~
CI)
"tl
c:
~u
-...
0
c:
.2
fiS....
~
c:CI)
0..
....
~
11
.::
11 "I
11 "!
1 11 Z CV)

1 11 0 ....
CI)

1 1 11 i= :J
~
U
1 1 11 z ~
1 : 11 :::l
-,
1 1
1 1 11
1 1 11 w
1 :::J
1 1 11
"
1
11 1 1 1 11 ::::;
:1 1 1 1 11 In
1 1 11 0
11 1
1 1 11
11 1 1 1 11
,I 1
11 1 1 1 11
1 1 11
" 11
11 1 1 11
1 11
1'I
I 1 :
1 1 1 11
I
I

--L-
I
Projections and Basic Geometry 53
obtain the width at each division of the gore, this will give a Surfaces which have the hyperbola as the main contour are
more accurate result. known as hyperboloids. Other sections through the surface
Project vertical lines from the elevation to the plan as will define the type of hyperboloid. Hyperboloids have
shown . At the points of intersection with the circumference properties wh ich enable the use of straight elements in their
on the plan view, draw horizontal lines to divide the circle formation.
into six parts. Consider one zone ABCD. Draw a line through Parabolic hyperboloids, commonly used in shell roof con-
points C and D to intersect the extension of the vertical line struction, can be visualised by placing a thin rectangular sheet
through the centre of the circle at E. With E as centre, draw of plastics on a level surface and then raising two opposite
ares to pass through C and D. Measure along these ares corners. The corners can also be bent down, or two corners
distances equal to the circumferences of the sections at BC can be bent downwards while the other two are raised. Lines
and AD (CC" and D'D"). Repeat this procedure to determine on the surface parallel with the edges will be straight, and
the developments of the remaining zones. those parallel to the diagonals will be parabolic.
The distinctive shapes of power station cooling towers are
circular hyperboloids.
3.6.7 Conicoids

Conicoids are the twisted surfaces derived from a triangle,


circle, ellipse, parabola or hyperbola.

A~~__ -+__ ~-+~

Figure 3.33 Deve/opment of a sphere


4. THREE-DIMENSIONAL DRAWING AND SKETCHING

4.1 INTRODUCTION intersections of straight line divisions of a square. (Figure 4.1f


shows how to construct an ellipse in a similar manner.)
This chapter deals with the basie principles of three- Two squares with sides in the proportion 1 :1.414 can be
dimensional drawing and sketching. Although the student of obtained by means of the construction shown in figure 4.1d.
civil engineering may seldom be called upon to be an artist, Alternatively the circle can be drawn within the given squares
he must nevertheless attain some proficiency in freehand as shown.
sketching. Figure 4.1e shows how to divide a square into smaller
squares by means of diagonals, and figure 4.1i shows how a
square grid can be extended in a similar way.
4.2 SKETCHING Each of the rectangles shown in figure 4.1g has an area
equal to half that of the next largest size. Standard metric
Sketching is generally used to iIIustrate a proposed idea drawing sheet sizes have these proportions (see table 1.1).
rather than an existing view or object. The reason why so Figure 4.1h shows how to divide a rectangle into two
many people find it difficult to sketch their ideas is that they different sized rectangles having the same length to width
have not developed a conscious awareness of the factors that ratio.
dictate the shape and form of many everyday objects; the Figure 4.1j shows how to divide the sides of a rectangle into
mind does not always appreciate what the eye sees. These halves, thirds, quarters and fifths.
factors include perspective, proportion, symmetry, shading, Some of these constructions will be found particularly
shadows, light and colour - of these the first two are the most useful in three-dimensional drawings and sketches.
important.

4.2.2 Perspective
4.2.1 Proportion and Symmetry
From everyday observation the reader is of course aware that
The essential features of an object should be drawn
an object will appear smaller the further it is placed away
approximately in their correct proportions. For example, is
from the eye. Probably it will also have been notieed that the
the over-all length one-and-a-half times or twiee the width? Is
eaves of buildings along a long straight road appear to con-
a partieular part of the object one-quarter or one-third of the
verge towards a single point. If the sea were to be visible
size of the whole?
beyond the end of the road this point would appear to He on
Coordinate papers (see figure 1.27) will be found
the line dividing the sea and the sky, that is, the horizon.
particularly helpful for both two and three-dimensional
Other rules governing what the eye sees (summarised
sketches. Figure 4.1a shows several common large objects
below) are not so readily apparent.
drawn in their correct proportions. One method of gauging
proportions is to hold a pencil at arm's length and mark off (1) All parallel lines will appear to converge towards a single
the observed dimensions of the object with the top of the point known as the vanishing point, except when they run
thumb as shown. directly ac ross the view, that is, where the lines are at right
It has long been considered that a rectangle, known as the angles to the line of sight. They are then drawn just as they
golden rectangle, has aesthetieally pleasing proportions. The would appear in an orthographie elevation, that is, the
construction of this rectangle is shown in figure 4.1b. vanishing points are an infinite distance away from the
Figure 4.1c shows a method of drawing a circle through the object.
54
Three-dimensional Drawing and Sketching 55

Figure 4.1 Proportions

(2) lines that are both parallel and horizontal will appear to Figures 4.2 to 4.6 serve to iIIustrate some of these basic
converge to a single point on the horizon. principles of perspective. Figures 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4 are rough
(3) The horizon always appears at the same level as the eye. freehand sketches of the building shown in isometric view in
(4) Sets of parallellines having different directions in plan will figure 4.12. The basic outlines only of the building are shown,
each have their own vanishing points.
(5) If parallellines are inclined upwards, their vanishing point
will be above the horizon, and if inclined downwards, the
vanishing point will be below the horizon.
(6) If the line of sight is horizontal, all vertical lines will also
be drawn vertical in the perspective view.
(7) If the line of sight is inclined, vertical parallel lines will
appear to converge towards a single point.
(8) If the line of sight is inclined upwards, vertical parallel
lines will appear to converge to a point above the
horizon, and if inclined downwards, the vanishing point
will be below the horizon. Figure 4.2 Une of sight horizontal, natural view
56 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

with greater attention being paid to the rendering of the sur-


rounding detail which serves mainly to complement the view
of the building.
Assuming that the observer is standing on ground wh ich is
at the same level as that directly in front of the building, the
eye level or horizon line in figure 4.2 is situated just above the
wall which is approximately 1.3 m high. This would be the
height of the observer's eye were he to stand next to the wall.
The line of sight is horizontal and the main horizontal out-
lines converge to two vanishing points on the eye level to the
Figure 4.3 Line of sight inclined upwards
right and to the leh of the picture. The parallel lines of the
approach road, also assumed to be level, will converge to a
point on the eye level. Note the attention to the foreground, (3) the most important elevation of the building is given
the trees around the building, and the cloudless sky. prominence.
In figure 4.3 it is assumed that the ground level immediately Figure 4.4 shows a view of the building as seen from above
in front of the building is higher than the ground where the with an inclined line of sight. Note that verticallines converge
observer is standing, and that the approach road is inclined towards a point below the picture. Particular attention is
upwards. It is also assumed that the observer maintains a given to the surrounding detail and shadows.
horizontal line of sight. Hence the vanishing points for the The apparent dimensions of the lines in these views have
horizontallines of the building will still converge to points on only been guessed . The following text describes how a more
the eye level, but both the wall and the vanishing point for accurate assessment can be made.
the approach road will lie above the eye level. Note the lack Figure 4.5 shows how the lines of a tall building appear to
of detail in the foreground, the trees to the side of, rather converge towards three vanishing points when looking up at
than around, the building, and the clouds in the sky. The best the building as in figure 4.5a, and looking down as in
composition is achieved if (1) the cent re of the focal area, in figure 4.5b.
this case the building, is situated approximately within the With any form of sketching, the basic outlines only of the
middle third of the picture, (2) the centre of the picture does objects should be drawn before filling in the detail (see
not coincide with a vertical corner of the building, and figure 4.6). Shadows can be roughly drawn by first

Figure 4.4 Bird's eye view


Three-dimensionaf Drawing and Sketching 57

,/'
/ /h
,/' /" ./
,/' /
/
/

\ I
\ II Figure 4.6 Perspective sketching with the aid of construction
\ , I fines

Figure 4.5 Perspective sketches with three vanishing points


The usual method of iIIustrating exterior views of buildings
is by means of 'two-point' or angular perspective. In this case
establishing the position of the sun. Then, taking the tree the elevations are set at an angle, other than a right angle, to
shown in figure 4.6 as an example, draw a line from the posi- the horizontal line of sight. The horizontallines of one eleva-
tion of the sun to touch the top of the tree. Extend this line to tion will appear to converge to a point on the eye level to the
intersect a line through the base of the tree to a point on the left of the picture, while the horizontal lines of the other
horizon directly below the sun, and sketch in the shadow of elevation, at right angles to the first, will converge to a point
the tree as shown. Note that this is only an approximation on the eye level to the right of the picture.
which assumes that the ground on which the shadow is cast is Figure 4.7 shows how the constructions in figures 4.1c, e, f
level. and i are used to sketch a cubic grid and to draw a circle and
A method of illustrating interior views, frequently used by an ellipse, in both parallel and angular perspective.
technical illustrators, architects and planners, involves placing No attempt has yet been made to describe how dimensions
one elevation at right angles to the horizontalline of sight. All are accurately determined along the lines converging towards
horizontal lines of the view that are at right angles to this the vanishing points; this is discussed in section 4.3.
elevation will then appear to converge towards a single
vanishing point. This is termed 'one-point' or parallel per-
4.2.3 Rendering and Shading
spective. Certain civil engineering structures can also be
appropriately represented in parallel perspective. An obvious Recent changes in the course syllabus for civil engineering
example is a footbridge, which will be seen in elevation from students are c1early intended to encourage the civil engineer
a car driver's viewpoint (see appendix 1). to consider very carefully the influence that his work may
58 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

Parallel perspective

Angular perspective

Figure 4.7 Construction lines: parallel and angular perspective sketches

have on society as a whole; in addition to his technical and an example of how a variety of drawing materials and media
economic judgements, today's civil engineer is being asked to can be used to good effect in quickly producing simple draw-
make sodal, moral and aesthetic judgements as weil. ings that show a variety of alternatives for ascheme, at a fixed
Perspective drawings, properly rendered and shaded, can location.
be a very effective means of assessing the appearance of a
proposed structure and the likely impact that it will have on (1) Mark two points at the proposed bridge location with
its environment. The revised BS 1192 is likely to place a ranging rods, and then take a photograph from the
greater emphasis on three-dimensional projections. required viewpoint.
In order to convey a sense of realism, some attention (2) Sketch the basic outlines of existing features on to detail
should be paid to the features surrounding a large structure paper by scaling up from the photograph.
drawn in perspective. The structure itself may be drawn in (3) Place a sheet of tracing paper over the sketch and quickly
constructed linework, but it will usually be sufficient merely shade in the clouds, trees and grass areas with a wash of
to sketch in background and foreground features - a few black ink and water diluted as required. This will be
narrow lines suggesting the basic outlines of buildings with quicker than hatching.
light shading between, or a blurred mass of distant trees. (4) Obtain a copy polyester negative (intermediate) of the
Pencils and colour wash are very suitable materials for colour washed tracing, ensuring that the printing is on the
rendering and shading. gloss side.
The method described below, and illustrated in figure 4.8, is (5) Mark in the kerb lines, handrailing, tree trunks and
Three-dimensional Drawing and Sketching 59
(al for representing people, vehides and similar features which
are difficult to draw realistically.
Important detailed presentation drawings for public display
should, however, be left to those who specialise in this type of
work .

4.2.4 The Mechanics of Sketching


Sketching is used in civil engineering chiefly by designers to
illustrate their preliminary ideas or convey their requirements
to draughtsmen or detailers, who then prepare the working
drawings.
Sketching therefore requires the ability to draw regular
geometrie shapes rather than a knowledge of perspective and
rendering. Straight lines, cirdes, ellipses and lettering should
be formed quickly with a reasonable degree of neatness and
accuracy, and there is no substitute for practice in achieving
this. Square and isometric coordinate paper will be found
very useful for accurate proportioning, and for drawing
parallellines.
The reader should be able to achieve proficiency in
freehand sketching by practising the following operations,
mastering each one in turn.

(1) Mark two arbitrary points on the paper and try drawing a
straight line between them with a continuous movement.
Repeat, increasing the distance between the points.
Figure 4.8 Sketches of alternative bridge schemes (2) Quickly draw parallel lines at even spacings. Alter the
spacing and angle of the lines. Draw the lines at gradually
diminishing spacings, as would be required for hatching
perspective drawings or indieating curvature of a surface.
branches, lamp columns and additional shading, using an (3) Draw a square, divide it as shown in figure 4.1c, and
H pencil. develop a grid as shown in figure 4.1i.
(6) Overlay the negative with one of the alternative bridge (4) Draw lines at approximately 30° to the horizontal, as
shapes, cut from card or cartridge paper, and pass would be required for isometric sketches.
through the developing section of the dyeline printing (5) Draw aseries of straight lines of equal length and with
machine. This shape will come out black when the print is equal spacings between them. Alter the length of the lines
passed through the printing section of the machine. Cut and the space between them.
out the shape of the bridge elevation alone and fix it to (6) Draw a cirde within a divided square, and an ellipse
the print. Repeat this procedure with the other shapes within a divided rectangle, keeping in mind that the curve
(figure 4.8a). will be tangential to the straight construction lines where
(7) Draw the chosen design in greater detail on the matt side it touches them.
of the copy negative and remove any encroaching back- (7) Draw a cirde and an ellipse without the aid of a square or
ground detail, with water and a hard rubber, from the rectangle. This will usually involve sketching a number of
gloss side (figure 4.8b). feint lines dose together and estimating the best line
through them, which is then drawn firmly.
A more formal style of rendering, using transfers and
straight hatching lines, may be more appropriate for a two- All the above movements should be practised without the
dimensional elevation and the front elevation of a structure pencil actually touching the paper, in order to establish the
drawn in parallel perspective. Transfers should also be used most suitable position of the hand for each stroke.
60 A Guide 10 The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings
4.3 CONSTRUCTED THREE-DIMENSIONAL DRAWINGS (1) Oblique projections in which the projection lines are
parallel and oblique to the plane of projection.
Three-dimensional drawings are derived from different (2) Axonometric projections in which the projection lines are
methods of projection from orthographic views. at right angles to the planes of projection.
There are three broad groups, shown pictorially in (3) Perspective projections.
figure 4.9.

OBLIQUE PROdECTIONS Parallel projection fines oblique to the plane of projection

CAVALIER CABINET CLiNOGRAPHIC

Face of object not parallel to the


One face of object parallel to the plane of projection plane of projection

AXONOMETRIC PROdECTIONS Projection lines 8t right angles to the planes of projection

ISOMETRIC DIMETRIC TRIMETRIC

Three sides equal Two sides equal Sides unequal

PERSPECTIVE DRAWINGS Parallel lines appear to converge to a single point

PARALLEL ANGULAR

To V.P ----
One vanishing point Two vanishing points Three vanishing points

Figure 4.9 Three-dimensional drawings


Three-dimensional Drawing and Sketching 61

4.3.1 Oblique Projections and Drawings tion can be reduced by the careful choice of (1) the angle of
the receding axis, (2) the foreshortening of the views in the
The projection lines used to derive oblique projections are
direction of the receding axis, and (3) the front elevation. The
parallel and oblique to the plane of projection.
usual choices for the angle that the receding axis makes with
The object itself can be situated in any position, but it is
the horizontal are 45°, 30° and 15°. The most commonly used
usual to arrange one elevation parallel to the plane of projec-
oblique drawings are
tion. All lines on this elevation, and planes parallel to it, will
then be the same as they would appear in an orthographic (1) cavalier drawings, in which dimensions on the receding
view. Measurements in the direction of the receding axis are views are to the same scale as those on the front eleva-
related to the angle of the projection lines but not to the tion;
angle of the axis itself. (2) cabinet drawings, in which dimensions on the receding
Although oblique drawings are simpler to construct than views are one-half the scale of those on the front eleva-
other three-dimensional drawings, they tend to give a more tion.
distorted appearance and are generally unsuitable for
illustrating civil engineering structures. The amount of distor- Figure 4.10 shows an oblique view of a footbridge.

Directions in which scale


measuremenls are made

Figure 4.10 Cavalier drawing ofa footbridge


62 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

4.3.2 Axonometrie Projections and Drawings related to the orientation of the axes. When the seale of the
measurements along all three axes is the same this is termed
The method of construeting an axonometrie projeetion is
isometrie projeetion. This oeeurs when the angles between
shown in figures 4.11 a and b.
adjoining axes are the same, that is, 120°. Oimetrie projections
(a) (1) Oraw the three principal axes of the objeet. are those in whieh two seales are the same; in trimetrie pro-
(2) Projeet the line of one axis from 0 to Fand draw a line jeetions all three seales are different. Note that with all true
in a eonvenient position at right angles to this projeetion axonometrie projeetions the lines on the three-dimensional
line to interseet the other two axes at A and e. view will be shorter than the eorresponding lines on the
(3) Oraw a line from C at right angles to OA to interseet orthographie elevations. For example, the ratio of an
the first axis at B. isometrie seale to the orthographie seale is 1 :1.224.
(4) Oraw OE parallel to AC, and GH parallel to Be. Axonometrie drawings, whieh are rarely projeeted direetly
(5) Oraw semi-circles on OE and GH. Extend OB to from orthographie views, are similar to, but rarely the same
interseet the semi-circle at F. Extend OA to interseet the as, true projeetions. For example, the seale for measurements
semi-circle at I. on an isometrie view is usually the same as the seale used for
(b) (6) Oraw the side JK of one elevation of the objeet the orthographie elevations. However, when elevations or
parallel to OF, Kl parallel to FE, NM parallel to IG, and NP seetions and the isometrie view are ineorporated on the same
parallel to IH. drawing, wh ich is often the ca se in meehanieal engineering,
(7) Projeet the axonometrie view of the objeet from the the redueed seale is used for the isometrie view so that it does
two elevations as shown. not appear unnaturally large in relation to the other views.
Isometrie drawings are used in eivil engineering more fre-
The foreshortening of the sides of the axonometrie view are
quently than other three-dimensional drawings beeause they
are easier and quieker to eonstruet, partieularly for cut-out
views. Figure 4.12 shows cut-out isometrie views of a sand
filtration plant at asewage works. Eaeh cut-out has been
(a) earefully chosen to eonvey a clear understanding of the over-
all working of the plant. Feint eonstruetion lines were taken
right aeross the views before the outlines and boundaries of
eaeh cut-out were drawn. The isometrie drawing shown in
figure 4.12 bears some similarity to a bird's eye view. Beeause
this is an uneommon viewpoint, the fact that the sides of the

/
/
/
/ c ............
----- building do not appear to eonverge towards vanishing points
was not eonsidered to be of signifieant importanee. A per-
/
speetive would, of course, have taken mueh longer to
produee.
Presentation drawings of large struetures, partieularly those
whieh do not involve cut-out views, should be drawn in per-
speetive (see inset view of plant in figure 4.12).
In axonometrie drawings, seale dimensions ean only be

/ / . . -. . ----
(b) / --- __
-- made along lines parallel to the three principal axes. Curves

8
/ / /............... ....... ....... _M

--
/ / ...... are usually drawn through points whieh have been deter-
/ /
mined by means of coordinates parallel to these axes. Hidden
/ /
lines are not usually drawn on three-dimensional drawings.
/
/ K
//
-...
............ In the isometrie drawing of part of a footbridge shown in
/ / p figure 4.13, it was found to be clearer to show the cut-out
/ /
/ / views beyond the limits of the main views.
L Figure 4.14 shows an example of dimensioning isometrie
Figure 4.11 Axonometrie projeetion views.
Three-dimensional Drawing and Sketehing 63

DRAIN CHANNEl

WASHWATER HOLDING
TANK

MAIN OUTFALL
CHANNEL TO
RIVER

AUTOMATIC FLOW
CONTR~ PENSTOCK

BV-PASS CHANNEL

MAGNETIC
FLOWMETER CHAMBER

Figure 4.12 Isometrie cut-out views of a sand filtration plant


64 A Guide to The Preparation of Civi! Engineering Drawings

'OA DETAilS 04" EXPANSION JOINf


SEE DRWG Na E 113/'321

WIN WAl.

SUU PLAn

GfIIA:NOUTHJ 'nOTPA1H CON$TR flON

INS.TU COf,ICA{T€ W'NG WAl l TO BUTT


~~OFCOlUMN

A PI .

Figure 4.13 Isometrie cut-out views of a footbridge deek


Three-dimensional Drawing and Sketehing 65

100_80.1

100 JE BO I \50 OOWEl POCKETS

TEXTUREO FINI H

Figure 4.14 Dimensioning on isometrie views

4.3.3 Perspective Drawings drawing. If the line of sight were inclined, all verticallines
would converge to a single point located either above or
Perspeetive drawings are principally used either to iIIustrate a
below the horizon line.
proposed strueture realistically, or to show how it would
appear in an existing environment. They are not generally
Most perspective views are drawn on the basic assumption
used to illustrate an existing building unless cut-out views are
that the line of sight is horizontal, because this greatly
involved - photographs are more effective and cheaper for
simplifies the construction, as will be shown later in this
this purpose.
chapter. The eye level line then coincides with the horizon
There are several principles and terms used in constructed
line, as shown in figure 4.15, and all horizontal sets of parallel
perspeetive drawings that need to be understood. These can
lines therefore also converge at vanishing points on the 'eye
perhaps be more easily visualised by following the simple
level'. The vertical line on the picture plane, through the
procedure described below and referring also to figure 4.15.
centre of the cone of vision, is ca lied the 'centre of vision' . In
(1) Fix a piece of transparent paper on a window, and with order to obtain an undistorted view, the station point must be
the arm outstretched draw the view that can be seen. The so situated in relation to the picture plane as to allow all the
eye, or point of observation, is termed the 'station point' features required on the drawing to be encompassed within
and the window the 'picture plane'. The view that is the cone of vision.
registered comfortably by the eye, without altering the A further simplification arises in the case of building
line of sight, is called the 'cone of vision'. The line of sight illustrations in that most of the lines are parallel in two direc-
is assumed to be horizontal. tions, and either horizontal or vertical. Drawings of this type
(2) If the paper is then removed, and the horizontal lines of will be either (1) parallel perspective drawings, in which there
any buildings on the drawing are extended, they will be is one principal vanishing point, or (2) angular perspective
found to converge to points on a straight line which is in drawings, in which there are two principal vanishing points.
fact the 'horizon line'. Parallellines that are not horizontal The directions of lines which are not parallel to the other lines
will converge to points either above or below the horizon can be determined by means of coordinates.
line. All these points are known as 'vanishing points'. Other terms and abbreviations, and the method of con-
(3) If the view were drawn while maintaining a horizontalline structing parallel and angular perspective drawings, are
of sight, vertical lines would remain vertical on the described in appendix I by means of two practical examples.
66 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

CENTRAL VISUAL PLANE

PICTURE

EYE LEVEL PLANE

_~ '" ,,'" u.,

Figure 4.15 Constructed perspective

Perspective drawings of buildings in partieular, however, are 4.3.4 Shadows


far easier to produce with the aid of pre-printed perspective
light rays from the sun are assumed to be parallel. The usual
coordinate paper.
convention adopted on most three-dimensional drawings for
If pre-printed paper imposes unsatisfactory limitations,
developing shadows assurnes that light rays are
then a cubic perspective grid can be easily constructed, as
shown in figure 4.16. The angles between the construction (1) from the top left-hand side and at 45° to the horizontal, on
lines will be less acute if a plan of the grid is drawn below the the orthographie front elevation, and
perspective view. The horizontal reference line for the plan (2) from the bottom left-hand side, and at 45° to the
can be any convenient distance below Gl. The plan of the horizontal, on the plan.
structure will be drawn on the perspective plan grid, and
The shadows are projected on to these views and then
points on the plan will then be projected vertieally to transferred to the perspective view, as shown in figure 4.19.
intersect construction lines in the three-dimensional grid, as
The method of developing shadows cast beneath artificial
shown in figure 4.17. This method should simplify the task of
light on to a level surface, is illustrated in figure 4.20.
drawing cut-out views in particular.
Figure 4.18 shows the method of constructing a single cube (1) The positions of the light source, and of a point vertically
in both parallel and angular perspective. The cubes can be below it on the horizontal ground plane, are established,
divided or repeated to form a grid, as shown in figure 4.7. and then transferred to the perspective view.
Figure 4.18 also iIIustrates how reflections are developed by (2) The boundaries of the shadows are defined by the
means of vertical ordinates measured above and below the intersection of lines radiating from the light source and
reflective surface. the point directly below it.
Three-dimensional Drawing and Sketching 67

Figure 4.16 Perspective cubic grid


68 A Guide 10 The Preparation of Ci vii Engineering Drawings

VPR

Figure 4.17 Angular perspective: projection from a perspective plan

The method of developing shadows in natural light is also sides of the tri angle and passing through the vanishing
shown in figure 4.20. The position of the sun, and a point on points, to interseet at S.
the horizon (whieh coincides with the eye level) vertically (2) Draw semi-circles on two of the sides as shown, to
below it, are established. The boundaries of the shadows are interseet the lines through 5 at 51 and 52.
then defined by the interseetion of lines radiating from these (3) With VP Vert. as eentre, draw an are through 51 to
two points, as shown. interseet the side VP Vert. to VP Right at MP Vert . With VP
Right as eentre, draw an are through 52 to interseet the
side VP Left to VP Right at MP Right. With VP Left as
4.3.5 Oblique Perspective eentre, draw an are through 52 to interseet the side VP
Left to VP Right at MP Left.
The previous examples have all involved a horizontal line of
(b) (1) Establish approximately the point D so that 5 will be
sight and objeets whose principal sides have been either
situated near the eentre of the perspeetive view of the
horizontal or vertieal. If the object had been tilted, or if the
objeet.
line of sight were inclined, then vertical lines would also
(2) From D draw lines parallel to the sides VPL to VPR and
appear to eonverge to a vanishing point in the perspeetive
VPV to VPR. These are the referenee lines along whieh
view. A drawing requiring three principal vanishing points is
measurements are made to seale. 5et off the dimensions
ealled an 'oblique perspeetive'. A method of eonstruetion in
of the objeet ED, DF and DG to seale.
whieh the vanishing points have been fixed, is shown in
(3) Draw lines from E, Fand G towards the measuring
figures 4.21a and b.
points, to interseet lines trom D towards the vanishing
(a) (1) Draw straight lines joining the three vanishing points points, at H, J and L. Draw lines from H, J and L, towards
to form a triangle. Draw three lines, perpendicular to the the vanishing points, to interseet at land M.
Three-dimensional Drawing and Sketching 69
cv

MP

PARALLEL PERSPEGTIVE

CV

Hl

VPR

ANGULAR PERSPEGTIVE

Figure 4.18 Reflections: parallel and angular perspective


70 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

\
\

L
Plan

-------
-- -- -------
Figure 4.19 Shadow projection {rom orthographie views
Three-dimensional Drawing and Sketching 71

tlfK:lal light

I \ ' ....
I \ ' ....
I \
I
I

HL

Figure 4.20 Shadows cast on to a levelsurface


72 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

/..------.........-......--.
/ "- " VPRigtrt
VPL MP. MPL VP.

(I) (b)

OBLIQUE PERSPECTlYE
IVANL$HING POINTS fIXED)

VPV

Figure 4.21 Oblique perspective


5. GRAPHICAL AND PICTORIAL METHODS OF DESIGN
AND PRESENT ATION

5.1 INTRODUCTION 6 ======:IrD

As a general rule, technical data are more readily understood 40 ~ IJ • t±+;-l-+-::±±:tt:J


when presented in a pictorial form. In addition to the usual +i ' HJ-H-ILL
projection drawings described in the previous chapters,
models, photographs, graphs, charts and diagrams are fre-
quently used in civil engineering to
(1) plan and visualise projects,
(2) solve and simplify design problems, :>0 20
(3) present management and technical data.
In addition, mathematical equations can often be solved or
derived graphically. 10
Good technical reports will incorporate many diagrams,
simply presented and devoid of irrelevant information.
Supporting graphs and tabular data will usually be placed in
o
appendixes. o
Models are frequently used for presentation or testing.
Photographs are often the best means of illustrating existing
features; they should be regarded as an essential supplement
to the recording of the continuously chan ging activities on
the sites of construction works.
Although this chapter is not intended to give guidance on
structural analysis, mechanics or mathematics, it aims to
introduce the reader to a few typical examples of the variety
of ways in wh ich technical problems can be solved and
represented graphically. In all cases of graphical analysis the
accuracy of the results must be considered.

5.2 CHARTS, GRAPHS AND DIAGRAMS

5.2.1 Logarithmic and Semi-Iogarithmic Charts


Mathematical equations of the general form y = Cx n, where C
and n are constants, will produce a straight line when plotted
on logarithmic graph paper. Equations of the form y = cnx
will produce a straight line on semi-Iogarithmic paper - see
figure 5.1. Figure 5.1 Logarithmic and semi-Iogarithmic graphs

73
74 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

Graph paper of this type is often used to derive the equa- important to show the rate of change of one variable with
tion of the curves through points plotted from test data. respect to the other.
logarithmic paper has a logarithmic scale in both directions,
while semi-Iogarithmic paper has a logarithmic scale vertically
5.2.2 Nomograms
and an arithmetic scale horizontally.
Semi-Iogarithmic charts are particularly useful when it is Nomograms are two-dimensional charts which enable
problems involving two or more variables to be solved.
Figure 5.2 shows two alternative methods of drawing a
o 0 200 nomogram for the equation y = 3x 2• The data required for the
3-

o chart are as folIows.


1
12-- 2

/ 2
x 0 1 2345678
3x 2 0 3 12 27 48 75 108 147 192
I
27-
I 3
The solutions to the equation are found by (1) plotting the
/ corresponding values of x and y directly opposite each other,
I 4
or (2) drawing the scales of x and y in opposite directions, and

/ solving the equation by means of a straight line drawn


through a single point which is determined as shown in
4&:-- 4
150 /
I figure 5.2.
/ Note that the divisions on the y-axis are evenly spaced and
those on the x-axis have a logarithmic form. It can also be
I
seen that the equation conforms to the general case y = Cx n
/ and can therefore be solved from the straight line drawn on
I

-
75-- 5

6 logarithmic paper log y = log 3 + 210g x.


Figure 5.3 shows a nomogram which provides the solutions

- - 10
108

100
--- /
I
/
to an equation with three variables: if z = x2 y3 then log z =
2 log x + 3 log y.
The data required for the chart are as folIows.

108-- 6
/ x,y 1 2 3 4 5
I
I logx 0 0.301 0.477 0.602 0.699
/
75
/ 210gx 0 0.602 0.954 1.204 1.398
/
/ 8
310gy 0 0.903 1.431 1.806 2.097
I
147-- 7 / The procedure for drawing the nomogram is as folIows.

/
150 50
(1) Plot the values of 2 log x to a suitable scale and opposite
I these mark on the corresponding values of x.
/ (2) Plot the values of 3 log y to a suitable scale and opposite
/ these mark on the corresponding values of y. For
/ log Y= log 3 + 2 log X example, when y is 5 then 3 log y = 2.097. The scale is 1 cm
/ to 0.2 units therefore the scale distance between y = 1 and
I y = 5 is 2.097/0.2 = 10.49 cm. (Note: the scale for the x-axis
192-- 8
/ is 1 cm to 0.1 units.)
/ (3) Arrange a convenient spacing between the three axes.
2 o
I Draw straight lines between the limits of the x and y-axes,
Figure 5.2 Nomogram: two variables then, by proportion, the scale distance between the limits
Graphical and Pictorial Methods of Design and Presentation 75

Z=X2 y3 ..",- --....


"
,,
35 % L
log Z .. 2log X + 3log y
I
20 %
-- ------
I
I
I

4
---
2000

v
128°.I.!L

1000
~
.
~ S4'
I 1~ ~.~~
~~
800
4 I'"
I
600
3 ~K y
~~ ~; 10 %
400

3
I ~~v;
100
15 %
)
..,5
'!'
."5 ... 1000'''
~

.. 2
... ~ 2 » 20 %
Figure 5.4 Pie diagram
10

different manner, is represented by a sector of a circle. Taking


figure 5.4 as an example, the part which is 10 per cent of the
whole is represented by a sector subtending an angle of
360 x 10/100 = 36° at the centre of the circle. Where a number

1
I .
- ---------
6em •
I --- I
• lern •
of pie charts form part of a greater whole, the diameters of
the circles can be varied to reflect the relative proportions of
the whole represented by each chart.

Figure 5.3 Nomogram: three variables


5.2.4 Force Diagrams
of the z-axis is 10.49 + (3/9)(13.98 -10.49) = 11.65 cm. The
corresponding logarithm for 2 log x + 3 log y = The magnitude, direction and sense of the primary forces in a
1.398 + 2.097 = 3.495. Hence the scale for this axis is 1 cm statically determinate frame can be derived graphically if it is
to 0.3 units. The corresponding value of z (that is log-l assumed that the joints between the members are pinned and
3.495) = 3125. that external forces are applied at the joints. Figure 5.5
(4) Draw up a table as follows and plot the log z values to the illustrates the method of analysing a typical roof frame.
scale 1 cm to 0.3 units and opposite these mark on the (1) Draw a scale diagram of the frame and the direction of the
corresponding values of z. forces applied to it. In this example the frame is sym-
metrical and therefore only half the frame need be con -
z 10 100 200 400 600 800 1000 2000
sidered.
logz 0 1.00 2.00 2.30 2.60 2.78 2.90 3.00 3.30 (2) Letter the spaces between the external forces in a
seale 0 3.33 6.67 7.67 8.67 9.27 9.67 10.00 11.00 c10ckwise sequence (A to E).
dimen-
(3) Letter, or in the case of a large frame, number the spaces
sion
(ern) between the frame members (F to L).
(4) Draw the magnitude and direction of the external forces
to scale on the force diagram. For example, the force, W,
5.2.3 Pie (or Sedor) Charts
between the spaces A and B on the frame diagram, is
The c1earest method of showing the component parts of a represented to scale by ab on the force diagram. This
whole is by means of a pie chart. Each part, hatched in a force aets downwards and hence b is below a.
76 A Cuide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

w w W W/2
5.2.5 Bending Moment Diagrams
0
ja) The theoretical bending moments and shear forces in a
c structural frame are usually represented on a line diagram of
the structure drawn to scale. The magnitudes of the moments
B
are superimposed to scale on the line diagram at right angles
to the members. The moments for a reinforced concrete
A
structure are drawn on those sides of the frame which are in
tension. The moment diagram thus indicates at a glance
where the main reinforcement is requ ired. Figure 5.6 shows
th
E
7W

b
" c

d
e
(bI

je)
VA r--- ----'-------- --i Vo
Figure 5.6 Bending moment diagram of a portal frame
Figure 5.5 Force diagram : Bow's notation

the shape of the bending moment diagram for a pin-jointed


(5) Complete the force diagram in the following manner. portal frame subjected to a uniformly distributed load on the
From a draw a line parallel to the member AF and a l in e horizontal member BC
from e parallel to FE. The lines intersect at f. Follow this Most structures must be analysed for a variety of loading
procedure to locate the other points on the force conditions and adequate reinforcement provided to with-
diagram. In order to complete the diagram, it will first be stand the maximum design stresses in all parts of the
necessary temporarily to replace the members Ij and jK structure. The diagram for the maximum moments is termed a
with a single dummy member MK, as shown. ' maximum bending moment envelope'. In order to simplify
(6) Determine the magnitude of the forces in the members the analysis, clear scale diagrams of each loading condition
by scaling from the corresponding lines of the force should be drawn . Separate bending moment diagrams can
diagram. then be drawn for each load and the moments algebraically
(7) Determine the direction of the forces in the members by summed for each loading condition. All the complete
considering each joint in turn . Consider joint X: in order moment diagrams for each loading condition are then
to maintain equilibrium the arrows in the polygon abgf algebraically summed to produce the maximum bending
must follow around the link in the same direction. moment envelope.
(8) Taking the member AF as an example: by scaling from the
force diagram, the magn itude of the fo rce in the member
5.2.6 Programme and Progress Charts
is found to be 9.2W. The external forces, equal and
opposite in direction to the internal forces, place the Careful thought must be given to the planning of any scheme.
member in compression . The project may involve a large number of professional
(9) Determine the magnitude and direction of the other disciplines at both the design and construction stages, in
forces in the members in a similar way. Members in com- which case an independent group may be established to plan
pression are ca lied 'struts' and members in tension are and coordinate the various activities, and ensure that target
'ties'. dates are met. The resources for, and the duration of the
Graphical and Pictorial Methods of Design and Presentation 77
activities necessary for completion will usually be considered the basic stages which were involved in the planning and con-
in relation to economic factors. However, there will be struction of a large exhibition hall at Mannheim in the Federal
instances when the completion date will be fixed by the Republic of Germany. A considerable amount of consultation
promoter, who may stipulate heavy penalties in the contract with all the parties involved would be required before achart
should the work not be finished on time . In this instance of this type could be produced, and each specialist group
planning will be approached from a different standpoint, and would need to undertake a certain amount of detailed plan-
may necessitate the adoption of measures more costly than ning to provide the coordinator with realistic information
might otherwise have been used. about his own contribution to the over-all scheme. It can be
Figure 5.7 illustrates in a clear and simple manner some of seen from the example in figure 5.7 that architects, structural
engineers, civil engineers, scientific researchers, model
makers and many other trades were involved in this project.
SEPT oel 111\' He
"". FR
I The top diagram shows the dates when major decisions
mII affecting the programme should be made. The lower chart
IATES F
5tII~ !.t I
has combined a basic programme and activity network. The
.u l--.J
~J
DECISIO..
~~ I network shows the interdependency of the various actfvities
Fo-'.ac: t "'. •
I
.....
te""-"'c.~ ~"iIII "iI."Q
~ ........101 0- fo---- I
and how delays in the completion of any one of them could
affect the others and even the over-all completion date. Some
interrelated activities cannot be started ahead of programme,
JAM FEI
SEPT OCl
... IIOV DEC

= -.." -.... ~!
nor can their completion be delayed, without delaying the

-
t'J
:oe
... "

.. . '"
over-all completion date. These activities are said to be
0
"
""...... iJ
0:'0

ARCHITECl
~::
...
CI . . ~= !!!:: 'critical' and must accordingly be given particular considera-
tion at the planning stage. Some examples of charts used for
UNlWITZ detailed planning and control are described below.
ATELIER In order to establish accurately the resources and time
WAR.IROMM
required to complete any activity it should first be broken
OVE ARUP " down into all its component parts. Manpower is the main
PARTNERS
resource required at the design stage and it can be surprising
IOUNDAlY to learn how much time must be allocated to take account of
CAlCULATlONS
UD DETAILS
holidays and sickness, and for ancillary administrative duties.
Some assessment must also be made of the likely resources
(plant, labour and materials) needed for the construction, in
order to determine a reasonable contract period. The
CDLUPSE
detailed construction programme will be prepared by the
LOAD contractor. A typical combined programme and progress
CAlCUUTlON chart is shown in figure 5.8. The most effective means of com-
paring the programme with actual performance is by applying
standards of physical measurement to each activity. For
DATA Ic~\ ic~ ) (-,--~ fUI. J------4::,-;:.:,::.~:'I~~
COllECTIDN example, lineal met res for pipelines and kerblines, cubic
.ATE.IAU 1', ..... · 0 •• • ,." .... . . . ' ... CO"II-" , ......... . ,. . . . . . 1 met res for excavation and in situ concrete work.
TESTING

COMSTRUCTION
PRDGU•• E
5.2.7 Network and Critical Path Diagrams

Anyone involved in planning, whether they be a top execu-


tive or a foreman on a construction site, will need to consider
logically the sequence of operations necessary to complete
the work for which they are responsible. 80th will draw on
Figure 5.7 Simplified combined programme and network their wide experience to make the right decisions. Network
diagram analysis, which involves listing and then connecting
~

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y. MoH No. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
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900 OlA PIPE FORCE-=! t-..-j r: 9000lA PIPE FORCE I. 1520 DIA TUN NEL - ..,'1J
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i3 No. DESCRIPTION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 ::J
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PA lGAAMMj
42
TIME lIN
A c tull q"" 'uideJ -22 42
Graphical and Pictorial Methods of Design and Presentation 79

interrelated activities, ensures a more disciplined approach to Table 5.1


the problem of planning.
Activity Duration
All the activities are first listed roughly in their correct i/j (weeks)
sequence and the duration for each one is estimated . A
network diagram of interrelated activities is then drawn for 1/2 2
2/3 3
the whole project. Each activity is represented by an arrow 2/4 2
and its start and finish events are given a reference number. 2/5 4
The letter 'i' is the usual abbreviation for denoting the start 3/6 4
4/6 0
events far each activity and 'j' for the finish events. The data in 4/9 5
table 5.1 form the basis of the network diagram shown in 5/7 3
figure 5.9. 5/8 4
6/9 2
It is important to draw the network so that all the activity 7/9 2
descriptions and event times are clearly and neatly 8/9 5
represented. A complicated network will probably have to be 9/10 2
redrawn several times before a suitable layout is achieved.
Note that the arrows are not drawn to scale. start date for the activity which follows it. The summation of
There are certain interconnected activities which cannot be the durations in this chain of arrows, called the 'critical path',
started early, nar can they be finished late, without increasing is greater than that of any other chain, and is the shortest
the over-all time for completion. In other words, the la test possible time in wh ich the project can be completed. This
completion date for each activity is the same as the earliest being the case, it is clear that the activities which are not in

Elrliest Itlrt

Durdio"

LltlSt filiü
Figure 5.9 Critical path diagrams
80 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings
the critical path can be delayed to varying degrees without (3) The 'free float' is the amount of spare time available when
affecting the over-all completion time. Once the critical path an activity begins at the earliest start time and the start of
has been added, the network is called a critical path diagram. any subsequent activity is not delayed.
Taking figure 5.9 as an example, the procedure for drawing
Figure 5.10a shows the network diagram represented in bar
the critical path diagram is as folIows.
chart form. Figure 5.10b shows the total float taken up
(1) Draw the basic network showing the arrows, event (broken lines) for each event. Figure 5.10c shows the free float
numbers and activity durations. Draw the first activity available for each event.
arrow 1/2. Activities 2/3, 2/4 and 2/5 can be started con- Network diagrams are useful in the early planning stages of
currently as soon as 1/2 has been completed. Activities a project, chiefly because their preparation ensures that all
in each of the chains 1-2-3-6-9--10, 1-2-4-9--10, the activities are listed and considered in a logical manner.
1-2-5--7-9--10 and 1-2-5--8-9--10 are in series. Activity 6/9, Once the initial plan is implemented, however, its continued
in addition to activity 4/9, cannot be started until 2/4 has value is related to control procedures, and the extent to
been completed. There is no intervening activity 4/6 and which the network is updated in the light of changing
the relationship between events 4 and 6 is indicated by a circumstances. This procedure could involve a considerable
broken line 'dummy' arrow. amount of technical time. It should be borne in mind that the
(2) Determine the earliest start date for each activity, taking network will be continuously changing and so also may the
the first event as at week O. Different earliest start date route of the critical path.
figures will be obtained for each event, depending on the
route taken through the network. The largest figures
obtained at each event are the correct ones. To iIIustrate 1 2 3 4 5 6 _JL 9 ID 12 13 14 15 1R 17

the procedure, consider the alternative routes to event 6.


Taking first the route 1-2-3--6, the earliest start at event 6 is
week 9. Taking the route 1-2-4-6, the earliest start is week
4. Hence week 9 is the correct figure. Do not proceed
beyond an event until the correct earliest start for that
event has been established.
(3) Determine the latest finish ·for each activity, working back
from the last event which has been established as week 17. -- - -- fo- 1--
The smallest figures obtained at each event are the correct
ones. Consider the alternative routes back to event 5. (a'
Taking first the route 10-9--7-5, the latest finish at event 5 r-- t- -
is week 10. Taking the route 10-9--8-5, the latest finish is
1--- l-
r--
t---
-- -- Pm Im:;
-- r--
week 6. Hence week 6 is the correct figure. Do not r-- - -
1--- - 1-- 1-- -
- --1-- -
proceed beyond an event until the correct latest finish for 1--
that event has been established. I-- - ~-

(4) The chain of arrows with the same earliest starts and latest
--
t--- --
1-- 1--- '777. lm;
.......
---
~
,.... -
finishes at each event is 1-2-5--8-9--10 and is hence the
----
1--
- ,....- - -'
1-- -- -
critical path.
... - - 1-- - ---- (b\
The spare time available for completing each of the
activities not in the critical path, without increasing the over-
all time for completion, is termed the 'float'. This can be ~ :?l.Zi -- - --- --
-- - ...
defined in the following ways.
(1) The 'total float' for an activity is the maximum amount of
time that can be taken up without increasing the over-all -~- --
- I - .-
I
completion time.
(2) The independent 'float' is the amount of spare time avail- ---- -- 1-- -- -
-,--
- 1--
- I(e)
able when an activity begins at the latest start time and the
start of any subsequent activity is not delayed. Figure 5.10 Float
Graphieal and Pietorial Methods of Design and Presentation 81
Taking into aeeount any eonstraints in the programme, the 5.2.8 Floweharts
planner will try to arrange the aetivities in a way that will
Flowcharts ean be used to show the various stages of a
provide the most effeetive use of the resourees required. For
project, the relationship between people or events, or the
example, a contraetor may wish to keep an expensive item of
sub-divisions of an organisation - a 'family tree' is an obvious
plant eontinuously working on one projeet, or to determine
example. Flowcharts are used widely and in many cases are
whieh aetivities should be earried out by his own employees
the only satisfaetory means of representing the information
to ensure their continuous employment, and which activities
they eontain (see figure 5.11).
should be sub-contracted. There are many different tech-
niques involved in this type of planning but their description
is beyond the scope of this book .
5.2.9 Traffie Flow Band Diagrams
Examples of the diagrams used in these techniques include
histograms for statistical analysis and resource levelling, fre- Flow band diagrams are used to show the recorded volumes
quency charts, quality control charts, Z charts, flow process of traffic at various seetions of a road network. The volumes
charts and mass-haul diagrams for balancing cut and fill earth- are related to the widths of bands, drawn to scale, wh ich are
works on major road schemes. superimposed on a suitable plan of the area, as illustrated in
figure 5.12.

MORE ACCURATE ASSESSMENT


OF SCHEME

DETAIL DESIGN FOR ACCURATE


COSTING
::::.---\
Figure 5.11 Flowehart Figure 5.12 Traffie f/ow band diagram
82 A Guide 10 The Preparation of Ci vii Engineering Drawings

5.3 MODELS designer is using a modelscope which simulates the view of


an observer standing at the same relative position in the
There are two basic types of model. prototype (the actual completed project). A camera can be
attached to the modelscope; figure 5.14 shows a photograph
(1) A true-to-scale replica of the prototype used for plann ing,
taken through a modelscope.
presentation, advertising and similar purposes.
A video camera can be used to exploit the advantages of a
(2) A technical model, usually designed in accordance with
presentation model to the full. The camera is moved through
the principles of dimensional analysis, wh ich is tested in
the model, which is erected vertically, and the recorded view
such a way as to enable the behaviour of the prototype to
can be transferred immediately to a TV screen or visual
be predicted in conditions that it is likely to experience
display unit.
during its design life.
A presentation model of a North Sea oil platform is shown
The reader will probably have inspected models like those in figure 5.15.
commonly used by architects and town planners to illustrate Figures 5.16 to 5.20 show both presentation and technical
their proposals for their clients, employers or the general models and illustrate apart of the prototype structure for
public. Figure 5.13 shows a typical example in wh ich the which they were prepared .

Figure 5.13 Use of modelscope


Graphical and Pictorial Methods of Design and Presentation 83

Figure 5.14 Photograph taken through a modelscope

Figure 5.16 Wire mesh model

Figure 5.17 Hanging chain model

Figure 5.15 Model of oi/-drilling platform Figure 5.18 Perspex model


84 A Guide to The Preparation of Civi/ Engineering Drawings

_ •..- Smrn DIAMETER THREADED BAR

35Mtn DIAMETER "SCHNORR"


DOSC SPRONGS

JIAME rCR PlAIN WASHEA

HEMCOCK (al

PL,AIN WASHE.l

- otSC SPRINe

(bi

Figure 5.19 (a) Section of a typical node joint; (b) node joint
Graphical and Pictorial Methods of Design and Presentation 85

Figure 5.20 Inside view of the Mannheim Multihalle


6. COMPUTER GRAPHICS

6.1 INTRODUCTION systems analyst, who will take full advantage of the storage
capabilities of the computer in relation to the number of
There can be no doubt that the computer revolution is similar or identical shapes on the drawing. The informa-
having, and will continue to have, a profound influence on tion is written on to prepared data sheets from which it is
the lives of everyone. Computer technology is developing at keyed on to punched cards or other machine-readable
such a rapid rate that a vast number of possibilities, wh ich media. The cards are processed by the program and the
hitherto might have been thought absurd, are now quite drawing can then be plotted directly or automatically
feasible. Perhaps it would be prudent to assume that there are transferred to magnetic tape by the computer. The tape
in fact no limits to what may be achieved, for good or evil, can be stored and used later in the tape unit of the
with the aid of computers, and that careful judgements will automatie plotter as and when required.
soon be needed on the direction of future developments. (2) The difficulties involved with the above method concern
The three main features of a computer that make it such a the time taken to produce the input data, the inability to
powerful tool are (1) the speed at which it generates informa- check the input and the delay in obtaining the finished
tion, (2) its storage capacity, and (3) its versatility. The mag- drawing. The problem can be partly overcome by using a
nitude of all three capabilities can only be described in VDU coupled with a digitiser. Simple diagrams can either
superlatives. be generated directly using a keyboard of symbols on the
The use of computers, visual display units (VDUs) and display unit, or any of the symbols can be located any-
automatie plotting equipment for producing or generating where on the screen by first positioning a sensitised
drawings has now progressed weil beyond the research stage. cursor or digitising pen over the required point and then
In fact the production of drawings as a by-product of design is pressing the required key. The sequence of data describ-
now established commercially. Taking into account the time ing the symbol is automatically generated and transmitted
taken to prepare the data, convert it to machine-readable to the computer. The various shapes which can be built
form and produce two or three test drawings, it is still usually up from the keyboard can in turn be stored and recalled
possible to produce a drawing in less time than it would take when required.
by hand. The time that the plotter takes to produce the
drawing can be measured in seconds, while the time taken by A computer system ca lied CADRAW 2, wh ich is being
the computer to process the information fed into it can be developed by the Research and Development Group of Ove
measured in milliseconds. It may not be long before the Arup & Partners for use on their DEC System-10 computer,
demands of cost effectiveness cease to be a constraint on the takes advantage of the fact that many drawings for buildings
use of the computer purely as a 'draughtsman'. contain a large number of similar shapes. Also there are many
Whether a picture is to be generated on a VDU or a shapes that will be standard for a range of drawings, for
drawing produced by an automatie plotter, the computer example, the border, grid and title block. There are several
must receive a logical sequence of instructions. This may be sub-programs within the system wh ich have been devised to
achieved in several ways, depending on the type of equip- carry out the different types of process. The basic procedure
me nt used. is as folIows.

(1) A program, or suite of programs, that involves a laborious (1) A large number of different shapes are built up on a VDU,
determination of the X and V-coordinates of points on the are referenced and then stored within the computer in
drawing, is first developed. This requires the skills of a the system shapes library (see figures 6.1 and 6.2).

86
Computer Graphics 87
(2) When the data required for a particular drawing are being
built up, the relevant basic shapes are recalled from the
systems shape library, dimensioned, and related to the
MACRO 758 scale of the drawing. The resulting shape, which is called a
~~ macro, is referenced and stored in the job shape library.
Note that macras can be used to build up further macros.
(3) Rather than build up the drawing in one operation, a
MACRO 852
system of overlays is used as shown in figure 6.3. These
overlays are formed with macros which are situated and
x orientated by means of coordinates or by using a digitiser.
For any new job, the scale, border and a grid system must
first be defined. The details on the drawing are then built
up with macros which are related to the grid. The data for
MACRO 763 the plotter will specify the pen thickness, type of ink and
x whether the drawing is to be produced on the front or
back of the drawing sheets. Notes on the drawings,
including titles, will also be defined and related to the
grid. Because the complete drawing is built up with over-
lays and macros, the programs will need to be edited
carefully to remove detail which should be hidden, and to
replace fuillines with broken lines where necessary.
The benefits of computer-aided design are now weil
established. Building Computer Services Ltd, who specialise
in structural engineering applications, are one of several firms
that produce drawings as a by-product of design. The nature
of the projects designed by this firm has determined that
MACRO 759 • Made up of MACROS programs for the design and drawings should be built up on
758,763,764,&852 the basis of completed details, not overlays as in the system
Figure 6.1 System shapes and macras (Courtesy of Ove Arup described above. Hence, editing to take account of hidden
& Partners) detail is not required. Neither a VDU nor a digitiser is used.

Prompt Shape
Notes symbol Number
1

A
Normally 'B' is left blank and the length of
line becomes 'A' with rotation 'R' B
X off5et

2
Figure 6.2 System shapes Iibrary (Courtesy of Ove Arup & Partners)
88 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings
GROUND FLOOR PLAN
Step 3. Building outline & border +' +2

Step 2 . Column overlay

~~I-+-+.+
Step 4 . Foundations overlay +3 Step 5. First floor beams
and staircase
FOUNDATION PLAN
Step 6. Replace foundations overlay by 5
FIRST FLOOR PLAN
Figure 6.3 Overlays (Courtesy of Ove Arup & Partners)

Programs are developed and normally held in permanent Computer-aided Design Centre which now specialises in
storage on discs. Working from a rough sketch, the loads, managing and executing design projects in collaboration with
geometry, constants, etc., are transferred to pre-prepared companies in the United Kingdom, Europe and the United
data sheets appropriate to the program used and then keyed States. Advanced equipment has been designed and
into punched cards wh ich are processed by the programs. produced by the Centre for colour graphics display process-
The processed data are recorded on magnetic tape. ing, and specialised data switching equipment has been
The Benson 1330 plotter used has its own tape unit, and developed for applications in computer-aided design and
operates three pens, each of which can be instructed to plotting. Projects have been carried out in the construction,
perform a different function. Hence lines of differing status chemical, mechanical and electrical engineering industries.
on a drawing can be distinguished by three different colours Several programs have been developed for visualising any
or thicknesses. Conventional ink, fibre tip, and ball point form of three-dimensional view: (1) in colour on a display
pens are used for plotting on detail and tracing paper. unit, or (2) in a drawing produced by a digital plotter. Once
Hardened steel tip pens are used for plotting on polyester the data have been input into the computer, different
film. Plotters can be driven 'on-line' (that is, permanently pictures of the object can be generated from any assumed
attached to the processor) or 'off-line' using magnetic tape as viewpoint.
the data transfer medium. Figures 6.4 to 6.7 show examples of computer visualisations
Perhaps of even greater benefit than the speed and and drawings. In figure 6.7, the computer wire line visualisa-
accuracy which can be achieved in the original analysis, is the tions were produced bya program called GINO. A combina-
ability afforded by the computer to assess design modifica- tion of software and hardware enables a mathematical model
tions quickly, particularly if they need to be made when to be constructed in the computer and various views (figures
siteworks are already in progress. 6.7a, band c, for example) can be displayed from chosen
The Department of Industry recognised the potential of viewpoints. Figure 6.7d shows a line diagram of an existing
computer-aided design when, in 1969, it set up the carriageway; line diagrams of proposed structures are shown
Computer Graphics 8.9

1ST FL DDR BERMS - 6 /MN -RS


I 4-MAR-78 (1503)

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1M" • 4.330

67.6 103.3 101.5 31.8

Figure 6.4 Computer-aided design: shear and moment diagrams for (foor beams (courtesy of Building Computer Services Ltd,
Bristol)
90 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

MRX-MYlKN-M/MJ

"'L x
Figure 6.5 Computer-aided design: hample of safe finite element plot (courtesy of Building Computer Services Ud, Bristol)
Computer Graphics 91

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COLS-2R
Figure 6.6 Computer-aided design: examples of column detailing (courtesy of Building Computer Services Ltd, Bristol)
92 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

a c

.{ nn nnl

I D

d e

Figure 6.7 Perspective visualisations (courtesy of the Computer-aided Design Centre)

Figure 6.8 Block diagrams of computer graphies equipment (courtesy of Tektronix U.K. Ud). Parts a and b show two ways in
which computer graphics equipment can be linked to give varying degrees of flexibility in the generation of information.
Arrangement (a) provides many options: for example a plan, graph or photograph could be placed on the graphie tablet shown
connected to a terminal. The image could then be digitised for magnetic storage and/or display on a screen. The generation of
any computer graphies output requires the communieation of data in two stages: between human and machine, and from
machine to machine. The first stage requires an elaborate system of coding and numerical transformations before the machine
can make sense of the human information. The second stage - which usually requires the conversion of digital data (1 sand Os) to
some sort of analog signal waveform, and the reconversion of that signal at the other end to digital data - involves a complieated
exchange of preliminary messages (protocols). Deviees (shown in c) that convert digital signals (two-state signals) coming from the
computer into analog signals (suitable for transmission over a telephone line) and viee versa are called MODEMs
(MOdulator-DEModulator).
Computer Graphics 93
(a)

MAINFRAME
COMPUTER

(b) EQUIPMENT USED IN STRESS ANALYSIS


GRAPHIC
COMPUTER

(c)
TERMINAL

COMPUTER

HARD COPY UNIT


94 A Guide 10 The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

superimposed in figure 6.7e. A photograph could have been has deliberately been avoided in this chapter. In order to gain
used in place of figure 6.7d and the view with the a better understanding of the technicalities of the subject, the
superimposed structures would then have been a photo- reader will need to obtain so me knowledge of computer
montage. Visualisations can also be generated in photograph- programming and a few of the more commonly used com-
like effects in colour. puter languages such as BIPS and FORTRAN. The develop-
Figures 6.8 to 6.13 illustrate and describe a range of equip- me nt of programs on a programmable calculator is a good
ment used in computer graphics. way to start - see appendix 11.
The use of technical terms peculiar to computer technology

Figure 6.9 This high-speed drum plotter has a maximum plotting speed of 250 mm/s a/ong axes and 350 mm/s on diagonals,
when moving with the pen down and using ink. The plotting media normally used are either 55 g plain paper, 90 g tracing paper,
double matt polyester film or translucent paper in roll widths up to 930 mm. The pen carriage consists of three pen heads. Liquid
ink pens using various nib sizes, baI/point or fibre-Up pens may be used. Pen sizes from 0.2 mm to 0.8 mm with stainless steel or
tungsten tips can be used. (Courtesy of Benson Electronics Ud)
Computer Graphics 95

(a)

(b)

Figure 6.10 The flat bed plotter shown in (a) provides a plotting area of 840 mm x 1200 mm; another model has an area of 840 mm
x 1500 mm. The maximum plot speed a/ong axes is 75 mm/s and 100 mm/s on diagönals . A scaling switch can be incorporated to
reduce the drawing size by factors of 2 and 4. The pen carriage shown in (b) consists of a cartridge of four pen holders. (Courtesy
of Benson Electronics Ltd)
96 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

Figure 6.12 Desktop graphic computing system (courtesy of


Tektronix U.K. Ud)

Figure 6.11 Interactive digital desktop plotter (courtesy of


Tektronix U.K. Ud). A digitiser enables a diagram to be either
generated or copied directly on to a display screen. Each
required point is probed by aligning the 'pencil' or cursor
graticule over the point and pressing one of the digitising
buttons. A sequence of data describing the point is then
automatically generated and output to a recording device.
Information about the drawing can also be transferred to
magnetic tape which can be used later to instruct an
automatic plotter to reproduce the drawing. The plotter
shown also has a facility which enables the user to digitise and
immediately plot back a portion of the drawing, either
directly over the original or to one side, in order to verify that Figure 6.13 Graphics display terminal (courtesy of Tektronix
the digitising has been done correcrty U.K. Ud). This terminal can display 34lines of 80 characters on
the screen and has a 4K memory that can be expanded to 32K
to create forms beyond the limits of the screen. To facilitate
data entry and editing, the screen can be divided into two
areas: one to create the form (such as bar charts with multiple
shadings, histograms, log plots and pie charts), and the other
for communication with the host computer. Hard copy can
be obtained in the size 216 mm x 279 mm. The different line
types are solid, several styles of dashed line, single points and
dark vectors wh ich erase lines previously drawn.
7. DRAWING APPLICATIONS

7.1 INTRODUCTION cooperate fully with each other and consult frequentlyon
day-to-day technical matters. This should not be regarded as
At the very outset of his career the student engineer will be the coordinator's responsibility.
expected to acquire quickly some proficiency in drawing and The author would like to im press on the reader at this point
detailing before he has the opportunity of applying the the need to strive for an appreciation of the problems of
essentially scientifically based knowledge gained during his those in other professions with whom he comes in contact.
academic training. He may find that he cannot strictly apply One of the main disadvantages of specialisation and depart-
the drawing principles he has learned, possibly biased mentalisation is the natural human tendency of those in a
towards mechanical engineering, to the practical detailing closed group to criticise those outside it. Criticism can be
problems that he will be faced with in a civil or structural constructive, but if born of ignorance and carried to extremes
engineering drawing office. it could be a recipe for disaster.
Because the student engineer is therefore likely first of all It may be helpful to the understanding of the various
to seek some guidance in detailing, it is appropriate at this techniques used in graphical presentation to consider the
stage to introduce the reader to some of the broader aspects broad classifications of civil engineering works and the basic
of civil engineering as a whole. This final chapter includes resources used in their construction. The broad classifications
drawing examples typical of those prepared in some of the of work are as folIows.
many specialised branches of civil engineering - highways,
bridges, dams, railways, docks, sea defences, oil rigs, building
foundations and structural frames, sewerage and sewage (1) Surveying and site investigations to fix the location and
disposal, water supply, pumping stations, car parks and air- levels of existing topographical features and the nature of
ports. ground conditions. These investigations require a
Each diagram in this chapter serves to emphasise particular knowledge of geology, soil mechanics and a variety of
drawing and detailing principles, although for practical surveying techniques.
reasons the figures are not copies of complete full-size draw- (2) Structures below ground, for example, building and other
ings. Actual dimensions have been omitted on most of the structural foundations, humus and sedimentation tanks at
figures but dimension and projection lines are generally sewage works, retaining walls and pipelines. These
shown. structures must be designed to withstand both earth and
There are certain works that could be regarded as purely of water pressures in addition to other dead and imposed
a civil engineering nature, but more often than not in these loads, and the effects of flotation must always be con-
days of increasing specialisation, the engineer will be a sidered. Certain chemicals in soils, and the liquids wh ich
member of a team. If the project is basically civil engineering may be present in liquid-retaining structures, can have an
in scope, he may be called upon to assume a leading or adverse effect on the materials of construction. The
coordinating role within the group, if only on technical ground itself should be considered as part of the
matters. An independent management department may be structure. The shear strength of the soil and the effect of
established to plan and coordinate the activities of a team groundwater movements on the structure itself, and exist-
involved in the design and construction of a large complex ing buildings in the vicinity, must be taken into account.
structure, where the work involved in the various trades may The importance of sections, including those derived from
be more evenly distributed. In this case, it is essential to the geological maps, cannot be over-emphasised - one
success of the whole project that all members of the team cannot draw too many of them.
97
98 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings
(3) Structures above ground can be subdivided into four It is the author's opinion that all engineers should have as
broad groups. much experience as possible on the site of construction
(a) General land-based structures, such as buildings, works early in their careers. Technicians, draughtsmen and
roads, bridges and land drainage structures. detailers would also benefit from site experience at periodic
(b) Reservoirs - geological considerations are particularly intervals, even if they are basically employed in a drawing
important in the design of dams. office. Undoubtedly more will be learnt during aperiod on
(c) Dock and sea defence structures must be designed to site than during an equivalent period in an office. The reader
withstand highly abrasive wave forces and the corrosive will probably find that he will start to prepare drawings with
salt water environment; tidal effects must also be taken an added confidence following early site experience and will
into account. have a much better understanding and appreciation of his
(d) Sea-based structures - the exceptional forces imposed work. Having prepared drawings for use on site it will prove
by the natural elements pose special problems for the to be weil worth while obtaining the reactions of the resident
designers of the North Sea Oil installations. engineer, the contractor's agent and the workmen doing the
job, as to the clarity and practicability of the details shown.
The resources available to the civil engineer can be sum- The young draughtsman should appreciate that he is not
marised under the broad headings of plant, labour and required to be an artist. He should perhaps consider that the
materials. The organisations that have been established to end product of his efforts is not only the drawing itself, but
promote and provide research information on the civil the successful completion of the structure he is seeking to
engineers' chief materials, namely concrete, steel and timber, illustrate.
are

(1) The Cement and Concrete Association and,the Concrete


Society 7.2 SURVEYING
(2) The British Constructional Steelwork Association and the
Constructional Steel Research and Development The purpose of a survey is to represent in plan the nature and
Organisation topography of the ground and the position of all visible
(3) The Timber Research and Development Association. features. This can be achieved using precision instruments to
determine levels and angular and lineal measurements, or by
The Cement and Concrete Association have a highly aerial photography.
organised training division producing technical data and The first step in carrying out a survey on the ground is to
running residential courses on all aspects of concrete design establish a base of interconnected straight lines, called a
and detailing. All three organisations provide a wealth of traverse, from which measurements can be taken to existing
design and research literature and advice. features with the greatest degree of accuracy and con-
The author believes that the reader might appreciate an venience. The points or stations at wh ich there is a change of
insight into the preparation of all the documents, not just the direction in the traverse are established, using steel nails
drawings, for a civil engineering contract. This would present driven into existing hard ground or by means of steel tubes or
an enormous problem for a large and complex structure, rods which are embedded in concrete. The traverse may be
therefore a small subway has been chosen for this purpose. open ended or closed. A closed traverse, in wh ich the base
The preparation of the documents, and the construction, are lines form a closed loop, should be used whenever possible,
discussed briefly to serve as an introduction only to a much unless both ends of the traverse can be accurately related to
broader and more complex subject. (See section 7.5.) existing reference points on the National Grid (see
The quality of a finished structure and the safety of the figure 7.12). The angles between the lines, and the distances
works du ring construction will depend to a great extent on between the stations are then accurately measured.
the adequacy of the temporary works, and their importance Electronic measuring devices are required for large distances.
should never be underestimated. The reader is advised to It should be noted that tape measurements must be corrected
study books dealing comprehensively with this subject. Many to take account of the sag and shrinkage or contraction of the
engineers will have had little involvement with the design of tape, the slope of the ground and the curvature of the Earth.
temporary works, but may nevertheless have supervised con- (Figure 7.5 shows an electronic distomat being used for both
tracts in which they were continuously used. distance and angular measurements.)
Drawing Applications 99

Figure 7.1 Bridge segment: reinforced concrete bridge unit being loaded for transport (courtesy of Dow-Mac Concrete Ud)
100 A Guide 10 The Preparalion of Civil Engineering Drawings

Figure 7.2 Bridge unit being positioned (Berry Lane ViaducO


Drawing Applications 101
102 A Guide to The Preparation of Civi/ Engineering Drawings
Drawing Applications 103

Figure 7.6 Laser (courtesy of Spectra Alignment Ud)

Figure 7.5 Distomat


104 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings
STN F
.0. SoT Na 00 00 00
Detail Horiz. Horiz. Remarks
No anale dist.
I 344-57 3'-'7
2 34'-58 20"8 SKETCH SHOWING
3 355-35 '3'M DETAIL PLUS DESCIIIPTION
+ 38-52 +·47

Figure 7.8 Polar coordinate survey

Where there is a large amount of detail to be recorded within a


11"00
relatively small area, apolar coordinate method can be used to
advantage. Detail can be recorded very quickly with the aid of a
distomat or similar instrument, which measures angle and distance.
This facility is dearly a particular advantage in areas where traffic is
heavy.
It would be confusing to show the radial lines and angles in
Figure 7.7 Chain survey diagrammatic form in the field book and a sketch is drawn showing
each point of detail referenced with a number. Angles and distances
Figure 7.7 gives an example of measuring and booking a portion of pertaining to each point are then recorded in a tabular form.
the survey detail between the stations Fand B shown in figure 7.9. In the example, the instrument has been set up at station F, and the
Note that points less than 5 m from the chain have been recorded by angle set to zero with a sighting on to station B (R.G. STN B 00° 00'
means of right-angled offsets. Where the distance is greater than 00"). Angles have then been measured dockwise to each point of the
about 5 m, it is beuer to record points by means of ti es from two posi- detail.
tions on the chain. The ties should be taken in such a way that the ares Even if distance measurements must be taken with a tape, there
ascribed to fix the point on the survey plot intersect approximately at may be advantages over the chain method in that a large number of
right angles to each other. long measurements can be taken at one time. However, if most of the
detail is dose to the traverse lines (for example, the boundary fence
of a large fjeld) the chain method is likely to be the most convenient.
There are two methods of measuring, recording and plot-
If a distomat is available, then the polar coordinate method is likely to
ting topographical detail from the traverse: chain surveys, be used for all the survey work.
and polar coordinate surveys.

7.2.1 Chain Surveys


The traditional chain survey makes use of a steel chain 30 m
long which is divided into 100 links. Existing features are
measured by means of ties or offsets from the chain and
recorded in a fjeld book, as shown in figure 7.7. The over-all
distances between the stations are usually measured with a
steel band or steel tape.

7.2.2 Polar Coordinate Surveys


The topographical detail is measured by means of polar
coordinates, using a theodolite and tape, tacheometer or
electronic distomat, and recorded as shown in figure 7.8.
Drawing Applications 105

38'4~

laI 184100

27-17

E.""2 S5~'I'
N. 164070-75

angles
measured
clockwise

(bi A

184000

Figure 7.9 Plotting the survey traverse and detail

a Shows the basic fjeld and plotting data for the traverse which Angular measurements are usually converted to whole circle
forms the framework for the survey detail. Note: because of the bearings (that is, measured clockwise from due north). Angles
steep bank interposed between the base lines EF and DCB and the have been shown to 6 decimal places where it has been necessary
resulting difficulty in measuring lines DE and FB accurately, the to convert degrees, minutes and seconds to degrees.
stations E and F have been established by means of the base lines b Shows the two alternative methods of plotting the survey detail
DC and CB and the internal angles of the triangles CDE and BCF. from the fjeld books (see figures 7.7 and 7.8).

7.2.3 Plotting the Survey Figure 7.9b illustrates the way in wh ich detail is plotted from
the field books using the alternative offset and polar
Before plotting the detail, a square grid is accurately drawn
coordinate methods.
on heavy-duty cartridge paper or polyester film, using the
methods described in chapter 1. The rectangular coordinates
7.2.4 Levels
of the stations, called eastings and northings, are usually
related to the National Grid, and transferred to the survey Existing ground levels are usually related to Ordnance datum,
grid, as shown in figures 7.9 and 7.10. (Figure 1.25 iIIustrates and are represented on a plan by means of contours or spot
the use of apolar coordinatograph for plotting detail.) levels. Points on contours can be established directly on the
The recognised conventions for representing survey detail ground by means of polar coordinates measured with a
are shown in figure 1.19. tacheometer, or by interpolation from a square grid of spot
106 A Guide 10 The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

JrptT~tl)lJftTrrPrT-T -~~~~---:.~
OM~

- -
o o

--""
Figure 7.10 The completed survey

levels. There are two methods of booking levels, called the study of civil engineering failures will show that many have
'collimation' method and the 'rise and fall' method. The latter been due to an inadequate appreciation of the existing
provides more arithmetic checks when computing the levels ground conditions.
in the field book. Usually site investigations will include a study of old records
and plans of the area, geological maps and topographical
survey plans. It will also prove worth while talking to those
7.2.5 Aerial Surveys
who have a special knowledge of the area and its history. Has
There are occasions when aerial surveys can be justified, any part of the area ever been used as a refuse tip? Have there
when compared with the time and costs involved in the alter- ever been any springs or mine workings in the areal Sur-
native ground survey methods; this is often the ca se when veyors and setting out engineers can often gain unsolicited
surveys and contours are required for large areas proposed information while on site which may be helpful to the
for future development. This method has the added designer.
advantage that the survey does not involve entry on to private Having obtained as much information as possible from
land. existing records, a geotechnical firm is usually employed to
Aerial survey maps are obtained by applying the principles carry out bore holes, take and test sampies of the soil, and
of photogrammetry to photographs taken vertically from an submit a technical report. The report for the footbridge in
aircraft flying over the survey area approximately horizontally appendix I was submitted in two parts. The first included a
at a near constant height. statement of the contract brief, a factual re port of the site
Figure 7.13 shows part of an aerial photograph and the works and observations, the geology of the area and the
corresponding plan. recommendation as to the type of foundations required. The
second part included a site and borehole location plan,
borehole logs and the test results. Part of the borehole log is
7.3 SITE INVESTIGATIONS shown in figure 7.14. Tests were carried out to record the
strata and groundwater conditions, determine the possible
No civil engineering project should ever be undertaken short and long-term ground settlements at various depths
without first carrying out a thorough site investigation. A under the estimated imposed loading, and measure the sul-
Drawing Applications 107

Figure 7.11 Part of survey plan with underground features


Figure 7.12 National Crid system
and proposals added
The grid lines and station coordinates shown in figure 7.9 are related
to the National Grid. The 100 km square portion of the Grid within
phate contents and shear strengths of the soil. The estimation
wh ich these lines are situated has the reference SU in this system as
of the depths for the boreholes was based on the assumption shown above. The National Grid (false) origin has been so situated
that piled foundations would be required. that all 'northing' and 'easting' coordinates in the United Kingdom
are positive.

7.4 DETAILING
has a tendency to corrode. Hence, putting it simply, the steel
is used to provide the resistance to tensile stresses while the
There are established conventions for representing concrete
concrete protects the steel. Also, the compressive strength of
reinforcement and structural steelwork details wh ich should
the concrete is often fully utilised in the production of
be strictly followed wherever possible. Detail design and
slender beams by means of a process known as pre-stressing.
drawing is a very time-consuming and highly skilled proce-
The terms used to define the principal forces imposed on
dure if carried out properly. Insufficient or blurred detailing
structural members are tension, compression, bending and
will present construction site staff with a lot of headaches and
shear, all of which can induce tensile stresses in unreinforced
more often than not will lead to errors. On the other hand,
and reinforced concrete. The basic theory of reinforced con-
fussy detailing that shows every brick in a wall or the com-
crete design is that steel bars are introduced in such a way as
plete hatching of a large area is a waste of time and can be
to provide the whole resistance to the tensile stresses; the
equally aggravating. Poor details can be the result of many
tensile strength of the concrete is ignored (see figure 7.15).
factors but are mainly due to inadequate research or
The reader will find that he is weil along the road to an
insufficient time.
understanding of reinforced concrete detailing if he can
appreciate (1) how fundamental stresses are set up within a
7.4.1 Reinforced Concrete Detailing
structural member under the application of externalloading,
Reinforced concrete is one of the most important materials and (2) the types of steel bars needed to res ist those stresses
used in civil engineering. Concrete and steel can be com- and the form of their arrangement in the member (see figures
bined in such a' way as to utilise to the full the inherent 7.15 and 7.16).
structural properties of both materials while almost nullifying The recognised methods of detailing reinforced concrete
their essential weaknesses. are described in the Standard Method of Detailing
Concrete is strong in compression and has a high resistance Reinforced Concrete, produced by the Concrete Society and
to corrosion and intense heat, but is weak in tension. Steel is the Institution of Structural Engineers, wh ich should be used
strong in both tension and compression but expands quickly in conjunction with BS 4466: 1969 Bending Dimensions and
and can buckle when subjected to high temperatures; it also Scheduling of Bars for the Reinforcement of Concrete.
108 A Guide 10 The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

Figure 7.13 Aerialsurvey


Dra w 109
in g APplicati ns
O

.... . .
,
.
...

" ,.
.. .
""
.. ~
..
•,.0 ' .. -I"

."

...

fi g
ure 7.13 (Co
ntinue d)
110 _._---
Sampllng Propertl •• Strata
- - - _.----- -- --_. - -- --------- -
Depth Type Stre ngth w SPT Descropto on Depth Leve l Legend
kN m' % N
_. -- -- -- ------_.. - GL
0. 2 D 2S --- --
Turf Md TQPSOIL.
0. 2

0 . 5- 1.0 U(14) 40 24

1.2 D 26
son to fir~ light brovr_erey s,Hy sandy CUT
1.5- 2 . 0 U(IO) 20 24
... . lh p('Icket.s of .Ilt and occ."onal Grnvel •

2. 2 D 24

2 . ~-J . 0 U(25) 70 JO
2. 8

,..--- - - - - -_._ -- -
Sampie. Chemica l C la ssification Strength
Hole Depth Type D escri ption pH so, w
L
y.
Mg / rn] TeSI k
o.I m 1
01 c
0k ..Im' N /mJ'
ep-'

19 0. 2 Stiff yollo> brown 25


aottled light grey .Ilty
CIAY lIi th occ.sional
roots ~

O. ~ u Fi ro lieht brown IlOttl.d l~ 24 1. 9B UT 100 94


1.0 grey oi lty olightly 15 JJ 18 24 1. 9 JB 200 83 40
""""y CI.AT lIi th 25 1. 94 400 68
OCC3:-10rvU ern vt"l , roots
an~ rocket. of ,Ht .

Figure 7.14 Borehole log

COLUMN
Short Siender
OHM
..
o
·· l

I
c:ompre$s ion
~ ~

~
f~ +

buckl,ng bending
bUCkl.n,

PATTERN O F CRACK
OEVE l OPME HT I N t
THE UNREIHFORCED
BEA'"

gl~.J~ 1 1
~ ""~'"".,~ maln bau 10.
s tin uPI 10 r.list shu' re$i$t compre.sfon ",.,In b ar.
to f.,is t bendini
. nd compre ..ion
:3( c r3nke·d 10 r• •iS I .he. ,
IMIInding li,.q 10 reai5t
büCkling and .na""
PRESTRESSIHG mein bat. 10 be
establlshed in ,hei,

~h.av}'
eorrect positionS

r. "" OfC*me nl
.,ound anchor bIocks
10. resisl iOllcking force.

B· B

Figure 7.15 Tensi/e stresses in concrete


Drawing Applications 111

Typical column reinforcement cage Hooks and bends - standard


IlnkS

I
a . bar,.,.
MILD STfEl HIGH VIELD
BAAS BARS

h= 9. I ',d
I
3. I 4.
2. I 3.

4d
•d I 5 ,5 •

Typical reinforcement cages


gap enabl., m." bar ,
10 be fhced easil:t
BEAM dis tribution bau

main
bars st!rrups
ma n b.r5

'chair',pace,

Figure 7.16 Links, stirrups, chairs and spacer bars. (The terms 'links' and 'stirrups' are now more commonly calfed 'co/umn links'
and 'beam links' respective/y)
112 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

Dims to be
length given in sched. 43

~ R IF ANGLE WITH
HOR. 15 45° DR
A---.i
~T V
LESS
I------ A ---l A straight
r-j
~ r r D A+2B+C+E
t
~c.j
~A-j
C- ---L

A +h A
~ ~
@T
f lt' r (non-stimdanj)
l Ä+B- 't2,-d AL
;eA~
C-
A+2h A f--B---i
e~ e
ffJ EJ
I
A-----j A+n A

.P-
2(A+B)+20d
Tl. I I
YJ: A A+2n A

It e~?
IF ANGLE WITH
IF r IS NON-
HOR.IS 45° OR
~JB
STANDARD USE
SHAPE CODe 51
AI LESS

B ----l A+B- V2r-d f-C---i V A+C

-,
Ib.& or
A+B+C-,-2d
AI
B
I
8t==A
c: IB ) 2A+3B +22d c:: A!I-i )

Ii::A~ A
e~A

lfl:
BC
~rc-l
'f'C--i-{ ~
~c~ "t A+2B+C+O
-2, - 4d ~(O_D.)
t t D
I-A \,
~
e
ISOMETRie VIEW
A+B+C
~C-i

~
' t
I-A-j
~ A~ ~ Shape code
Figure 7.17 Preferred bar shapes
Taken from BS 4466:1969 Bending Dimensions and Scheduling of Bars for the Reinforcement of Concrete, reproduced by permission of the British
Standards Institution, 2 Park Street, London W1A 2BS, from whom complete copies may be obtained_ Other shapes are also given in BS 4466.
Drawing Applications 113

THAMESDDWN BOROUGH COUNCIL


TECHNICAL SERVICES GROUP
Metric Bar Schedule ref. ~ ~ [J

Bar Type length Shatv


No. No. Total ofea~
lember mark & of in A B C 0 [Ir
size mbrs each No. bar.mm code
mm mm mm mm mm
BASE 17 R25 4 31 124 3460 37 1560
....
STEM 18 R16 4 23 92 1740 48 180 1260 890

1R R16 4 23 92 2020 48 400 1220 ~60


v

Bar Type No. No. Total oflength


Member mark JJt. of in No. bar.eacl'l Shape
size mbrs each lIIßl
BASE

J
&
STEM 17 R25 4 31 124 3460

a-
1580

18 R16 4 23 92 1740
180

19 R16 4 23 92 2020
"b~ ~
400

A
V V

Fabric NO.of length Width


location mark Type sheets (main)
w~::,s mm Bend or cut

Figure 7.18 Bar and fabric schedules


114 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

Plan
Figure 7.20 Grid referencing

Bending moment enyelope

la ~'~2 ~.~ 11 ! I ~I ~

11 ."IUdlfa 11 11 11 ~

Elev.

Figure 7.19 Grid referencing


Letterinumber system: Columns are numbered by the intersection of
lines, for example C2 at the intersection of lines C and 2. Beams are
numbered in lines, for example 3a, 3b, 3c on line 3 and bl, b2, b3 on
line a. Lower-case letters are not acceptable for use in computing
systems and the Standard Method now recommends that only capital
letters be used. BS 1192 recommends that the origin of the grid
system be in the bottom left-hand corner as shown above and in
figure 7.21. The origin has, in the past, usually been placed at the
top left-hand corner, as shown in figure 7.20, and this system is
probably still widely used.

Figure 7.22 Maximum bending moment enve/ope


The maximum bending moment envelope is just one of several
design diagrams that are used in determining the size and arrange-
ment of the main reinforcing bars in a structure.
Drawing Applications 115

Plan at level Z 106.05

Oll I I I 01 5 1I 1

1 3 - (01,13)
01- 5 13 05- =>'" 13 O'J-I 3,13 (13,1
II!-
I -(05 , 13):
-!I-
:
.- -!II II!-- ~-l
(o~ ,13)1 I
r-- --!"
1
-13
1 I 1 I
~
I I ..,1 1
~I 1
f()1 1 1Iff)
~! 122:!! lL..J 17
~I
,:,1
-11
1
1 O! r 10 01
!
0 01

---
",1 1

..
~l o. tf\1

--.
Ci 1
~

1 0 1 I. 05- 0.2,,2 I _ _1I 1


'" i
--- -- --
10') f- ..!.:'( 2,.E2 • 1---
1
09- (0 11-- --~ 13,( ~) - 0 9
II!- f- - -- .- -~. .- 0"'-1 ,09- -!"1
1 (05 o,~ 1 (O~ o,)~ ~
I
• g)J
Cl'
0 1 1 10
Cl'
ß'I 1
1 I';' ,nl 1

.:
~ 11 .~I
0 1 1 10. ~I I O'

.--
-"
I l(g ~II r()1
0 1

05- (0 105)
~--
01-0
-- -- -- -_.
- - - ; ; 5.l..o~
11
~-~ ~-- r9~-~ ~~ - - I
~- I--~
I I -_..:
--
-!li
O~-I ~.J•..o..2 1
'j ....
1-- • (13, ) 5) - 0 5
1 i~;~
I! ~ 1(0:

,05
1 .0 . . ,O~ 1
I I~ 1/11 I \/11
0I 1
r.,
I()

03- L.. .9 1- 0 ~~~ _...J I.!. ~I I <;>1


Ö r ~.f()' jU. oJ 1 ö~

..
-" ~I 1 1 I~ a'1 I

--.
0 1 Oi !!)I
!
~--
ii"1
,.._;,.J
--
1
tl .1--
'Z2;.' .JJ.9.! 1 I 2.~.::1 ~>..9.!.
-- --
1
I V3,< I
-01
Ol,e 11) 01-( 5,01 05, 01) ,O~, PI)

I I I I I I
Figure 7.21 Grid referencing
Three-dimensional coordinate system: The above grid referencing system is suggested in BS 1192. Any point on the plan, section or elevation can
be identified and its position defined by its distance and appropriate coordinate x, y or z from the point of origin which is placed outside the area
defined by the drawing.
I .1.000·1 •

rT-fr';-t-~~~~~~~~~
I I I I
: : i---------------
I I I
I I I
I I I
I I I
SECTION J-J I I I
I I I
I I I
I I I
I I r------------------
~J-t·~~t.~====~~~=------

DECK I

SECTION H-H

..
F
,
. ~
r----------,
J L

~J:i
1
(
g
2.200
'"

~ ~
0
0 4.000
0
N

f--
~ ~
~l

.
r-.~"."e _ ,- - d
~ I
I.
l
SECTION F - F
5.000
.1 ~rl.r-____________________ ~11~.00~0 _ _ _ _ _ ___

EAST E
SOUTH COLUMN ELEVATION D-D

p.; r l · - - - - - - - - -
.,:., .... :: .

2.000

.'~
'; ...
:',:.'

BASE r

116
H3_7~35_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~·1 ,
---------------r-,----r--
---------------~--l ~-~---l
I I
I I
I I
I : SECTION L-L
I

-_:~- - ~- -:- - - ~- -_-_=_=_~_--_-_-_-_r_-_--


_ _--'-_~_-_~_-_-__'~ ~,
4 500

-:_ _

~ l:....:.-_~"v

--------!fT
SECTION K-K
13.735
.I
--------- --------- ~ :;:

V1T
1

gf ~i 550 I. 2.900 550

~ 800 700 800 750


0 1.550

I
~ 700
~------~4-~00~0------~

2.500
7.655 800 700 800

V ~ fl
~
~~~__50_0_-_____________50_0~~j-
,-
0
g
-
•I 5.000 •I 5,000
•I SECTION GG
_EVATION C-C
~
NORTH COLUMN ELEVATION E-E

16.000

I -I ~ -

1
~' .~. ..
:~
r

0
1.700 0
0

gl Figure 7.23 Footbridge - outline detail drawing


-.l A suggested arrangement of views for an in si tu concrete section of a

,
'~:,.~ v.
proposed footbridge. Eleven views have been considered necessary
..fA to describe the structure adequately. The method of dimensioning is
related to the needs of the carpenter in fixing the shuttering. Note
LAN B-B
the positionand direction of the section arrows.
~
117
S A20 - Sos.

...
30A ., - f/4iJSlSL- 1 RI) ... 56

,...,
,., 16

J2A tO - 39 - 250

I
r-T- h- I- - ,
11 7
,. ;
I
--_-. =-- - ----------
..
16AI6 - 43- 200 1 I
l-
r I 91
1 I
19,A20 ... S3 - 1
I I 1 1
I I 1 1 1 1 ' •••
I I 1 1
I I
1 I 1 1
I <> '3 I
I I 1 1
I I
I I 1 1 I
1
I I
I I 1 I 5oR20 - 5S
1- 1 2 At2 -S6

1+ I I I
1 I I 1 .l.. -
d I
-'-
1
L- I-I U-U
I
t-..J- IL- 'f--
~
=r
!2A 10 - 40 '\1...
SSII

". '" -,. -lW,···".» SI


-4R2S -S I

rr
4A ... 1

., '2
Tl 14
2R2~ -42 V2~ 22A12
'2111'"
-52-200 .
-
16AI1-S.2-400.
, AI ... -4 w

~
,.
UJOV-J2-:>4-12>N'
rr- 1
~,.-n-'2'

ru
/1 I
.V3>- .-.,.
- - v32- 1_'
~
lUyn -lJ- 12S ' Y:)1 -49 us.

r
J

•• -JO-." ••
·n), -4'1 .. , , !
1 -
~I -JO-'2>

"" ..
'

/ r3YJ2-37 )-
lOAIO-:n- 200 200
\., ..!.lli.=.lL/
3OA~-27-

""•.C,.,. -,00 r\ ,....


1ORtO-28 ~200 '10AI()- 28-200
1/
'''''' ,.-,.
4R :n~-3~
6OA>O-2'-200

M
1vl'-23 21'32 - 23
2Vl?-'4 2V32 - 24
mtn J
I
4VJ2 - 2.50
8vl2 ~ '16

-,-
I1RI6 - 16 J I 6Y 32 - 11
~m::; JI '1
~"'l2- "
. ... 2-' N
4 Vn-13
1 I
1 171=1115-'4 - 12SNF
I 11R - ' §-12SH
'-- I-~

-. .
l J
==::::::;*=====IF=~~===== . -

~ 'll
32"6-'. 11
16"" 16H

F - F 0-0

:I' •• ~ 262624 •• o. . . . . ,. ,.
-,-
,
-,- -,-

R It-
2.
~'-
2.
2.

.
~
,.
,.
----ll-
,.
2.
Ir~
1J 2So 250 15 750 23 23 2.! 25 2:; 7!J. 23
M-M
••• RI6-11 - 200
9 r 798
J
1
12 '1 12 " 12 12
,• IS
1 "
., '2 , 12 12

1L- -ll.
'-.'IL
,.
I
IJ ~J 13 , Tl •
2.
r
..>0_
., ~ I"
"I
~ -~
'3 - f- -- --
u 11 11 . . . .. N-N
'4
1
U" 11 11 " " ~~:~::~: ~Ml~
2OA16- 9 - 2$0 >CR2§ - 10-250

Befc
Figure 7.24 Footbridge - reinforcement detail drawing
deta
th el
Al ...
-
-r:-
5R10'" S~
-!JA
.,
1Al] 56 30A12' 200
r--

.
"
.0 T

~~-Sl-2S0 I S. ~
~~
- .~
" '9

,. "AR "
50

--= I=. J- - "FI~ " . "


:
I I
.. - r.. ,.
.
~
~ .,
1 ......
>3
I-- "
I
I :I ......
I I R-R 4b 4b

I I
~ A 20
1A"-~
... 55

== -- i --- ~=---- -
I
I
r --- ~so
t~s
.,
SI
,.
ll.
.
. ,·"8
-
- - -=c- L J
11 · 51-
A-A
2~O ... " up"
~
,. - ~ 2'
-\" '2
" l· I· ; -
"
~~bt ~
\
••
'0
s-s so
••

-.- ,.
l_
>
C-

4"'3'· 44
11"'75-4 I 1
."3'
.A
-""1~-d

I 1
4A I1-s6 e ul
4 A I'-56 . . .. 1

0'
I I :
~~~;15 ;~: :~!~~

1 I I

I I ~~~fi :~: !;!~r


I I
10 19

•• A,h -,. - ><>0


31 NF 33H
~

/
..
::-

11Ih& - IB

c-c t. NF 6"" e -E G-G

-r-- -..- -r-


n
-I{[[[[[[[ [[u: [[0i
p- p

I
1

- - - r- - r-
>
, iJ[[[[[[[
l [ [[[I lll
... " _ c _ ." 2O=~!:4:~~~
Q-Q
20."-6-''''
8-8

,re the d imensions were added to Ihe drawing shown in figure 7.23 a copy negalive was oblained 10 form Ihe basis of Ihe reinforcemenl
ils. The view have been arranged close (Q ea ch olher 10 suil Ihe book format. They would, of course, have 10 be spaced much wider apart on
ull-sized drawing. Drawn 10 a scal e of 1 :50 Ihey can be weil arranged on an AO-sized sheet.
120 A Guide to The Preparation of Civi/ Engineering Drawings

4R 25 - 51 aast beam 4Y32 - 4S .. at


4R25- 4Y32 - 48west

4Y32 -49 ....1


4Y32 -

8R32 - 58 - 1000 . . .1
8R32 - 58 -1000 •••1 ( _ . r . )
b 44 45

j linke

8 7

20 19

6 5

4 3

3 4

10
1 5 6

c-c
Figure 7.25 North foundation reinforcement detai/- elevation
The dimensions shown on a reinforcement detail are related to the a In this drawing the bars have been completely called up for both
needs of the steelfixer, hence the cover to the main bars and other beams. Usually the bars in identical beams are called up com-
dimensions clearly showing how the bars are situated in relation to pletely for one beam and the number of beams are stated. for
the shuttering must be indicated (omitted from this diagram for example'8 beams thus:'. Also where more than one stirrup or link
clarity). are grouped together at the same centres then the number of bars
Note that projection lines and arrowheads have not been used to in the group should be stated. for example 56 R12-52-200 'in
mark the end of bars and the reader can perhaps decide for hirnself pairs'. See figure 7.29 for bars marked 52.
whether they are necessary. (Compare with figure 7.34.) b See figure 7.16.

There are preferred basic shapes for reinforcing bars, each


steelfixer. The engineer cannot be on hand to supervise
of wh ich is given a shape code in BS 4466 to facilitate the use
the placing of every bar.
of computers for scheduling.
(2) Remember that reinforcement drawings always receive
Before starting the details, it is important to bear in mind
rough handling on site.
the following points.
(3) Appreciate that considerable time can be wasted if the
(1) Consider the people whose interpretation of the drawings required bars are difficult to find. Hence all like bars
is most likely to influence the successful completion of should be bundled together and uniquely referenced. If
the structure. A complicated and impressive-Iooking there are several structures on the same site then this
drawing is of little use if it cannot be understood by the should be indicated in the reference.
Drawing Applications 121

-r- -,- -:-- -r- -- -,-

158 RI6-17-200 1 1
79T,798
I I

- r- :-- r- -- - r- - r-- - ,-
2OR16- 9 - 250 20R25 -10-250 38R'~_~_12~ J&m:~:~:~
20R25-3-250T
38R25 -1-125 8 20RI6-6-2S0
B-B
Figure 7.26 Base slab reinforcement detail

2R25 -42 3Y32-41

.n r .- 1
{l30Y-32-34-125NF
;;';2~-32. 125
I1 1
,6Y32-31-125

,I
6Y32-31-12~

18V3. - 33-125
6Y32-30-125 1- poc 6Y32 -30-125

f3Y32-37
).
3OR10-27- 200
12ORlO-28-200
6ORlO-2lI-200
links
/ <- 4R2~-38

~ 4R25-35
/
\
3OR10-27-200
120RlO-28-200
6OR1Q-29-200
links
4R25-35

Figure 7.27 Column reinforcement detail- front elevation 2Y32-23 2Y32 - 23


2Y32-24 2Y32 - 24

-'1
4Y32 - 25
~m:~~ 8Y32 - 26

-r-
J
17R16 -16

m~:~~ Jl I,
1 6Y32-11
:m:1~ I
4Y32-13
I, L
I
1~=~~:1;:1~m
'--I I~'-

I I
32R16-18
16NF,18FF

~
12 12 12 12 12 12
I
15
. '-m..
. 15
I
I
'2 12 12 12 12 12

1-----1J....
13 ~3 13 1 13 2lI
~~ 28 28 1
~
13 113
I
. . . ? ..
13
1 " 13

11 11 11 11 11 11 14 14 11 11 11 11 11 11
I-I
Figure 7.28 Seetion showing column reinforcement
122 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

56
55 ~ 51 L 51 ~ 55

54 54

55
J
55
~
5~
52 52
• se
.I!!!~~ l!!~bI
50
49 s-s 50
49

Figure 7.29 Section showing deck slab reinforcement

d
See Drwq R 088
for starters
3 X9Y16-39 ;n 35 Unks

:0 1

!.j
1 I ,,"-, I ':3V'- 2"-0.-=<V~6'-_ 2-7_-1 50- ,1 ~~~R:====::;:I~I~I1=3Y~32~1_~5======~=4=Yl=6-=1=8~=5=-0
1NF 2FF ~-t'-' ~:-:~'o I,
---'-J\r"-+ 2 '"""
1

37 rl.----- ~
I. I.
15 37
11

I I I I

~ 28~J i I

39(3) \

18

35
1-1 I I I I I

2-2
Figure 7.30 Beam reinforcement detail
a Long broken lines represent the main column reinforcement to d Reference to another drawing for further details.
indicate that they do not conflict with the beam reinforcement. e and g Bars fully called up on the elevation.
b The bars represented by the open circles are shown on aseparate f Representing the end of a bar.
drawing. Note the simple leader lines which have been used to h Bar location dimensions. The cover to the bars will also be given,
avoid the need to show the same bar mark against several bars. either in the general notes if it is constant, or in specific notes if it
(Compare with figure 7.28.) varies in different parts of the structure.
c Grid reference on the general arrangement drawing.
Drawing Applications 123
INTERMEDIATE COLUMN FOUNDATION

a
4"12-2-200 4RI2-2-200

IR12-3
g
V 196·988 ÄMI

1 1 I 0 OY r f

epu. r.inforcement:
8N0..20mrn dl m On bar. bin . th I i h

FRONT ELEVATION

2 2

a
'4.2S-'-2000 I I I 1
..... l-~ 1
~

+ +I--t
I'....!-.

~ ~+- ! t- -
i'-t/ '-,
LI- s f.o~ For detaill of column baH pillte d
~ + I, 1: end holdina-down boKI . . Drwa. E "13/.;11

t--- t--- - -
+ I +
. . . f-
I

V-~'
-{ +-- + I
I
t
-+-~
'I- + '"I'
b2 I " - ~

14 R25-I-ZOOB
PLAN

figure 7.31 Bridge foundation - pile cap reinforcement detail


a Each group of bars completely called up once only.
b Ends of bars indicated by the bar mark and a short upturned line
wh ich also indicates the direction from wh ich the bar has come.
c Bar marks shown on all views.
d Reference to related drawings.
e Bars from other structural parts indicated by broken lines. Bars are
left protruding from the piles, to tie in with the pile cap reinforce-
ment.
Cover and any other dimensions required to locate the reinforce-
ment must be shown.
g Method of representing levels on sections. Generally it is better to
relate levels to Ordnance datum rather than an arbitrary datum. If
an arbitrary datum is used this should be chosen such that all
levels are positive.
124 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

19. 250

~
~-
E-'
WATIEASTOP OE.TAII..S

.JOINT OHAI..S

8-8

a PLAN

Figure 7.32 Sedimentation tank - arrangement of views


Although they do not include all the details given on the full-sized be shown . For example, it has not been considered necessary to show
drawing, figures 7.32 and 7.33 iIIustrate how views can be arranged the complete plans in order to detail the floor and hopper reinforce-
clearly and economically in such a way as to enable all the details to ment.

(4) Give careful consideration to the stacking of bars for the cannot be positioned in accordance with the structural design
convenience of the steelfixers and to save unnecessary requirements, or that the bars are too dose together to
handling. permit the concrete to be vibrated properly.
The preferred sizes for reinforcing bars are 8, 10, 12, 16, 20,
Figures 7.23 to 7.34 indude many of the recommendations
25, 32 and 40 mm diameter. There are three types of steel
contained in the Standard Method. Although only two bars in
used, wh ich have the following reference abbreviations
any set of like bars should be shown on a particular detail, it is
advisable to draw all the bars to scale on apart of the very first R Mild steel bars in the metric range of areas; BS 4449
detail drawn, before showing them in the correct convention Y High-yield high-bond strength bars in the metric
on the finished drawing. This will immediately highlight any round range of areas; BS 449 and BS 4461
areas of congestion or incorrect location of the bars. Having X A general abbreviation for types not covered by R or
drawn the bars to scale, one may, for example, find that they Y; an explanation of the meaning of X is required in
Drawing Applications 125
(Key to Figure 7.34)
EEE} a Each group of bars has been called up completely once only.
CHANNEL WALL
b Bars around the tank have been made short enough to facilitate
HOPPER transport and are lapped. The contractor may find it easier to
WAll
place the curved bars on top of the radial bars. Because most tanks
of this type are designed to withstand flotation, the base thickness
and the lever arms are larger than would be necessary for
structural reasons. Note the absence of shear reinforcement. In
HOPPER
order to minimise cracking in liquid-retaining structures, bars
FlOOR tend to be at closer spacings, the cover to the reinforcement
greater and members thicker than in other similar reinforced con-
crete structures.
r'
c Bar mark indicates end of bar, and the short inclined line and the

\W:l arrow show from wh ich direction the bar has come.

'_M~'f!l
TANK FlOOR PLAN d These bars with the same mark in the top and bottom of the slab
are likely to be placed at the same time. Bars that are the same and

00·"·",,,
yet will be placed at different times and in different structures or
parts of a structure, should be given different bar marks.
INLET PIPE

Figure 7.33 Sedimentation tank - plan and sections

~B

/- --"
/ -t--::::::::::t:::::::t-r--
/
/~~-1____-1-+1-+-~~-+~____~2R~16~-~lB~

2R16-8T
2R16-4B
lR16-91
lR16-5B
2R16-n
2R'6-3B
2R16-61
2R16-2B

s. 2RI6 -IB

2R16-81 2RI6 - 61
2RI6 -48

2RI6 -71
2R16-38

Figure 7.34 Sedimentation tank - hopper reinforcement detail


126 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

JIUJOA SUM SOLDIER


E"E"S'O'" TIMBER PI..ItTFORM OH 50Xl00

3rl. A 6 ' LIFTING EIES


BOARDS
ACCIESS
80lTEO fO co"",alNED SPLtCE
PI.. ... TfOA.. 8RACKET

MU. c.ONe. MANnR"-1

/
~T.l.Nn.aRb
lliE!....±. 7.38e

)
. ' t--H-
=
U

=
=
====~==~==~~====~
~
~ Ä-Ä

/
HANOA_II. STANDARD
n
THAOUOH .. Tlf ROD I
0 U HEXAGON N T

~
----~
"""'
F==
F== Ifo==~,!"",!l!!,b~I=J!;j:b,d\lib=,~
TIMSER COlUMN FOAIoiI
FllI;ED TO TII.lBER NAILING

v
n STRIP IN MAJOR Sl.IM
SOlOIER

"
=
=
=
=
MA.lM S ,... = ::, SHO.' CONNFC'OR
~c')lnllt~ N ..
=
\ ~
v-a- n = <co .. <HO••
~

=
= COLUMN FORMINGS IN
,WO SECllONS HELD B-B
~
TOCETHt:A WITH THRU-
'tE RODS , HEXAGON

1= HUTS

F=
~
F=
SWIVEL lASE PLATt:

/
Figure 7.35 High column shuttering
Drawing Applications 127
the specification and also on the drawings and On the other views, including the sections, the bars are
schedules. referenced by means of the bar mark only. On sections, only
the bars cut by the section should be shown.
The full references of the bars shown on the reinforcement
Bars should be referenced in sequence and approximately
drawing indicate the number of like bars in the group, the
in the order that they are likely to be placed in the structure.
type of steel, the size of the bars, the sequential bar mark, the
On small jobs it may be convenient to start at bar mark 1 and
spacing of the bars and the position of the bars in the
carry on through the whole job in consecutive sequence. On
structural member. For example bar reference 20R12-5-150T
large jobs the referencing on each drawing should start at bar
means: 20 mild steel round bars of 12 mm diameter, with a bar
mark 1, in wh ich case different bars with the same bar mark
mark 5, spaced 150 mm apart and situated in the top face of
are distinguished on site, and on the bar schedule, by the
the member.
Full references are shown once only on schedule reference and bar mark combined. Each page of the
bar schedule has a unique reference which has the drawing
(1) the plan, in the case of foundations and slabs (except that number and sequential page number coded into it. The labels
with stairs full referencing is better shown on the section); on the bundles of bars delivered to the site contain the bar

+ -_
_..... _...
(2) an elevation, in the case of beams, walls and columns.

-- ... -
mark and the schedule reference. Hence the steelfixer knows

- - .- .,.... [a
DIIAW'''' AIII_DIIIIITI UR IIARU ON DIIG
1 2 3 458
7 8 111011 12
13 14 15 18 17 18
--
8114
8205
8304
-+ ......

c
1112021 22 8402

15
~
a - 20- u- .... 1 , min ....
V
.I
I -15 t18 111
-19 - FF 20 20
-18- NF

-- 1
-14- NF 17
< < -14- FF 1811

fc
18
18
~ lap
-17- FF

-18- NF -13- NF
..,..,...
-22-

-- -13- FF -21- (horiz)


apac:erll
- 11- NF Iap
<> 75 klcIcer
-10- ff -12- NF
m - 4 -

--
elternate alternate
-11- FF -12- FF - 5 -

- 8 -

--
- 2 - NF ehair.
- 2 - FF

•• - 1 -
- 3 -

*m
BB ~

l§§t-
PlI.... ND l'anelNo Concrete dimension.
- 7 - SteIn height max
- 8 - lhicknass max
Ba.. width
AA
See Alao
ce
REINFORCEMENT COVER
., See Dr9 ND
~ tlicknass
THIS DRAWING NOT 10 SCALE

LUCID
-..
...,.... _ . 1 ... - .....
OVERLAY
Genertlllllotes Drg siele

... .. -
Stern.top
Base Key
GADrg
_:Horizontal Sieel may be

DEMONSTRATION
provided in .andorn
Bar Scheclule Rel Ienglhs. minirrum lap

Figure 7.36a Standard details - retaining wall


128 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings
from this the relevant bar schedule sheet and drawing (2) The possibility of interference between the bars of adjoin-
number. ing members in the same structure must be taken into
There are several potential constructional problems account. Large-scale details may be required where
associated with reinforced concrete wh ich can be eliminated adjoining members intersect in order to ensure that this
or minimised by careful detailing. does not occur.
(3) If the main reinforcement is horizontal, the vertical
(1) The reinforcing cages (interconnected arrangements of reinforcement should be checked to ensure that it is
bars) must be strong and stift enough to withstand the strong and stift enough to support the horizontal bars at
self-weight of the bars and the forces imposed by the wet all stages of construction.
concrete and vibrators. The possibility that the contractor (4) Due allowance must be made for holes in the member
may wish to fabricate the ca ge away from the member and and the use of trimming bars.
then lift it into position should be considered. This (5) The possible sequence and placing of shuttering panels
involves ample provision of links, stirrups, chairs and should be considered. A short section of a wall, ca lied a
other spacer bars, and distribution steel. kicker, should be cast with its foundation to facilitate the

I" ORtQlNAL

Dei.
+
DltAWINQ

Mecle Check4MI
I

.... -
.. C......



DRAWING AMEMDIIENTI
I

Rnl.ton
BAR MAIIKS ON DRG

8 1011 12
13 14 15 111 17 18
182021 22
I
OVERLAYS
8114
-+- -
COMPUTE.i

b
15
~
-20-

-18-
u- bare
FF I
1
-15
min Iapt V 18 18
~
20 20
-18- HF min lap

--
-14- HF 17
<> < -14- FF '1P118

-17- FF
-~ fc 18
lap J
-22-
spleen
-111- HF -13- NF

--
-13- FF -21- (horiz)
splC...

- 8- HF lap
". 75kic......
-10-
-11-
FF
FF
alternate
-12-
-12-
HF
FF W
_I..

108
11

BB Concrote dlrnenllkln.
Stam heighl max
thickness max
. . . width
AA tlickness
s•• Aloo
General Notes Drg
REINFORCEMENT COVER
Stem,lop side
...,. . _. !.............
THIS DRAWING NOT TO SCAlE

...... -
Base
GADrg

Bar Schedule Re!


L. .J

Figure 7.36b Standard details - retaining wall


Drawing Applications 129

fixing of the wall shuttering. Bars must protrude far structural floor level SFl
enough above the kicker for the vertical wall bars to lap existing level El
on tothem. horizontal hor
(6) The over-all dimensions of the bars must be limited in vertical vert
order to facilitate transport to the site. diameter dia
(7) Cantilevers pose particular problems and special precau-
(b) Relating to reinforcement
tions are necessary to ensure that bars are maintained in
their correct position during concreting. each way EW
each face EF
far face FF
Abbreviations
near face NF
(a) General
bottom B
reinforced concrete RC top T
brickwork bwk
drawing drg Line thicknesses
full size FS Outlines on general arrangement
not to scale NTS and detail drawings 0.6 mm or DA mm
finished floor level FFl Outlines on reinforcement drawings DAmm

+ 7 6
345 6
8205 --+-

- 4 -
alternate
- 5 -

e -6-
chair.

- 3-

- 7 -
- 6 -

LUCID
figure 7.36c Standard details - retaining wall
130 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

Main reinforcing bar O.6mm a form that can facilitate the adoption of more standardised
Links and stirrups OAmm automated procedures. The first essential step was to develop
Dimension lines and centre lines O.2mm a standardised format for representing reinforcement details.
Cross-sections of bars should be drawn approximately to One method has been proposed and the participating
scale. members of the research group have been involved in
producing and checking details of typical structural elements
in a standardised form, together with the instructions concer-
7.4.2 Standard Detailing
ning their use. One of the problems associated with standard
The reader will by now have a good appreciation of the high details is that a complete range of permutations must be
costs and the large number of drawings that can be involved covered for each element (member). A standard detail in the
in the general detailing of reinforced concrete in particular.lt context of this research has been defined as 'a representation
is with these factors in mind that staff at loughborough of part of a structure in which the general pattern of the bars
University of Technology, in conjunction with 100 firms is preconceived.' The spacings, covers, fixing dimensions,
within the civil engineering industry, have been developing sizes, numbers and types of bars and the over-all concrete
detailing aids which will both save time and present details in dimensions, are entirely at the discretion of the designer.

+ 1 2

8304
-+--
8402

- 2 -
- 2 -
NF._ _ _ _ _ _-,
FF _-_..1
.....
I: .. ., - 1 -
d

~~ ==========::::::ri* I ~PaneINO
Panel No

' hIS Panel


':
.. I See Drg No
ce

Key
Note, Horizontal steel may be
OVERLAY
DEMONSTRATION
provided in random
lengths. minimum lap

L
Figure 7.36d,e Standard details - retaining wall
Drawing Applications 131
'Standard' does not mean 'one only', and every detailing each of which is specifically referenced and shows the details
system offers many alternative standard details for each of different parts of the element, as in figures 7.3Gb to e. The
element. parts in the example are thestem, base and downstand, which
An example of the method of representing the details for a can be permutated in a variety of ways depending on the
typical structural element is illustrated in figure 7.3Ga. The height of the stem and its position in relation to the base, the
complete detail, in this case a free-standing canti lever retain- position of the downstand if required, and the basic arrange-
ing wall, is built up with aseries of transparent foil overlays, ment of the reinforcement. There are 20 possible stem

L!~ --.l
F n back mark
notch f
N I )..
-js,t- ~ f-

Tee

IIIC082 .n.
Universal
beam
Universal
column
Joist Channel Castellated beams,
columns ,and joists
T
Bridge
rail

o o o
Hollow sections

o I o Piles
r---~--~
Trench sheetsr---~r---~

Figure 7.37 Structural stee/work seetions


The properties of beams, columns, joists, channels, angles, hollow
• •
sections, bridge rails, bolts and welds are given in Metric Practice for
StructuralStee/work.
132 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings
overlays, 6 base overlays, 9 overlays concerning the wall of columns, beams, tees, channels, angles, bridge rails, ;oists,
longitudinal reinforcement and 2 overlays concerning notes hollow sections and round and square bars. Both solid and
on the drawing. The potential of this method of detailing can hollow sections, some of which are shown in figure 7.37, have
be appreciated when it is realised that a maximum of only 4 a wide range of civil engineering applications including
overlays is required for any single complete detail, and that buildings, bridges, oil rigs, pipelines, coffer-dams, piles,
20 x 6 x 9 x 2 = 2160 permutations are possible using trench supports, parapets and safety fences. The suitability of
20 + 6 + 9 + 2 = 37 overlays. any structural steelwork member for a given application will
depend on such properties as its section modulus, radius of
gyration, area and moment of inertia, its weight, and the
7.4.3 Structural Steelwork Detailing
strength of the member in bending, axial compression, axial
A guide to basic structural steelwork design and detailing, tension, shear and bearing.
plus comprehensive information on the properties of steel Commonly used symbols and abbreviations are as folIows.
sections, is contained in Metrie Praetice for Struetural
Steelwork published by the British Constructional Steelwork loist RSI
Association. This manual includes tables giving the properties Universal beam I UB

y
SYMBOL

~ J\....
7 13
~ €7
--flat
2
~ 11 8
~ ~ ............... convex
'-.../ concave

~~
~
3 leg
9
V C7
VI
V length

-
....I
0
ID
~

v
.............

X
~
VI
4 10
~ >
er:
"t-Z '-'"
'":I
y n '"
&~~~ ~
5 11 ....I T thickness
Q.
Q. G gap
~
VI ",4 angles

v ~

r ------
.
R roat face
6 12
,~(~
0 ~ ~

arrow hne L .. ,,-"""""


re'••",.,... /
Jo,nt
V _
~,.J----"'~
@- non
indicates site weid

destructive testing
required ~
3'
~number
indicates
welding
process
(BS 499 Part 3 Tab1e10)

Figure 7.38 We/ding symbols : BS 499: Part 2: 1980 (reproduced by permission of the British Standards Institution, 2 Park Street,
London W1A 2BS, (rom whom complete eopies may be obtained)

1 Butt weid between flanged plates (the flanges being melted down 7 Single-U butt weid.
completelYl. Butt welds between flanged plates not completely 8 Single-J butt weid.
penetrated are symbolised as square butt welds with the weid 9 Backing or sealing run.
thickness shown. 10 Fillet weid.
2 Square butt weid. This symbol is used to indicate a stud weid when 11 Plug weid (circular or elongated hole, completely filledl.
there is no end preparation and no fillet weid. 12 Spot weid resistance welding (top diagraml and arc welding
3 Single-V butt weid. (bottom diagraml or projection weid.
4 Single-bevel butt weid. 13 Seam weid.
5 Single-V butt weid with broad root face. Note that symbol 12 has in the past been used to denote 'weid all
6 Single-bevel butt weid with broad root face. round'.
Drawing Applications 133

SYMBOLS FOR RIVETS AND BOLTS

Open holes
+
11 11
Csk. near side

*
*+
(bI
11 11 Csk. far side

Shop rivets No' NAM ~~


.fOlMfO ' ws
MAIIIII al
1111 u
:~
'vrftN L

Csk. near side

* ...
Cd1t--1
11 11

(cl

*
,. TJ

Csk. far side . "


...
11 11

"
.....
Shop bolts
-t
?f
Figure 7.40 Typical beam details
11 11 Csk. near side

*
minimum. Factors which need to be taken into account in the
11 11 Csk. far side design of buildings include the choice and transport of
materials, cost, fabrication and erection, painting, type of
Shop H.S.F.G. bolts
-<+>- claddings and finishes, aesthetics, the likelihood of future

-+-
extensions or change of use and fire protection .
As with reinforced concrete work, the design and detailing
Site H.S.F.G. bolts of structural steelwork must be such as to facilitate ease of
fabrication and erection. The two most commonly used
Figure 7.39 Symbols {or rivets and bolts methods of joining structural members are by means of (1)
welding and (2) bolting, using black bolts, high-tensile bolts,
or high-strength friction grip bolts, the last being tightened to
a pre-determined torque during fixing. Welding is usually
Universal column I UC
limited to workshop fabrication . Joints can be welded on site
Angle L angle
but this operation could prove to be more expensive than
Channel C channel
bolting. There are standard conventions for representing
Tee T tee
welds and standard welding symbols, full details of wh ich are
Rectangular hollow section 0 RHS
contained in BS 499: Part 2: 1980 (see figure 7.38) . The symbols
Circular hollow section 0 CHS
used on drawings for rivets and bolts are shown in figure 7.39.
The symbols can be arranged in various combinations to The recommended units of measurement are millimetres
denote made-up sections. for dimensions, centimetres for section properties, kilograms
Steel is commonly used for building frameworks. High- for mass and newtons for force. The method of dimensioning
yield hollow sections, connected by special joints called and tolerances are important factorsin eliminating errors in
'nodus joints', are being increasingly used in space frames for fabrication and erection of steel members.
the large-span roof systems of conference halls, theatres, There are standard recommended sizes for notches at beam
swimming pools, churches, exhibition halls and similar build· to beam connections (related to member sizes), as weil as
ings. Fabrication is relatively simple and welding is kept to a recommended back marks and spacings between holes for
134 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

w W (2) where the fastening is at right angles to the plane of the


e force (figure 7.41 b).
The connection can be made with bolts (or HSFG bolts), rivets
or welds. Note that only one type of fasten er must be used in
any one connection.
bolted The solution of bolted connections in which the fastening is
in the same plane as the force is obtained using coefficients
for various eccentricities, e, cross centres, 5" and vertical
pitches p. These coefficients are given in Metric Practice. The
coefficient, c, equals the load, W, divided by the permissible
load on one fastener, f. Coefficients and tables showing the
properties of weid groups are also given to aid the solution of
w welded connections.
In the type of bolted connection where the fastening is at
right angles to the plane of the force, the bending moment is
taken by tension in the fasteners and compression between
welded the bracket and the face to wh ich it is connected. The reac-
tion is taken by shear in the fasteners. For the welded bracket
it is assumed that the top flange weid resists the bending
moment rotating about the axis at the bottom of the beam
and that the vertical shear is resisted by the bottom flange
weid. (Note: The practice in some firms is to work about the
neutral axis for bending and the vertical shear is resisted by all
the weid, the resultant being
a
Figure 7.41
b
Brackets with eccentric loading J( f S + f b)
Ps Pb
Values of allowable bending moments and shears are given in
Metric Practice.)
fasteners. Back marks do not have to be stated on detail draw-
The most usual method of making beam-to-beam connec-
ings unless they are different from the recommended dimen-
tions is by means of end deats or end plates (figures 7.40c and
sions. Detailing practice va ries in certain respects between
d). In an end cleated connection with the incoming beam on
individual firms particularly with regard to the method of one side only, the value of a bolt on the outstanding leg is
referencing members, owing to the different layout and
usually governed by single shear but the bearing capacity
methods adopted in fabrication shops. Some typical and very
must be checked. On the connected leg the bolts are subject
practical examples are shown in figures 7.44 to 7.47. Chain
to direct force and the force due to the moment. Where there
dimensioning has been used on the beam details; Metric
is an incoming beam on both sides the bolts on the outstand-
Practice recommends that dimensions start from one end of
ing leg are subjected to double shear but again the bearing
the member - see figures 7.40a and b. Typical load-bearing
values must be investigated. This can be done by comparing
brackets are shown in figure 7.41. Adequate dearances must
the single shear value with one-half of the bearing value,
be provided for the operations of bolting or welding;
taking the lesser of the two. The thickness of the end deats or
stiffeners must be incorporated where necessary to prevent
thickness of the end plate must not be less than one-half the
local distortion of column or beam flanges and webs and also
thickness of the web. In the welded end plate type of connec-
to prevent buckling of the bracket itself. The web of the
tion shown in figure 7.40d the end plate must be capable of
bracket must be adequate in both shear and bending. These
transmitting the end reaction to the web of the beam.
types of connection fall into two main groups
Concentrated loads on beams can produce local buckling,
(1) where the fastening is in the same plane as the force direct bearing (or crushing) shear and bending effects in
(figure 7.41a) various combinations. These must be investigated in
Drawing Applications 135

~ not to exceed D
,-,.-

~G
B.
t2 1\ t2
~ D/2
J
Dh .....
D
~- - - / _~ D

/
.
"" '\. / ~~
ft:
[ P
--
' - - root radius r
~ Seating bracket
Cap plate
si
........ I I

II
a b c
Figure 7.42 Seating brackets and beam ends over stanchions

accordance with BS 449. Load bearing stiffeners must be and run-off plates should be considered if the length of the
provided at points of concentrated loads (induding points of weid is not to be curtailed.
support) where the concentrated load or reaction exceeds In order to provide a complete indication of the position of
the safe buckling load x the web thickness x the dimension B a weid in a particular joint, relative to the parts being joined,
(figure 7.42). Recommended bolt sizes are M12, M16, M20, an arrowhead is used to indicate the reference side of the
M22and M24. joint. If the weid symbol is placed beneath the arrow exten-
In general terms there are two types of weid: fillet welds sion line this indicates that the weid is on the arrow side. If the
and butt welds. A fillet weid is any fusion weid approximately symbol is placed above the line then this indicates that the
triangular in transverse cross-section wh ich is not a butt weid weid is on the other side of the joint. The former convention
but induding a weid at a corner joint. A fillet weid, as is preferable. When the arrow cannot point to a joint, sym-
deposited, is not to be less than the specified dimensions: the bolic representation cannot be used. Dimensions relating to
latter must be dearly indicated as throat thickness and/or leg the cross-section of the weid are shown on the left-hand side
length as appropriate. For concave fillet welds, the actual of the symbol and longitudinal dimensions of the joint on the
throat thickness is not to be less than 0.7 times the specified right-hand side (distances between adjacent weid elements
leg length. For convex fillet welds, the actual throat thickness are indicated in parentheses). The cross-section dimension
is not to be more than 0.9 times the actual length. The effec- for a fillet weid is usually the leg length. If it is necessary to
tive length of a fillet weid is not to be less than 4 times the size indicate the design throat thickness, then the leg length
oftheweld. dimension is prefixed with the letter 'b' and the throat
A butt weid is defined as a weid in which the metallies sub- thickness dimension is prefixed with the letter 'a'. The pre-
stantially within the extension of the planes of the surfaces of ferred range of leg length dimensions is 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16,
the parts joined, or within the extension of the planes of the 18,20,22 and 25 mm.
smaller of two parts of differing sizes. The size of a butt weid is
specified by the effective throat thickness of the weid, the
effective throat thickness of a complete penetration butt weid 7.5 THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A SMALL
being taken as the thickness of the thinner part joined; and PEDESTRIAN SUBWAY
the effective throat thickness of an incomplete penetration
butt weid is taken as the minimum depth of weid metal, The methods likely to be used in the construction of any dvil
exduding reinforcement, common to the parts joined. Care engineering project, and the legal aspects of a contract, will
should be taken at the ends of the weid and the use of run-on have some influence on the way in which the drawings are
- - -- - - - l""l - ---:J"""r:- - --:t='r-: - f"'t- - t"'T- 0 tI-:-~
- d,e - ,
1
....... . / ....- ....... ....- .......
./ ,x
(
, L

, ,
C x )
....- ,
./
X

, ""
,/

I II I
0 0 0
- - - -
...Q /"
,
/'
X
/'
C
"x L ,
) ) ) ) 1 ) )
-Q
0
'-/
-
/
"
.......... ./'
-~'- a
--0
..-. .-. ./~ ,-....
~-o
-
0

0
- - - - - - -
.......... ./' ......... / f
/"-...... / ..........
:::-......./ / I
""
.............
) ) :,.....-r . . . . . . .
) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

-
1"- . /
v
x
0
, - -
'/'-.< I
./'

./ .......

/"
"X
.......... ./'~': I
) )
) ) N.../ ) ) ) ) ) ) .......... / )
. / .......... / ..........
"" ...........
..... .............
....-
/
........ L
............. / .......... / ............./
~ ::-:::., r.:::. I
- - -- - -- - - - --
L: :--... L :::-::-..

n-
-
- D--
0

-
I
- - ./.. 'CJ - @ - §' - rff 0

~, ~ ~ I
9' , "x/
" 'Xto
,.
" ./
......... " /
1 ) ) ) X )
" Ir
A ll} "
AI~ ) )

(u ....... . / ./
, L
....- ....- x
""
~
'::,.
........
L. :::-::-. L. ""::-
........
- - - - -- .L _' li" I
- ./ - -
0

l
0

I
./ "'"....... >( "'- I
/
0 ....... ./ ~ ,/
I
,x ,
V l-"
7'
/'
-.....
........ , !
- - - - - - -
-0
..L - ./
(']
P
0

0 -0 -- 0 0
-
0 0 0 Oe I

- IL
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Figure 7.43 General arrangement drawing (part)


a Grid referencing. bracing, etc., starts with a different letter wh ich is followed by a
b Part of the lattice girder detail is shown in figure 7.44. sequential number; like members have been given the same
c In this referencing system the reference for each type of structural reference.
member, for example, stanchions, trusses, girders, sheeting rails,
C'T'

~~~",,~M' "I.All ....


0:: 18
14 DUo MOllS .. P'1lCII.

I LATTICE GIROER BB4

Figure 7.44 Lattice girder detail

a lattice girder with piece mark 884; see figure 7.43. c Grid reference on general arrangement drawing; see figure 7.43.
b Universal beam 254 x 146 x 43 kg m (exact size 259.6 mm x d Number corresponds with the number in the materials list; part of
147.3mml. a typical form used for listing materials is shown below.

MATERIAL LIST

WORKS .. . . .... ............... JOB No •......... ... ........ ........ ........ ....

MATl. REQD. BY .................................. SHEET No ................ of... .............

DRAUGHTSMAN .............. . .... .... ........ DATE PREPARED ........................................


ITEM No. SECTION IMPERIAL LENGTH LENGTH IN MM Kg PER M WT IN Kg
r
138 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

t• 1
(])
I

BEAMS UNNING NORrH TO SOUTH TO BE

L
CONNEC , 0 TO COLUMN FLANGES WITH

IdOl!> I
M 20 HojFoG BOLlS
I1
G)=-. :t J:
..,
"
~.
Ä1
..,I
N
I
F1 I T

t:: t::

I I
(D_. - .!.

I
I; I;

01 ;I;

(D_.
1 I; I; 1 10 iI! :t

::I
CJ

0)- .
(J)
GI

.
Si
..,
:Sr;
CD 1 I

~
ll.
C t:: t::

l-
(j)- U A7
f
l: J: .E..
F7
1.1
tT I I I I I I

I· . i· I.
·1
• FFL c:::::J
• TOP OF STEEL c:::::J I
FIRST FLIIR ALL STEEL PREFIXED B

Figure 7.45 General arrangement drawing


a and b The column reference (also the piece mark) is defined by d Top of structural steelwork and finished floor levels shown.
the intersection of the grid lines. The detail of column A1 is shown e The prefix 'B' in the piece mark indicates that the beams are
in figure 7.47. situated in the first floor.
c Beam references include (i) part of the number of the drawing
giving details of the beam and (ii) the reference of the floor in
wh ich the beam is situated (see figure 7.46).
f

I
.. FOR 817-3,617 -31 , 617-32 ONLY 200 X 20 PLT x 692
• FOR C17-3 , C17 -31 , C17-32 ONLY 200 X 20 PLT X 695

CJ
i;l
~

CIQ
FOR 817- 3 , B17 - 31 , 817-32 ONLY 686 X191 x89 CUB 8253 EXACT :»
""0
b rn (692 .1 X192 .0)
FOR C17- 3 , B17-31 , 817- 32 ONLY ~ 686)( 191)( 98 CU8 8253 EXACT ~
;:;.
(695 .9 X 192.81 Q.>


::l
.."

Figure 7.46 Castellated beam detail (part)


a Over-alilength of beam, including end plate; and piece marks. e and f Primary dimensions to the centre of each group of holes for
b Type and length of universal beams; the boxed numbers relate to connecting beams.
the item numbers in the material list. g Secondary dimensions from the centre lines of each group of
c Dimension to centre line of connecting column. holes to the centre lines of the holes themselves.
d Sizes of end plates.

.....
IN
\0
140 A Guide to The Preparation of Ci vii Engineering Drawings

100Xl00Xl

'10 HOUS 1IO Clh


Drawing Applications 141

Figure 7.47 Steel column detail


a Four columns of the type detailed, with an over-all dimension of levels will be negative. If Ordnance datum is adopted then all
10.04 mare required. The reference marks are related to the grid levels will be positive and can also be directly related to existing
on the general arrangement drawing; see figure 7.45. contour and spot levels in the vicinity of the site. In order to avoid
b This number relates to the item number in the material list which confusion where several specialist firms are supplying detail draw-
is prepared at the very start of the job to enable the purchasing ings for a project, the client company may stipulate the datum to
department to buy the necessary main material. be used.
e A universal column with a nominal serial size of 203 mm x 203 mm j Equal angle 100 mm x 100 mm x 12 mm thick and 305 mm long.
and a weight of 60 kg/m. The exact over-all dimensions are k Method of representing the type, size and position of welds. The
209.6 mm x 205.2 mm. Several different sections can be obtained in marking shown indicates that a 7 mm fillet weid is required on the
each serial size and hence the weight per metre and exact size inside and outside of the angle where it connects with the
must be stated. column.
d A 210 mm x 205 mm x 20 mm thick capping plate. Note that the Flat plate 75 mm x 205 mm x 10 mm thick.
length is stated at the end of the description. m Stiffening plate 90 mm x 90 mm x 12 mm thick on both sides of the
e Brief basic specification notes concerning surface treatment. flange.
f Dimensions to tops of connecting beams. n Holes shown black.
g Basic chain dimensioning to floor levels. Note that each set of bolt o Base plate 400 mm x 320 mm x 25 mm thick.
holes is dimensioned relative to the nearest floor level. p Column references relate to the grid lines on the general arrange-
h Top of beam levels. ment drawing. This number is known as the piece mark and
Floor levels. If the ground floor is used as zero datum then some identifies where the member will be situated in the structure.
142 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

I .500".,.. DIA.PPE' A.T 1... .2S ,500_DI,A

k c~ss H CONCR.eTE Oll V2.ASBESll

j CL.ASS a BED ....... SUIlROU'!ct

.AC
i ~AST FIL.L

h _"4.
".../
F"".-r(
I1 I 1

r~ ::1 I
:;:;P/ I1 1

... -?~ I!i 1


f VI"Tj
1 ~~ V-;r --
1
...... ~~ )L- --

J:::
I , / r"'" ...... ~.::: ... -

g
...... V
...... ...
... -:: I-:::~:::'"
...

I ~ ...
f . . . .1... ..... .
Figure 7,48b Longitudinal section for proposed housing
estate road
a Zero chainage is usually arranged to facilitate setting-out on the
MTUM ,...·ooOm ,0..0.0. ev site, e.g. the intersection between the centralline of the road and
the channelline of the adjoining road.
•X n :~ 8 ~ i
d Ii i!- i!
0
I~ b 'leh-hand' and 'right-hand' gullies are defined by looking in the
EX1STINIi liROUND LEVELS.
i ;
.•" H i 8i
J: 2 !! !!
direction of increasing chainage. 'left-hand' and 'right-hand' in
c PROPOSED GItDUND LEVELS
t-
this context must not be confused with the definitions in the
British Standard on storm gully gratings wh ich are related to the
b PRDPOSED IWERT LEVEI5 ~
~ I direction of flow of surface water on the road surface.
c to g 'left-hand' and 'right-hand' are defined by looking in the
a CHAIllAIiE IN METRES 0
~
direction of increasing chainage. The sequence of representing
the levels should be shown so that they are logically related to the
cross-sections (if required) wh ich are taken looking in the direc-
Figure 7,48a Sewer longitudinal section for proposed tion of increasing chainage.
housing estate h Existing ground levels.
Datum line.
Compare this longitudinal section for a housing estate sewer laid in The proposed road centre line is represented by a solid line and
virgin ground (note the absence of existing mains and services) with existing ground by a broken line. False channels, where required,
figure 7.51 which shows the section for asewer laid in a town centre. are shown by means of long broken lines. The setting-out infor-
a to d Information about levels and chainages are shown in a box at mation on the longitudinal section relates to the road centre line.
the foot of the section. It is suggested that all chainage values, Where the road width varies, for example at junctions and
including those for branch sewers, be related to zero at the main roundabouts, the levels and the setting-out information are best
sewer outfall. The branch chainages can be suffixed by letters to shown on large-scale plans.
distinguish them from the main sewer chainages. k Road width.
e Ordnance datum from which vertical scale measurements are I Information about the cross-sectional shape of the road: camber,
made in plotting levels on the section. transition or cross-fall. l...{).084 and R+O.084 mean the left-hand
h to I Pipeline details. Descriptions are necessary only at the channel is 0.084 m below the road centre line and the right-hand
manhole chainages and hence it is unnecessary to extend any of channel is 0.084 m above the road centre line.
the other lines to the top of the section box. m Information about the vertical profile of road centre line.
m Manhole numbers. It is important to keep a register of all n Information about the horizontal alignment of the road centre
manhole numbers to ensure that no two man holes within a line. Detailed setting-out information is best represented on a
defined catchment or over-all drainage area have the same separate plan.
number. o Features crossing the line of the road.
Drawing Applications 143

n ......... L.H.GUIIlV'E

m GIIlADIENT 11M ·530. VERTICAL CUR.VE

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GIIIDSSf"ALL .......N

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TltAHSITION 'ON
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k .-oAD WJOTH (,. 75~ T"wC ON

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DATUM 100-000.. /VJ.D i."


h EXISTItIIG GItOUND LEVELS.
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9 PROPOSED LEFT 1CElt& LEVELS

f PROPOSED LEFT CHA.NNEL LEVELS i


i I
e PRDPOSf:D t LEVELS
I f U I
d PROPOSED RIGHT CNANNEL LEVELS
I j t i f
c PROPOSED RIGHT JeERB LEVELS
i !
i f
b GULLY POSITtONS LH LN LN

a 1- :: s 11;
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CHAINAGE IN METRES I ~ ~

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144 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

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AREA 25

184100 1

Figure 7.49 Housing estate road plan


a North point. make it advisable to show the outer outlines of the sewers. The
b Cross-section locations and chainages. outer outlines of the manholes have, however, been shown on
c Curve radius dimensions. both diagrams.
d Road widths. h Direction of flow in the pipes.
e Grid line coordinates. i and j Invert levels, gradients and diameters of the pipes are also
f Location identification. shown on the plan.
g Sewer centre line only shown. Compare with the plan in figure k Tangent point.
7.51\where the presence of large mains and the existing features I Preliminary road name.
L 986

TRANSPORT HEAVY CAPITALS

WHITE GROUND BLACK BORDERS


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~I I BLAGROVE I
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I~ Chippenham I
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WHITE LETTERS,NUMERALS
& MOTIF ON BLUE GROUND
1 Motorway TI I
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VELlOW LETTERS ~
Ir - - - - - - - - - - - - - - l
& NUMERALS ON S'
GREE N GROUNO OQ
11 Swindon ~ I ).
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2.0m FOOTWAY

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Figure 7.50 Advance direction sign
Most road signs are designed strictly in accordance with rules laid Note that the diagram includes a fully dimensioned layout, and a
down by the Department of Transport, and their design is essentially diagrammatic arrangement of the wording, numbering and symbols
concerned with correct interpretation of the regulations and on the sign. The 'X' height is the height of the lower-case letters. A
accurate layout. Standard shape letters are used (usually 'transport complete specification should also be included on the drawing.
medium' or 'transport heavy') which are arranged on standard 'tiles'.

-..
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146 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

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,

1111 1 I ! princ~s
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Datum 'I' d
EXISTING GROUND LEVELS
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PRDPOSED GROUND LEVELS 6 6
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PRDPOSED INVERT LEVELS ..,':4
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DIAMETER mm ·1· 127E -I • 1050


GRADIENT 1 in 220 1i"100

CHAINAGE m
C
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Figure 7.51 Main sewer longitudinal section and plan


Drawing Applications 147
a The main outlines of the proposed surface water sewer and
man holes and existing mains and services are shown on the plan '"x
and longitudinal section. ....in
Z
b The proposed foul water sewer, details of which are shown on a "
Cl
separate drawing, is indicated with broken lines. The levels of ~
C
proposed connections to the foul water sewer must be carefully Z
C
....
checked to ensure that there is no conflict with other proposed '"
<
and existing sewers and mains or any other structures. '"
fj;
c Method of representing the required information on existing and -4.3 94.842 .bltO,b
proposed ground levels, proposed invert levels, the chainage and ,l:"~"'C't"
the proposed pipe diameters and gradients. The levels of existing -2.7 94.655 -------~---- ~-t/.\')-
mains and services are more appropriately represented on the J:-~.....('~
longitudinal section, for example
o ~99.924 -0.3
0.0
Chainages increase in the upstream direction from zero at the
outfall. There is no relationship between the sewer and road
chainages but it may be considered logical that they increase in
the same direction if this can be arranged. The title box should be I
placed on the left-hand side of the longitudinal section as shown, I
I
but in some cases it may appear preferable to place the zero I
chainage on the right of the section with the chainage increasing I
I
from right to left so that the orientation is similar on both plan and I
section. I
I
d Datum line; datum value and other levels are usually related to
Ordnance datum. 7.•
94.644
94.514
84.400
: ------- -- ~""I.$'l'

e Existing and proposed ground lines shown.


üi;
--- -tf"It"

- -
•. 2 94.525

f Descriptions of mains, services, etc., should be detailed and com- •. 2 94.464 --~~r-- f--- .0-90 .0
plete on the plan and the section to ensure that their relative 0.... •

importance is fully appreciated. 10.2 94.396 94.473


94.348 ~----+--.l-- ---
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14,95
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x
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4.208 :
Figure 7.52 Main road cross-section
Main road kerbs and channels are often described by their geogra-
phical orientation. For example, the terms 'north' kerb and 'south'
kerb are used instead of 'Ieft-hand' kerb and 'right-hand' kerb. The
author prefers the latter convention supplemented if necessary by
the words 'north' and 'south' placed next to the top corners of the
section box. Zero chainage is gene rally situated at the centre line of
the road.
148 A Guide to The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

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Scale 1:500

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Figure 7.53 Vil1age centre layout plan
In addition to the information shown all existing features should be engineering works are shown on separate large-scale drawings; see
briefly described . The proposals are shown in outline only. The scale figures 7.54 and 7.56.
of the full-sized drawing is 1 :500. Details of the proposed civil
Drawing Applications 149

104.164
+ Shops
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Library
Seale 1:100
DETAIL C
r I
MH.94 S----~----~
1.L.10l.1 ----~-_4----~~~-
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Figure 7.54 Layout of mains and services

It is good practice to show all existing and proposed Public Utility and also shown. The sections, for example, G, 0 and C, giving large-scale
other mains on the same drawing and to fix the scale of the drawing details were conveniently shown on A4 sheets for ease of handling by
accordingly. The scale of this full-sized drawing is 1 :100. Note that the the workmen on site.
basic outlines and levels of other proposed and existing features are
150 A Guide 10 The Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

Library

Figure 7.55 Contours and drainage areas


This diagram shows part of the preliminary drawing used to determine the limits of surface areas draining to each gully.
Drawing Applications 151

Brown brindled single


bullnosed bricks

ChCJ1nel formed wilh bronze blocks


Bricks laid flal

Channel formed a
wilh bronze blocks a
M
~

Seals

3.500
Bronze 65mm Pedesla
blocks laid flal in a
90° herrin bone attern a
"'! 1.300 1.900
N

a
a
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8<.D

D
5.500 Da
O~
ON
Brown blocks D
Scale 1:50
-&-e---H---l}-%---Ir~B -8---&--a-B-

Figure 7.56 Paving and street furniture details


In order to avoid congestion and confusion, details of pavings, steps, separate drawing, as shown above. The scale of the full-sized drawing
street furniture and other surface features are described on a is 1 :50.
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