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Calculative Methods or Formulas

1) Speed.
𝑫𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆
Speed ⇒
𝑻𝒊𝒎𝒆
𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝑫𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆 𝑪𝒐𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒆𝒅
Average Speed
𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝑻𝒊𝒎𝒆 𝑻𝒂𝒌𝒆𝒏

2) Velocity.
𝑫𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆 𝑻𝒓𝒂𝒗𝒆𝒍𝒍𝒆𝒅 𝒊𝒏 𝒂 𝑮𝒊𝒗𝒆𝒏 𝑫𝒊𝒓𝒆𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏
Velocity or
𝑻𝒊𝒎𝒆 𝑻𝒂𝒌𝒆𝒏
𝑫𝒊𝒔𝒑𝒍𝒂𝒄𝒆𝒎𝒆𝒏𝒕
Velocity
𝑻𝒊𝒎𝒆 𝑻𝒂𝒌𝒆𝒏
𝑫𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆 𝑻𝒓𝒂𝒗𝒆𝒍𝒍𝒆𝒅
Average Velocity
𝑻𝒊𝒎𝒆
𝐈𝐧𝐢𝐭𝐢𝐚𝐥 𝐕𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐜𝐢𝐭𝐲+𝐅𝐢𝐧𝐚𝐥 𝐕𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐜𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐮+𝐯
Average Velocity ( a= )
𝟐 𝟐

3) Acceleration.
𝐂𝐡𝐚𝐧𝐠𝐞 𝐢𝐧 𝐕𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐜𝐢𝐭𝐲
Acceleration or
𝐓𝐢𝐦𝐞 𝐓𝐚𝐤𝐞𝐧 𝐟𝐨𝐫 𝐂𝐡𝐚𝐧𝐠𝐞
𝐅𝐢𝐧𝐚𝐥 𝐕𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐜𝐢𝐭𝐲−𝐈𝐧𝐢𝐭𝐢𝐚𝐥 𝐯𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐜𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐯−𝐮
Acceleration ( a= )
𝐓𝐢𝐦𝐞 𝐓𝐚𝐤𝐞𝐧 𝐭
𝐅𝐨𝐫𝐜𝐞 𝐅
Acceleration ( a= )
𝐌𝐚𝐬𝐬 𝐦
4) Such Important Equations of Motion.
𝒗 = 𝒖 + 𝒂𝒕
𝟏 𝟐
𝒔 = 𝒖𝒕 + 𝒂𝒕
𝟐
𝒗𝟐 = 𝒖𝟐 + 𝟐𝒂𝒔
Where, V= Final Velocity
U=Initial Velocity
S=Speed of Object
A=Acceleration of Object
T= Time

5) Uniform Circular Motion.


𝟐𝛑𝐫
V= ( v=Speed and t=Time )
𝐭

6) Momentum.
Momentum=Mass X Velocity ( P= mv )
Total Momentum = Total Momentum
Before Collision After Collision
𝒎𝟏 𝒖𝟏 + 𝒎𝟐 𝒖𝟐 = 𝒎𝟏 𝒗𝟏 + 𝒎𝟐 𝒗𝟐
7) Force.
Force= Mass X Acceleration ( F= m x a )
8) Universal Law of Gravitational Motion.
𝒎𝟏 𝒎𝟐
F=G ( G= 6.67 x𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟏 N𝒎𝟐 𝒌𝒈−𝟐 )
𝒓𝟐

9) Acceleration due to Gravity.


𝑴
g =G ( g = 9.8m𝒔−𝟐 )
𝑹𝟐

10) Equation of Motion for Freefalling Bodies.


𝒗 = 𝒖 ± 𝒈𝒕
𝟏 𝟐
𝒉 = 𝒖𝒕 ± 𝒈𝒕
𝟐
𝒗𝟐 = 𝒖𝟐 ± 𝟐𝒈𝒉
11) Weight.
Weight= Mass X Acceleration due to Gravity ( W= mg )
12) Pressure.
𝑭𝒐𝒓𝒄𝒆
Pressure =
𝑨𝒓𝒆𝒂
13) Density.
𝐌𝐚𝐬𝐬
Density =
𝐕𝐨𝐥𝐮𝐦𝐞
𝐃𝐞𝐧𝐬𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐨𝐟 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐒𝐮𝐛𝐬𝐭𝐞𝐚𝐧𝐜𝐞
Relative Density =
𝐃𝐞𝐧𝐬𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐨𝐟 𝐖𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐫

14) Work.
Work = Force x Distance ( W= F x S )
15) “Work Done Against Gravity” or “Potential
Energy”
Work Done in Lifting a Body = Weight of Body X Vertical Distance
W= mgh
Where, W= Work Done
m = Mass of the Body
g = Acceleration due to Gravity
h = Height through Which the Body is Lifted
16) Formula for Work done When Body Moves at an
Angle to the Direction of Force.
W= F𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝛉 x S
Where, F= Force Applied
𝜽= Angle between the Direction of Force
and Direction of Motion
S= Distance Travelled
17) Kinetic Energy.
𝟏
Kinetic Energy= m𝒗𝟐
𝟐

Where, M = Mass of Body


V = Velocity of Body or Speed of Body
18) Power.
𝑾𝒐𝒓𝒌 𝑫𝒐𝒏𝒆 𝑾
Power = ( P= )
𝑻𝒊𝒎𝒆 𝑻𝒂𝒌𝒆𝒏 𝒕
𝐄𝐧𝐞𝐫𝐠𝐲 𝐂𝐨𝐧𝐬𝐮𝐦𝐞 𝑬
Or Power = ( P= )
𝐓𝐢𝐦𝐞 𝐓𝐚𝐤𝐞𝐧 𝒕
19) Sound.
Speed of Sound = Frequency x Wavelength
𝑺𝒑𝒆𝒆𝒅 𝒐𝒇 𝑺𝒐𝒖𝒏𝒅 𝒙 𝑻𝒊𝒎𝒆
Distance Travelled by Sound =
𝟐
𝟏
Time Interval =
𝑭𝒓𝒆𝒒𝒖𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒚

Speed of Sound = Wavelength X Frequency

20) Time of Flight.


“It is defined as the Total Time for Which the Projectile
Remains in Air.”
𝟐𝒖 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽
T=
𝒈

21) Maximum Height.


𝒖𝟐 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝟐 𝜽
H=
𝟐𝒈

22) Electric Current.


𝑪𝒉𝒂𝒓𝒈𝒆(𝒒) 𝒒
Electric Current (I) = ( I= )
𝑻𝒊𝒎𝒆(𝒕) 𝒕
23) Electric Potential.
𝑾𝒐𝒓𝒌 𝑫𝒐𝒏𝒆 (𝑾) 𝑾
Electric Potential (V) = ( V= )
𝑪𝒉𝒂𝒓𝒈𝒆 (𝒒) 𝒒

24) Resistance.
𝑬𝒍𝒆𝒄𝒕𝒓𝒊𝒄 𝑷𝒐𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒍(𝑽) 𝑽
Resistance (R) = ( R= )
𝑪𝒖𝒓𝒓𝒆𝒏𝒕(𝑰) 𝑰

25) Series Formula.


𝑹𝒑 = 𝑹𝟏 +𝑹𝟐 +𝑹𝟑 ……. ( R= Resistance )

26) Parallel Formula.


𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
=+ + + ……. ( R= Resistance )
𝑹𝒑 𝑹𝟏 𝑹𝟐 𝑹𝟑
27) Electrical Heat.
Heat = 𝑰𝟐 𝑹𝒕
Where, I= Electric Current
R= Resistance
T= Time
28) Electric Power.
Power (P) = Electric Potential (V) x Current (I) (P=VI)
𝑬𝒍𝒆𝒄𝒕𝒓𝒊𝒄 𝑷𝒐𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒍(𝑽)𝟐 𝑽𝟐
Or, Power (P) = (𝑷= ) or,
𝑹𝒆𝒔𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆(𝑹) 𝑹

Power (P) = 𝑪𝒖𝒓𝒓𝒆𝒏𝒕(𝑰)𝟐 𝒙 𝑹𝒆𝒔𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆 (𝑹) (𝑷 = 𝑰𝟐 𝑹 )


29) Electrical Energy.
Electric Energy (E) = Power (P) x Time (t) ( E= Pt )

30) Mirror Formula.


𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
+ =
𝒗 𝒖 𝒇

Where, F = Focal Length


U = Object Distance
V = Image Distance
31) Linear Mirror Magnification.
𝑯𝒆𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝑰𝒎𝒂𝒈𝒆 −𝑰𝒎𝒂𝒈𝒆 𝑫𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆
Mirror Magnification = =
𝑯𝒆𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝑶𝒃𝒋𝒆𝒄𝒕 𝑶𝒃𝒋𝒆𝒄𝒕 𝑫𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆

𝒉𝒊 −𝒗
Or, 𝒎= =
𝒉𝒐 𝒖
32) Lens Formula.
𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
− =
𝒗 𝒖 𝒇

33) Linear lens Magnification.


𝑯𝒆𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝑰𝒎𝒂𝒈𝒆 𝑰𝒎𝒂𝒈𝒆 𝑫𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆
Mirror Magnification = =
𝑯𝒆𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝑶𝒃𝒋𝒆𝒄𝒕 𝑶𝒃𝒋𝒆𝒄𝒕 𝑫𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆

𝒉𝒊 𝒗
Or, 𝒎= =
𝒉𝒐 𝒖

34) Refractive Index.


𝑺𝒑𝒆𝒆𝒅 𝒐𝒇 𝑳𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝒊𝒏 𝑽𝒂𝒄𝒖𝒖𝒎/𝑨𝒊𝒓 𝒄
𝐑𝐞𝐟𝐫𝐚𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐯𝐞 𝐈𝐧𝐝𝐞𝐱 (µ) = =
𝑺𝒑𝒆𝒆𝒅 𝒐𝒇 𝑳𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝑰𝒏 𝑮𝒊𝒗𝒆𝒏 𝑴𝒆𝒅𝒊𝒖𝒎 𝒏

35) Power of a lens. 𝑷𝒐𝒘𝒆𝒓 =


𝟏 𝟏
(𝑷 = )
𝑭𝒐𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝑳𝒆𝒏𝒈𝒕𝒉(𝒊𝒏 𝒎𝒆𝒕𝒆𝒓) 𝒇(𝒊𝒏 𝒎𝒆𝒕𝒆𝒓)