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ISSN 0940-5151

Heldermann Verlag

Economic Quality Control

77 – 86

Vol 21 (2006),

No. 1,

Control Charts for the Log-Logistic Distribution

R.R.L. Kantam, A.Vasudeva Rao and G.Srinivasa Rao

Abstract: This paper deals with the log-logistic distribution as a life time model. Control charts and the corresponding control limits are developed analogous to Shewhart-charts for the process mean and process range. The proposed control limits are compared with those of Shewhart in detecting out of control signals for various sample sizes.

1 Introduction

In classical Statistics confidence intervals for unknown parameters of a statistical popu- lation play an important role. An application of confidence interval, when the random variable follows approximately a normal distribution, is the origin of the well-known She- whart control charts. Construction of control charts using the theory of confidence in- tervals, when the random variable follows Inverse Gaussian distribution is considered by Edgemen [3]. Edgemen justifies his assumption by noticing that relying on the central limit theorem for non-normal processes is hazardous as the sample size in control charting is usually less than 10. Moreover quality characteristics such as product life are always better modeled by a probability distribution with non-negative support rather than a normal distribution. Therefore, Kantam and Sriram [6] developed control charts to be used when the process characteristic follows a gamma distribution. Log - logistic distribu- tion is another distribution of a positive valued random variable often applied in survival analysis. A number of problems with special reference to log -logistic distribution have been studied in recent times. Some of these are - Ragab and Green [7, 8], Balakrishnan and Malik [1], Balakrishnan et al [2], Guptha et al [4], and Kantam et al [6]. In this pa- per control charts are developed for averages and ranges when the quality characteristic follows a log-logistic distribution. The details of control charts for averages are presented in Section 2. The construction of range charts follows in Section 3. Comparisons with Shewhart’s control limits are performed in Section 4.

2 Control Chart for Averages

¯

We know that the Shewhart X-chart is based on the 3σ limits of the normal distribution.

n , where

If (X 1 , X 2 ,

n ) is a random sample of size n from N (µ.σ) then X N µ,

¯

,X

σ

78

R.R.L. Kantam, A.Vasudeva Rao and G.Srinivasa Rao

µ is the process average, σ is the process standard deviation and the probability of the event

(1)

x | µ 3 n x µ + 3 n

σ

σ

is 99.73%.

For fixing the limits µ is sometimes estimated by the mean of the sample and σ is estimated in different ways either by the sample standard deviation or the sample range applying various estimation methods. The estimated limits are used for deciding, whether the variability of a process characteristic is still within the tolerable region or not. In fact, the 99.73% confidence interval for the process mean of a normal distribution has become the most often used tolerance region for a sample process variable. When the process characteristic cannot be approximated by a normal random variable, the above outline proceedings may nevertheless be useful for deriving estimators and control limits for non- normal cases.

In this paper the log-logistic distribution is a regarded as an appropriate distribution for

a random lifetime. Let (X 1 , X 2 ,

distribution with shape parameter β and scale parameter σ. Then the density function

n ) be a random sample of size from the log-logistic

,X

and the distribution function are given by:

f(x)

F(x)

=

=

β

σ

σ

x

β1

1 +

x

σ β 2

for x 0,β > 1,σ > 0

x

σ β

1 +

x σ β

for x 0,β > 1,σ > 0

(2)

(3)

Setting Z = X

σ

gives a standard log-logistic distribution:

f(z)

F(z)

=

=

βz

β1

(1

+

z β

z β ) 2

1 + z β

for z 0,β > 1

for z 0,β > 1

(4)

(5)

The mean and variance of standard log-logistic distribution for β = 3 can be obtained by the following relation:

k

k

E Z k = Γ(1 + β ) Γ(1 β )

yielding

E[Z]=1.2167

V [Z]=0.9529

for k = 1, 2

(6)

(7)

Thus, the bias-corrected moment estimator of σ is immediately obtained:

Control Charts for the Log-Logistic Distribution

79

σˆ mom =

¯

X

1.2167

(8)

¯

The distribution of X is not analytically available.

However, by the definition of scale

¯

parameter the distribution of 1 X is independent of σ.

σ

¯

¯

Hence, we take 1 X as pivotal

σ

quantity to simulate the sampling distribution of X, thereby finding its percentiles. Let

L, U be two limits such that

P

P

1

σ

X<L = 0.00135

¯

σ 1 X>U = 0.00135

¯

yielding

P L 1 X U = 0.9973

σ

¯

(9)

(10)

The following procedure is used for determining L and U . We have generated 10,000

, parameter β = 3. For each sample we have calculated

random samples of size n = 3, 4,

10 from standard log-logistic distribution with shape

¯

The mean of the sample X.

The BLUE of σ (coefficients taken from Srinivasa Rao [9]).

The MLE of σ by solving the following equation iteratively

n

i=1

β n

i

z

1 + z β

i

2 = 0

where z i = x i

σ

¯

(11)

The calculated percentiles of X, BLUE, MLE over 10,000 samples are given in Table 5.

¯

The percentiles of X corresponding to 0.00135 and to 0.99865 are made use of to get the

¯

control limits of an X -chart. Let these be respectively denoted by L and U . From (9)

using L and U we get the following probability statement:

(12)

¯

P (X )=0.9973

and are taken as the 99.73% control limits (analogous to the 3σ limits of the Shewhart charts) provided the unknown parameter σ is known by specification or by esti-

mation. In this paper, three estimators are applied namely moment estimator, best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE), and maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). The control lim- its to be used are obtained by repeated sampling, computing the corresponding estimates and subsequently calculating some constants by the mean of the estimates for specified method of estimation. For example, if σ is estimated by the bias corrected moment es- timator for a sample of size n the control limits in (12) may be obtained for β = 3 and

β = 4 by the constants A 2 and A

∗∗

2

, respectively, given in Table 1.

80

R.R.L. Kantam, A.Vasudeva Rao and G.Srinivasa Rao

For example for β = 3 the constants are defined as follows:

A

2

A

∗∗

2

=

=

L

1.2167

U

1.2167

¯

(13)

(14)

Table 1: Constants for X-charts based on the moment estimator.

   

β

= 3

   

β

= 4

 
 

A

A

∗∗

A

A

∗∗

n

2

2

2

2

3

0.3118

3.8611

0.4341

2.6525

4

0.3794

3.8290

0.4950

2.4718

5

0.4208

3.2426

0.5390

2.2335

6

0.4472

2.9127

0.5627

2.0500

7

0.4645

2.7607

0.5781

1.9590

8

0.4774

2.6919

0.5895

1.8848

9

0.5037

2.7426

0.6100

1.9145

10

0.5263

2.5692

0.6287

1.8671

¯

Given a number of subgroups of a fixed size, say n, the overall mean x¯ of estimates of the

¯

sub groups is calculated. The control limits for a X-chart for the log-logistic distribution

are obtained by means of the constants in Table 1 as A

2

¯

x¯ and A

∗∗

2

¯

x¯.

¯

If σ is estimated by the MLE the control limits are L

the mean of the sub groups MLEs and c is the simulated sampling mean of MLE given in

last column of Table 5. Let A 2M and A 2M represent the quantities L and U , respectively,

then the control limits are given by A given below in Table 2.

M . The constants A 2M and A 2M are

¯

M

c

¯

and U

¯

M

c

, respectively, where M is

c

c

∗∗

∗∗

2M

¯

M and A

∗∗

2M

¯

Table 2: Constants for X-charts based on MLE.

   

β

= 3

   

β

= 4

 
 

A

A

∗∗

A

A

∗∗

n

2M

2M

2M

2M

3

0.3496

4.3294

0.4609

2.8166

4

0.4360

4.3787

0.5323

2.6586

5

0.4907

3.7361

0.5841

2.4206

6

0.5325

3.5904

0.6142

2.2378

7

0.5504

3.4387

0.6320

2.1419

8

0.5953

3.3339

0.6456

2.0644

9

0.6123

3.1249

0.6690

2.0996

10

0.6206

2.9595

0.6904

2.0505

BLUE is an unbiased estimator of σ and, hence, a bias-correction in (8) is not necessary.

¯

¯

The control limits are given by L B and U B. The constants L and U in case of BLUE are

Control Charts for the Log-Logistic Distribution

81

¯

Table 3: Constants for X-charts based on BLUE.

 

β = 3

β = 4

n

L

U

L

U

3

0.3794

4.6979

0.4822

2.9464

4

0.4616

4.6358

0.5498

2.7457

5

0.5120

3.8981

0.5987

2.4810

6

0.5494

3.7046

0.6250

2.2772

7

0.5659

3.5357

0.6421

2.1761

8

0.6101

3.4167

0.6548

2.0937

9

0.6258

3.1937

0.6776

2.1266

10

0.6329

3.0181

0.6983

2.0740

 

¯

Tables 1,2,3 can be used for obtaining the control limits of X-charts for three estima-

tors in case the log-logistic distribution is an appropriate one. Moreover, motivated by

¯ ¯

the Shewhart chart, we suggest E[ X] ± 3SE[ X] as another possibility of defining control

¯

limits for X-charts, although these limits do not guarantee that with 99.73% probability

there will be no false alarms. The limits are straightforward calculated from the simu-

¯

lated sampling distribution of X. They are compared with those obtained in the earlier methods as well as are compared with the earlier obtained ones and also with the normal

distribution situation. The results of the comparison are displayed in Table 7.

3 Range Chart

The control limits for a range chart assuming the standard density are determined by the equation

(15)

P(L z (n) z (1) U )=0.9973

or

P(σL R i σ U )=0.9973

(16)

where R i stands for the range of the ith sub group of size n. Provided σ is known, L and U are given by the percentiles of the simulated distribution of range, and we get

the control limits from equation (16). As described in Section 2, we have simulated the sampling distribution of the range of samples from the log-logistic distribution with shape

10. The percentiles of the range are given in

parameter β and sample sizes n = 3, 4,

Table 6. The scale parameter σ in Equation (16) was estimated by the mean of all ranges divided by (α n α 1 ), where α i stands for the value of the first moment of the ith

order statistic of the corresponding sample of size n from the log-logistic distribution with

shape parameter β. Thus, the control limits in (16) become

and

D 4

Taking the α i s from Srinivasa Rao [9], and L and U from Table 6, the constants D

α 1 , respectively.

α 1 and

α

n

α

n

¯

RL

¯

RU

3

with

82

R.R.L. Kantam, A.Vasudeva Rao and G.Srinivasa Rao

D

D

3

4

=

=

L α n α 1 U α n α 1

(17)

¯

are displayed in Table 4 below. The values of R i and

given sample data allowing to compute the control limits D chart.

R have to be calculated from the

3

¯ ¯

R and D

4

R for the range

Table 4: Constants for the Range Chart

   

β = 3

   

β = 4

 
 

D

D

D

D

n

3

4

3

4

2

0.0012

12.0824

0.0013

8.9319

3

0.0270

9.6728

0.0308

6.9528

4

0.0663

8.7207

0.0733

6.1802

5

0.1060

8.2868

0.1280

5.9604

6

0.1551

8.0536

0.1691

5.3344

7

0.1848

7.7324

0.2080

5.0877

8

0.1985

7.2560

0.2176

4.9862

9

0.2091

7.0406

0.2344

4.9846

10

0.2229

6.8429

0.2606

4.8490

Note that the control limits given by Shewhart for range chart in the case of a normal distribution are based on E[R] ± 3SE[R], although this interval has not a probability of 99.73%, when operating the in-control state. Following Shewhart’s suggestion, we have studied the same control limits for the range chart of a log-logistic process distribution. The limits are calculated taking the necessary moments of the order statistics from Srinivas Rao [9]. The performance of the resulting range chart is compared with the Shewhart, where the results are listed in Table 8.

4 Comparison with Shewhart-Charts

If the normal approximation is used as process distribution, the constants for computing

¯

the control limits of an X chart and and an R - chart are available in all standard text- books on Statistical Quality Control with the notations A 2 ,D 3 and D 4 . The performance of the control limits presented in Sections 2 and 3 depends on the power, with which

the charts detect out of control state. This question is investigated here by a Monte

- Carlo simulation study. 10,000 samples of size n = 3, 4,

log-logistic distribution with shape parameters β = 3 and β = 4. For each sample the

10 are generated from a

,

¯

¯

traditional control limits of the Shewhart control charts namely x¯ ± A 2 R for the X-chart,

¯ ¯

and D 3 R, D 4 R for the R-chart are computed. The control limits under the assumption of log-logistic distribution are obtained using the constants in Tables 1,2,3,4. Out of 10,000 samples the number of samples, for which the mean and the range fall outside the control

Control Charts for the Log-Logistic Distribution

83

limits of Shewhart and outside the control limits of our charts are counted. These counts are given in Tables 7 and 8.

¯

From Table 7, we see that the out of control signals for X-chart are less in the case of log-

logistic distribution with limits (9), when compared with the chart based on the normal distribution, but largest for the charts with 3SE limits assuming log-logistic distribution, which is due to the skewness of the log-logistic distribution.

The control limits for the range chart assuming the log-logistic distribution with the 99.73% probability limits as well as the 3SE limits lead both to less out of control sig- nals, when compared with the charts based on the normal approximation. This may be explained by the exactness of the moments of the range in log-logistic case.

5 Tables of Percentiles and Chart Performance

Table 5a: Percentile of σ -estimators for β = 3.

n

Estimator

0.00135

0.025

0.01

0.05

0.1

0.5

0.95

0.975

0.99865

mean

3

Moment

0.3794

0.4977

0.5694

0.6327

0.7194

1.1081

2.1590

2.5789

4.6979

1.2173

3

MLE

0.4723

0.5366

0.5783

0.6188

0.6879

1.0157

1.7774

2.0205

3,0883

1.0851

3

BLUE

0.2916

0.3992

0.461

0.5269

0.6005

0.9508

1.6717

1.8866

2.7765

1.0055

4

Moment

0.4616

0.5529

0.6324

0.6925

0.7727

1.1234

2.0228

2.3520

4.6587

1.2192

4

MLE

0.4937

0.5495

0.5996

0.6437

0.7084

1.0074

1.6485

1.8252

2.6305

1.0587

4

BLUE

0.3573

0.4692

0.5252

0.5873

0.6590

0.9617

1.5661

1.7339

2.5056

1.0054

5

Moment

0.5120

0.6025

0.6750

0.7359

0.8049

1.1386

1.9443

2.2119

3.9453

1.2170

5

MLE

0.4859

0.5597

0.6116

0.6648

0.7297

1.0061

1.5435

1.6931

2.3009

1.0434

5

BLUE

0.4108

0.5077

0.5668

0.6229

0.6939

0.9721

1.4958

1.6298

2.2148

1.0044

6

Moment

0.5441

0.6453

0.7024

0.7532

0.8278

1.1410

1.8543

2.0980

3.5439

1.2085

6

MLE

0.5074

0.5813

0.6295

0.6762

0.7392

1.0015

1.4768

1.6120

2.1183

1.0318

6

BLUE

0.4597

0.5401

0.5981

0.6481

0.7130

0.9742

1.4396

1.5689

2.0437

1.0012

7

Moment

0.5652

0.6714

0.7280

0.7840

0.8521

1.1482

1.8202

2.0577

3.3589

1.2108

7

MLE

0.5190

0.6005

0.6510

0.6993

0.7553

1.0003

1.4418

1.5528

2.0982

1.0282

7

BLUE

0.4789

0.5729

0.6281

0.6754

0.7337

0.9773

1.4054

1.5170

2.0351

1.0025

8

Moment

0.5808

0.6917

0.7487

0.8032

0.8702

1.1557

1.7865

2.0080

3.2753

1.2104

8

MLE

0.5361

0.6161

0.6666

0.7116

0.7727

1.0013

1.4104

1.5157

1.9615

1.0249

8

BLUE

0.5012

0.5996

0.6512

0.6931

0.7534

0.9817

1.3819

1.4794

1.9130

1.0029

9

Moment

0.6128

0.7196

0.7730

0.8207

0.8832

1.1604

1.7596

1.9441

3.3369

1.2118

9

MLE

0.5499

0.6306

0.6851

0.7280

0.7812

1.0034

1.3746

1.4773

1.8491

1.0220

9

BLUE

0.5322

0.6149

0.6677

0.7116

0.7660

0.9856

1.3508

1.4459

1.8325

1.0028

10

Moment

0.6403

0.7357

0.7898

0.8367

0.8950

1.1661

1.7324

1.9060

3.1260

1.2115

10

MLE

0.5798

0.6481

0.6964

0.7410

0.7891

1.0032

1.3576

1.4442

1.8105

1.0198

10

BLUE

0.5557

0.6304

0.6794

0.7242

0.7754

0.9856

1.3340

1.4196

1.7890

1.0025

84

R.R.L. Kantam, A.Vasudeva Rao and G.Srinivasa Rao

Table 5b: Percentile of σ -estimators for β = 4.

n

Estimator

0.00135

0.025

0.01

0.05

0.1

0.5

0.95

0.975

0.99865

mean

3

Moment

0.4822

0.5832

06438

0.6987

0.7688

1.0627

1.7229

1.9411

2.9464

1.1167

3

MLE

0.5082

0.6025

0.6440

0.6813

0.7446

1.0089

1.5337

1.6907

2.2325

1.0461

3

BLUE

0.4070

0.5126

05753

0.6304

0.6947

0.9739

1.4844

1.6282

21771

1.0041

4

Moment

0.5498

0.6326

0.6944

0.7465

0.8076

1.0698

1.6280

1.8029

2.7457

1.1168

4

MLE

0.5603

0.6175

0.6640

0.7122

0.7673

1.0034

1.4545

1.5700

2.0655

1.0328

4

BLUE

0.4701

0.5743

0.6230

0.6792

0.7393

0.9791

1.4138

1.5254

2.0240

1.0040

5

Moment

0.5987

0.6723

0.7307

0.7800

0.8352

1.0788

1.5700

1.7184

2.4810

1.1156

5

MLE

0.5666

0.6379

0.6862

0.7336

0.7881

1.0042

1.3848

1.4843

1.8682

1.0250

5

BLUE

0.5217

0.6075

0.6591

0.7081

0.7672

0.9857

1.3617

1.4540

1.8258

1.0035

6

Moment

0.6250

0.7046

0.7520

0.7941

0.8511

1.0784

1.5183

1.6554

2.2772

1.1110

6

MLE

0.5936

0.6564

0.7035

0.7425

0.7958

1.0008

1.3396

1.4306

1.7558

1.0176

6

BLUE

0.5623

0.6315

0.6866

0.7272

0.7812

0.9856

1.3218

1.4073

1.7071

1.0009

7

Moment

0.6421

0.7267

0.7717

0.8163

0.8692

1.0838

1.4920

1.6259

2.1761

1.1123

7

MLE

0.5965

0.6786

0.7229

0.7637

0.8095

0.9999

1.3157

1.3910

1.7433

1.0160

7

BLUE

0.5793

0.6618

0.7101

0.7498

0.7966

0.9873

1.2976

1.3733

1.7186

1.0019

8

Moment

0.6548

0.7435

0.7882

0.8309

0.8816

1.0863

1.4738

1.5908

2.0937

1.1121

8

MLE

0.6220

0.6946

0.7367

0.7745

0.8238

1.0009

1.2942

1.3649

1.6575

1.0142

8

BLUE

0.5999

0.6848

0.7272

0.7634

0.8119

0.9902

1.2800

1.3460

1.6342

1.0020

9

Moment

0.6776

0.7633

0.8067

0.8449

0.8914

1.0888

1.4529

1.5528

2.1266

1.1125

9

MLE

0.6385

0.7077

0.7530

0.7881

0.8309

1.0026

1.2695

1.3400

1.5857

1.0128

9

BLUE

0.6263

0.6971

0.7422

0.7783

0.8218

0.9925

1.2561

1.3217

1.5775

1.0020

10

Moment

0.6983

0.7735

0.8211

0.8557

0.8996

1.0919

1.4367

1.5270

2.0740

1.1123

10

MLE

0.6559

0.7200

0.7615

0.7983

0.8371

1.0024

1.2577

1.3174

1.5608

1.0115

10

BLUE

0.6458

0.7102

0.7510

0.7881

0.8289

0.9929

1.2450

1.3054

1.5518

1.0018

 

Table 6: Percentile estimates of the sample range.

 

β

n

0.00135

0.025

0.01

0.05

0.1

0.5

0.95

0.975

0.99865

 

mean

3

2

0.0010

0.0087

0.0240

0.0446

0.0912

0.5290

2.4666

3.3275

9.7408

0.8156

 

3

0.0327

0.0985

0.1556

0.2184

0.3244

0.9165

3.1706

4.1719

11.6964

1.2201

 

4

0.0990

0.2148

0.3055

0.3877

0.5120

1.1692

3.6111

4.8259

13.2436

1.5154

 

5

0.1820

0.3477

0.4406

0.5352

0.6631

1.3602

4.0380

5.1771

14.5616

1.7361

 

6

0.2828

0.4257

0.5374

0.6445

0.7818

1.5215

4.2920

5.5557

14.0863

1.8946

 

7

0.3687

0.5249

0.6428

0.7483

0.8883

1.6555

4.7052

6.0334

14.7530

2.0620

 

8

0.4179

0.6087

0.7273

0.8395

0.9796

1.7790

4.8882

6.2280

15.7062

2.1988

 

9

0.4823

0.6852

0.8459

0.9200

1.0700

1.9077

5.0890

6.5468

16.7458

2.3410

 

10

0.5545

0.7528

0.8855

0.9888

1.1533

2.0032

5.3066

6.8314

17.0936

2.4612

4

2

0.0007

0.0067

0.0180

0.0353

0.0704

0.4033

1.6168

2.0535

4.9608

0.5611

 

3

0.0257

0.0752

0.1177

0.1696

0.2496

0.6857

2.0004

2.5341

5.7924

0.8409

 

4

0.0751

0.1662

0.2362

0.3056

0.3977

0.8663

2.2703

2.8589

6.3279

1.0352

 

5

0.1500

0.2667

0.3443

0.4159

0.5117

1.0015

2.5291

3.1085

6.9826

1.1815

 

6

0.2186

0.3306

0.4183

0.5001

0.6058

1.1125

2.6685

3.2944

6.8958

1.2906

 

7

0.2904

0.4069

0.4999

0.5801

0.6835

1.2016

2.8655

3.4961

7.1029

1.3968

 

8

0.3235

0.4697

0.5603

0.6510

0.7543

1.2854

2.9833

3.6397

7.4135

1.4831

 

9

0.3674

0.5375

0.6291

0.7132

0.8159

1.3660

3.0852

3.7563

7.8138

1.5678

 

10

0.4275

0.5875

0.6861

0.7637

0.8812

1.4301

3.1899

3.9237

7.9558

1.6419

Control Charts for the Log-Logistic Distribution

85

¯

Table 7: Out of control signals of X -charts

 

Log-logistic distribution

Normal distribution

 

3 S.E. Limits

 
   

¯

                       

β

n

x¯

LCL

UCL

out

Prop

LCL

UCL

out

Prop

LCL

UCL

out

Prop

3

3

1.2173

0.3795

4.7003

27

0.0027

0.0000

2.4656

297

0.0297

0.2406

2.1940

479

0.0479

 

4

1.2192

0.4625

4.6685

27

0.0027

0.1190

2.3144

273

0.0273

0.4855

1.9529

616

0.0616

 

5

1.2170

0.5121

3.9461

27

0.0027

0.2189

2.2111

251

0.0251

0.6311

1.8029

868

0.0868

 

6

1.2085

0.5404

3.5200

23

0.0023

0.2932

2.1232

229

0.0229

0.7237

1.6933

1192

0.1192

 

7

1.2108

0.5624

3.3427

26

0.0026

0.3440

2.0772

233

0.0233

0.7945

1.6271

1524

0.1524

 

8

1.2104

0.5778

3.2583

26

0.0026

0.3861

2.0371

231

0.0231

0.8462

1.5746

1878

0.1878

 

9

1.2118

0.6103

3.3235

24

0.0024

0.4233

1.9985

208

0.0208

0.8877

1.5359

2200

0.2200

 

10

1.2115

0.6376

3.1126

27

0.0027

0.4553

1.9657

195

0.0195

0.9199

1.5031

2511

0.2511

4

3

1.1167

0.4848

2.9621

28

0 0028

0.2565

1.9769

222

0.0222

0.5333

1.7001

578

0.0578

 

4

1.1168

0.5528

2.7604

27

0.0027

0.3621

1.8715

193

0.0193

0.6792

1.5544

890

0.0890

 

5

1.1156

0.6013

2.4918

32

0.0032

0.4339

1.7973

169

0.0169

0.7659

1.4653

1256

0.1256

 

6

1.1110

0.6251

2.2775

28

0.0028

0.4876

1.7344

155

0.0155

0.8208

1. 4012

1689

0.1689

 

7

1.1123

0.6430

2.1791

27

0.0027

0.5270

1.6976

167

0.0167

0.8634

1.3613

2048

0.2048

 

8

1.1121

0.6555

2.0960

26

0.0026

0.5589

1.6653

162

0.0162

0.8942

1.3300

2408

0.2408

 

9

1.1125

0.6787

2.1299

29

0.0029

0.5842

1.6408

134

0.0134

0.9188

1.3062

2708

0.2708

 

10

1.1125

0.6993

2.0769

27

0.0027

0.6066

1.6180

142

0.0142

0.9380

1.2866

3013

0.3013

Table 8: Out of control signals of range charts

 

Log-logistic distribution

Normal distribution

 

3 S.E. Limits

   

¯