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Impregnated transformers bushings

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Impregnated transformers bushings

© All Rights Reserved

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Insulation for Transformer Bushings

N. S. Jyothi, T. S. Ramu and Manoj Mandlik

Department of Electrical Engineering, High Voltage Laboratory,

Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012, India

ABSTRACT

The overall reliability of a power transformer depends to a great extent on the sound

operation of the bushings thereof. Oil impregnated paper (OIP) insulated bushings

have been in use for a long time now. In many situations, it becomes necessary to avoid

OIP insulation in bushings. In the recent past, a new technological breakthrough has

been achieved whereby the OIP is replaced by epoxy resin impregnated crepe paper

(RIP) insulation. This new system has several advantages over OIP and has now

become the insulation of choice. However, its long time thermal and electrical

performance need to be carefully assessed. This paper reports the results of a study of

temperature distribution in the body of insulation, based on the ac conductivity of RIP

insulation. A method of computing the maximum thermal voltage of this system is also

given.

Index Terms – Boundary value problems, conductivity measurement, dielectric

thermal factors, epoxy resin impregnated insulation, EHV insulation.

1 INTRODUCTION casting and curing are carefully controlled processes and are

often proprietary.

TRANSFORMER bushings, until recently, employed Oil

Impregnated Paper (OIP) as the main insulation. The points in Notwithstanding the overwhelming advantages, a point to be

favor of OIP among others are that it is relatively cheap, its noted is that RIP dielectric systems are considerably more

behavior under various conditions of operation is well expensive than OIP and its production process is quite

understood and, in general, its overall dielectric and thermal involved.

performance is satisfactory. The long time behavior of insulation in RIP bushings

The presence of insulating oil, a fire hazard, and its lower depends strongly on the operating temperature. The short time

temperature class of operation, a weak mechanical disposition behavior or the breakdown is a function of the maximum

and difficulty in positioning the bushing at any desired angle on thermal loading. The power loss in the conductor influences the

top of the transformer are aspects that go against OIP bushings. maximum temperature and the temperature distribution across

In addition, the need for enclosing the active part of the the body of insulation. In order to be able to predict the local

bushing by an outer ceramic casing, even for indoor and temperature, it is necessary to consider the thermal and

outdoor application, is a negative score. electrical parameters of insulation in question; and to set up and

solve the continuity equations under the relevant boundary

In the recent past, a revolutionary new class of insulating conditions.

materials called resin impregnated paper (RIP) with superior

thermal and electrical performance has come to vogue. In the With this in view, the Authors have set out to develop the

RIP structure, being an all-solid system, the oil phase is heat balance and continuity equations for assessing the

completely eliminated. The RIP technology preserves all the permissible loading of RIP bushings based on the maximum

essential advantages of OIP and at the same time is free from thermal voltage. A theoretical model for the computation of the

nearly all its drawbacks. The resin-paper systems are highly temperature distribution in the body of insulation as a function

reliable and it has become the dielectric of choice in, for of the ac conductivity of RIP has been also presented. The

example, medium and high voltage transformer bushings, lead- model has been verified experimentally on twelve nominally

ins and wall bushings. identical prototype specimens of RIP bushing models.

The RIP Condenser bushing consists of a central high

conductivity power conductor, solid or tubular. The insulation 2 THEORETICAL ASPECTS

to ground is provided by solid selected epoxy impregnated 2.1 GENERAL

crepe paper. The choice of epoxy resin and the process of Earlier works on the mapping of the temperature distribution

across the thickness of the bushings were, in general, based on

Manuscript received on 19 March 2009, in final form 8 January 2010. OIP bushings. Different methods have been suggested for

932 N. S. Jyothi et al.: Temperature Distribution in Resin Impregnated Paper Insulation for Transformer Bushings

measuring and calculating the conductor temperature Hereinafter, θ(r) is simply written as θ unless otherwise stated.

distribution [1-3]. The more important parameters that enter For a thin cylindrical element of infinitesimal thickness, the

into the equations of thermal and electrical continuity, among equation for thermal continuity can be derived as follows.

others, are the electrical conductivity, σ, and the thermal The amount of heat generated in the dielectric, per unit

conductivity, k. It is known that these parameters are strong volume and per unit time, h, in a one-dimensional Cartesian

functions of both the radial electric field, E, and the local coordinate system under an alternating electric field, E, can be

temperature, θ, at any point in the body of the insulation. A shown to be

considerable body of literature is available on the thermal

performance of electrical insulation [4-8]. The mapping of the h = ω ε 0 ε " (∇ φ) 2 (1)

temperature profile in an insulation of cylindrical geometry has where, φ is the potential at any point in the body of the

been reported earlier [9]. insulation, ω is the angular frequency, σ = ωε0ε״, is the

Based on earlier investigations in the authors laboratory, the conductivity of the dielectric and ε0 is the permittivity of the

important problem concerning the computation of maximum free-space. In addition, the heat generated is assumed to be

current loading in a class of RIP bushings has been taken up in uniform at every radial distance. It is easy to show that ωε0ε ״is

this paper. Methods for computing the maximum thermal the ac conductivity, σ.

voltage and the temperature distribution across the radial The heat transferred from the unit volume across the unit

thickness of the insulation have been suggested. area bounding that volume per unit time, g, is given by

In the foregoing, a classical method for setting up the g = k ∇ ( θ) (2)

differential equations of thermal and electrical conductivities

and the generic problems of thermal stability with reference to It is clear that for thermal continuity,

RIP bushings has been given in some detail. h = − ∇ ⋅ (g ) (3)

consideration. Equations (1), (2) and (3) can be combined to give

σ (∇ φ) + ∇ ⋅ (k ∇ (θ) ) = 0

2

(4)

In order to solve this equation, an auxiliary condition in the

electrical continuity is required. This condition can be readily

shown to be

J = σ (∇φ) (5)

Equations (4) and (5) can be easily transformed to a

cylindrical coordinate system, (which is relevant for the case of

a transformer bushing) given by equation (6) below.

1 d ⎛ dθ ⎞ (6)

⎜ kr ⎟ + JE = 0

r dr ⎝ dr ⎠

where, J is the current density vector, which is deemed to be a

constant over the thickness of insulation. From Maxwell’s law,

J = σ E.

Conductivity, σ (Arbitrary Units)

Low field

conduction Regime

High field

conduction

Regime

Figure 1. Degenerate geometry of a Transformer Bushing. (NB – Notional

boundary).

Electric Field, E (Arbitrary Units)

Consider a cylindrical insulation structure as shown in

Figure 2. Conductivity – E Characteristic.

Figure 1. Let the radii of the conductor and the insulating

cylinder surrounding it (making intimate physical contact with Generally, for most solid insulators, it is observed that k is a

it) be, a and b respectively. Also, let r be any general radial slowly decreasing function of θ and independent of E. The

distance from the centre at which the temperature is θ(r). electric field strength can be assumed constant throughout the

IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 17, No. 3; June 2010 933

specimen thickness, in a stratified dielectric, such as in a graded voltage transformer bushings, the change in the dissipation

condenser bushing. The ac conductivity, σ, depends on θ and in factor and hence the ac conductivity as a function of

addition on the electric field, E. However, the effect of E on σ temperature (in the temperature range of interest), is

is seen to be accentuated only in the ‘High Field Regime’ [10] approximately linear. The temperature response of the

as shown in Figure 2. dissipation factor reported in [14, 15] is also in line with the

The dependence of σ on θ is to be considered expressly. authors’ observations.

Empirical models for temperature-aided conductivity have Figure 3 shows, to an arbitrary scale, the temperature

been proposed by many authors. An exponential form of response of conductivity which is in line with actual

conductivity relationship was proposed by Whitehead and observations. Therefore, an empirical relationship between

Nethercot [11]. A form which is formally similar to this model electrical conductivity with temperature can be deduced as

and was being used until recently is given in equation (7) follows.

below.

⎛ θ ⎞

σ(θ) = σ 0 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ (9)

σ = σ 0 e αθ (7) ⎝ θr ⎠

The parameter α (0 < α < 1) in (7) represents an escalation in In equation (9), θr and σ0 are parameters such that

σ as a function of temperature, shown to arbitrary units in conductivity at the reference temperature θr is equal to σ0.

Figure 3. Careful dielectric and thermal measurements conducted on a

class of nominally identical specimens of RIP prototype

bushings in the laboratory have confirmed the applicability of

Conductivity, σ (Arbitrary Units)

relationship according to equations (7) and (9).

In view of these, it have been observed that equation (10)

below describes the thermal breakdown process.

2 d 2 θ 1 dθ ⎛ θ ⎞

+ + λ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = 0 (10)

⎝ θr

2

dr r dr ⎠

σ0 2

Temperature, θ (Arbitrary Units) where λ = E

k

Figure 3. Conductivity –Temperature Characteristic 1-According to (7)

and 2- According to (9). 2.2 SOLUTION OF THE CONTINUITY EQUATIONS

Equation (8) can be solved using the techniques for exact

Equation (6) under these assumptions takes the form solutions of nonlinear second-order equations provided in

1 d ⎛ dθ ⎞ [16] in terms of the Bessel functions of the first kind (Jn),

αθ

⎜ kr ⎟ + σ 0 E e = 0

2

(8) the second kind (Yn) and their recursion relationships. In the

r dr ⎝ dr ⎠ process of solving an ordinary differential equation like

The maximum operating temperature, θmax at a known stress, equation (8), an appropriate integrating factor has to be

E, beyond which instability sets in (causes an irreversible deduced using Bocharov techniques [16, 17]. The constants

damage to the dielectric), is defined as the thermal limit of in the solution are seen to be very hard to deduce under the

temperature. relevant boundary conditions. This technique is quite

involved and is not presented here.

Equation (8) is a highly nonlinear differential equation and On the other hand, under the assumption that the

does not possess a closed form solution. Whitehead [12] and conductivity is a linear function of temperature, given by

Fock [13] have suggested a solution by a change of variables r equation (9), as has been done here, equation (10) can be

and θ. The final expression for conductivity-related thermal solved in a much more straightforward manner. The starting

breakdown involves the use of many parameters that are given point for this derivation is to consider the classical Bessel

therein in graphical form. Some of these parameters are very differential equation in two dimensions, r and q. Since the

sensitive to internal and external thermal resistances so that a geometry in question enjoys an azimuthal symmetry, a two-

small error in reading the graph accounts for large dimensional equation is sufficient.

discrepancies in the break down field. In addition, the graphs

provided therein are not readily available everywhere, which Bessel’s equation arises when various engineering

point is important to note. phenomena are modeled in cylindrical coordinates. The

standard form of Bessel equation in two variables is given

Experimental evidence based on dielectric measurements by

conducted in the authors’ laboratory (detailed under section 3)

suggests that, in modern dielectric materials such as epoxy

resin-cast crepe paper (RIP), as used in high and medium

x2

d2 y

dx 2

+x

dy

dx

(

+ x 2 − p2 y = 0) (11)

934 N. S. Jyothi et al.: Temperature Distribution in Resin Impregnated Paper Insulation for Transformer Bushings

Dividing throughout by x2, the above equation takes the form The gradient of θ(r) is unknown and therefore the boundary

condition (ii) above has been derived (and later verified) in

d 2 y 1 dy ⎛ p 2 ⎞ (12)

such a way that the temperature distribution graph is

+ + ⎜1 − ⎟ y = 0

dx 2 x dx ⎜⎝ x 2 ⎟⎠ continuous at r = b. The estimated gradient at the conductor

surface is

The solutions of this equation are known as Bessel

functions, where p is a real number, the order of a given ∂ θ (r ) θ (conductor ) − θ b

≈ (15)

Bessel function. The general solution to Bessel equation is ∂r r=a

b−a

y = C1Jp(x) + C2Yp(x) (13) With these assumptions and obtaining the first differential of

where, C1 and C2 are constants that are determined by the equation (14), J0, Y0, C1 and C2 have been computed using the

boundary conditions of the differential equation. exact recurrence relationships of special functions.

The functions Jp(x) and Yp(x) are called Bessel functions of pth It is possible to approximate the exact Bessel function under

order and of first and second kind respectively. These functions certain conditions. For example, if the argument of the Bessel

are available in mathematical handbooks [18]. Comparing functions of the two kinds (J0, J1 and Y0, Y1) is small (<<1), the

equation (12), with equation (10), it is seen that they are identical following approximate representations can be used.

when p = 0. Referring to [18], the argument of the Bessel

functions of both kinds has been determined and hence the radial

temperature distribution, θr, can be written as follows.

(

J 0 r λ / θ(r ) ≅ 1 )

r λ / θ (r )

⎛

θ(r ) = C1 J 0 ⎜ r

λ ⎞⎟

⎜ θ ⎟

⎛

+ C 2 Y0 ⎜ r

λ ⎞⎟

⎜ θ ⎟

(14) (

J 1 r λ / θ(r ) ) ≅

2

⎝ r ⎠ ⎝ r ⎠

(

Y0 r λ / θ(r ) ≅ ) 2

π

(

ln r λ / θ(r ) )

In order to avoid trivial solutions, and obtain the constants

C1 and C2 in equation (14), it is necessary to invoke both of the (

Y1 r λ / θ(r ) ≅ ) −2

π r λ / θ(r )

Neumann type as well the Dirichelet type boundary conditions

(the mixed boundary value problem). This means that the

knowledge of value of the gradient at some radial distance It may be noted that the approximate expression greatly

from the conductor including the outer boundary of the simplify the computation of the derivatives.

conductor is necessary. The authors stress here that in all their calculations exact

Further, the outer surface of the cylinder not being a thermal Bessel function and its derivative are obtained using recurrence

equi-potential, the temperature here is discontinuous (the relationships. An example in calculation has been shown later

temperature at this surface is different when it is approached in this paper.

from within the cylinder and from a long distance away from

the centre of the cylinder). It is also observed that, although this 3 FABRICATION AND TESTING OF

surface is equilibrated to the ambient temperature, it will be

incorrect to assign the ambient temperature to this surface. It

SPECIMENS

therefore becomes mandatory to impose a pseudo boundary, Twelve nominally identical prototype units of RIP bushings

installed at a reasonably long distance from the centre of the were fabricated in the works of the third author. The prototypes

conductor, say, (2b-a), at which it is assumed that the employ a central tubular aluminum or copper conductor of

temperature is that of the ambient. radius 22.5 mm, over which, crepe paper of thickness 50 μm

This assumption holds true as long as the radiation from the and length as shown in the Figure 4. The winding pressure was

outer surface of the insulation is ignored. Since the surface carefully controlled to allow for sufficient space between the

temperature at b is much less that of the Stefan-Boltzmann layers for effective vacuum impregnation with the epoxy resin.

order, radiation effects from the outer insulation surface can be The paper thickness when wound and impregnated was about

ignored. 42.5mm. Aluminum foils (in this case two) were placed at the

calculated radial distances for forming a condenser-type

With these assumptions, the following boundary conditions

bushing as shown in the Figure 4. The wound paper bushing

may be stated. element was then slipped into an aluminum mould coated on

i. θ (r ) r = ( 2 b−a ) = θ ambient the inside with a releasing agent like petroleum grease, to

facilitate easy removal of the formed and cured RIP bushing.

The mixing and stirring, the degree of vacuum employed, the

∂ θ (r ) temperature during the process (and hence the viscosity of the

ii. = θa′; an estimated temperature gradient. resin) and rate of flooding are all carefully controlled so as to

∂r r=a produce void–free specimens. Postproduction curing of the

IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 17, No. 3; June 2010 935

specified in the guidelines from the supplier of the epoxy resin.

5

1

4

Tan δ (x10 )

-3

3

6

2 2

26 5

1

0

50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130

Temperature (°C)

250

200

Bushing.

4

The electrical conductivity, σ0, at a temperature, θr (20 °C)

3

and at a field of 1 kV/mm was measured and found to be

14 10-12/Ω/m. The measured value of the thermal conductivity, k,

was found to be 0.12W/m/K.

(Not to scale, Dimensions in mm) 4.1 TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION

Figure 4. Prototype model of 8.0 kV, 1500A, RIP Bushing.

1. Current carrying conductor (φ 22.5), 2. First electrode (aluminum foil -

The temperature distribution across the thickness of the

high potential), 3. Measuring electrode (Aluminum foil), 4. Measuring tap, insulation has been mapped under three different boundary

5. Main insulation (Resin-cast crepe paper,φ 65), 6. Corona suppression conditions as follows.

(grading) electrodes (aluminum).

I. The slope of the temperature distribution curve at the

A series of preliminary electrical and other tests were conductor surface has been estimated assuming that the

performed on all bushing prototypes before starting the actual maximum operating temperature is about 400 K. This means

experiments. All tests were performed as per IEC 60137 or that the temperature difference between the dielectric-

IEEE C57.19.00. The standard tests included conductor interface (at radius a) and the external surface of

insulation (at radius b) is θ(a) - θ(b). The ambient temperature

• Dissipation factor, tan δ is taken to be about 300 K. Further, this assumption means that

• Partial Discharge measurements θ(b) is at the ambient temperature.

• Power frequency tests

In view of this, the temperature gradient across the insulation

• Lightning impulse tests

is given by

The results of these tests are consolidated and shown in

θ′(a) = - (400 - 300) / (0.065 - 0.0225) = -2353

Table 1 and Figure 5.

Using this value of θ′(r) in the derivative of equation (14)

Table 1. Dielectric properties of the pro-rated RIP bushing.

and the temperature at b, the constants C1 and C2 workout to

PD PD Breakdown about 152.5 and – 83.0 respectively. Equation (14) now takes

ε′ * tanδ* inception extinction strength the form

50Hz Impulse#

θ(r ) = 152.54 J 0 (1.0519 r ) − 82.99 Y0 (1.0519) (16)

4.0 0.0032 18 – 19 16 – 17 21 – 22 51– 54 The temperature distribution in the body of insulation as a

±0.0005 kV/mm kV/mm kV/mm kV/mm function of r is shown in Figure 6. It may be observed that,

while the temperature at r = b is that of the ambient, the

* 30˚ C and 50 Hz, # Standard lightning impulse waveform. conductor temperature is close to 357 K.

936 N. S. Jyothi et al.: Temperature Distribution in Resin Impregnated Paper Insulation for Transformer Bushings

360

insulation and air medium separately. To do this, θ(b) is taken

as 314.6 K and the thermal conductivity of the two media as

350 applicable. In so doing, two separate equations result, one for

the insulation and the other for the air medium as follows.

Temperature (°K)

340

In the insulation part, using θ(b) and θ′(a) above, equation

(18) becomes,

330

θ(r ) = 174.5 J 0 (1.0519 r ) − 82.98 Y0 (1.0519 r ) (21)

320 In the air medium and beyond, temperature is that of the

ambient and the temperature gradient here is obviously zero.

310 That is

1 d⎛ d θ( r ) ⎞

300 ⎜r ka ⎟=0 (22)

r dr ⎝ dr ⎠

290 where ka is the thermal conductivity of the air.

2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5

Radius (cm) Integrating,

Figure 6. Spatial Temperature distribution in the Insulation Considering θ(r) = C1 + C2 ln(r) (23)

an Initial slope.

at r = c, the notional boundary, θ(r) = 300 K

II. In practice, however, the temperature at b is not equal to at r = b, θ(r) = 314.6 K

the ambient temperature, but significantly greater than that. It is

The revised values of the constants in air medium are

therefore essential to consider the temperature of the ambient

calculated from equation (23), resulting in equation (24),

away from b. To do this, an imaginary cylindrical boundary

equilibrated at ambient temperature is placed at a distance of, θ(r) = 235.2 – 29.04 ln(r) (24)

say, twice the thickness of the insulation from the outer surface

Using equations (21) and (24), the temperature distribution

(at a radial distance c). This fictitious or notional boundary at

profile may be plotted as shown in Figure 7.

the ambient can be used to estimate the temperature at the

external boundary of insulation. The immediate effect of this

400

construction is that, two insulating media are involved, the RIP

and the air column. It is possible to work out a resultant thermal

conductivity, kr of these two phases using a logarithmic 380

expression given in [19] thus:

Temperature (°K)

⎛c⎞ 360

ln⎜ ⎟

kr = ⎝a⎠

(17)

⎛b⎞ ⎛c⎞

ln⎜ ⎟ ln⎜ ⎟ 340

⎝a ⎠ + ⎝b⎠

k1 k2 320

In the present case, a = 0.0225m, b = 0.065m c = 0.1075m,

kr = 0.05548, from which, equation (14) becomes,

300

θ(r ) = C1 J 0 (1.547 r ) + C 2 Y0 (1.547 r ) (18)

so that, 280

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

θ′(r ) = − 1.547 C1 J1 (1.547 r ) −1.547 C 2 Y1 (1.547 r ) (19) Radius (cm)

The initial slope (θ′ (a)) was calculated as -1176.5 K/m. Figure 7. Spatial Temperature distribution in the Insulation and in Air

within the notional boundary, (c-b) = (b-a).

Using this slope and the temperature at the notional

boundary (considered to be at a distance of twice the thickness

of the insulation, 0.1075m) as the ambient temperature, i.e., The discontinuity in the profile at r = b may be noted. This

300 K, equation (18) becomes, suggests that as the notional boundary is moved farther and

farther out, and in the limit to an infinite distance, the

θ(r ) = 252.12 J 0 (1.547 r ) + 41.24 Y0 (1.547 r ) (20)

temperature across the entire space becomes uniform and

From this expression, the temperature at the outer boundary settles at a value equal to the conductor temperature. Just for

of the insulation (r = b) was estimated as 314.6 K. the sake of substantiation, the temperature profile has been

IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 17, No. 3; June 2010 937

plotted taking the notional boundary at four times the thickness where, αC is the conductivity escalation factor. Equation

of insulation as shown below. (28) was modified by multiplying and dividing the

III. When the fictitious boundary is taken at a distance of numerator and denominator by 2 π ε 0 , to produce the

four times the thickness of the insulation (r1 = 0.0225m, r2 = following equation:

0.065m and r3 = 0.235m), equations (20), (21) and (24) will

correspondingly change to 2π ε 0k (29)

U Th = 253 kV

θ(r ) = 305.6 J 0 (1.816 r ) − 14.6 Y0 (1.816 r ) (25) αC σ

The factor, αC, for the bushing specimens under

θ(r ) = 177.93 J 0 (1.0519 r ) − 82.98 Y0 (1.0519 r ) (26) consideration here has been obtained by conductivity

measurements at two temperatures, 30 °C and 90 °C. In

θ(r) = 271.45 – 19.72 ln(r) (27) accordance with the linear conductivity relation given by

(9), the conductivity escalation factor is 1.2 over the said

The temperature distribution profile for this situation is

temperature range.

shown in Figure 8.

Using these values, UTh works out to 750 kV. This

It should be pointed out that, the value of θ(b) being not so

thermal voltage limit is seen to be quite in order for

high, about 20 °C above the ambient, the temperature in the

bushings used in 765 kV systems. (The effective

immediate vicinity of the surface at b equilibrates to the

voltage/phase which the insulation sees is 765/√3 = 442

ambient temperature as has actually been observed. In view of

kV).

this, a notional boundary is considered in the air medium at two

different radial distances from the conductor as indicated in However, there is still the maximum temperature limit

Figures 7 and 8. (θm) which must be satisfied. The preceding calculations

show that the maximum temperature in the dielectric is

400 about 380 K (107 °C). The class of insulation is stated to be

Class E with a maximum operating temperature of 120 °C

380

[15]. The computed values show that the dielectric

temperature is within safe working limits.

Temperature (°K)

360

5 CONCLUSIONS

340 The results of this study indicated that RIP insulation

systems are effective replacements for OIP, at least for

bushing insulation. This conclusion is based on the short-

320

term thermal performance. A long term (ageing)

performance evaluation of RIP bushings, based on

300 accelerated thermal and electric stress, is currently under

way. The results of this investigation shall be reported later.

280

0 5 10 15 20 25 The two factors, the thermal voltage, UTh and θm, together

Radius (cm) satisfy the requirements for high voltage bushing dielectrics

as used in the series of experiments reported in this paper.

Figure 8. Spatial Temperature distribution in the insulation and in air

within the notional boundary, (c-b) = 2(b-a).

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HVDC Cables”, IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., Vol. 14, pp.

1509-1515, 2007. N. S. Jyothi (S’09) was born in Thrissur, Kerala, India.

[9] Ch. Chakradhar Reddy and T. S. Ramu, “On the Computation of He received the B.Tech. degree from the Government

Electric Field and Temperature Distribution in HVDC Cable Engineering College, Thrissur, University of Calicut,

Insulation”, IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., Vol. 13, pp.1236- India and the M.Tech. degree from the Regional

1244, 2006. Engineering College, Calicut, India. Presently he is an

[10] J.J. O’Dwyer, The Theory of Electrical Conduction and Breakdown Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical &

in Solid Dielectrics, Oxford Clarendon Press, 1973. Electronics Engineering, Malnad College of

[11] S. Whitehead and W. Nethercot, “The Breakdown of Dielectrics Engineering, Hassan, India and pursuing the Ph.D.

under High Voltage, with Particular Reference to Thermal degree in the Department of Electrical Engineering,

Instability”, Proc. Phys. Soc., Vol.47, pp. 974-997, 1935. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

[12] S. Whitehead, Dielectric Breakdown of Solids, Oxford University

Press, London, 1951.

[13] V. Fock, “Zur Wiirmetheorie des elektrischen Durchschlages”, T. S. Ramu was born in Bangalore, India. He received the B.E. degree

Archiv fur Elektrotechnik, Vol. 19, pp.71-81, 1927. from the University of Mysore, India, the M.E. degree from the Indian

[14] M. Krüger, A. Kraetge, M. Koch, K. Rethmeier, M. Pütter, L. Hulka, Institute of Science, Bangalore and the Ph.D. degree from the Indian

N. Koch, M. Muhr and C. Summereder, “New Diagnostic Tools for Institute of Technology, Madras, India. Currently he is a Professor in the

High Voltage Bushings”, 16th Intern. Sympos. High Voltage Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science,

Engineering, Johannesburg, South Africa, A-42, 2009. Bangalore, India.

[15] ABB, High Voltage Resin Impregnated Paper (RIP) Bushings,

Product information, ABB, 2008.

[16] E. Kamke, Differentialgleichungen Losungs methoden und Manoj Mandlik received the B.E. degree in electrical engineering from

Losungen), Chelsea Publishing Co., New York, USA, 1959. the University of Pune, India. He obtained the M.Sc. degree in electrical

[17] A. D. Polyanin and V. F. Zaitsev, Handbook of Exact Solutions for engineering from the Indian Institute of science Bangalore, India. He is

Ordinary Differential Equations, 2nd Edition, Russian Academy of associated with Crompton Greaves Global R&D Centre, Mumbai, India

Sciences, Moscow. since 2001 and is currently working as Deputy Manager, High Voltage

[18] M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Product Technology. At present, he is pursuing the Ph.D. degree at the

Functions: Formulas, Graphs and Mathematical tables, Dover Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of science

Publications, 9th print, 1970. Bangalore, India.

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