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IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 17, No.

3; June 2010 931

Temperature Distribution in Resin Impregnated Paper


Insulation for Transformer Bushings
N. S. Jyothi, T. S. Ramu and Manoj Mandlik
Department of Electrical Engineering, High Voltage Laboratory,
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012, India

ABSTRACT
The overall reliability of a power transformer depends to a great extent on the sound
operation of the bushings thereof. Oil impregnated paper (OIP) insulated bushings
have been in use for a long time now. In many situations, it becomes necessary to avoid
OIP insulation in bushings. In the recent past, a new technological breakthrough has
been achieved whereby the OIP is replaced by epoxy resin impregnated crepe paper
(RIP) insulation. This new system has several advantages over OIP and has now
become the insulation of choice. However, its long time thermal and electrical
performance need to be carefully assessed. This paper reports the results of a study of
temperature distribution in the body of insulation, based on the ac conductivity of RIP
insulation. A method of computing the maximum thermal voltage of this system is also
given.
Index Terms – Boundary value problems, conductivity measurement, dielectric
thermal factors, epoxy resin impregnated insulation, EHV insulation.

1 INTRODUCTION casting and curing are carefully controlled processes and are
often proprietary.
TRANSFORMER bushings, until recently, employed Oil
Impregnated Paper (OIP) as the main insulation. The points in Notwithstanding the overwhelming advantages, a point to be
favor of OIP among others are that it is relatively cheap, its noted is that RIP dielectric systems are considerably more
behavior under various conditions of operation is well expensive than OIP and its production process is quite
understood and, in general, its overall dielectric and thermal involved.
performance is satisfactory. The long time behavior of insulation in RIP bushings
The presence of insulating oil, a fire hazard, and its lower depends strongly on the operating temperature. The short time
temperature class of operation, a weak mechanical disposition behavior or the breakdown is a function of the maximum
and difficulty in positioning the bushing at any desired angle on thermal loading. The power loss in the conductor influences the
top of the transformer are aspects that go against OIP bushings. maximum temperature and the temperature distribution across
In addition, the need for enclosing the active part of the the body of insulation. In order to be able to predict the local
bushing by an outer ceramic casing, even for indoor and temperature, it is necessary to consider the thermal and
outdoor application, is a negative score. electrical parameters of insulation in question; and to set up and
solve the continuity equations under the relevant boundary
In the recent past, a revolutionary new class of insulating conditions.
materials called resin impregnated paper (RIP) with superior
thermal and electrical performance has come to vogue. In the With this in view, the Authors have set out to develop the
RIP structure, being an all-solid system, the oil phase is heat balance and continuity equations for assessing the
completely eliminated. The RIP technology preserves all the permissible loading of RIP bushings based on the maximum
essential advantages of OIP and at the same time is free from thermal voltage. A theoretical model for the computation of the
nearly all its drawbacks. The resin-paper systems are highly temperature distribution in the body of insulation as a function
reliable and it has become the dielectric of choice in, for of the ac conductivity of RIP has been also presented. The
example, medium and high voltage transformer bushings, lead- model has been verified experimentally on twelve nominally
ins and wall bushings. identical prototype specimens of RIP bushing models.
The RIP Condenser bushing consists of a central high
conductivity power conductor, solid or tubular. The insulation 2 THEORETICAL ASPECTS
to ground is provided by solid selected epoxy impregnated 2.1 GENERAL
crepe paper. The choice of epoxy resin and the process of Earlier works on the mapping of the temperature distribution
across the thickness of the bushings were, in general, based on
Manuscript received on 19 March 2009, in final form 8 January 2010. OIP bushings. Different methods have been suggested for

1070-9878/10/$25.00 © 2010 IEEE


932 N. S. Jyothi et al.: Temperature Distribution in Resin Impregnated Paper Insulation for Transformer Bushings

measuring and calculating the conductor temperature Hereinafter, θ(r) is simply written as θ unless otherwise stated.
distribution [1-3]. The more important parameters that enter For a thin cylindrical element of infinitesimal thickness, the
into the equations of thermal and electrical continuity, among equation for thermal continuity can be derived as follows.
others, are the electrical conductivity, σ, and the thermal The amount of heat generated in the dielectric, per unit
conductivity, k. It is known that these parameters are strong volume and per unit time, h, in a one-dimensional Cartesian
functions of both the radial electric field, E, and the local coordinate system under an alternating electric field, E, can be
temperature, θ, at any point in the body of the insulation. A shown to be
considerable body of literature is available on the thermal
performance of electrical insulation [4-8]. The mapping of the h = ω ε 0 ε " (∇ φ) 2 (1)
temperature profile in an insulation of cylindrical geometry has where, φ is the potential at any point in the body of the
been reported earlier [9]. insulation, ω is the angular frequency, σ = ωε0ε‫״‬, is the
Based on earlier investigations in the authors laboratory, the conductivity of the dielectric and ε0 is the permittivity of the
important problem concerning the computation of maximum free-space. In addition, the heat generated is assumed to be
current loading in a class of RIP bushings has been taken up in uniform at every radial distance. It is easy to show that ωε0ε‫ ״‬is
this paper. Methods for computing the maximum thermal the ac conductivity, σ.
voltage and the temperature distribution across the radial The heat transferred from the unit volume across the unit
thickness of the insulation have been suggested. area bounding that volume per unit time, g, is given by
In the foregoing, a classical method for setting up the g = k ∇ ( θ) (2)
differential equations of thermal and electrical conductivities
and the generic problems of thermal stability with reference to It is clear that for thermal continuity,
RIP bushings has been given in some detail. h = − ∇ ⋅ (g ) (3)

provided there are no heat sources or sinks in the volume under


consideration. Equations (1), (2) and (3) can be combined to give
σ (∇ φ) + ∇ ⋅ (k ∇ (θ) ) = 0
2
(4)
In order to solve this equation, an auxiliary condition in the
electrical continuity is required. This condition can be readily
shown to be
J = σ (∇φ) (5)
Equations (4) and (5) can be easily transformed to a
cylindrical coordinate system, (which is relevant for the case of
a transformer bushing) given by equation (6) below.
1 d ⎛ dθ ⎞ (6)
⎜ kr ⎟ + JE = 0
r dr ⎝ dr ⎠
where, J is the current density vector, which is deemed to be a
constant over the thickness of insulation. From Maxwell’s law,
J = σ E.
   Conductivity, σ (Arbitrary Units)

Low field
conduction Regime

High field
conduction
Regime
Figure 1. Degenerate geometry of a Transformer Bushing. (NB – Notional
boundary).
Electric Field, E (Arbitrary Units)
Consider a cylindrical insulation structure as shown in
Figure 2. Conductivity – E Characteristic.
Figure 1. Let the radii of the conductor and the insulating
cylinder surrounding it (making intimate physical contact with Generally, for most solid insulators, it is observed that k is a
it) be, a and b respectively. Also, let r be any general radial slowly decreasing function of θ and independent of E. The
distance from the centre at which the temperature is θ(r). electric field strength can be assumed constant throughout the
IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 17, No. 3; June 2010 933

specimen thickness, in a stratified dielectric, such as in a graded voltage transformer bushings, the change in the dissipation
condenser bushing. The ac conductivity, σ, depends on θ and in factor and hence the ac conductivity as a function of
addition on the electric field, E. However, the effect of E on σ temperature (in the temperature range of interest), is
is seen to be accentuated only in the ‘High Field Regime’ [10] approximately linear. The temperature response of the
as shown in Figure 2. dissipation factor reported in [14, 15] is also in line with the
The dependence of σ on θ is to be considered expressly. authors’ observations.
Empirical models for temperature-aided conductivity have Figure 3 shows, to an arbitrary scale, the temperature
been proposed by many authors. An exponential form of response of conductivity which is in line with actual
conductivity relationship was proposed by Whitehead and observations. Therefore, an empirical relationship between
Nethercot [11]. A form which is formally similar to this model electrical conductivity with temperature can be deduced as
and was being used until recently is given in equation (7) follows.
below.
⎛ θ ⎞
σ(θ) = σ 0 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ (9)
σ = σ 0 e αθ (7) ⎝ θr ⎠
The parameter α (0 < α < 1) in (7) represents an escalation in In equation (9), θr and σ0 are parameters such that
σ as a function of temperature, shown to arbitrary units in conductivity at the reference temperature θr is equal to σ0.
Figure 3. Careful dielectric and thermal measurements conducted on a
class of nominally identical specimens of RIP prototype
bushings in the laboratory have confirmed the applicability of
Conductivity, σ (Arbitrary Units)

1 equation (9). Figure 3 shows conductivity-temperature


relationship according to equations (7) and (9).
In view of these, it have been observed that equation (10)
below describes the thermal breakdown process.

2 d 2 θ 1 dθ ⎛ θ ⎞
+ + λ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = 0 (10)
⎝ θr
2
dr r dr ⎠
σ0 2
Temperature, θ (Arbitrary Units) where λ = E
k
Figure 3. Conductivity –Temperature Characteristic 1-According to (7)
and 2- According to (9). 2.2 SOLUTION OF THE CONTINUITY EQUATIONS
Equation (8) can be solved using the techniques for exact
Equation (6) under these assumptions takes the form solutions of nonlinear second-order equations provided in
1 d ⎛ dθ ⎞ [16] in terms of the Bessel functions of the first kind (Jn),
αθ
⎜ kr ⎟ + σ 0 E e = 0
2
(8) the second kind (Yn) and their recursion relationships. In the
r dr ⎝ dr ⎠ process of solving an ordinary differential equation like
The maximum operating temperature, θmax at a known stress, equation (8), an appropriate integrating factor has to be
E, beyond which instability sets in (causes an irreversible deduced using Bocharov techniques [16, 17]. The constants
damage to the dielectric), is defined as the thermal limit of in the solution are seen to be very hard to deduce under the
temperature. relevant boundary conditions. This technique is quite
involved and is not presented here.
Equation (8) is a highly nonlinear differential equation and On the other hand, under the assumption that the
does not possess a closed form solution. Whitehead [12] and conductivity is a linear function of temperature, given by
Fock [13] have suggested a solution by a change of variables r equation (9), as has been done here, equation (10) can be
and θ. The final expression for conductivity-related thermal solved in a much more straightforward manner. The starting
breakdown involves the use of many parameters that are given point for this derivation is to consider the classical Bessel
therein in graphical form. Some of these parameters are very differential equation in two dimensions, r and q. Since the
sensitive to internal and external thermal resistances so that a geometry in question enjoys an azimuthal symmetry, a two-
small error in reading the graph accounts for large dimensional equation is sufficient.
discrepancies in the break down field. In addition, the graphs
provided therein are not readily available everywhere, which Bessel’s equation arises when various engineering
point is important to note. phenomena are modeled in cylindrical coordinates. The
standard form of Bessel equation in two variables is given
Experimental evidence based on dielectric measurements by
conducted in the authors’ laboratory (detailed under section 3)
suggests that, in modern dielectric materials such as epoxy
resin-cast crepe paper (RIP), as used in high and medium
x2
d2 y
dx 2
+x
dy
dx
(
+ x 2 − p2 y = 0) (11)
934 N. S. Jyothi et al.: Temperature Distribution in Resin Impregnated Paper Insulation for Transformer Bushings

Dividing throughout by x2, the above equation takes the form The gradient of θ(r) is unknown and therefore the boundary
condition (ii) above has been derived (and later verified) in
d 2 y 1 dy ⎛ p 2 ⎞ (12)
such a way that the temperature distribution graph is
+ + ⎜1 − ⎟ y = 0
dx 2 x dx ⎜⎝ x 2 ⎟⎠ continuous at r = b. The estimated gradient at the conductor
surface is
The solutions of this equation are known as Bessel
functions, where p is a real number, the order of a given ∂ θ (r ) θ (conductor ) − θ b
≈ (15)
Bessel function. The general solution to Bessel equation is ∂r r=a
b−a
y = C1Jp(x) + C2Yp(x) (13) With these assumptions and obtaining the first differential of
where, C1 and C2 are constants that are determined by the equation (14), J0, Y0, C1 and C2 have been computed using the
boundary conditions of the differential equation. exact recurrence relationships of special functions.
The functions Jp(x) and Yp(x) are called Bessel functions of pth It is possible to approximate the exact Bessel function under
order and of first and second kind respectively. These functions certain conditions. For example, if the argument of the Bessel
are available in mathematical handbooks [18]. Comparing functions of the two kinds (J0, J1 and Y0, Y1) is small (<<1), the
equation (12), with equation (10), it is seen that they are identical following approximate representations can be used.
when p = 0. Referring to [18], the argument of the Bessel
functions of both kinds has been determined and hence the radial
temperature distribution, θr, can be written as follows.
(
J 0 r λ / θ(r ) ≅ 1 )
r λ / θ (r )

θ(r ) = C1 J 0 ⎜ r
λ ⎞⎟
⎜ θ ⎟

+ C 2 Y0 ⎜ r
λ ⎞⎟
⎜ θ ⎟
(14) (
J 1 r λ / θ(r ) ) ≅
2
⎝ r ⎠ ⎝ r ⎠

2.3 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS


(
Y0 r λ / θ(r ) ≅ ) 2
π
(
ln r λ / θ(r ) )
In order to avoid trivial solutions, and obtain the constants
C1 and C2 in equation (14), it is necessary to invoke both of the (
Y1 r λ / θ(r ) ≅ ) −2
π r λ / θ(r )
Neumann type as well the Dirichelet type boundary conditions
(the mixed boundary value problem). This means that the
knowledge of value of the gradient at some radial distance It may be noted that the approximate expression greatly
from the conductor including the outer boundary of the simplify the computation of the derivatives.
conductor is necessary. The authors stress here that in all their calculations exact
Further, the outer surface of the cylinder not being a thermal Bessel function and its derivative are obtained using recurrence
equi-potential, the temperature here is discontinuous (the relationships. An example in calculation has been shown later
temperature at this surface is different when it is approached in this paper.
from within the cylinder and from a long distance away from
the centre of the cylinder). It is also observed that, although this 3 FABRICATION AND TESTING OF
surface is equilibrated to the ambient temperature, it will be
incorrect to assign the ambient temperature to this surface. It
SPECIMENS
therefore becomes mandatory to impose a pseudo boundary, Twelve nominally identical prototype units of RIP bushings
installed at a reasonably long distance from the centre of the were fabricated in the works of the third author. The prototypes
conductor, say, (2b-a), at which it is assumed that the employ a central tubular aluminum or copper conductor of
temperature is that of the ambient. radius 22.5 mm, over which, crepe paper of thickness 50 μm
This assumption holds true as long as the radiation from the and length as shown in the Figure 4. The winding pressure was
outer surface of the insulation is ignored. Since the surface carefully controlled to allow for sufficient space between the
temperature at b is much less that of the Stefan-Boltzmann layers for effective vacuum impregnation with the epoxy resin.
order, radiation effects from the outer insulation surface can be The paper thickness when wound and impregnated was about
ignored. 42.5mm. Aluminum foils (in this case two) were placed at the
calculated radial distances for forming a condenser-type
With these assumptions, the following boundary conditions
bushing as shown in the Figure 4. The wound paper bushing
may be stated. element was then slipped into an aluminum mould coated on
i. θ (r ) r = ( 2 b−a ) = θ ambient the inside with a releasing agent like petroleum grease, to
facilitate easy removal of the formed and cured RIP bushing.
The mixing and stirring, the degree of vacuum employed, the
∂ θ (r ) temperature during the process (and hence the viscosity of the
ii. = θa′; an estimated temperature gradient. resin) and rate of flooding are all carefully controlled so as to
∂r r=a produce void–free specimens. Postproduction curing of the
IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 17, No. 3; June 2010 935

epoxy to relieve internal mechanical stresses is done as 6


specified in the guidelines from the supplier of the epoxy resin.
5
1
4

Tan δ (x10 )
-3
3
6
2 2
26 5
1

0
50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130
Temperature (°C)
250
200

Figure 5. Variation of dissipation factor with temperature in RIP


Bushing.
4
The electrical conductivity, σ0, at a temperature, θr (20 °C)
3
and at a field of 1 kV/mm was measured and found to be
14 10-12/Ω/m. The measured value of the thermal conductivity, k,
was found to be 0.12W/m/K.

4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


(Not to scale, Dimensions in mm) 4.1 TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION
Figure 4. Prototype model of 8.0 kV, 1500A, RIP Bushing.
1. Current carrying conductor (φ 22.5), 2. First electrode (aluminum foil -
The temperature distribution across the thickness of the
high potential), 3. Measuring electrode (Aluminum foil), 4. Measuring tap, insulation has been mapped under three different boundary
5. Main insulation (Resin-cast crepe paper,φ 65), 6. Corona suppression conditions as follows.
(grading) electrodes (aluminum).
I. The slope of the temperature distribution curve at the
A series of preliminary electrical and other tests were conductor surface has been estimated assuming that the
performed on all bushing prototypes before starting the actual maximum operating temperature is about 400 K. This means
experiments. All tests were performed as per IEC 60137 or that the temperature difference between the dielectric-
IEEE C57.19.00. The standard tests included conductor interface (at radius a) and the external surface of
insulation (at radius b) is θ(a) - θ(b). The ambient temperature
• Dissipation factor, tan δ is taken to be about 300 K. Further, this assumption means that
• Partial Discharge measurements θ(b) is at the ambient temperature.
• Power frequency tests
In view of this, the temperature gradient across the insulation
• Lightning impulse tests
is given by
The results of these tests are consolidated and shown in
θ′(a) = - (400 - 300) / (0.065 - 0.0225) = -2353
Table 1 and Figure 5.
Using this value of θ′(r) in the derivative of equation (14)
Table 1. Dielectric properties of the pro-rated RIP bushing.
and the temperature at b, the constants C1 and C2 workout to
PD PD Breakdown about 152.5 and – 83.0 respectively. Equation (14) now takes
ε′ * tanδ* inception extinction strength the form
50Hz Impulse#
θ(r ) = 152.54 J 0 (1.0519 r ) − 82.99 Y0 (1.0519) (16)
4.0 0.0032 18 – 19 16 – 17 21 – 22 51– 54 The temperature distribution in the body of insulation as a
±0.0005 kV/mm kV/mm kV/mm kV/mm function of r is shown in Figure 6. It may be observed that,
while the temperature at r = b is that of the ambient, the
* 30˚ C and 50 Hz, # Standard lightning impulse waveform. conductor temperature is close to 357 K.
936 N. S. Jyothi et al.: Temperature Distribution in Resin Impregnated Paper Insulation for Transformer Bushings

It is now necessary to map the temperature distribution in the


360
insulation and air medium separately. To do this, θ(b) is taken
as 314.6 K and the thermal conductivity of the two media as
350 applicable. In so doing, two separate equations result, one for
the insulation and the other for the air medium as follows.
Temperature (°K)

340
In the insulation part, using θ(b) and θ′(a) above, equation
(18) becomes,
330
θ(r ) = 174.5 J 0 (1.0519 r ) − 82.98 Y0 (1.0519 r ) (21)
320 In the air medium and beyond, temperature is that of the
ambient and the temperature gradient here is obviously zero.
310 That is
1 d⎛ d θ( r ) ⎞
300 ⎜r ka ⎟=0 (22)
r dr ⎝ dr ⎠
290 where ka is the thermal conductivity of the air.
2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5
Radius (cm) Integrating,
Figure 6. Spatial Temperature distribution in the Insulation Considering θ(r) = C1 + C2 ln(r) (23)
an Initial slope.
at r = c, the notional boundary, θ(r) = 300 K
II. In practice, however, the temperature at b is not equal to at r = b, θ(r) = 314.6 K
the ambient temperature, but significantly greater than that. It is
The revised values of the constants in air medium are
therefore essential to consider the temperature of the ambient
calculated from equation (23), resulting in equation (24),
away from b. To do this, an imaginary cylindrical boundary
equilibrated at ambient temperature is placed at a distance of, θ(r) = 235.2 – 29.04 ln(r) (24)
say, twice the thickness of the insulation from the outer surface
Using equations (21) and (24), the temperature distribution
(at a radial distance c). This fictitious or notional boundary at
profile may be plotted as shown in Figure 7.
the ambient can be used to estimate the temperature at the
external boundary of insulation. The immediate effect of this
400
construction is that, two insulating media are involved, the RIP
and the air column. It is possible to work out a resultant thermal
conductivity, kr of these two phases using a logarithmic 380
expression given in [19] thus:
Temperature (°K)

⎛c⎞ 360
ln⎜ ⎟
kr = ⎝a⎠
(17)
⎛b⎞ ⎛c⎞
ln⎜ ⎟ ln⎜ ⎟ 340
⎝a ⎠ + ⎝b⎠
k1 k2 320
In the present case, a = 0.0225m, b = 0.065m c = 0.1075m,
kr = 0.05548, from which, equation (14) becomes,
300
θ(r ) = C1 J 0 (1.547 r ) + C 2 Y0 (1.547 r ) (18)
so that, 280
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
θ′(r ) = − 1.547 C1 J1 (1.547 r ) −1.547 C 2 Y1 (1.547 r ) (19) Radius (cm)

The initial slope (θ′ (a)) was calculated as -1176.5 K/m. Figure 7. Spatial Temperature distribution in the Insulation and in Air
within the notional boundary, (c-b) = (b-a).
Using this slope and the temperature at the notional
boundary (considered to be at a distance of twice the thickness
of the insulation, 0.1075m) as the ambient temperature, i.e., The discontinuity in the profile at r = b may be noted. This
300 K, equation (18) becomes, suggests that as the notional boundary is moved farther and
farther out, and in the limit to an infinite distance, the
θ(r ) = 252.12 J 0 (1.547 r ) + 41.24 Y0 (1.547 r ) (20)
temperature across the entire space becomes uniform and
From this expression, the temperature at the outer boundary settles at a value equal to the conductor temperature. Just for
of the insulation (r = b) was estimated as 314.6 K. the sake of substantiation, the temperature profile has been
IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 17, No. 3; June 2010 937

plotted taking the notional boundary at four times the thickness where, αC is the conductivity escalation factor. Equation
of insulation as shown below. (28) was modified by multiplying and dividing the
III. When the fictitious boundary is taken at a distance of numerator and denominator by 2 π ε 0 , to produce the
four times the thickness of the insulation (r1 = 0.0225m, r2 = following equation:
0.065m and r3 = 0.235m), equations (20), (21) and (24) will
correspondingly change to 2π ε 0k (29)
U Th = 253 kV
θ(r ) = 305.6 J 0 (1.816 r ) − 14.6 Y0 (1.816 r ) (25) αC σ
The factor, αC, for the bushing specimens under
θ(r ) = 177.93 J 0 (1.0519 r ) − 82.98 Y0 (1.0519 r ) (26) consideration here has been obtained by conductivity
measurements at two temperatures, 30 °C and 90 °C. In
θ(r) = 271.45 – 19.72 ln(r) (27) accordance with the linear conductivity relation given by
(9), the conductivity escalation factor is 1.2 over the said
The temperature distribution profile for this situation is
temperature range.
shown in Figure 8.
Using these values, UTh works out to 750 kV. This
It should be pointed out that, the value of θ(b) being not so
thermal voltage limit is seen to be quite in order for
high, about 20 °C above the ambient, the temperature in the
bushings used in 765 kV systems. (The effective
immediate vicinity of the surface at b equilibrates to the
voltage/phase which the insulation sees is 765/√3 = 442
ambient temperature as has actually been observed. In view of
kV).
this, a notional boundary is considered in the air medium at two
different radial distances from the conductor as indicated in However, there is still the maximum temperature limit
Figures 7 and 8. (θm) which must be satisfied. The preceding calculations
show that the maximum temperature in the dielectric is
400 about 380 K (107 °C). The class of insulation is stated to be
Class E with a maximum operating temperature of 120 °C
380
[15]. The computed values show that the dielectric
temperature is within safe working limits.
Temperature (°K)

360
5 CONCLUSIONS
340 The results of this study indicated that RIP insulation
systems are effective replacements for OIP, at least for
bushing insulation. This conclusion is based on the short-
320
term thermal performance. A long term (ageing)
performance evaluation of RIP bushings, based on
300 accelerated thermal and electric stress, is currently under
way. The results of this investigation shall be reported later.
280
0 5 10 15 20 25 The two factors, the thermal voltage, UTh and θm, together
Radius (cm) satisfy the requirements for high voltage bushing dielectrics
as used in the series of experiments reported in this paper.
Figure 8. Spatial Temperature distribution in the insulation and in air
within the notional boundary, (c-b) = 2(b-a).
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HVDC Cables”, IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., Vol. 14, pp.
1509-1515, 2007. N. S. Jyothi (S’09) was born in Thrissur, Kerala, India.
[9] Ch. Chakradhar Reddy and T. S. Ramu, “On the Computation of He received the B.Tech. degree from the Government
Electric Field and Temperature Distribution in HVDC Cable Engineering College, Thrissur, University of Calicut,
Insulation”, IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., Vol. 13, pp.1236- India and the M.Tech. degree from the Regional
1244, 2006. Engineering College, Calicut, India. Presently he is an
[10] J.J. O’Dwyer, The Theory of Electrical Conduction and Breakdown Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical &
in Solid Dielectrics, Oxford Clarendon Press, 1973. Electronics Engineering, Malnad College of
[11] S. Whitehead and W. Nethercot, “The Breakdown of Dielectrics Engineering, Hassan, India and pursuing the Ph.D.
under High Voltage, with Particular Reference to Thermal degree in the Department of Electrical Engineering,
Instability”, Proc. Phys. Soc., Vol.47, pp. 974-997, 1935. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.
[12] S. Whitehead, Dielectric Breakdown of Solids, Oxford University
Press, London, 1951.
[13] V. Fock, “Zur Wiirmetheorie des elektrischen Durchschlages”, T. S. Ramu was born in Bangalore, India. He received the B.E. degree
Archiv fur Elektrotechnik, Vol. 19, pp.71-81, 1927. from the University of Mysore, India, the M.E. degree from the Indian
[14] M. Krüger, A. Kraetge, M. Koch, K. Rethmeier, M. Pütter, L. Hulka, Institute of Science, Bangalore and the Ph.D. degree from the Indian
N. Koch, M. Muhr and C. Summereder, “New Diagnostic Tools for Institute of Technology, Madras, India. Currently he is a Professor in the
High Voltage Bushings”, 16th Intern. Sympos. High Voltage Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science,
Engineering, Johannesburg, South Africa, A-42, 2009. Bangalore, India.
[15] ABB, High Voltage Resin Impregnated Paper (RIP) Bushings,
Product information, ABB, 2008.
[16] E. Kamke, Differentialgleichungen Losungs methoden und Manoj Mandlik received the B.E. degree in electrical engineering from
Losungen), Chelsea Publishing Co., New York, USA, 1959. the University of Pune, India. He obtained the M.Sc. degree in electrical
[17] A. D. Polyanin and V. F. Zaitsev, Handbook of Exact Solutions for engineering from the Indian Institute of science Bangalore, India. He is
Ordinary Differential Equations, 2nd Edition, Russian Academy of associated with Crompton Greaves Global R&D Centre, Mumbai, India
Sciences, Moscow. since 2001 and is currently working as Deputy Manager, High Voltage
[18] M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Product Technology. At present, he is pursuing the Ph.D. degree at the
Functions: Formulas, Graphs and Mathematical tables, Dover Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of science
Publications, 9th print, 1970. Bangalore, India.