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Section 5: Navigating your way through Microsoft Access 2007

NAVIGATING YOUR WAY


THRU

MICROSOFT ACCESS (2007)


ACCESS - Information Technology (INT1001) 2

CHAPTER 5: DATABASE APPLICATION USING MICROSOFT ACCESS 2007

Microsoft Access is used to create and manage databases. A database in its simplest form is a
collection of useful information. Examples of databases are the telephone directory, school
records, employment records etc. Keeping track of all this information is a slow and tedious
process, however, computerized database management systems (DBMS) such as Microsoft
Access are designed to efficiently manage these collections of data.

STARTING ACCESS 2007;

______________________________________________________________________________

1. Click on Start
2. Move the cursor to Programs
3. Move the cursor to Office
4. Move the cursor to Microsoft Office 2007
5. Click on the application Access 2007

CREATING A NEW DATABASE

To create a new database, choose Blank Database and specify a new file name for the database,
then press Create. The name of this database is UTECH

Note: Be sure to use a descriptive name for the new database.

In the example we have students a university’s records of its students. We will call the
database “
Database name : UTECH students
Tables : students
Faculty
module

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Figure 5.1 Naming the blank database.

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Additionally there are predefined templates for commonly used databases which are presented at
the top left or via icons in the centre of the window as shown above.

Figure 5.2 Opening an existing database by browsing to the directory the database was saved to.

CREATING A TABLE
The database consists of a collection of tables. Once the database is created you need to create
tables to work with that database.

To create a table, you must describe the structure of the table to access by describing the fields
within the table;

For each field you must indicate the following:


A. FIELD NAME - each field in the table must have a unique name
B. DATA TYPE - indicates to Access the type of data the field will contain
C. DESCRIPTION - Allows you to enter a detailed description of the field.
D. FIELD SIZE -

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E. PRIMARY KEY -

NOTE*

Every database has its own set of tables

The tables are used to hold the data organized in a tabular manner. Each row has details (fields)
relating to the same data item, for example the name, age and address of a student at a university.
Each column will contain the same detail (field) item for different records. For example , the
surname name for every student record will be found in one column.

Creating the table via the Datasheet View

The primary key Other new fields added


field (right click as necessary (right click
to rename) to rename).

Figure 5.3 Creating a table and adding new fields. The key field is a unique field as an index.

Having created the database, a window presenting the datasheet view of a new table to be created
is displayed. New fields may be added here as necessary using the appropriate descriptive name.

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An ID field (primary key), a field is presented, that unambiguously identifies a record and
generally ensures that no duplicate rows exist. The other fields necessary may also be added
here by clicking on the “Add New Field” tab.

Individual data items may then be added under the respective column labels. On closing this
view (selecting “X” at top right of the table window) you will be required to name the table.

Creating the table via the Design View

Figure 5.4 Giving the table a meaningfull name.

Select “View” the ribbon menu and select “Design View” from the drop down menu
which appears. You are required to give the table its name “Students” before
proceeding further. In this view the name of the fields, type of data e.g. text ,
numbers, date, etc. and a brief description of the field are manually typed in.

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To open an existing database choose from the list presented top right or select More to display
additional database choices.

Figure 5.5 Using the design view to set the characteristics of each field.

The active design view window opens with the ID field as the active tab requiring an entry for its
name “Student ID” and data. Selecting the “Data Type” allows for modification of the field
which we will change from auto number to text to accommodate UTech style identification
numbers. The properties of each field are modified after selecting this field in the top window
and modifying the content by changes in the lower left corner of the design view window.

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Figure 5.7 inserting field names of the field.

The fields for the students table include:


Students ID number
Last Name
First Name
Date of Birth
Address 1
Telephone number
Faculty
Module

Filling out the description for each field aids in clarity and removes ambiguity about the intended
use of each field.

To enter the data, open the datasheet view from the menu ribbon and type the information under
the appropriate field.

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Figure 5.6 Putting data in the table using the datasheet view.

CREATING AND RUNNING QUERIES

ACCESS allows you the capability to answer questions about information stored in your
database.

Creating a query using the wizard


Open a saved table filled with data, “Students”,.
Go to the "Create" tab on the Access screen,
then click Select "Query Wizard" and OK..

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Figure. 5.7 Creating the query using the query wizard

STEP 1

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Step 2

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Step 3

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Step 4

Figure 5.8 Selecting fields from necessary tables in the database.

1. Pick the "Tables/Queries" option under the query wizard. Choose the table that contains
the data for your query.
2. Select the "Available Fields" tab to create your query. Add the fields that you want into
your "Selected Fields" list. Choose fields such as “Student Id”, "Last Name," "First
Name”, “Email”, "Telephone #”, “Address1”, “Address2” then Hit "Next" when you've
finished choosing your fields.

3. Give your query list a name (“Student Contact Information” in this example), then select
"Finish" to complete the project. Access shows all of the contact records in row-and-
column view. The fields that you've specified in Step 2 will be displayed as shown below.

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Figure 5.9 The final product the students query.

The query automatically saves in Access so that you can reopen it later.

CREATING A QUERY VIA THE DESIGN VIEW

Alternatively the query may be made in the “Design View” by selecting the “Design View” tab
instead.

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Figure 5.10 Choosing tables from which the query will be done.

Queries may involve several tables or other queries, these are chosen from the show table
window (above). For the multi-table, multi-query query to be successfully built it is necessary
that each table or query used contain at least one field in common as the basis for a relationship
between them. This is achieved mainly by inclusion of primary and foreign keys which may be a
good idea for further research. Once the tables and queries are chosen then Access 2007
automatically detect the relationship between them (indicated by a line joining them as shown
above).

Figure 5.11 Creating the necessary relationships via unique key fields among the tables of the database.

The relationship may be manually created by selecting the “Relationship” tab from the

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“Database Tools” menu tab. Clicking on a field in one table, holding and dragging to the
required field in another table and releasing and selecting “Create” establishes the relationship.

Figure 5.12 Manually creating the relationships among the tables of the database.

Upon completion of the relationships then the construction of the query may be completed by
using the lower section of the “Design View” window.

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Figure 5.7 13

First select the table then choose fields with corresponding tables in each query column,
checking the show box determines if the data contained in that field will be shown in the results
of the query.

Field values are evaluated based on the criteria, for example, “> 49” in the criteria section of the
“Final Exam Grade” exam score to indicate grade score of 50 or more.

Figure 5.7 14 Using the design view to set the constraints of the query.

NB. Remember to create a relationship by joining tables for queries and reports involving more
than one table. You may also need to install a printer before Microsoft Access allows the
creation of a report.

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CALCULATED FIELDS (COMPLEX QUERIES)


A more complex query uses a calculated field which is typically a field which is displayed ( as a
result of a calculation) that is not a part of the original structure of any of the tables in the
database.

As an example, suppose we wished to show those who have passed the Information Technology
course (IT1001). This is achieved by summing the weighted scores for each component to give a
final course score of which a score of 50 or more would be successful. Using a weighting of 20%
for the “Assignment”, 30% for the “In course Test” and 50% for the Final Exam.

Using the design view type the heading/name for the new calculated field followed by a colon
”:”
Follow this by the expression to be used in the calculation involving the field names which are
themselves enclosed in square brackets (if the field name consists of more than one word).
Selecting the “Shift + F2 key” allows easier editing of the formula which would be as shown
below.

Final It Score: [In Course Test]*0.3+[Assignment]*0.2+[Final Exam]*0.5

In this case it was not necessary to display the “Course ID” hence the Show box remained
unchecked as in figure 5.17 below. For the “Course ID” field the criteria is that the course id be
that of Information Technology hence ” =IT10011” in the criteria section.

Finally check the show box of the calculated field to ensure that the newly calculated value is
displayed (see figure 5.17 below).

Figure 5.15 Using the design view to set the constraints of the query for the calculated field.

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Figure 5.16 Click the run icon to display the query results.

Selecting “Run” on the menu will display the results of the query as shown in figure 5.19 below.

Figure 5.17 The “Final IT Score” Query showing those students who have successfully completed the IT course.

Exercise 5.4
If the cost to build each unit is approximately 40% of its selling price then use a calculated field
to show the cost of building each unit.

CREATING AND MODIFYING FORMS


Access forms provide a quick method of entering new data and/or modifying existing data in a
table.

The Access 2007 forms tools include:


The Form command which makes a basic form, showing a single record at a time.

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The Split Form command creates a form showing one record on top, and includes the
datasheet view of entire source table on the bottom.
The Multiple Items command creates a form that shows all the records at once, which
looks very similar to the source table in datasheet view.
The Form Wizard is hidden under the More Forms command. It walks through the
process of creating more customized forms.

Figure 5.18

CREATING A FORM USING THE FORM COMMAND

To create a form using this command:


Begin by highlighting the table you wish to use as a source table.
With the source table highlighted, select the Form (see figure 5.20) command from
the Forms command group in the Create tab on the Menu Ribbon.

The newly created form is opened in “Layout View” and has the same name as the source table
by default. You can give the form a new name by saving the form as in figure 5.21 below.

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Figure 5.19 A newly created form fro the Students table.

This basic form may then be modified to improve its readability/presentation by clicking on the
“Form Layout Tools” and using the available icons. For example in the design view field
alignment is aided by selecting to display grid lines. A form title, page numbers, auto generated
date and time may also be inserted. Fields can be rearranged by dragging and dropping them to
their desired location. To completely remove a field, right-click on it and choose the Delete
menu item. The finished form is displayed in figure 5.22 below.

Figure 5.20 Modified form with title, date and time, as well as, wider column for labels.

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CREATING A FORM USING THE FORM WIZARD

Select “Create” from the menu ribbon then “More Forms” .

Figure 5.21 Choosing fields while creating the form via the form wizard.

Using the directional arrows select fields needed from each table. In our example all the fields of
the “Students” table are used. Selecting “Next” gives another window to choose the layout of
the form as in figure5.23 (Columnar in this case).

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Figure 5.22 Selecting layout via the form wizard.

Similarly the next window offers a style in this case “Office”.

Figure 5.23 Choosing an appropriate style in this case office.

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At this stage selecting “Finish” (figure 5.26) will yield a form similar to that which was produced
before.

Figure 5.24 Naming the form and exiting the wizard.

Choosing “Finish” displays the form in “Form View” as seen below in figure 5.27.

Figure 5.25 The newly created Students form via the form wizard.

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On the other hand choosing the “Modify the form’s design” allows for immediate modification
of the form which is now displayed in “Design View” (figure 5.28 below). The modification is
facilitated by selecting the tabs and menu items avaible form the “Form Design Tools” menu tab.

Figure 5.26 The Students form in design view.

For example “Property Tabs” under the “Database Tools” gives a means of modifying each field
with respect to colour (form, fields), font (size, colour, texture), hidden or visible fields, places of
decimal etc.

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Figure 5.27 Property sheet to modify elements of the form.

HIDING FIELDS ON A FORM


There will be times when a field will not be needed on a form. Access 2007 allows you to hide
fields by setting the Visible field property in Design View (figure 5.30).
To Hide a Field on a Form
Hiding a field makes it invisible on the form when it is viewed in Form View. To hide a field:
In Design View, open the Property Sheet.
Change the Visible property setting to No, as seen below:

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Figure 5.28 Using the property sheet to make Student ID invisible on the form.

Visible Property Setting

REPORTS
A report consists of information that is pulled from tables or queries, as well as information that
is stored with the report design, such as labels, headings, and graphics. The tables or queries that
provide the underlying data are also known as the report's record source. If the fields that you
want to include all exist in a single table, use that table as the record source. If the fields are
contained in more than one table, you need to use one or more queries as the record source.
Those queries may already exist in your database, or you may need to create new queries
specifically to fit the needs of your report. Reports are created in a manner similar to forms.

Creating Report via the “Report” tab


Like Forms reports are initiated by selecting the “Create” menu and selecting an icon from the
“Reports” section. Selecting the “Report” icon generates a report for the active table or query as
shown below in figure 5.31 for the “Students” table.

Figure 5.29 With an active table or query open, select the Report icon to automatically create the corresponding report.

Note a count of the number of records and page of the report is displayed on the report itself
(figure 5.32). The window on the right allows for the addition of fields from other tables and
queries.

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Figure 5.30 An easily crested report.

Switch to the “Design View” (figure 5.33 below) to make modifications (in a similar manner as
the forms) such as the layout of fields deletions, report background, types of font etc.

Figure 5.31 The design view may be used to make modifications as necessary.

Modifications can be done on individual fields one at a time by selecting


the field, right clicking and selecting the required attribute (figure 5.34 below
left).

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Figure 5.325
Modifying via the
property sheet.
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Figure 5.334 Modifying via right mouse click.

Alternatively modifications can be done via the properties sheet (figure 5.35 above right).

CREATING THE REPORT USING THE REPORT WIZARD


Selecting the “Report Wizard” from the “Create” menu yields a window which allows the
choosing of optional fields from the tables and queries within the database.

Using the directional arrows (single arrow for individual fields and double arrows for all fields)
select fields needed from each table. In our example all the fields of the “Students” table are used
hence the double arrows will be used (figure 5.36).

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Figure 5.34 Creating the Report via the report wizard.

The next option is to select grouping levels (and the fields to be shown) in this case “Faculty”
was chosen (figure 5.37).

Figure 5.35 Selecting grouping levels for the report.

The next option is to sort the records within fields by ascending or descending order as shown in
figure 5.38 below.

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Figure 5.36 Selecting the option of sorting the records in ascending or descending order.

The layout of the report is selected next (figure 5.39).

Figure 5.37 Selecting the layout of the report.

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Then the style in this case “Office” see Figure 5.40

Figure 5.38 Choosing the style of the report.

Selecting finish displays the finished report .

Figure 5.39 The report may be given a name here.

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Figure 5.40 The report as produced by the report wizard.

Modifying the layout by clicking and dragging etc. (as previously described in modifying forms
above) via the “Design View” will yield a better looking more readable report as shown in
figure 5.43 below.

Figure 5.41 The modified report with a widenned column for faculty.

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Exercise 5.6
Create a report to show the owners of houses in the scheme and their occupations.

GROUPING AND SORTING

With the report open see figure 5.44, select the Group & Sort command from the Grouping &
Totals command group on the Format tab in the Ribbon.

Figure 5.42 Selecting the menu icon option for segmenting the report into groups or sorting.

This opens a Group, Sort, and Total dialog box in the lower portion of the window which can
be utilized for selecting how information should be grouped or sorted on the report as illustrated
in figure 5.45 below.

Figure 5.43 Use these buttons to select the field to be put into groups ot to be sorted.

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For this example a main group of sex will be chosen (figure 5.46).

Figure 5.44 Choosing to group the report field by sex.

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Selecting a sub-group using address2 results in the report having a second level of grouping
by addresses as shown belowin figure 5.47.

Figure 5.45

Totals and Sub-Totals


Similarly, choosing the “Totals” menu icon will yield a choice of function for totals, count,
maximum, etc. to be considered for the report. In the example below a simple average of the
final IT scores is shown.

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.
Figure 5.46

To show calculations for example sub-totals and totals first the report fields have to be divided
into groups. In the example, a report of all grades was used and the average function was
selected for the final exam grouping by faculty (figure 5.48). An average was produced for the
group, that is for the faculty as well as an overall average for all the faculties, i.e. the entire
student body (figure 5.49).

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Figure 5.47

Exercise 5.7
Use a report to show the total cost to build each section for each contractor as well as the total
cost to build the entire scheme.

EXERCISE 5.1
The Lions Club at St. Hilda’s high school raises money by selling merchandise imprinted with
the school logo to Alumni. The Lion’s Club purchases products from vendors that deal in school
specialty items. The database consists of two tables. The Item table contains information on
items available for sale. The vendor table contains information on the vendors.

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Data for ITEM table

Item ID Description On Hand Cost Selling Vendor


Price Code

BC02 Baseball Cap 15 $100.00 $150.00 AL

CM12 Coffee Mug 20 $37.50 $50.00 GG

DM05 Doormat 5 $140.00 $170.00 TM

OR01 Ornament 25 $30.00 $40.00 GG

PL05 Pillow 8 $130.00 $150.00 TM

PN21 Pennant 22 $56.00 $70.00 TM

PP20 Pen Set 12 $160.00 $200.00 GG

SC11 Scarf 17 $80.00 $120.00 AL

TT12 Tie 10 $89.00 $120.00 AL

WA34 WASTEBASKET 3 $140.00 $150.00 GG

DATA FOR vendor Table

VENDOR NAME ADDRESS CITY STATE CODE TELEPHONE


CODE NUMBER

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AL Alum 136 Red Aurora WI 53595 608-555-9753


Logo Inc. Hills

GG GG Gifts 52 Brisbane NW 88061 505-555-8765


Constant

TM Trinkets 87 Hope Kentwood VA 20147 804-555-1234


‘n More

TASKS:

1. Create a database to store the objects related to the Lion’s Club.

2. Create two tables Item and Vendor tables.

3. Create a FORM to enter the Items and enter the data from there.

4. Display all the fields for those items that have a vendor code of TM or have a selling
price less than $100.00.

5. Display the items with a cost greater than $100.00 and where the number on hand is less
than 5.

6. List the Item ID and description for all items that have a selling price of $150.00 or less.

7. Display the Item Id, Description, Cost, Vendor code along with the Name and Telephone
Number of each vendor.

8. List the items Id, Description and Selling Price where Description begins with the letters,
Pe.

9. Display the item Id, Description and Cost Price showing the Description in descending
order.

10. Create a report of the Vendor Table.

Exercise 5.1
Organize the fields for a housing schemes as indicated below into tables. Give the scheme an
appropriate name of your choice. Use this scheme name as the name of your database which you
should save in your “My Documents” Folder.

Exercise 5.1 through to Exercise 5.7 all refer to the housing scheme first encountered here in
Exercise 5.1. Each exercise either builds upon or uses information from the preceding exercise.

House table to include information on:

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1. the type of house i.e. town house, apartment or detached.


2. the number of bedrooms,
3. selling price,
4. lot number.
5. section number.

Contractor table to include information on:


1. contractors name,
2. address,
3. phone number,
4. section number.

Owner table to include information on:


1. owners name,
2. lot number,
3. occupation ,
4. telephone number.
5. Gross salary

Please Note that, Field names:


may be up to 64 characters in length
may contain letters, digits and spaces
may NOT contain periods, exclamation points square brackets, etc
may not be repeated in the same table

Exercise 5.2

Create and enter data for each table, at least 10 rows for each table.

Exercise 5.3
Create and run a Query to show a list of owners of 3 bedroom houses costing more than
$15, 000, 000.

Exercise 5.5
Create a form and use it enter information relating to a change in ownership of a house and a
change in occupation of another owner.

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