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TITLE Go v. UCPB
MAIN POINT In a real action, the plaintiff seeks the recovery of real property, or as provided for in Section 1, Rule 4, a real action is an
action affecting title to or possession of real property, or interest therein. These include partition or condemnation of, or
foreclosure of mortgage on, real property. The venue for real actions is the same for regional trial courts and municipal trial
courts—the court which has territorial jurisdiction over the area where the real property or any part thereof lies.

FACTS Respondent bank granted petitioners' application for an Omnibus Line accommodation for P900k secured by Real Estate
Mortgages over parcels of land located at Mandaluyong City. For nonpayment of the obligation secured by the said mortgage,
respondent bank filed an extrajudicial foreclosure resulting to the public auction sale of the mortgaged property. Petitioner
filed for Cancellation of Real Estate Mortgage and damages with prayer for a TRO/writ of prelim injunction against the
respondent bank and its officers. Instead of filing an answer, respondent bank filed a motion to dismiss based on, among
others, the ground that the complaint was filed in the wrong venue.
RTC: Granted petitioner’s application for injunction
CA: Go filed a petition for review under Rule 43. CA set aside the orders of the lower court

ISSUE: Whether the complaint for cancellation of real estate mortgage is a personal or real action for the purpose of determining
venue

RULING: The cancellation of the real estate mortgage, subject of the instant petition, is a real action, considering that a real estate
mortgage is a real right and a real property by itself. An action for cancellation of real estate mortgage is necessarily an action
affecting the title to the property. It is, therefore, a real action which should be commenced and tried in Mandaluyong City, the
place where the subject property lies.

VII. PLEADINGS
A. Pleadings in general
1. Rules of Court, Rule 6, secs. 1-2; Rule 8, sec. 1
2. Batas Blg. 129 (1980), sec. 36
3. Revised Rule on Summary Procedure (1991)
4. A.M. No. 08-8-7-SC, 9 September 2008 or The Rule of Procedure for Small Claims Cases

B. Complaint
1. Generally
a. RULES of COURT, Rule 6, sec. 3; Rule 2, secs. 1 & 2
b. Batas Blg. 129 (1980), see. 33, par. (1)

2. Splitting & joinder of causes of action


a. RULES of COURT, Rule 2, secs. 3-6
MA.7 De Luzuriaga, Sr. v. Adil, GR. No. L-58912, May 7. 1985 136 SCRA 279 (1985)

3. Alternative

C. Answer
1. RULES OF COURT, Rule 6, secs. 4-5; Rule 8, secs. 10 and 11; Rule 9, secs. 1-2
SA.7 Spouses Jose N. Binarao and Preciosa Binarao v. Plus Builders, Inc., GR. No. 154430, 16 June
2006
YA.7 Mongao v. Pryce Properties Corporation, GR. No. 156474, August 16, 2005, 407 SCRA 201
(2005)
YU.7 Equitable Card Network, Inc. v. Josefa Borromeo Capistrano, GR. No. 180157, 8 February 2012
AL.8 Virginia M. Venzon v. Rural Bank of Buenavista, GR. No. 178031, 28 August 2013
D. Counterclaim and cross-claim
1. RULES OF COURT, Rule 6, secs. 6-9, 12; Rule 9, sec. 2; Rule 11 secs. 8-10
AV.8 International Container Terminal Services, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, GR. No. 90530, October 7,
1992, 214 SCRA 456 (1992)
BA.8 Spouses Meliton v. Court of Appeals, et al., GR. No. l01883, December 11, 1992, 216 SCRA 485
(1992)
CA.8 Alday v. FGU Insurance Corp. GR. No. 138822, January 23 2001, 350 SCRA 113 (2001)
DA.8 Cruz-Agana v. Santiago-Lagman, GR. No. 139018, April I l. 2007, 455 SCRA 203 (2005)
DAU.8 Ruiz, Jr., et al. v. Court of Appeals et al., GR. No. l0l560. August 17, 1992, 212 SCRA 660
(1992)
E. Reply
1. RULES or COURT, Rule 6, sec. 10

F. Formal requirements of pleadings


1. RULES of COURT, Rule 7
2. A.M. No. 11-9-4-SC, 13 November 2012 or the Efficient Use of Paper Rule
DE.8 Republic v. Kenrick DeveIOpment Corporation. GR. No. 149576, August 8, 2006, 498 SCRA 220
(2006)
DEL.8 Digital Microwave Corporation v. Court of Appeals, GR. No. 128550, March 16, 2000, 336
SCRA 419 (2000)
HA.8 Kaunlaran Lending Investors, Inc., et al. v. Uy, GR. No. 154974, February 4, 2008, 543 SCRA
474 (2008)
JO.8 Spouses Valmonte v. Alcala, et al., GR. No. 168667, July 23, 2008, 559 SCRA 536 (2008)

G. Detail in pleading
1 RULES of COURT, Rule 8, secs. 1-9; Rule 12
KU.8 Bacolod-Murcia Milling Co., Inc. v. Co., Inc., et al., GR. No. L-29041, March 24, 1981, 103
SCRA 436(1981)
LA.8 Far East Marble v. Court of Appeals, et al., GR. No. 94093 August 10, 1993, 225 SCRA 249
(1993)
LI.8 Filipinas Textile et al. v Court of Appeals et al. GR. No. 119800, November 12, 2003, 415 SCRA
635 (2003) 0
MA.8 Toribio v. Bidin G R No 57821 January 17 1985, 134 SCRA 162 (1985)

H. Amended and supplemental pleadings


1. RULES of COURT, Rule 10
SA.8 Keramik Industries, Inc. v. Guerrero, GR. No. 1.38860. November 29, 1974, 61 SCRA 265 (1974)
YA.8 R & B Surety & Ins. Col, Inc. v. Savellano, GR. No. L-45234. May 8, 1985, 136 SCRA 312 (1985)
YU.8 Remington Industrial Sales Corp. v. Court of Appeals et al GR. No. 133657, May 29, 2002, 382
SCRA 499 (2002)
AL.9 Asset Privatization Trust v. Court of Appeals, et al., GR. No. 81024, February 3, 2000, 324 SCRA
533 (2000)
AV.9 Cagungun, et al. v. Planters Development Bank. GR. No. 158674, October 17, 2005, 473 SCRA
259 (2005l
I. Judicial Affidavit Rule
AM. No. 12-8-8-SC, 4 September 2012

J. Periods for pleading


1. RULES or COURT, Rule 1 1; Rule 22
BA.9 Alarilla v. Ocampo, GR. No. 144697, December 10, 2003, 417 SCRA 601 (2003)

K. Filing and service of pleadingstSz. other papers


1. RULES of COURT, Rule 13

VIII. MOTIONS
A. RULES OF COURT, Rule 15; Rule 133, see. 7
B. Batas Blg. 129 (1980), sec. 16
C. Cases
CA.9 Cledera, et al. v. Sarmiento, et al., GR. Nos. L—32450-51, June 10, 1971, 39 SCRA 552 (1971)
DA.9 Cruz v. Court of Appeals, et al., GR. No. 123340, August 29. 2002, 388 SCRA 72 (2002)
DAU.9 KKK Foundation, Inc. v. Bargas, et al., GR. No. 163785 December 27, 2007, 541 SCRA 432
(2007)
DE.9 Aneco Realty Development Corporation v. Landex Development Corporation, GR. No. 165952
Julv 28 2008 541 SCRA 182 (2008)

IX. OBJECTIONS TO PLEADINGS


A. Motion to dismiss
1. Generally
DEL.9 Borje v. CFI of Misamis Occidental, GR. No. L-48315, February 27, 1979, 88 SCRA 576 (1979)

2. Want of jurisdiction
a. RULES OF COURT, Rule 16, sec. 1, par. (a) and (b)
HA.9 Andaya v. Abadia, GR. No. 104033, December 27, 1993. 228 SCRA 705 (1993)
JO.9 Department of Agrarian Reform v. Abdulwahid, et al., GR. No. 163285, February 27, 2008, 547
SCRA 30 (2008)
KU.9 Republic v. Glasgow Credit and Collection Services, Inc, GR. No. 170281, January 18, 2008, 542
SCRA 95(2008)

3. Improper venue
a. RULES OF COURT, Rule 16 sec 1, par. (c)

4. Want of legal capacity to sue


a. RULES of COURT, Rule 16, sec. 1, par. (d)
LA.9 Evangelista, et al. v. Santiago, GR. No. 157447, April 29, 2005, 457 SCRA 744 (2005)

5. Litis pendentia
a. RULES of COURT, Rule 16, sec. 1, par. (6)
LI.9 Arceo v. Oliveros, GR. No. L—38251, January 31, 1985, 134 SCRA 308 (1985)
MA.9 Buan, et al. v. Lopez, Jr., GR. No. L-75349, October 13, 1986, 145 SCRA 34 (1986)
SA.9 Investors’ Finance Corporation v. Ebarle, et al., GR. No. 70640, June 29, 1988, 163 SCRA 60
(1988)

6. Res judicata and statute of limitations


a. RULES OF COURT, Rule 16, sec. 1, par. (f); Rule 39, see. 47
YA.9 Oropeza Marketing Corp. v. Allied Banking Corp., GR. No. 129788, December 3, 2002, 393
SCRA 278 (2002)
YU.9 Carandang v. Venturanza, GR. No. L-41940, November 21, 1984, 133 SCRA 344 (1984)
AL.10 Manila Electric Co. v. Court of Appeals, GR. No. L-33794, May 31, 1982,114 SCRA 173 (1982)
AV.10 Avisado v. Rumbaua, GR. No. 137306, March 12, 2001, 354 SCRA 245 (2001)
BA.10 Arreza v. Diaz, GR. No. 133113, August 30, 2001, 364 SCRA 88 (2001)
CA.10 Francisco v. Roque Co, et al., GR. No. 151339, January 31, 2006, 481 SCRA 241 (2006)
DA.10 Cruz v. Court of Appeals, GR. No. 164797, February 13 2006, 482 SCRA 379 (2006)
DAU.10 Pascual v. Court of Appeals, GR. No. 115925, August 15 2003, 409 SCRA 105 (2003)

Cf. “Law of the case”


DE.10 Litton Mills, Inc. v. Galleon Trader, Inc. GR. No. L-40867, July 26, 1988, 163 SCRA 489 (1988)
DEL.10 Ayala Corporation v. Rosa-Diana Realty 81. Development Corporation, GR. No. 134284,
December 1, 2000, 346 SCRA 663 (2000)

7. Insufficient allegations
a. RULES or COURT, Rule 16, sec. 1, par. (g)
HA.10 Marcopper Mining Corp. v. Garcia, GR. No. L-55935 July 30, 1986, 143 SCRA 178 (1986)
JO.10 Fluor Daniel, Inc. Philippines v. EB. Villarosa &Partners Co., Ltd, GR. No. 159648, July 27.
2097 529 SCRA 321 (2007)

8. Payment, waiver, abandonment or extinction


a. RULES OF COURT, Rule 16, sec. 1, par. (h)

9. Statute of frauds
a. RULES OF COURT, Rule 16, sec. 1, par. (i)

10. Non-compliance with a condition precedent for filing


a. RULES OF COURT, Rule 16, sec 1, par (j)
b. CIVIL CODE, art. 222
KU.10 Mendoza v. Court of Appeals G.R. No. L-23102 April 24, 1967 19 SCRA 756 (1967)

11. Lack of certification against forum shopping


a. RULES OF COURT, Rule 7, sec. 5

12. Procedure on motion to dismiss


a. RULES OF COURT, Rule 16, sec 2-6
LA.10 Malicdem v. Flores, G.R. No. 151001, September 8, 2006, 501 SCRA 248 (2006)
B. Motion to suspend proceedings
1. Need for prior arbitration
LI.10 Bengson v.Chan, et al., GR. No. L-27283, July 29 1977, 78 SCRA 113 (1977)
2. Need for prior reference to barangay conciliation
3. RULES OF COURT, Rule 30, sec. 8

C. Motion for bill of particulars


1. RULES OF COURT, Rule 12
MA.10 Bantillo v. Intermediate Appellate Court, GR. No. 7531 l, October 18, 1988, 166 SCRA 508
(1988)
SA.10 Virata v. Sandiganbayan, GR. No. 106527, April 6, 1993, 221 SCRA 52 (1993)

D. Motion to drop/add parties


1. RULES OE COURT, Rule 3, sec. 11

E. Motion to severe cause of action


1. RULES OF COURT, Rule 2, sec. 6

F. Motion to strike out


1. RULES OF COURT, Rule 8, sec. 12; Rule 7, sec. 3; Rule 12. sec. 4; Rule 29, sec. 3, par. (c)

G. Motion for judgment on the pleadings


1. RULES OF COURT, Rule 34
YA.10 Mongao v. Pryce Properties Corporation, supra

H. Motion for summary judgment


1. RULES OF COURT, Rule 35
YU.10 Estrada v. Consolacion, GR. NO. L-40948, June 29. 1976, 71 SCRA 523 (1976)
AL.11 Nocom v. Camerino, GR. NO. 182984, February 10, 2009, 578 SCRA 390 (2009)

X. DISMISSALS AND DEFAULTS


A. Dismissals
1. RULES OF COURT, Rule 17
AV.11 Republic Planters Bank v. Molina, GR. NO. 54287, September 28, 1988, 166 SCRA 39 (1988)
BA.11 Pinga v. Santiago, GR. No. 170354, June 30, 2006, 494 SCRA 393 (2006)

B. Defaults
1. RULES OF COURT, Rule 9, sec. 3
CA.11 Co v. Acosta, GR. No. 64591 January 17 1985, 134 SCRA 185
DA.11 Lina v. Court of Appeals G R NO 63397 April 9, 1986, 153 SCRA 637(1985)
DAU.11 Botican v. Chu, Jr. G.R. No. 58036, March 16, 1987, 148 SCRA 541 (1987)
DE.11 Denso (Phils), Inc. v. Intermediate Appellate Court, G.R. No. 75000, February 12, 201727, 1987,
148 SCRA 280 (1987)