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Chapter 1



In 1867, during Spanish time, The Spanish constructed the first road
in the Philippines using significant force labor. These public work projects
were not only used in the connection of town and fortresses, but also in
improving communication. The Spain expanded the scale of each public
works project. It resorted to a policy of attraction through public work
projects. In 1867, in order to pursue this objective, the King of Spain, by
decree, designated the Spanish governor-general as chief public works
assisted by Junta Consultiva through a royal degree in 1867.

Highway was proposed in 1965 and built under President

Ferdinand Marcos’s governance. Government planners believed that the
motorway and other connected roads would stimulate agricultural
production by reducing transport costs, encouraging social and
economic development outside existing major urban centers such as
Manila, and expanding industrial production for domestic and overseas

Few in the urban transportation field have sparked as much

controversy and threatened proposed road projects as claims of
“induced demands”. For decades, highway critics have charged that
building new roads or expanding an existing ones relieve traffic
congestions as futile exercise. Improved roads simply spur additional
travel or divert trips from parallel routes, quickly returning a facility to its
original congested condition.

In fact, Philippines include roads that can be classified into six

divisions; the Maharlika highway, Controlled access-highway, Regional
Highways, the Provincial Highways, the Manila Arterial Road System,
Pan-Philippines Highway (3,517 km or 2,185 miles that connects the
islands from Luzon, Samar, Leyte and Mindanao) and the secondary city
and municipal avenues road.

Project Background

The existing road way consist of two lanes 3.10 meters in width
with shoulders that vary from 0.07 meter in width at different locations.
The roadway surface is made of concrete and it has two curve lanes. The
roadway lies between two hills with an approximate height of 7 meters.

Generally, the existing right of way provincial road shall not be less
than 15 meters wide under the Executive Order No. 194; s1939, and
based on the provision of the Department of Public Works and Highways
about list of laws prescribing highway widths. However, there are
numerous locations where it varies, specifically, along the ISU-Junction-
Calamagui Road. The road extension from DBP to PNB is one of the main
options in improving mobility that can accommodate the increasing
vehicular capacity to mitigate against future congestion as a result of
proposed new development in this area.
Objective of the Study

To evaluate the feasibility of Road widening along Junction-

Calamagui Provincial Road including drainage and covered walk within
the Academic Triangle.
Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions in
terms of:
1. Technical Aspects
a. What is the technical description of the projects in terms of?
1) Project description
2) Physical Properties
a. Roadway
b. Curb and gutter
c. Covered Sidewalk
d. Drainage
2. Economic Aspects
What are the benefits of road widening, constructing drainage and
putting up of covered walk along the Academic triangle in the City of
3. Social Aspects
Is the proposed road widening along Junction Calamagui Provincial
Road including drainage and covered walk within the Academic Triangle
acceptable to the stakeholder?
4. Financial Aspects
a. How much will the project cost?
b. Who will finance the project?

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The focus of this research is to propose road widening to minimize
traffic congestion and for the safety of people and vehicles passing on
the road. The said project is along Development Bank of the
Philippines(DBP) and Phillipine National Bank(PNB) Calamagui City of
Ilagan Isabela. The project distance is measured 400meters.

Definition of Terms
Academic Triangle. ISU-ISAT-TESDA Vicinity
Aggregate Subbase Course. It is the layer of aggregate material laid on
the subgrade on which base course layer is located. It is often the main
load-bearing layer of the pavement. The materials used may be either
unbound granular or cement bound.
Base Course. This is the layer of material on top of the subbase and
directly under the slab.
Concrete. This is a mixture of water, cement, sand, gravel, crushed rock,
or other aggregates. The aggregates (sand, gravel, crushed rock) are held
together in a rocklike mass with a paste of cement and water.
Concrete Curb and Gutter. Curbs can be used to channel runoff water
from rain or melted snow and ice into the storm drains. They separate
the road from the roadside and provide structural support to the
pavement edge.
Covered Walk. It is a long narrow space with covered area or roof for
pedestrian along existing road, it will give protection against weather
and flexibility for pedestrian.
Drainage. This refers to the removal of excess water from the pavement
to collect, transport and disposes the water through an outfall or outlet.
Elevation. This is the elevation of a geographic location with its height
above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference
geoid, and a mathematical model of the Earth’s sea level as an
equipotential gravitational surface.
Pedestrian Lane. This refers to pedestrian crossing or crosswalk. It is a
place designated for pedestrians to cross a road. Crosswalks are
designed to keep pedestrians together where they can be seen by
motorists, and where they can cross most safely across the flow of
vehicular traffic.
PERT/CPM. Pert CPM charts identify the time required to complete the
activities and the order of the steps. Each activity is assigned an earliest
and latest start time and end time.
Road. Is it a wide way leading from one place to another, especially one
with a specially prepared surface that vehicles can use. It is a hard flat
surface for vehicles, people, and animals to travel on.
Road Widening. This refers to the road that is widened in both sides of
existing road with a length of 3.05 m on both sides.
Sidewalk. It is a long narrow space of concrete pavement with 1 meter in
length. It is located in the other side of existing road that gives protection
against vehicles for pedestrian users and main especially for students.
Survey. Determination of elevation of the proposed road widening along
Junction Calamagui Provincial Road including drainage with covered