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Examples of the Presentation of Factor Analyses

Sage, M. A. (2015). Cyberloafing: A study of personality factors and organizational commitment as


predictor variables of cyberloafing and perceived organizational acceptance (Unpublished
master’s thesis). East Carolina University, Greenville, NC.

To further investigate the number of constructs and structure of this measure, an exploratory factor
analysis was conducted. Velicer’s Minimum Average Partial test and parallel analysis were employed to
determine the appropriate number of factors to retain (O’Connor, 2000). Although the sample size was small
and unlikely to have enough power for an adequate factor analysis, the analyses were done for the sake of
comparison with the two-cluster solution.

The exploratory factor analysis using a principal-axis factor extraction was conducted to determine the
factor structure. Velicer’s MAP test recommended a three-factor solution, the Parallel Analysis recommended
a two-factor solution for the cyberloafing items, and the scree plot indicated a two-factor solution. When
comparing the two-factor solution to the three-factor solution, double-loading of items was an issue in each
solution, however, the two-factor solution provided constructs that were less complex than those in the three-
factor solution. For interpretation of the two factors, a Varimax orthogonal rotation was used. This rotation
had sums of squared loadings ranging from 2.79 to 3.45, and the grouping of items was similar to that of the
cluster analysis where the first factor was behaviors frequently performed and the second factor was behaviors
infrequently performed (see Table 3). The frequent cyberloafing behavior construct had a Cronbach’s alpha
of .848, and the infrequent cyberloafing behavior construct had a Cronbach’s alpha of .729, which could be
increased to .752 if item 3 (“Browse investment-related Web sites”) was removed. Although the factor
analysis was calculated with an insufficient sample size, and there was a large number of double-loaded items
between the two measures, it shows more evidence of a two-factor structure consisting of frequent and
infrequent cyberloafing behaviors.

Table 3.
Factor Analysis Cyberloafing Constructs.

Prompt: How often do you engage in each activity during work hours for personal
reasons?

Scale: Never (0), Rarely (about once a month) (1), Sometimes (at least once a
week) (2), Frequently (at least once a day) (3)
Factor
Loading
Item 1 2
Factor 1: Frequent Cyberloafing Behaviors ( = .848)
5. Browse general news Web sites .76 .09
6. Browse non-work-related Web sites .71 .04
8. Send non-work-related e-mail .68 .06
7. Check non-work-related e-mail .62 -.01
4. Browse entertainment-related Web sites .61 .30
9. Receive non-work-related e-mail .60 -.02
2. Shop online for personal goods .59 .23
18. Send or receive personal text messages .59 -.30
1. Browse sports-related Web sites .49 .25
15. Post messages on non-work-related items .47 .31
14. Chat with other people with instant messenger .41 .18
19. Make personal phone calls .39 .22
11. Download non-work-related information .28 .25
21. Use Facebook .27 .20
22. Use Instagram .23 .13
Factor 2: Infrequent Cyberloafing Behaviors ( = 729)
12. Download online games -.02 .79
10. Play online games .03 .67
17. Read or write in a blog .06 .63
23. Download Media (music / videos) .24 .60
13. Chat with other people in online chat rooms .21 .48
16. Use the Internet to gain additional income while at work -.02 .45
20. Use Twitter .32 .44
3. Browse investment-related Web sites .26 .31
Note. Double-loaded items are denoted in bold font.

Aziz, S., Uhrich, B., Wuensch, K. L, & Swords, B. (2013). The Workaholism Analysis
Questionnaire: Emphasizing work-life imbalance and addiction in the measurement of
workaholism. Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, 14, 71-86.

Results
After culling four items with low item-total correlations and one item that produced multicollinearity,
the 29-item measure had a Cronbach’s alpha of .934 (see Appendix A). After culling, all items had VIF
values of less than 5. An exploratory factor analysis using the principle-axis factor extraction was conducted
to determine the factor structure of the WAQ. Both parallel analysis and Velicer’s MAP test (O’Connor,
2000, 2012) indicated a five-factor structure. The WAQ was conceived as multidimensional, with the various
dimensions being nonorthogonal. Accordingly, we employed an oblique rotation. Such a rotation created
five factors with sums of squared loadings ranging from 3.7 to 8.3, and the clustering of items into factors
seemed easily interpretable (see Table 1). The correlations between factors ranged from .24 to .48 (see Table
2). Although a multi-factor solution was tenable with rotation, this structure should be considered preliminary
at this point, pending confirmatory work. Accordingly, only the total scores were used for the validity
analyses.

Table 1. Oblique Factor Analysis of the WAQ


Greatest
Item Factor
|Beta|
28 I have difficulty maintaining friendships. .72 1, Work-Life Conflict

24 My work often seems to interfere with my personal life. .67 1

29 I have difficulty maintaining intimate relationships. .66 1


26 I often miss out on important personal activities because of work
.62 1
demands.
25 I often put issues in my personal life “on hold” because of work
.62 1
demands.
23 I experience conflict with my significant other or with close
.60 1
friends.
14 I find myself unable to enjoy other activities because of my
.47 1
thoughts of work.
27 I find it difficult to schedule vacation time for myself. .46 1
6 I constantly feel too tired after work to engage in non-work
.45 1
activities.
12 I frequently have work-related insomnia. .45 1

1 I feel stressed out when dealing with work issues. .33 1

19 I frequently check over my work many times before I finish it. .66 2, Work Perfectionism

20 I ask others to check my work often. .56 2


22 It takes me a long time to finish my work because it must be
.50 2
perfect.
21 I frequently feel anxious or nervous about my work. .50 2

18 I often obsess about goals or achievements at work. .41 2


8 I prefer to work excessive hours, preferably 60 hours or more per
.66 3, Work Addiction
week.
11 I enjoy spending evenings and weekends working. .63 3

13 I feel very addicted to my work. .58 3

7 I think about work constantly. .42 3

9 I have a need for control over my work. .29 3


17 People would describe me as being impatient and always in a
.67 4, Unpleasantness
hurry.
15 I consider myself to be a very aggressive person. .62 4

16 I get irritated often with others. .60 4

10 I have a need for control over others. .39 4


5, Withdrawal
3 I feel anxious when I am not working. .94
Symptoms
2 I feel guilty when I am not working. .85 5

4 I feel bored or restless when I am not working. .55 5

5 I am unable to relax at home due to preoccupation at work. .44 5


Table 2. Correlations among the Factors (N =188)

Factor 1 2 3 4
2 .31
3 .29 .24
4 .30 .28 .26
5 .48 .47 .38 .28

Fourteen graduate students were asked to identify the WAQ’s 30 items out of a pool of 40 items.
Items from the WAQ were correctly identified 89% of the time, which establishes adequate content validity.
Table 3 presents descriptive statistics and intercorrelations. Neither the WAQ nor the WART was
significantly correlated with AC and NC, establishing discriminant validity and supporting H1a and H1b
respectively. Both the WAQ and the WART were significantly correlated with CC, demonstrating concurrent
validity and supporting H1c. Furthermore, the WAQ and the WART were significantly correlated with
OCPD, showing concurrent validity and supporting H2. However, the WAQ and the WART did not differ
significantly with respect to their correlations with CC, Steiger’s z = .75, p = .44; OCPD, Steiger’s z = .00, p =
1.00; AC, Steiger’s z = 1.46, p = .14; and NC, Steiger’s z = .55, p = .58. Additionally, the WAQ significantly
correlated with the WART (r = .72), establishing convergent validity and supporting H3. Finally, all scales
had acceptable reliability coefficients (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994) and were similar to those found in
previous research (e.g., Meyer et al., 1993; Samuel & Widiger, 2010). Chronbach’s alpha was significantly
greater for the WAQ than for the WART, Feldt W = .629, p < .001.

Table 3. Correlations and Descriptives (N =188)

Variable WAQ WART AC CC NC OCPD


WAQ .93

WART .72** .90

AC -.06 .02 .88

CC .27** .23** -.11 .80

NC .06 .03 .75** .07 .90

OCPD .64** .64** -.07 .25** .01 .73

Range of
Possible 1-5 1-4 1-7 1-7 1-7 0-1
Scores
Range for
Current 1.03-4.17 1.21-3.58 1.00-7.00 1.17-7.00 1.00-7.00 .16-1.00
Data
M
2.49 2.56 4.38 4.18 4.08 .53
SD
.67 .47 1.51 1.33 1.53 .15
Note. Entries on the main diagonal are Cronbach’s alpha. WAQ, Workaholism Analysis Questionnaire;
WART, Work Addiction Risk Test; AC, Affective Commitment; CC, Continuance Commitment; NC,
Normative Commitment; OCPD, Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder. *p < .05 ** p < .001. |g1| < .41
and |g2| < .79 for all variables.
Return to Wuensch’s Stat Lessons Page

Karl L. Wuensch, August, 2017.


Communality
Barriers to ISO 9001 Mean SD F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6

F1: Awareness
q2.1- Organization heard about IS0 9001 3.40 1.19 .609 -.589 -.257 .231 -.046 .007 .840
q2.2- Members know ISO 9001 well 3.19 1.20 .568 -.426 .333 .145 -.079 .237 .698
q2.3- Aware of Purpose of ISO 9001 3.45 1.30 .693 -.374 -.356 .242 -.019 .049 .807
q2.4- Aware of certification purpose 3.30 1.25 .671 -.408 -.160 .191 .021 -.054 .681
q2.5- Aware of how to obtain certification 3.33 1.27 .471 -.255 -.323 .509 -.252 -.029 .715
F2: Quality knowledge
q2.6- Have basic knowledge on ISO 9001 3.45 .974 -.048 .684 -.072 -.194 .123 .005 .529
q2.7- Implementation improves operation 3.60 .907 .207 .465 -.196 .333 .434 .069 .601
q2.8- Implementation results customer satisfaction 3.63 1.08 -.054 .555 -.187 -.064 .460 -.154 .585
q2.9- Implementation results better supplier
3.69 .918 .285 .503 -.439 -.275 .235 .287 .740
relationship
q2.10- Implementation increases market share 3.56 .949 .186 .523 -.541 -.257 .309 -.024 .763
F3: Leadership
q2.11- Top management commitment 3.40 1.07 -.372 -.058 .669 -.174 -.082 -.019 .626
q2.12- Strategy towards ISO 9001implementation 2.92 1.28 -.445 .179 .652 -.192 -.012 -.057 .695
q2.13- Management provides guidance to ISO
3.25 1.11 -.437 .376 .623 .072 -.043 -.073 .733
9001
q2.14- Lack of internal communication 3.45 1.02 .050 .125 .550 .007 .144 -.428 .525
q2.15- Lack of motivation 3.13 1.17 -.262 .374 .587 .009 .224 .016 .603
F4: Human Resource
q2.16- Employees are competent 3.79 .865 .453 -.150 -.034 .565 -.312 .115 .659
q2.17- Employees are given training 3.56 1.15 -.239 -.244 -.107 .793 -.126 -.055 .775
q2.18- Employees authority is defined 3.64 .927 .154 -.357 -.298 .572 -.340 .110 .695
q2.19- Employees resist changes 3.31 1.00 .232 .325 -.044 .586 -.083 .395 .668
q2.20- Employees lack commitment 3.23 1.11 .139 .205 -.171 .593 .096 -.458 .662
F5: Government Regulation
q2.21- Too much government regulations 3.01 1.22 .112 -.432 .193 -.362 .566 .276 .764
q2.22- High taxes 3.45 1.05 .055 .188 .257 .337 .498 .216 .512
q2.23- Absence of government support 3.96 1.09 .018 .381 .049 .208 .759 -.025 .768
q2.24- No government set guidelines 4.04 .975 -.167 .526 -.074 .143 .622 -.034 .718
q2.25- Weak national institution 3.86 1.13 -.187 .456 .046 .278 .631 -.118 .735
F6: Barriers
q2.26- Lack of awareness 3.85 1.13 .152 .550 .028 .019 -.011 .477 .554
q2.27- Lack of Knowledge on implementation 3.79 1.18 -.400 .371 .144 -.103 -.185 .633 .764
q2.28- Lack of management commitment 3.48 1.16 .056 .265 .490 -.004 .172 .491 .584
q2.29- Lack of employee competency 3.29 1.13 .155 .350 .225 .018 .213 .542 .537
q2.30- Government imposed regulation not
3.51 1.19 -.013 -.044 .112 -.361 -.408 .609 .683
supporting
Eigen value 10.705 3.507 2.124 1.455 1.318 1.109
% variance 35.684 11.690 7.082 4.850 4.395 3.698 67.399
Reliability .886 .871 .858 .846 .849 .867
Item-Total Statistics

Corrected Item- Cronbach's


Scale Mean if Scale Variance Total Alpha if Item
Item Deleted if Item Deleted Correlation Deleted

Awareness 87.8333 263.369 .598 .886


Barriers 86.6071 277.904 .669 .867
Qualityknowledge 86.5833 296.680 .649 .871
Leadership 88.3571 267.028 .723 .858
Humanresource 86.9881 276.735 .815 .846
Governmentregulation 86.1905 270.807 .780 .849

Total Variance Explained

Extraction Sums of Squared


Initial Eigenvalues Loadings Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings

Comp % of Cumula % of Cumulative % of


onent Total Variance tive % Total Variance % Total Variance Cumulative %

1 10.705 35.684 35.684 10.705 35.684 35.684 4.767 15.890 15.890


2 3.507 11.690 47.374 3.507 11.690 47.374 4.714 15.713 31.603
3 2.124 7.082 54.456 2.124 7.082 54.456 3.414 11.381 42.984
4 1.455 4.850 59.306 1.455 4.850 59.306 2.733 9.112 52.096
5 1.318 4.395 63.701 1.318 4.395 63.701 2.330 7.766 59.861
6 1.109 3.698 67.399 1.109 3.698 67.399 2.261 7.538 67.399
7 .931 3.104 70.503
8 .881 2.936 73.440
9 .819 2.731 76.171
10 .770 2.565 78.736
11 .706 2.353 81.089
12 .595 1.984 83.072
13 .581 1.937 85.009
14 .507 1.690 86.699
15 .481 1.603 88.302
16 .451 1.505 89.807
17 .405 1.348 91.155
18 .379 1.265 92.420
19 .322 1.073 93.493
20 .283 .943 94.436
21 .260 .867 95.303
22 .241 .803 96.106
23 .223 .744 96.850
24 .205 .684 97.534
25 .168 .561 98.095
26 .156 .520 98.614
27 .143 .475 99.090
28 .111 .369 99.459
29 .087 .290 99.748
30 .076 .252 100.000

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.


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Communalities

Initial Extraction

The organization heard


about ISO 9001 Quality 1.000 .840
Management System
Each member of the
organization knows ISO
1.000 .698
9001 Quality Management
System very well
The organization is aware of
the purpose of ISO 9001 1.000 .807
certification
The organization is aware of
the benefits of ISO 9001 1.000 .681
certification
The organization is aware of
how to obtain ISO 9001 1.000 .715
certification
Basic knowledge about ISO
9001 and understanding of
1.000 .529
its elements is important for
ISO 9001 implementation
There will be operational
improvement in the
1.000 .601
organization after ISO 9001
implementation
Implementation of ISO 9001
results in better customer 1.000 .585
satisfaction
Implementation of ISO 9001
result in better organization 1.000 .740
and supplier relationship
Implementation of ISO 9001
results in increase in market 1.000 .763
share
The organization top
management are committed 1.000 .626
to ISO 9001 implementation
The organization have
strategy towards the
1.000 .695
implementation of ISO 9001
quality management system
The organization top
management provide
1.000 .733
necessary guidelines to ISO
9001 implementation
There is lack of internal
communication among staff
1.000 .525
and between staff and top
management
There is lack of motivation
at all levels of the
1.000 .603
organization towards quality
implementation
In this organization,
employees are competent
1.000 .659
on the basis of their
education and skills
In this organization,
employees are given
1.000 .775
training opportunities to
improve their skills
In this organization,
employee responsibility and 1.000 .695
authority are well-defined
Employees resist changes
to existing system in the 1.000 .668
organization
Employees lacks
commitment towards 1.000 .662
organizational goals
Too much government
regulations on manufactured 1.000 .764
products
High government taxes on
1.000 .512
manufactured products
Absence of government
1.000 .768
support
There are no government
set guidelines facilitating the 1.000 .718
implementation of ISO 9001
Weak national
1.000 .735
standardization institutions
There is a lack of
awareness on ISO 9001 1.000 .554
strategic importance
There is a lack of knowledge
on ISO 9001 implementation 1.000 .764
frameworks
There is lack of
management commitment
1.000 .584
on implementing quality
management system
There is lack of employee
competency in fulfilling tasks
1.000 .537
related quality management
system
Government imposed
regulation are not
1.000 .683
supporting the
implementation of ISO 9001

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.


Component Matrixa
Component
1 2 3 4 5 6
The organization heard
about ISO 9001 Quality .609 -.589 -.257 .231 -.046 .007
Management System
Each member of the
organization knows ISO
9001 Quality .568 -.426 .333 .145 -.079 .237
Management System very
well
The organization is aware
of the purpose of ISO .693 -.374 -.356 .242 -.019 .049
9001 certification
The organization is aware
of the benefits of ISO .671 -.408 -.160 .191 .021 -.054
9001 certification
The organization is aware
of how to obtain ISO .471 -.255 -.323 .509 -.252 -.029
9001 certification
Basic knowledge about
ISO 9001 and
understanding of its -.048 .684 -.072 -.194 .123 .005
elements is important for
ISO 9001 implementation
There will be operational
improvement in the
.207 .465 -.196 .333 .434 .069
organization after ISO
9001 implementation
Implementation of ISO
9001 results in better -.054 .555 -.187 -.064 .460 -.154
customer satisfaction
Implementation of ISO
9001 result in better
.285 .503 -.439 -.275 .235 .287
organization and supplier
relationship
Implementation of ISO
9001 results in increase in .186 .523 -.541 -.257 .309 -.024
market share
The organization top
management are
-.058 -.372 .669 -.174 -.082 -.019
committed to ISO 9001
implementation
The organization have
strategy towards the
implementation of ISO .179 -.445 .652 -.192 -.012 -.057
9001 quality management
system
The organization top
management provide
.376 -.437 .623 .072 -.043 -.073
necessary guidelines to
ISO 9001 implementation
There is lack of internal
communication among
.125 .050 .550 .007 .144 -.428
staff and between staff
and top management
There is lack of
motivation at all levels of
.374 -.262 .587 .009 .224 .016
the organization towards
quality implementation
In this organization,
employees are competent
-.312 .453 -.150 .565 -.312 .115
on the basis of their
education and skills
In this organization,
employees are given
-.126 -.239 -.244 .793 -.126 -.055
training opportunities to
improve their skills
In this organization,
employee responsibility
-.340 .154 -.357 .572 -.340 .110
and authority are well-
defined
Employees resist changes
to existing system in the -.083 .232 .325 .586 -.083 .395
organization
Employees lacks
commitment towards .096 .139 .205 .593 .096 -.458
organizational goals
Too much government
regulations on 3.01 -.432 .193 -.362 .566 .276
manufactured products
High government taxes on
3.45 .188 .257 .337 .498 .216
manufactured products
Absence of government
3.96 .381 .049 .208 .759 -.025
support
There are no government
set guidelines facilitating
4.04 .526 -.074 .143 .622 -.034
the implementation of
ISO 9001
Weak national
standardization 3.86 .456 .046 .278 .631 -.118
institutions
There is a lack of
awareness on ISO 9001 .477 .550 .028 .019 -.011 .152
strategic importance
There is a lack of
knowledge on ISO 9001
.633 .371 .144 -.103 -.185 -.400
implementation
frameworks
There is lack of
management commitment
.491 .265 .490 -.004 .172 .056
on implementing quality
management system
There is lack of employee
competency in fulfilling
.542 .350 .225 .018 .213 .155
tasks related quality
management system
Government imposed
regulation are not
supporting the .609 -.044 .112 -.361 -.408 -.013
implementation of ISO
9001
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
a. 6 components extracted.
Descriptive Statistics

Mean Std. Deviation Analysis N

The organization heard


about ISO 9001 Quality 3.40 1.194 84
Management System
Each member of the
organization knows ISO
3.19 1.207 84
9001 Quality Management
System very well
The organization is aware of
the purpose of ISO 9001 3.45 1.302 84
certification
The organization is aware of
the benefits of ISO 9001 3.30 1.259 84
certification
The organization is aware of
how to obtain ISO 9001 3.33 1.274 84
certification
Basic knowledge about ISO
9001 and understanding of
3.45 .974 84
its elements is important for
ISO 9001 implementation
There will be operational
improvement in the
3.60 .907 84
organization after ISO 9001
implementation
Implementation of ISO 9001
results in better customer 3.63 1.084 84
satisfaction
Implementation of ISO 9001
result in better organization 3.69 .918 84
and supplier relationship
Implementation of ISO 9001
results in increase in market 3.56 .949 84
share
The organization top
management are committed 3.40 1.077 84
to ISO 9001 implementation
The organization have
strategy towards the
2.92 1.282 84
implementation of ISO 9001
quality management system
The organization top
management provide
3.25 1.118 84
necessary guidelines to ISO
9001 implementation
There is lack of internal
communication among staff
3.45 1.023 84
and between staff and top
management
There is lack of motivation
at all levels of the
3.13 1.170 84
organization towards quality
implementation
In this organization,
employees are competent
3.79 .865 84
on the basis of their
education and skills
In this organization,
employees are given
3.56 1.155 84
training opportunities to
improve their skills
In this organization,
employee responsibility and 3.64 .927 84
authority are well-defined
Employees resist changes
to existing system in the 3.31 1.006 84
organization
Employees lacks
commitment towards 3.23 1.112 84
organizational goals
Too much government
regulations on manufactured 3.01 1.227 84
products
High government taxes on
3.45 1.057 84
manufactured products
Absence of government
3.96 1.092 84
support
There are no government
set guidelines facilitating the 4.04 .975 84
implementation of ISO 9001
Weak national
3.86 1.132 84
standardization institutions
There is a lack of
awareness on ISO 9001 3.85 1.135 84
strategic importance
There is a lack of knowledge
on ISO 9001 implementation 3.79 1.183 84
frameworks
There is lack of
management commitment
3.48 1.167 84
on implementing quality
management system
There is lack of employee
competency in fulfilling tasks
3.29 1.136 84
related quality management
system
Government imposed
regulation are not
3.51 1.197 84
supporting the
implementation of ISO 9001