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INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY: FOUNDATIONS

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INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY: FOUNDATIONS

edited by

Robert M. Gagné
Florida State University
First published by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers
10 Industrial Avenue
Mahwah, New Jersey 07430

Transferred to digital printing 2010 by Routledge

Routledge

270 Madison Avenue


New York, NY 10016
2 Park Square, Milton Park
Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN, UK

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Instructional technology.
Bibliography: p.
Includes index.
1. Educational technology. 2. Instructional systems.
I. Gagné, Robert Mills, 1916– .
LB1028.3.I565 1986 371.3′07′8 86-6328
ISBN 0-89859-626-2
ISBN 0-89859-8 78-8 (pbk.)
Contents

1 INTRODUCTION
Robert M. Gagné

Knowledge Sources
Other Resources
What is Instructional Technology?
Contents of this Book

2 INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY: A HISTORY


Robert A. Reiser

Audiovisual Devices
The Systems Approach
Individualized Instruction
IPI, PLAN, and IGE
Conclusion

3 FOUNDATIONS IN LEARNING RESEARCH


Robert M. Gagné and Robert Glaser

Learning Research
Learning as Cognition
The Importance of Short-Term Memory
Learning Complex Performances
Knowledge Organization for Problem Solving
Mental Models
Self-Regulation

4 INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS DESIGN


Bela H. Banathy

The Knowledge Base


Design Inquiry
The Systems Complex of Education
System Levels as Primary Levels
Learning Experience Level Organization
Implications of Societal-Based Organization
Complementary Approaches to Design

5 IDENTIFYING AND SPECIFYING REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTRUCTION


Roger Kaufman and Sivasailam Thiagarajan

Concepts of Instructional Technology


A Useful Frame of Reference
Specifying Objectives
Procedures for Specifying Requirements
Needs Analysis
Specification of Methods, Media, Modes
Summary

6 JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS


Paul F. Merrill

Job Analysis
Task Analysis
Summary

7 LEARNING SITUATIONS AND INSTRUCTIONAL MODELS


Charles M. Reigeluth and Ruth V. Curtis

Affective Domain
Motor Skill Domain
Cognitive Domain
Sequencing Strategies
A General Sequencing Model
Micro-Level Strategies
Three Instructional Models for the Micro-Level
Motivational-Strategy Components
Approaches to Instruction
Management Strategies
Conclusion

8 LEARNER CHARACTERISTICS
Sigmund Tobias

Interactive Research
Types of Interactions
Adaptive Instruction
Anxiety
Study Skills, Motivation, and Control
General Discussion

9 DISPLAYS AND COMMUNICATION


Malcolm L. Fleming

Some Definitions
Attention
Perception
Learning
Concept Formation
Other Cognitive Processes
Summary

10 INNOVATIONS IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS
Gwen C. Nugent

Educational Television: Broadcast


Videotape Recorders
Instructional Television Fixed Service
Cable
Satellite
Teleconferencing
Fiber Optics
Teletext
Vidiplex
Audio and Video Improvements
Videodisc
Videotex
Summary and Conclusions
11 THE EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER-AIDED EDUCATIONAL DELIVERY SYSTEMS
C. Victor Bunderson and Dillon K. Inouye

Delivery Systems for Education


The Evolution of Work Technologies
The Evolution of CAE Applications
The Evolution of Knowledge Technologies
Summary

12 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND COMPUTER-BASED LEARNING


Robert D. Tennyson and Ok Choon Park

Model-Based ICAI
Theory-Based AI CBL
Summary
Future Directions of AI CBL

13 ASSESSING INSTRUCTIONAL OUTCOMES


Eva L. Baker and Harold F. O’Neil, Jr.

Measurement: The Basics


CRM as a Field of Study
Test Design for Criterion-Referenced Measurement
Domain-Referenced Achievement Testing
Evaluating Instructional Technology
Summary

14 PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS


Robert M. Morgan

Planning for System Maintenance


Planning for Systems Change
Analysis of Macro-Educational Systems
Macro-System Variables
Evaluation and Research Requirements
The Planning Process
Applications of Analysis and Planning

15 INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT


Robert K. Branson and Gerald Grow

ISD and the Distribution of Knowledge


The Model Meets the World: Applications
The Model Meets the World: Advice to Developers
The Model Meets the World: Prospects for ISD
Summary and Conclusions

16 FACTORS AFFECTING UTILIZATION


Ernest Burkman

The ID Utilization Problem


Quality as a Stimulus for Adoption
User-Oriented Development
Implementing User-Centered Development

AUTHOR INDEX
SUBJECT INDEX
INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY: FOUNDATIONS
1 Introduction

Robert M. Gagné
Florida State University

Several kinds of events must contribute to the confluence that defines a field of scholarly interest and
effort. When such a field is not old enough to be counted as a traditional discipline, the influence of
certain trends can be identified and observed as they converge, while other influences remain indirect
and less clearly perceivable. Instructional technology is a field of this nontraditional sort. Broadly
speaking, two sets of events have contributed to its development. One set comprises the continuing and
remarkable growth of new things, processes, and ideas that constitute what we mean by technology. A
second and equally essential factor has been the influence of a growing number of people of sound
intellect with an analytical cast of mind, a dedication to the promise of human learning, and a vision of
how to promote the spread of human knowledge. Clearly, this vision is one of bringing to bear on human
beings the most sophisticated set of procedures and machines that can be designed for making learning
readily available to all people, and in assuring its effectiveness in developing the capabilities that are
learning’s results.
The people who acquired this vision and led others to it in this century were often initially intrigued
by the potentialities of hardware devices such as the stereopticon, the slide projector, the motion-picture
camera and projector. Since learning always involves stimulation of the learner, it was apparent that
these devices made possible stimulation for learning that was both deliberately designed and
replicable. Consideration of these features raised questions for the intellectually curious. Could the
stimulation required for particular learning objectives be designed and recorded on film, so as to be
presented many times to many different learners? Could such recorded presentations be employed to
circumvent the unfortunate but often unavoidable variability in instruction quality that marked poor
teaching? Could certain identifiable portions of presentations for learning, well established in their
content and objectives, be made available for teacher use as standard segments of instruction, replicable
from class to class? Could some kinds of stimulation for learning be presented by film-related devices
that would be difficult or impossible to present in other ways? And as a possibility, could presentations
be devised that in some respects captured the most ingenious techniques of superior teaching?
With the addition of synchronized sound to the visual display, the same kinds of questions were raised
in the minds of people who now were able to characterize this field of interest as audio-visual. Sound,
after all, added another sensory channel to the spectrum of stimulation available for instructional design.
By so doing, it raised a host of possibilities about the potential synergy between the two sensory
channels. Interestingly, many of these questions have not yet received satisfactory answers, and the
investigation of visual presentations in relation to sound presentations continues today as a promising
area of research.
As for the people who were attracted to this field of scholarship and professional activity, they
evidenced a variety of preferences and interests. Some came to view the audiovisual field as made up
primarily of the technical knowledge required to operate machines—cameras, projectors, recorders, and
tape players, as well as the materials involved in their operation, such as film and tape. Others
concentrated their attention on questions of accessibility of devices and materials of an audiovisual
nature to the variety of users that might be present within an institution or a training organization. And
still others focused their curiosity on the challenging and difficult questions of what good were these
things for education? What characteristics made them of particular value for the promotion of learning?
It was this third set of people, not large in numbers, but strong in their beliefs and their dedication, who
collectively possessed the vision that foresaw the promise of instructional technology.
Yoon, H.-W., 40, 48
York, R.L., 351, 372
Young, J.J., 275, 282
Young, M.D., 345, 372
Yourdon, E., 150, 172

Z
Zaltman, G., 442, 449, 450, 455
Zemke, R., 401, 428
Zigon, J., 132, 140
Zissman, S.B., 14, 45
Zucman, E., 180, 203
Zwimpfer, L., 276, 282
Subject Index

A
Adaptive instruction, 216–218
Adoption of ID products, 437–439
quality, 437
Anxiety
interference with learning, 219–222
post-processing interference, 221–222
Aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI), 208–213
achievement-treatment, 211–212
adaptive instruction, 217–218
assumptions, 213–214
post-processing interference, 221–222
preprocessing interference, 219–220
processing interference, 220–221
research results, 210–211
types, 209–210
Assessment
basics of measurement, 344–345
criterion-referenced, 346–348 (See also criterion-referenced measurement)
evaluation of technology, 365–370
purposes, 345–346
Artificial intelligence (AI)
computer-based learning, 319–320 (See also Ch. 12)
intelligent computer-assisted instruction (ICAI), 321
Attention, in communication, 236–237
Audiovisual devices, 12–20
birth of movement, 13–15
early forerunners, 12–13
instructional television, 17–18
modern views, 18–20
National Defense Education Act, Title VII, 16
period of World War II, 15
Audiovisual systems, knowledge presentation, 312–313

Behavioral objectives, contribution to instructional technology, 23–24

C
Cognitive strategies, 66–68
learning, 66–67
problem solving, 67–68
remembering, 67
Communication
activity of the learner, 249–252
attention, 236–237
concepts, definitions, 233–235
feedback to learner, 248–249
learning, 241–246
organizing instruction, 246–248
perception, 237–240
pictures, side-by-side, 245
principles, 235
representing the information, 241–246
Computer-aided education (CAE)
broadcast lessons, 307
computer-centered, 303–305
computer literacy, 304–305
delivery systems, 293–295
expert systems, 308–309
future trends, 305–309
group interactive teaching, 305–307
hardware, 291
knowledge base publishing, 307–309
mainline, 296–302
Computer-aided instruction (CAI) (See also computer-aided education [CAE])
applications, 293–302
authoring languages, 298–299
CAI delivery systems, 283–288, 293
courseware, 297
hardware, 291
learner productivity, 300–302
teacher training, 299–300
Computer-based learning (See also Ch. 12)
AI methods, 328–330
artificial intelligence, 319–320
computer-assisted instruction, history, 38–40
intelligent computer-assisted instruction (ICAI), 321–327
components, modules, 321–322
development, 325–326
limitations, 326–327
Minnesota Adaptive Instructional System (MAIS), 328–330
theory-based, 327–328
Concept learning, 252–255
divergent examples, 255
examples and definitions, 254–255
examples and non-examples, 253–254
Courseware
commercial, in ISD, 416–417
customer acceptance, 418
specifications, 419–420
Criterion-referenced measurement (CRM), 346–348
content, 354
debate, CRM vs. NRT, 350–351
definition, 346
early applications, 347–348
educational outcomes, 353–354
field of study, 348–351
identity, 349
test design, 351

D
Deliver systems, 283–288
computer-aided education, 287–288
cost-effective solutions, 286
evolution of hardware, 291
Development, instructional systems (See Instructional systems development [ISD])
Displays (See Communication)
Domain-referenced testing (DRT), 355–364
empirical studies, 361
integration with instruction, 362–364
item forms, 356
new approaches, 359
performance testing, 364
problems, 357–359
quality control, 360
test formats, 364

Education
implications of societal based, 107–110
organizational models, 98–103
organization, learning-experience level, 103–105
societal view, 105–107
system levels, 95–97
Educational television, 262 (see also Ch. 10)
ITFS, 265–266
lesson broadcast, 307
new technologies, 279–280
videodisc, 272–276
Evaluation
assessment of technology, 365–367
model, 367–370
formative, 26–27
instructional systems, 391
instructional technology, 364–365
Expert systems, in computer-aided education, 308–309

Feedback
characteristics of ISD, 404–405
principles in communication, 248–249

ICAI (See computer-based learning [CBL])


Implementation of ID products, 446–450
informing users, 447–448
pre-planning, 449–450
product attributes, 446
supporting implementation, 448
user-centered development, 451–452
Individualized instruction, 28–40
audio-tutorial system, 34
Burk’s system, 29–30
computer-assisted instruction (CAI), 38–40 (See also Chs. 11, 12)
Dalton, Winnetka plans, 30
early forms, 29
individually guided education (IGE), 36–37
individually prescribed instruction (IPI), 35
learning for mastery, 33–34
personalized system of instruction (PSI), 32–33
program for learning in accordance with needs (PLAN), 35–36
programmed instruction, 30–32
waning trends, 37–38
Innovation in instruction
compatibility, 445
complexity, 444
relative advantage, 442–444
trialability, 445
user-friendly, 446
Instruction
activity of the learner, 249–252
adaptive, 216–218
approaches, 199–200
computer-assisted, history, 38–40
development of systems (See Instructional systems development [ISD])
feedback to the learner, 248–249
innovation, 442–445
integration with testing, 362–364
management strategies, 200–202
mental models, 73–74
models, 190–198
needs analysis, assessment, 121–123
organizing for communication, 246–248
planning for systems, 392 (See also Ch. 14)
problem solving, 68–71
requirements, 129–131 (See also Ch. 5)
schema, 69–71
self-regulation skills, 76–78
sequencing, 182–184
utilization of ID products, 430–431
variables in instructional settings, 436
Instructional development (See also Ch. 15)
implementing, 446–450
user-oriented, 439–442
Instructional design (See also Ch. 7)
complementary approaches, 110–111
dynamics, 89–93
participative, 93–95
societal-based model, 105–109
Instructional models
affective domain, 178–179
blueprint, course on nutrition, 187
cognitive domain, 181–182
cognitive strategy application, 197–198
conceptual framework, 177–178
Elaboration Theory, 184–185
general sequencing model, 184–190
micro-level, 190–193
motivation strategy, 198–199
motor skill domain, 179–181
remember-level, 193–195
sequencing strategies, 182–184
skill application, 195–197
Instructional requirements
learner analysis, 130–131
media and mode selection, 131
needs assessment, 129–130
performance/task analysis, 130
procedure for specifying, 129–131
relations among components, 131
specification of methods, modes, 137–138
systems analysis, 129
three relevant systems, 126–128
Instructional systems, 381, 392–393
analysis, 382–383
applications of planning, 393–395
behavioral objectives, 23–24
conceptual spaces, 90–91
criterion-referenced testing, 24
design, 85–89
design inquiry, 89–91
development, 377–400 (See also Ch. 15)
dynamics of design, 91–95
early forerunners, 21
elements, 125–126
evaluation and research, 391
federal support, 25–26
five components, elements, 127
formative evaluation, 26–27
Korean education program, 393–394
macro-system variables, 383–391
models, 25
participative design, 93–95
planning for change, 381–382
programmed instruction, 22
recent developments, 28
specifying requirements, 129–131
systems approach, 20–28
system maintenance, 380–381
systems perspective, 86–89
task analysis, 22–23
Instructional systems development (ISD), 397–400
alternative organizations, 406–409
applications, 406–417
business and industry, 413
education, 415–416
government and military, 414–415
commercial courseware, 416–417
customer acceptance, 418
expert consensus, 418–419
feedback in ISD, 404–405
future of ISD, 424–425
knowledge and ISD, 397–400
merchantability, 423–424
model, 400–404
customer acceptance, 418
personnel specialties, 411–413
prospects, 422–423
specifications for design, performance, 419–420
team approaches, 409–411
Instructional technology
audiovisual, 12–20
composition of field, 1–3
concepts, 11–12, 113–114
definition, 6–7, 11–12
history, 11–12
needs analysis, 132–134
organizational elements model (OEM), 114–117
sources of knowledge, 4–6
systems approach, 20–28
Instructional television, 17–18 (See also Ch. 10)

Job analysis, 143–148


examples, 145
procedures, 143–145
survey questionnaire, 146–147

Knowledge
artificial intelligence (AI), 314–315
factor in education, 285–286
schema organization, 62–63, 70
systems development (ISD), 397–400
technologies, 309–315
human modeling, 310
replication, 311–313
work models, 311, 313
written word, 310

Learner characteristics
anxiety, 218–223
aptitude-outcome research, 211–212
ATI research, 210–211
cognitive processes in reading, 215
locus of control, 224–225
motivation, 224–225
research on interactions (ATI), 208–211
study skills, 224
types of ATI, 209–210
Learning
activity of the learner, 249–252
basic principles, 50–53
cognitive strategies, 66–68
complex performances, 65–66
concepts, 252–255
contiguity, 50
feedback to learner, 248–249
Law of Effect, 50–51
memory, 54–56
practice, 51–52
representing information, 241–246
situations, and instruction, 175–178
strategies, 256
Learning research, 49–50 (See also Ch. 3)
anxiety effects, 219
assumptions of ATI, 213–214
cognitive processes in ATI, 214–215
contradictory findings, 176
interactions, 208–211
types of interactions, 209–210
Learning styles, in computer-aided education, 301–303
Locus of control, 224–225

M
Measurement of instructional effects, 344–348
Memory, 54–56
declarative knowledge, 60–62
images, 60
instructional implications, 63–65
learned capabilities, 64
long-term, 58–59
problem solving organization, 68–71
procedural knowledge, 60–62
schema, 62–63
short-term, 54, 56–58
working, 54–55
Mental models, 71–74
instruction, 73–74
Metacognition, 74–76
Minnesota Adaptive Instructional System (MAIS), 328–329
advisement, 337
amount of information, 334
embedded remediation, 336–337
format of examples, 335
future directions, 338–340
learning time, 335–336
macro-component, 330–333
micro-component, 333–337
sequencing of information, 334–335

Needs analysis, 132–134


learner analysis, 134–135
specification of methods, media, 137–138
systems analysis, 134–135
Norm-referenced testing (NRT), 352–353
conflict with criterion-referenced, 350

Objectives, for needs assessment, 123–125


Organizational elements model (OEM), 114–117
combining the elements, 121
elements, examples, 116
needs assessment and analysis, 121–123
organizational efforts, 115–117
organizational results, 117–119
societal impact, 119–120

Perception
display organization, 238
principles, in communication, 237–240
Planning instructional systems, 381–382 (See also Ch. 14)
access and equity, 389–390
external efficiency, 388
fiscal capacity, 383–384
instructional support, 390–391
internal efficiency, 388
legal, policy issues, 386–387
management and administration, 384–385
staffing, 385–386
Problem solving, 68–71
mental models, 71–74
perceptions of experts, 69
schema, 69–71
structured knowledge, 69–71
Programmed instruction, 22, 30–32
S
Self-regulation, 74–78
instruction, 76–78
metacognition, 74–75
skills, 76–78
Sequencing instruction, 182–184
analogies, 189
Ausubel’s progressive differentiation, 183
Bruner’s spiral curriculum, 182–183
cognitive strategy activators, 189
Gagné’s hierarchical sequence, 183–184
general sequencing model, 184–190
learner control, 189
shortest path sequence, 184
summarizers, 188
synthesizers, 189
within-lesson, 188
Study skills, 224
Systems complex of education, 95–97
administrative level (Model B), 99–100
institutional level (Model A), 98
instructional level (Model C), 100–101
learning-experience level (Model D), 101–103

Task analysis
contributions, 22–23
elaboration theory, 169–170
extended task analysis (ETAP), 170–171
flow charts, varieties, 151–154
hierarchical, 149–150
information-processing, 149–150
instructional sequence, 162
procedural path analysis, 162
subtraction example, 163–169
relationships, sequential and part-whole, 142–143
structured, 150
structured outlines, 155
Teachers, work performed, 294–295
Teaching, group interactive CAE, 305–307
Telecommunications, innovations
cable, 266
educational television, 262
ITFS, 265–266
satellite, 267
teleconferencing, 268
teletext, 269
videodisc, 272–276
videotape recorders, 263
videotex, 276–279
vidiplex, 271
Television (See Ch. 10)
Testing (See also Ch. 13)
criterion-referenced (CRT), 24, 350–351
norm-referenced (NRT), 352–353
Typewriter, case of the inefficient, 438–439

Utilization of instructional design (ID) products, 430–432 (See also Ch. 16)
effect of setting, 435
key attributes, 442
innovation-decision process, 431
instructional designers and ID, 432–433
macro-instructional designer, 434–435
micro-instructional designer, 433–434
quality, and adoption, 437–438
relative advantage, 442–444
variables in instruction, 436
W
Work
in education, 284–285
models, and AI, 314
performed by teachers, 294–295
technologies, 289–293