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Unit: Business Transformation through Quality Management

Assignment plan

Your name: Waqar Latif

1. The title of my assignment is:

Critical assessment of leadership in an organisation X implementing TQM

2. List the key elements you will look to cover in your assignment. Include a brief description of what
you will include within each element and an estimate of the number of words

 Introduction of organisation X, size locations, and product categories

 structure (centralised and “tall” but needs to be decentralised and “flat” for TQM effectiveness).
Qms certified company

Vision/mission/goals: “leadership is about setting the direction for change through the creation of
a vision” (Goetsch & Davis, 2013, p. 141)Organization situation(OS): departmental goals are not
alien with vision. Ref -When vision is departmentalised in the form of departmental goals then it is
defining the goals of the departments to support the accomplishment of vision (Yasir, Muhammad,
& Muhammad, 2014, p. 333). (OS): lack of departments participation to achieve vision- quality
deployment is mainly concern to quaity assurnce depart. - Ref The leader is the one who ensures
that everybody gets involved with the organisation’s mission and vision” (Quddus & Ahmed, 2017,
p. 696). (OS)-ineffective strategic plan- Ref “strategic planning process designed to ensure that
mission, vision, goals, and annual objectives are communicated throughout the organization and
implemented by everyone from top management to the shop floor” (PARASCHIVESCU, 2018, p.
92) When there is unity of purpose, all employees pull together toward the same end (Goetsch &
Davis, 2013, p. 135)

 (OS)organization is planning to use functional approach (Mullins, 2016, p. 316) to leadership by

training(quality programmes).teams are developed in organization but for better presentation Ref
Leadership functions needs to be extended to work groups and cross-department (Ahmed, Azmi,
Masood, Tahir, & Ahmad, 2013, p. 4)
Leadership style: Different types of leadership may also be most appropriate at diff erent stages
in the development of a business organisation(Mullins, 2016, p. 336) (OS):Democratic leadership
style (Goetsch & Davis, 2013, p. 138) is currently used by the organization-meetings arranged-
input taken from stake holders and employees -final decision made by HOD-decisions oftenly
made on compromises that ultimately fail to produce the desired result. Ref according to the
context and in TQM setting and to increase performance the participative lesdership style is
required by empowering concern employees. (Lam, Huang, & Chan, 2015, p. 847) “showed that
employees had high performance only when they perceived their leaders to show consistently high
participative leadership (versus low to moderate levels) and high information sharing”.

Ref “transformational leadership style is an appropriate leadership style to motivate the followers
to work to their potential, as well as to clarify the project team regarding the goals and the excepted
standards of work” (Raziq, Borini, Malik, Ahmad, & Shabaz, 2018, p. 318)

 Customer focus - key element of leadership in TQM setting (Goetsch & Davis, 2013, p. 135)- (OS):
focus on external customer – lack of understanding internal customer& work environment -
suggestion -quality function deployment (QFD) Ref “internal customer focus is strongly correlated
with the customer requirements of physical work environment, services, training and development,
internal customers attitude and company values (Camgöz-Akdağ, İmer, & Ergin, 2016, p. 963)
(OS): customer satisfaction is only measured through only customer complaints not more than
this. Ref. In the TQM context, ‘being sensitive to customer requirements’ goes beyond defect and
error reduction, and merely meeting specifications or reducing customer complaints. The concept
of requirements is expanded to take into account not only product and service attributes that meet
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basic requirements, but also those that enhance and differentiate them for competitive advantage.”
(Singh, Singh, & Gandhi, 2018, p. 61)
 Leadership for quality requires team building and teamwork (Goetsch & Davis, 2013, p. 136):”
“Teamwork: Ref has significant importance to today’s organizations, particularly in ensuring that
organizations make effective decisions and boost overall performance levels. When teams work
effectiveely in a coordinated manner within their employed organisation, the outcomes attained
through cooperation among team members outweigh the outcomes attained via individual work”
(Ekmekcioglu, Aydintan, & Celebi, 2018, p. 1051)
(OS): although the work environment is collaborative, however, teams are selected on a
volunteer or personality basis with less capability and inspiration. Also, lack of commitment and
from top management to give diredctions to achieve goals. Ref “In general, highly effective teams
are characterised by having a clear goal, competent team members (Hertel, 2011), a result-
oriented structure, collaborative climate, recognition, external/management support, motivation,
a high level of commitment and principle centred leadership (Sudhakar et al, 2011)”. (Bektas &
Sohrabifard, 2013, p. 887)
(OS): week coordination due to personal agenda. Ref “A powerful coordination allows the
components of teamwork to operate more effectively and perform assigned tasks in synchrony.
This in return can affect team performance affirmatively” (Ekmekcioglu et al., 2018, p. 1056)

 Good communication skills (Goetsch & Davis, 2013, p. 133):

(OS): attitude problem of management and lack of supervision, leaders use general terms which
creates ambiguity and hardle for achieving objectives Ref-“ effective communication of objectives,
targets, goals, mission and vision are critical in improving the organization’s performance. They
guide the behaviour of all individuals and promote team integration, since everyone has clear roles
to play and understands how they fit in within the organization, as well as their individual
contribution to the organization’s improved performance. It is clear then that poor communication
negatively impacts performance quantity.” (Hummour, Athamneh, & Al-balas, 2018, p. 139)

 Leadership, motivation ,inspiration effective leaders is the ability to inspire and motivate others to make a
commitment. motivating and inspiring people relates their personal needs and believe respectively to the
organization’s goals. Implicit in both cases is the leader’s need to know and understand workers, including both
their individual needs and their personal beliefs. (Goetsch & Davis, 2013, p. 136)
(OS): management try to motive employees. 4 levels in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs are generally
satisfied by organization people but self-Auctuation needs (5th level) are not fulfull and motivation
level of employees needs to be enhaced.
Ref “The positive correlation reveals that when motivated employees work cooperatively as a
team, it will lead to exploring qualities in their leaders and supervisors that embrace the
organization’s focus on quality and change in all aspects” (Singh et al., 2018, p. 60)
Ref “Certain individual differences predict both leader emergence and leader effectiveness
(Atwater et al., 1999) and one such difference may be the leader’s motivation to engage in
effective leadership behaviors.” (Gilbert & Kelloway, 2018, pp. 608-609)
 Empowering (Geotech & Davis, 2014, p. 133).
(OS):management put effort to inspire in monthly review meetings by listening and asking
employees but blame others ,-need trust to enhance their values, understanding and motivation
Ref motivation and trust increases with the enhancement of empower leadership. As a result
employee creativity increases. Mediating role of leaders also produce good impact on staff
creativity(Chow, 2018, p. 203 & 209; Lin, 2017, p. 1063)
(OS): organisation is thinking to implement lean in the production area
Ref “ empowering leadership has a positive impact in the success of Lean implementation
(measured through the implementation of Lean practices). “Delegation of authority,”
“accountability,” “self-directed decision making,” “information sharing,” “skill development,” and
“coaching for innovative by four by four performance.” (Nogueira, Sousa, & Moreira, 2018, p. 818)
 Commitment (Goetsch & Davis, 2013, p. 136) (OS) “top management not “taking accountability for
the effectiveness of the quality management system” (ISO, 2015, p. 3) participating constructively
in problem-solving sessions. They do not walk to the shop floor enough to listen to the workers”
(Goh, 2015)
“Results of our surveys--. Strong leadership and management commitment are required to make
any change initiatives successful in the organisation ” (Kumar, Khurshid, & Waddell, 2014, p. 6492)
Leadership and ethics “people are more likely to follow a leader’s example than his or her words”
(Goetsch & Davis, 2013, p. 141) “Lead by example by recognising actions speak louder than words, through exemplary

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behaviour in day-to-day interactions with subordinates and by demonstrating consistency” (Mullins, 2016, p. 327)in daily
behaviour (OS):–not lead by example - management behaviour is different than what he says-which
frustration-needs affective commitment to promote ethical conduct at work and set and communicate
ethical standards Ref "ethical leadership was negatively related to frustration and surface acting( fake
emotion) and positively related to positive mood and affective commitment” (Valle, Kacmar, & Andrews,
2018, p. 670) concluded.
Ref “this form of leadership is to promote ethical conduct at work and set and communicate ethical
standards of the organization (Brown and Mitchell, 2010) (Okpozo, Gong, Ennis, & Adenuga, 2017, p.

education and training system: (OS): right people are not selected for training, same people over and
over again for different trainings.
Ref “Leadership development must occur through individual experiential support, organizational
structural change and an emphasis on pluralism. Offering the right people the right developmental
opportunities will produce effective leaders (Caligiuri, 2006)” (Bharwani, Kline, & Patterson, 2017, p. 221)

Ref “organizations should develop effective training modules to train their top leaders at the firm
level in transformational leadership.” (Chang, Chao, Chang, & Chi, 2018, p. 566)- result of findings
Ref These experts also suggested that essential to a high-quality leadership development program
is the ability to develop within leadership an understanding of systemic interdependencies across
social, economic, cultural, and environmental areas” (Elkington, Pearse, Moss, Van der Steege, &
Martin, 2017, p. 1043)

 transformational leadership (TFL): Ref “ it has been suggested that transformational leadership
behaviors are most successful during change. As transformational leadership may be learned
(Nielsena and Munir, 2009), educational programs in leadership should encourage leadership
students to learn and practice transformational leadership behaviors, which have been shown to
improve employee performance (Epitropaki et al., 2013; Goodwin et al., 2000). Ultimately,
improved work performance may lead to successful change outcomes.” (Caulfield & Senger, 2017,
p. 939)
Ref “Our study demonstrates that goal clarity partially mediates the relationship between
transformational leadership style and project success” (Raziq et al., 2018, p. 319)
leaders personality” relate with gotesh book also –"In conclusion, despite the importance of leadership
characteristics in organisations, research examining the promising mechanisms through which leader
personality influences Leader personality on follower behaviour followers’ effective performance has
been lacking” (Kahya & Şahin, 2018, p. 28)

add theme related to situational model related to presentation slide (Situational Leadership II mode)

Ahmed, R., Azmi, N., Masood, M., Tahir, M., & Ahmad, M. S. (2013). What does project leadership really
do. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 4(1), 1-8.
Bektas, C., & Sohrabifard, N. (2013). Terms of organizational psychology, personnel empowerment and
team working: A case study. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 82, 886-891.
Bharwani, A., Kline, T., & Patterson, M. (2017). A stakeholder‐based approach to leadership
development training: the case of medical education in Canada. International Journal of Training
and Development, 21(3), 211-223.
Camgöz-Akdağ, H., İmer, H. P., & Ergin, K. N. (2016). Internal customer satisfaction improvement with
QFD technique. Business Process Management Journal, 22(5), 957-968.
Caulfield, J. L., & Senger, A. (2017). Perception is reality: change leadership and work engagement.
Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 38(7), 927-945.
Chang, Y.-Y., Chao, W.-C., Chang, C.-Y., & Chi, H.-R. (2018). Transformational leadership influence on
unit performance: Cross-level moderated mediation evidence. Leadership & Organization
Development Journal, 39(4), 554-571.
Chow, I. H. S. (2018). The mechanism underlying the empowering leadership-creativity relationship.
Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 39(2), 202-217.
Ekmekcioglu, E. B., Aydintan, B., & Celebi, M. (2018). The effect of charismatic leadership on
coordinated teamwork: a study in Turkey. Leadership & Organization Development Journal,
39(8), 1051-1070.
Elkington, R., Pearse, N. J., Moss, J., Van der Steege, M., & Martin, S. (2017). Global leaders’
perceptions of elements required for effective leadership development in the twenty-first century.
Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 38(8), 1038-1056. doi:doi:10.1108/LODJ-06-
The length of your plan should not need to exceed one side of A4
Gilbert, S., & Kelloway, E. K. (2018). Self-determined leader motivation and follower perceptions of
leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 39(5), 608-619.
Goetsch, D. L., & Davis, S. (2013). Quality Management for Organizational Excellence Pearson New
International Edition : Introduction to Total Quality. Harlow, UNITED KINGDOM: Pearson
Education UK.
Goh, A. B. (2015). ROFO principle generates ownership, commitment and team learning–mindset
change before implementing total quality management. Total Quality Management & Business
Excellence, 26(7-8), 854-874.
Hummour, A. A., Athamneh, S., & Al-balas, S. (2018). TQM PRACTICES AND THEIR EFFECT ON
JORDANIAN MUNICIPALITIES. International Journal of Business & Public Administration, 15(1),
ISO, E. (2015). 9001: 2015 Quality management systems. Requirements (ISO 9001: 2015), European
Committee for Standardization, Brussels.
Kahya, M., & Şahin, F. (2018). The effect of leader personality on follower behaviour: The mediating role
of leader-member exchange. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 39(1), 14-33.
Kumar, M., Khurshid, K. K., & Waddell, D. (2014). Status of Quality Management practices in
manufacturing SMEs: a comparative study between Australia and the UK. International Journal of
Production Research, 52(21), 6482-6495.
Lam, C. K., Huang, X., & Chan, S. C. (2015). The threshold effect of participative leadership and the role
of leader information sharing. Academy of Management Journal, 58(3), 836-855.
Lin, C.-J. (2017). A multi-level test for social regulatory focus and team member creativity: Mediating role
of self-leadership strategies. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 38(8), 1057-1077.
Mullins, L. J. (2016). Management and Organisational Behaviour 11th edn. Harlow, United Kingdom,
UNITED KINGDOM: Pearson Education Limited.
Nogueira, D. M. d. C., Sousa, P. S., & Moreira, M. R. (2018). The relationship between leadership style
and the success of Lean management implementation. Leadership & Organization Development
Journal, 39(6), 807-824.
Okpozo, A. Z., Gong, T., Ennis, M. C., & Adenuga, B. (2017). Investigating the impact of ethical
leadership on aspects of burnout. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 38(8), 1128-
PARASCHIVESCU, A. O. (2018). Hoshin Kanri and Total Quality Management. Economy
Transdisciplinarity Cognition, 21(1), 91-98.
Quddus, S. A., & Ahmed, N. U. (2017). The Role of Leadership in Promoting Quality Management: A
Study on the Chittagong City Corporation, Bangladesh. Intellectual Discourse, 25, 677-703.
Raziq, M. M., Borini, F. M., Malik, O. F., Ahmad, M., & Shabaz, M. (2018). Leadership styles, goal clarity,
and project success: Evidence from project-based organizations in Pakistan. Leadership &
Organization Development Journal, 39(2), 309-323.
Singh, J., Singh, H., & Gandhi, S. K. (2018). Assessment of TQM Practices in Automobile Industry: An
Empirical Investigation. IUP Journal of Operations Management, 17(3), 53–70.
Valle, M., Kacmar, M., & Andrews, M. (2018). Ethical leadership, frustration, and humor: a moderated-
mediation model. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 39(5), 665-678.
Yasir, L., Muhammad, F., & Muhammad, S. (2014). Important TQM Implementation Contributors in
Pakistani Petrochemical Sector. Pakistan Journal of Statistics and Operation Research, Vol 10,
Iss 3, Pp 331-348 (2014)(3), 331. doi:10.1234/pjsor.v10i3.770

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