Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 56

TC -12580 Truck-Mou nted

Coiled Tubing Unit


\

Operation and Maintenance Manual

\f

+/

OEM
Original Equipment Manufacturer

ffi @
so# 230635-00
MKT# 2386924

Steutart & Stevenson Well Servicing Products


10750 Telge Road
Houston, Texas 77095
&t.

O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 1

Li CHAPTER 1
DESCRIPTION AN D SPECIFICATIONS
1.1 UNIT DESCRIPTION
The heavy-duty truck-mounted Stewaft & Stevenson Model TC-12580 Oilfield Coiled Tubing Unit
(CTU) is designed for a variety of well servicing applications including (but not limited to)
cleanout operations, paraffin removal, acid stimulation treatments, and work over operations. lts
specialized down hole tools open up an even wider range of applications such as fishing, drilling,
running packers, and cementing. The power unit for the TC-12580 is the truck chassis's Detroit
Diesel Series 60 diesel engine.

The TC-12580 CTU is designed to handle the full range of coiled tubing sizes from .75" OD to
3.5" OD, and 5,000 m of 1 .25" coiled tubing strings. The TC-12580 will dellver efficient and
durable service while maximizing safety during well servicing operations in ambient temperature
ranges of 0 'C to 50 "C in severe oilfiled environments.

Features of the TC-12580 CTU:

. A Series 800 injector head featuring Varia-BlockrM lll inserts for quick gripper block
change

. A wet-kit style power pack

. A reel assembly with two point lift and pivoting systems

. A control cabin assembly

. A data acquisition system (with software)

. A crane assembly

. A stripper assembly

. ABOP

. A hose reelwith hose racks and a hose kit

230635-001t2386924 1-1
l

Chapter 1 O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

1.2 ASSEMBLY DESCRIPTION j'

1.2.1 POWER UNIT


The power unit of the TC-12580 is the truck's Detroit Diesel Series 60 diesel enging. This engine
supplies power to the hydraulic pump system, which moves the CTU system through the PTO
output drive.

General lnformation For assembty details, refer to the S&S drawingsin Chapter 4.

1.2.2 INJEGTOR HEAD

1.2.2.1 TNTRODUCTTON

This new unique Stewart & Stevenson Series 800 injector head has the following patented features
and general specifications:

SERIES SOOL INJECTOR HEAD SPECIFICATIONS


Length 64"
width 51.s',
Height 82',
Weight 6,800 lb (lncluding72" Gooseneck)
Maximum Pull Force Hiqh (Workino) 80,000 lb
Load Cell Hydraulic +80,000 lb to -35,000 lb
Max Speed Up to 220'ftlmin
Chain Tvpe Varia-Block lll
Gooseneck (Flared) Two Piece
Motors Two Axial Piston, Variable Displacement

1.2.2.2 TOP DRIVEERAXC SYSTEM"

The top driveistatic brhke assembly consists of two variable disptacement, axial piston hydraulic
motors, double reduction planetary gear reducers, and spring applied, pressure released, multi-
disc prakes. These assemblies are flange-mounted to the injector body and drive the carburized
drive sprockets and timing gears. These drive motors are protected by high-pressure filters with
ieverse flow check valves. These filters include a 10 micron, stainless Steel element.

Hydraulic, load-holding, counterbalance valves are installed at the motor ports to hold the tubing
lo.ad (in and out of the hole) when the brakes are released.

1-2 230635-001t2386924
O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 1

1.2.2.3 DRIVE CHAIN

The steel plate drive chain has full access side openings to enable easy removal of the drive chain
and tubing blocks. The Varia-Block lll drive chains and injector blocks may befitted fortubing sizes
of 1" oD through 2.875" oD when fitted with the rerevant sized inserts.

The traction chains are designed to transmit a continuous force of not less than 80,000 lb in the
out-hole and 35,000 lb in the in-hole directions from a stalled position without marking the
surface of the tubing. Slippage of the tubing relative to the gripper blocks will not occur at pulling
iorce of 80,000 lb with the surface of the tubing and blocks in a diesel wet condition.

Connecting links allow for replacement of the two roller type drive chains and injector blocks
while the tubing remains in the injector. Separate connecting shafts connect the tubing blocks to
each of the drive chains instead of the common single through shaft which causes adverse
stressing of the tubing blocks in the case of misalignment of the drive chains and coiled tubing.

Clearance between the tubing blocks, when fully retracted, allows for the passage of the various
tools that are normally used in coiled tubing strings. The feature also allows easier tubing
insertion into the injector. The steeltubing blocks have offset tubing block mounted shaft centers
and a reduced tubing block pivot point to tubing roller centerline distance that results in a
maximum space of llS" between the adjacent tubing blocks. These features reduce the shock
impact loading on the tubing rollers and the coiled tubing when the injector is operational.

&
1.2.2.4 CHAIN TRACTION SYSTEM

.A single skateiroller bearing assembly applies pressure


v 4'-"'fu
to the back sides of both drive chains
for chain traction. These roller assemblies are each compressed by a single hydraulic cylinder.
The six hydraulic cylinders are plumbed in two sets of three hydraulic cylinders. lf the_hLdraulic
qvl@prfubing&ils, olq-qetean bqisolatedjram the other and traction maintained;n the
t@g Each hydraulic circuit has an accumulator to prevint variations in tr6rg Oiarneter from
varying the hydraulic pressure. Each control circuit is protected by a velocity fuse to prevent
loss of control due to hose failure. The two sets of three hydraulic cylinders have one pressure
control at the panel since the six hydraulic cytinders operate at the same hydraulic pressure.

The number of rollers on each pair of roller assemblies increases from top to bottom to enable
the compressive force that is applied to the tubing to increase from the bottom to the top of the
injector. This patented feature causes the combined tubing stresses, created by the internal
tubing pressure, the compression force, and the tubing weight to be equalized along the length
of the injector. This feature gives a greater tubing traction/compressive force per unit tengtfr ot
injector than other types of tubing injector, enabling the S&S injector to be shorter and lignter
than those other types of tubing injectors. This tubing traction system drastically reduces the
tubing damage normally associated with excessive roller skate assembly hydraulic pressure.

The roller skate assemblies use large 2.375'diameter roller bearings. Using these large roller
bearings ensures that two rollers are in contact with each tubing block priorlo transition from
one block to the next. This feature prevents pivoting and clattering of the tubing blocks as they
pass over the drive chain sprockets and reduces the stress on the tubing caused by the
gripping of the tubing blocks. The tubing roller bearings are equipped with full lip seals for greater
grease capacity and sealing capability, and use large rollers with increased load ratings.

'
230635-001t2386924 1-3
Chapter 1 O 2005 Stewarl-& Stevenson Services, lnc.

1.2.2.5 CHAIN TENSIONING SYSTEM

Chain tensioning is achieved by a direct vertical movement of the bottom drive chain idler
sprockets by two pairs of hydraulic cylinders powered by a single hydraulic circuit and backup
accumulator. This feature gives a greater range of tensioning without reducing the drive chain
contact on the drive chain drive and idler sprockets and thus increases the life of the chains.

1.2.2.6 TUBING GUIDE GOOSENECK

The gooseneck is a standard fold down 72" radiuswith steel roller straightener lower section
and steel rollers on upper section. The gooseneck is in two pieces with additional top rollers,
heavy duty pins, and hinges. The tubing may remain in the injector during transporlation.

1.2.2.7 AUTOMATIC BRAKE RELEASE WITH INJECTOR MOTOR PRESSURE

The injector head pivots on one side of the injector frame base, a dual acting -35,000 lb to
+80,000 lb load cell sensor is installed on the other side of the injector.

1.2.2.8 CHAIN OILER SYSTEM

The injector is installed in an outer lift frame with steel skid base, drip pan, drain and drain
fittings, access steps, guards, and a four-point lifting system with lifting slings.

A 4:1 pressure debooster for annulus pressure is installed on the base of the injector frame, with
a hose connection to the stripper/packer. The injector is equipped with a bottom flange
connection for use with the stripper/packer assembly.

The compression cylinder piping is made from stainless steel tubing to reduce the likelihood of a
control line rupture on location. Velocity fuses are provided in the control circuit lines to prevent
loss of control in the event of line failure. Fuse reset valves are provided for each circuit.

All hydraulic connections on the injector are piped to a quick disconnect coupling panel, using
bulkhead fittings installed at the bottom front side of the injector. All hoses will be supported by
chain and hook arrangement so that hose connections do not catry a heavy load.

1-4 230635-001t2386924
:.,

@ 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 1

1.2.3 REEL ASSEMBLY


The approximate physical dimensions of this reel are as follows:

REEL ASSEMBLY
Core 72"
Flanqe 109"
width 6g',
Approximate Tubinq Capacities 5,000' o'f 1.25"

This reel assembly includes the following basic features:

. A chain and boomer transport locking system

. A 1 i5" bore circulating swivel rated at 10,000 psiworking pressure for sweet service
installed inside the reel's 10 shaft

. Two steel support frames built on the trailer frame to supporl the reel core. Each frame
has a bearing box receiver to accept the S&S machined steel roller bearings mounted on
the reel shaft.

. Steel S&S main reel roller bearings designed for smooth operation and precise control.
Each bearing is rated for 300,000 lb static load, which makes them idealfor use with high
capacity tubing weights. The bearings'steel housing, which protects the bearings from
contaminants, has two heavy duty pin holes to pin the reel in place on the trailer support
frame.

An automatic levelwind assembly with hydraulic motor override installed on the


reel assembly. This levelwind has a diamond lead screw that is driven in synchronization
with the drum speed and rotation by a chain with sprocket and friction clutch arrange-
ment powered from the reel main drive shaft. The backup hydraulic motor for spooler
override purposes is connected to the diamond lead screw. /

An overcenter valve installed in circuit to prevent the levelwind assembly from collapsing
in case of a hydraulic failure. (The level wind assembly may be hydraulically raised or
lowered to suit payoff angle by two hydraulic cylinders.)

lnternal plumbing arrangement including a tubing connection from the quick stab swivelto
aninternal 2"x10,000psi plugvalveviaa2" Fig. 1502winghalf connectionratedat
'15,000 psi working pressure. From the plug valve, a 2" tee connects the coiled tubing
through a 90 elbow on one side and provides for ball and pig insertion on the opposite
.union
side. The ball and pig inlet is blanked off with a Fig. 1502 blanking half. All piping is
rated at 15,000 psi working pressure for sweet service.

A thirleen gallon lubrication fluid inhibitor reservoir complete with pressure gauge, air
inlet, and discharge metering valve, relief valve, and all necessary piping.
\-

230635-001t2386924 1-5
7

Chapter 1
O 2005 Stewar,t & Stevenson Services, lnc.

External plumbing arrangement consisting of an inlet manifold with 15,000 psi chicksan
with Fig. 1502 unions to connect to a FiE. 1502 tee connection on which are mounted two
1" x 2" x 1 5,000 psi plug valves with 2" Fig. 1502 connections. The tee and plug
valve
assemblies are securec to the skid frame assembly by clamps. A gauge connection with
a 4:1 debooster (for monitoring wellhead pressure) is installed on this manifold.

A 15,000 psi working pressure turbine flowmeter is installed in the external reel piping for
flowrate measurement.

A radial piston hydraulic motor with integral planetary-type reduction gearbox


that drives
the reel via a chain and sprocket drive system.

A mechanical depth meter with a five-digit resettable type readout is installed on the
vertical slide section of the levelwind mechanism.

A stuffing box for pipe lubrication installed on the depthometer assembly.

1.2.3.1 REEL ASSEMBLY OPTIONS

Depending on the tubing diameter, the reel may hold up to 30,00 O' (g,144 m) of coiled
tubing. To
enhance the performance of the reel, S&S offers severat options whicn include:

' Mechanicaland/or Electricarrubing counters and Guides

. High Pressure Piping and Swivels (Standard or HrS)

. lnhibitor lnjection Systems

. Levelwind HydraulicControlsystems

CTU reels are produced with any or all of these features. Also, this design allows
Stewart &
Stevenson the flexibility to modify its standard reel assembly to acco*rlod"t"
special applica-
tions. For additional help with special requirementE contact your nearest S&S representative.

1.2.3.2 REEL ASSEMBLY COMPONENTS

The reel assemblies are provided in two basic designs: the internal and externaldrive
models.
Both layouts have a heavy-duty steeldrum assembly sized to accommodate
specified tubing
diameters and depth requirements. The reel shaft is designed for electric wireline
applications.
Mountino Frame

The reel is supported by a heavy-duty steel mounting frame assembly fabricated


from square
tubing. The frame includes 0.5" steel gussets between the horizontaliegs and
the vertical reel
support legs. The frame design features a drip pan, integrat pockets foifork lift,
and a two-point Iift arrangement for crane lifting applications.

1-6
230635-001t2386924
7

O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 1

lnternal reel plumbing can include an internaltubing plug


valve via a wing half connection rated up to 15,000 psi
(102,369 kPa) working pressure (WP).Atee connects the
plug valve to the reel shaft and provides for ball and pig
insertion and is blanked off by a union half. The arrange-
ment is well suited for electric wireline installations. The
external arrangement consists of an inlet manifold with
swivel assemblies, unions, and tee connections for two
plug valves and connections rated up to 15,000 psi
(102,369 kPa) WP. The tee and plug valve assembly is
secured to the frame assembly by clamps. A circulating
pressure debooster is mounted on external plumbing. A
gauge connection with 4:1 protection is also installed.
Figure 1 .3 High-Pressure
In h i bito r In i ecti o n Svstem s ( Lu b ri catorl Piping and Swivels

Optional linkage is included for the use of a tubing lubricator. These are connected near the base
of the tubing guides and can be adjusted for different tubing sizes as necessary.

Levelwi nd Control Svstems

The levelwind assembly is installed on the reelassem-


bly and incorporates a diamond lead screw that is
synchronized with the drum rotation speed. The main
reel drive shaft provides power through a chain,
sprocket, and friction clutch arrangement. The
diamond lead screw has a backup hydraulic motor
',o
provided for spooler override applications. Two hydrau-
lic cylinders raise or lower the assembly to suit payoff
angle. A stuffing box is provided to apply
lubricanUinhibitor to the tubing. An overcenter valve
circuit will prevent the levelwind from collapsing the
tubing. Figure 1.4 Levelwind Control Systems
1 - Tubing Counter
Mechanical and Electric Tubinq Counters and Guide 2 - Diamond Lead Screw

Tubing counter and guide assemblies provide totalizing depth counts. A mechanical assembly
with six digit readout and reset is installed on the vertical slide section of the levelwind mecha-
nism. This assembly can be equipped with an encoder for connection to a digital readout in the
controlcabin.

23063s-001t2386924 1-7
7

Chapter 1 O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

1.2.4 CONTROL CABIN ASSEMBLY


A fabricated control cabin is mounted on the truck chassis deck at the front of the unit directly
behind the truck chassis cab. This control cabin is hydraulically elevated into its operating
position to a suitable height from it's transport position to provide the CTU operator with a clear
view of the wellhead and operations over the tubing reel.

A counterbalance valve in the hydraulic circuit ensures that the cabin only moves down under
hydraulic power. The control valve for the lift cylinders is located below the cabin on the side of
the chassis for easy access during job rig up.

The unit is fully operational from this control cabin via mechanical, hydraulic, and pneumatic
controls. Exceptions include the locally controlled cabin lift system and hose reel controls.
Standard equipment in the control cabin includes:

. A 12VDC lighting system.

. An air horn.

. An adjustable operator's chair and rear fold down bench seat.

. A hydraulically powered air conditioning system.

. Two work lights (adjustable from cab).

. An air driven pump that can be used to deliver 5,000 psito the stripper/packer in case of
emergency. This pump can also have a handle instead and be used as a second
manual backup pump.

. A full control panelwith all gauges and controls. The panel is mounted on an engineered
fabricated housing that incorporates the backup pump, hydraulic valves, interface, etc.

An S&S digital suitcase data acquisition system is also provided. The suitcase is complete with
all cabling and a sensor package for measuring CT depth, wellhead pressure, circulating pres-
sure, circulating flowrate, injector speed, and tubing weight.

,', Along with the suitcase, there is a Pentium M laptop computer with data acquisition software and
all necessary cables, and a portable ink jet color printer. Software installed on the laptop com-
puter includes:

. Stewart and Stevenson data acquisition software

. Medco Fatigue Analysis for Coiled Tubing (FACT) software

. Microsoft XP and Microsoft Office XP

1-8 230635-001t2386924
O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 1

1.2.5 CRANE ASSEMBLY

A hydraulically-powered National Crane Series 638D 18 ton pedestal crane is installed at the rear
of the truck. The crane is equipped with rear mounted "A" type boxed slide outriggers, two part
line block, a hydraulic capacity alert, a three section proportional hydraulic telescoping boom, a
single rear-mounted stabilizer, a high performance planetary winch with 280' of 9116" diameter
rotation resistant wire rope, and a remote valve control station with closed-centers valve bank for
use with pressure compensated piston pumps.

The hydraulic capacity alert system is designed to stop all of the normal crane functions that
might cause overload when the crane's maximum capacity is exceeded on the main boom.

General Specifications
Frame Box construction pedestalwiturret mounted on shear type ball.
Three section hydraulic proportional telescoping boom 16' retracted, 38'
Boom
extended (horizontal reach).
High performance planetary winch rated at 10,000 lb Bare drum single line
Winch pull. 280' of 9116" diameter rotation resistant wire rope.
Rotation Non-continuous 375o bV means of planetary qear, hydraulic drive unit.
Hydraulic "A" frame out and down with a span of 19' extended, mounted at
Outriggers
the rear of the trailer.
Crane Capacities
Crane capacities mav vary accordinq to loads and or boom attachments.
Maximum 38,000 tb
8'radius i 23,000 Ib
10' radius 19,350 lb
16' radius 13,000 tb
25'radius 7,600 lb
35'radius 5,050 lb

1.2.6 SIDE DOOR STRIPPER PACKER.2.9116'


A2.5625'side door loading stripper packer rated 10,000 psiworking pressure for HrS service is
installed on to the injector head. This double acting, hydraulic pressure activated unit, sized for
1.25" tubing, is vented to prevent well fluids from contaminating the hydraulic fluids. The stripper
packer is built with an anti-buckling guide and a removable split retainer.

230635-001t2386924 1-9
Y
Chapter 1 O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

1.2,7 BLOWOUT PREVENTER . SIZE 2.9116'


The unit's solid block BOP's are rated at 10,000 psi working pressure and 15,000 psi test pres-
sure for HrS service. They are equipped with a pipe ram, a slip ram, a shear ram and a blind ram
to suit the relevant tubing, and with standard ram equalization lines and an external indicator at
all ram positions. The BOP is hydraulically operated by a valve bank with back-up power from a
pressurized nitrogen accumulator. Allthe BOP's hydraulics are internal (no external hose as-
semblies). Sized for 1.25" tubing, the BOP also has manual retract bonnets for ram change.
There is a lift arrangement for lifting the BOP separately.

1.2.8 HOSE REEL ASSEMBLY

1.2.8,1 TUBING INJECTOR POWER HOSE REEL AND HOSES

This is a two-section hose reel hydraulically powered through a chain-drive, speed-reducing


arrangement with locally operated direction and speed control valves. lt is used to feed and
retract the two injector power hoses and is equipped with high-pressure hydraulic hose swivels
and quick disconnect couplings. One set of 125' (40 m) long injector drive hoses with quick
coupler assemblies rated at 5,000 psi.

Control Hose and Reels

BOfl injector, and stripper/packer control hoses are installed on figure eight racks.

The following hose assemblies are supplied on figure eight racks. Each assembly is equipped
with quick coupler assemblies:

. one setof125'(a0 m) injector control hoses.


. One set of 125' (40 m) stripper/packer control hoses.

. Four sets of 125' (40 m) BOP actuator hoses, one for each BOP ram assembly.

. One set of 125' (40 m) injector load cell and wellhead pressure signal hoses.

Control hose assemblies are coated with Cordura type covering.

Stripper/packer control, injector load cell, and wellhead pressure hoses are installed in the same
hose bundle with the injector control hose bundle.

1-10 230635-001t2386924
O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 2

(t
t.. CHAPTER 2
OPERATION
2.1 PRELIMINARY CHECKS
M Check all operating fluids, such as engine oil, engine coolant, etc.

M Grease all bearings and drivelines.

M Check all connections. Make sure allfittings are tight, and that all hoses are connected
properly. lf any leaks are found, repair immediately.

.ffi*r Before using this equipment, any operator should carefully read the
EffiT% operation instructions in this section, reviewthe safety summary and
$ffi$'%
M. conduct a preoperation safety inspection of the equipment.

^ffi* lf the operator has ANY QUESTIONS about the safe use or mainte-
xffire
iH'*ffi
nance of the CTU, ASK THE SUPERVISOR - NEVER GUESS -
!!ffiffi:, ALWAYS CHECK.

2.2 HYDRAULIC SYSTEM INSPECTION


lnspection is important for the coiled tubing unit (CTU) hydraulic system prior to engaging the
hydraulics. lt cannot be guaranteed that the system will be in the same condition as it was prior
to transit.

1. Check to ensure that all of the hydraulic hoses to the injector head are connected.
Use the hose/connector tag number for positive identification and reconnect if
necessary. Visually inspect unit for hoses that may be leaking.

2. Use the hydraulic reservoir tank drain valve to remove water from the tank. lt
should be drained into a container untila clear moisture and solid contaminant-
free flow is.obtained.

Drain the accumulator bottle before checking the high mark on the reservoir.
Do Not fill reservoir to the high mark with the accumulator bottle charged.

4. Check that the lube oil tank for injector head is filled with 30W crankcase oil. This
tank is located at the bottom Ieft on the motor side of the injector..

5. Check that the lube oil tank for tubing packing box is filled with a 5:1 diesel/oil
mixture. The lube oil reservoir is located nearthe tubing reel,

Check the gearbox oil levelon the injector head. The oil level is checked by
removing a plug on the upper-left side of the gearbox. After removing the plug, oil

230635-001t2386924 2-1
t

Chapter 2 @ 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

To check the oil level, open the oil plug on the upper-right hand side of the gear case.
After removing the plug, oil should be present at the bottom of the plug hole. lf the oil level
is below the hole, replace the plug and add 80-90W gear oil through the fill connection on
top of the injector head enclosure.

8. Ensure BOP accumulator dump valve is in the closed position. The accumulator
should be precharged with dry nitrogen.

9. Change the flange on top of the wellhead to match the union box on the CTU BOP.

2.3 RIG.UP PROCEDURES


Engaging Hydraulics The following procedures are the recommended actions which should be
completed after the unit is spotted and prior to rigging the BOP and injector. These aetions will
cause the hydraulic power system to come on-line.

1. On skid-mounted units, it is good practice to always connect the drain and return
lines first during rig up and to disconnect last during rig down.

2. Connect the pneumatic hoses stored on the Cabin Skid to the appropriate connec-
tions on the other skids.

3. Connect the hydraulic hoses stored on the Power Skid to the connections on the
injector head and the CTU reel.

4. Check that the hydraulic reservoir tank fluid level is near the high level mark on the
sight gauge. Fill with hydraulic fluid if necessary.

5. Check the hydraulic reservoir tank temperature at the thermometer mounted at the
base of the sight gauge. A fin-fan cooler will maintain the hydraulic fluid temperature
below 180'F (82.2'C) during normal operations.

NOTE: Under some conditions, a thermostatically controlled immersion


heater is mounted in the hydraulic reservoir to keep the hydraulic fluid
free-flowing. This is an option and used primarily in arctic conditions.

6. Check the hydraulic filter bypass indicators on the low- and high-pressure filters. lf the
indicator is in the green, the filters are good. lf the indicator is in the red, the filters
require replacement. lf the filters are clogged, the hydraulic fluid is automatically
bypassed around the filter.

7. Check the hydraulic filter bypass indicators on the injector filter. lf the indicator is in
the green, the filter is good. lf the indicator is in the red, the filter requires replace-
ment. lf the filter is clogged, the hydraulic fluid is automatically bypassed around the
filter. To change the filter, the hydraulic system must be secured.

2-2 230635-001t2386924
O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 2

if L Walk around the CTU inspecting all hydraulic hoses, connections, headers, filters,
and any equipment for evidence of leaks. Correct any problems before proceeding.

A high-pressure hand pump in the control cabin provides backup power to the BOP rams, the
stripper/packer, the injector chain traction system, and the injector chain tension system.

2.3. 1 ACCUMULATOR SYSTEM

A high-pressure accumulator system with a volume capacity of 11 gal (41.6 L) is supplied and
installed to provide a backup hydraulic pressure to the hand pump system. This accumulator
system is charged to 3000 psi. The accumulator is charged with dry nitrogen gasto 1500 psi
and will reflect system pressure.

2.3.2 HYDRAULIC OIL FILTRATION

All hydraulic oil circuits include suction line filters with stainless steet, 100-mesh elements to
remove particles. Elements are removable for inspection and cleaning. Filtration of returning oil
flows from injector and reel circuits immediately prior to entering main hydraulic tank are
carried out with the required filter assemblies. Filter size is not less than 10 microns. Filters
are spin-on types. High-pressure filters are installed to protect injector motors and injector
pump. All filters are fitted with a self-activating bypass valve and an indicator to show the
relative state of fouling of the element.
\
I

2.4 CONTROL PANEL ASSEMBLY


The unit is fully operationalfrom the control panel via mechanical, hydraulic, and pneumatic con-
trols. For better visibility, the control cabin can be raised.

gD
H
3,
CI
-@_(@
-rd-.
<,2* .
9ae
lff)\t
; b)F6
@li
ruEI
H,
[l@ :---
=,:= A. @
lo EIT
o II
AMFR *r;
,J
6a ffi I

@i
,o
€f .-** "
((o)) ((o))
\4 E4 n
CICI080
." _ - *,1_t.
iE EBEEft
*w ro
U6\
o.\/ @l
@-

Figure 2.1, Control Panel

t--
230635-001t2386924 2-3
7

Chapter 2 @ 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

NOTE: The following sections describe the control panel by functional


part. Panels shown are typical. Others are similar. For your particular
control panel assembly layout, consult the drawings chapter, Control
Panel, and Control Console drawings.

Figure 2.2, Engine Controls

Enqine Gauqes and lndicators (Refer to Figure 2.2)

1. Stop Engine Warning Light - lndicates that there is a serious fault in the engine and
that the engine should be stopped immediately.

2. Check Engine Warning Light - lndicates that a maintenance or fault condition exists in
the engine.

3. Fuel Level Gauge - Measures and displays the fuel level in the truck's fuel tanks.

24 23063s-001t2386924
O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 2

@-
HORN

}IYDRAUUC
TEMP

oN ,/
@ dOFF

POWER WORK CABIN


LIGHTS LIGHTS

ACCESSORIES

\
-r..r-lr:ll
I

Figure 2.3. Accessory Controls

Accessorv Gontrols (Refer to Figure 2.3)

1. Wiper Switch -Activates the controlcabin windshield wipers.

2. Horn Button - Sounds horn.

3. Hydraulic Temperature Gauge - Measures and displays the unit's hydraulic tempera-
ture.

4. Control Panel On/Off Switch - Activates the CTU control panel.

5. Work Lights On/Off Switch - Turns the exterior lights on and off.

6. Cabin Lights On/Off Switch - Turns the interior lights on and off.

230635-001t2386924 2-5
/

Chapter 2 O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

BOP Gontrols (Refer to Figure 2.4)

1. Blind Ram Lever - Blind Ram control. Normally in the OPEN position. When closed,
completely seals off the through bore. Gannot be closed with tubing or wireline in
this section of the BOP.

2. Gutter Ram Lever - Cutter Ram control. Normally in the OPEN position. When
closed, cuts the tubing. Cutter blades should be inspected after each use.

3. Slip Ram Lever - Slip Ram control. Normally in the OPEN position. When closed,
rams grip tubing and prevent vertical movement.

4. Tube/Pipe Lever - Tubing and Pipe Ram control. Normally in the OPEN position.
When closed, rams form pressure seal around the annulus of the tubing.

5. Hand Pump OnlOff Switch - Used to actuate the 3000 psi hand pump on and off.

6. Push To Activate Button - Used to activate the hand pump to operate the BOP.

7. BOP Pressure Gauge - Analog gauge displays the hydraulic pressure on the BOP.
Gauge scaled 0 psito 5000 psi.

8. Accumulator Pressure Gauge - Analog gauge displays the BOP accumulator pressure.
Gauge scaled 0 psito 5000 psi.

@'
Iffi^I*

Figure 2.4, BOP Controls

2-6 230635-001t2386924
f.,

@ 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 2

Figure 2.5 Reel Controls

Reel Controls (Refer to Figure 2.5)

1. Reel - Pivot Lever - Pivots the reel to the left, right or center position.

2. Ree! - Lift DownlUp Lever - Controls the position of the reel-leveling assembly. Moves
the levelwind mechanism up or down.

3. Reel - Brake On/Off Lever - ON position: Brake is set (no pressure)


OFF positioh: Brake is disengaged (normally 1100 psi)

4. Reel - ln/Out Lever - Controls the feeding of the tubing in-hole or out-hole. The locked
rear position is the out-hole position, and the tubing winds onto the reel toward the
controlcabin.

5. Reel - Levelwind Lever - Overrides the automatic levelwind function.

6. Reel - lnhibitor Spray Button - Controls the application of rust-inhibiting spray on the
tubing as it is reeled in.

7. Reel - Regulate Pressure Knob - Controls the pressure applied to the reel motor.

230635-001t2386924 2-7
Chapter 2 O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

DUTIP REGUI.ATE PRESSURE

CHAIN TENSION

Figure 2.6, Chain Tension Controls

Chain Tension Controls (Refer to Figure 2.6)

1. Pressure/Run/Dump Switch - Used to select chain tension pressurization, run mode,


or dump pressure.

2. Regulate Pressure Control - Controls pressure to chain tension circuit.

2-8 230635-001t2386924
7

@ 2005 Stewad & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 2

Figure 2.7, lnjector Controls

lniector Controls (Refer to Figure 2.7)

1. Brake Control ' Controls the injector brake.

2. lnjector Lube Button - Spring-loaded button. Press to inject lubricant, and release to
stop lubricant.

3. Pressure,Regulator Valve- Controls the pressure applied to the injector motor.

4. lnjector ln/Out Joystick - Adjust the injector joystick to the "lN" position to move tubing
into the wellbore; adjust the injector joystick to the "OUT" position to move the tubing out
of the wellbore.

5. Speed Control - Controls speed of injector motor(s); Turn clockwise to increase.

230635-001t2386924 2-9
7

Chapter 2 @ 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

Stripper Controls (Refer to Figure 2.8)

1. Hand Pump OnlOff Switch - Used to turn the 0 psi to 3,000 psi hand pump on and off.

2. Stripper Retract/Pack Valves - Control the operation of the strippers. Normally in


the NEUTRAL position. To compress the stripper around tubing, place in the PACK
position. To release the stripper from around tubing, place in the RETRACT position.

3. Pressure Regulator Valve - Adjusts the hydraulic pressure applied to the stripper.
Turn counterclockwise to reduce the pressure, clockwise to increase the pressure.

STRIPPIR

\_
Figure 2.8, Stripper Controls

Chain Traction Controls (Refer to Figure 2.9)

1. End Traction Pressure/Run/


Dump Switch - Used to select
chain traction pressurization or run
mode, or used to dump pressure
R^
from the end traction system. ll U
NH
A
2. Middle Traction Pressure/Run/ l

Dump Switch - Used to select N

chain traction pressurization or run T


mode, or used to dump pressure R^
R

from the middle traction system. u^


NC
T
3. Hand Pump On/Off Switch - I

o
Used to actuate the 3000 psi hand N
pump on and off.

4. Regulate Pressure Control -


Controls pressure to chain traction
circuit.

Figure 2.9, Chain Traction Controls


2-10 230635-001t2386924
s.,

@ 2005 Stewa( & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 2

)
2.5 GAUGE PANEL

ru o
uffi il.m
s,
ruo-

Figure 2.10, Gauge Panel

Main Gauqes (Refer to Figure 2.1'1)

1. Circulation Pressure Gauge - Analog gauge displays pressure of circulating


fluids. Meter scaled 0 psi to '10,000 psi.

2. Weight lndicator Gauge - Analog gauge displays tool and tubing weight. Scale is
adjustable. Gauge is normally calibrated to the load cell on the injector head
before rigging to wellhead. Gauge is dual scaled -20,000 kg to +40,000 kg and
-20,000 lb to +80,000 lb.

3. Wellhead Pressure Gauge - Analog pressure gauge displays static pressure at the
wellhead. Gauge scaled 0 psi to 10,000 psi.

CIRCULATION PRESSURE
O
Figure 2.

230635-00112386924 2-11
Chapter 2 @ 2005 Stewaft & Stevenson Services, lnc.

Figure 2.12, System Gauges

Svstem Gauqes (Refer to Figure 2.12)

1. Air Pressure Gauge - Analog gauge displays pressure of air supply, normally 120
psi. Gauge scaled 0 psito 160 psi.

2. System Pressure Gauge - Analog gauge displays the pressure for the system,
normally 2800 psito 3000 psi. Gauge scaled 0 psito 5000 psi.

3. Gontrol Prgssure Gauge - Analog gauge displays the pressure for piloting the reel
and injector valves.

4. Reel Pressure Gauge - Analog gauge indicating the reel motor pressure, recom-
mended minimum 500 psito 700 psi. Gauge scaled 0 psito 3000 psi.

' 7. Speed Pressure Gauge - Analog gauge indicating the pressure applied to shifting
injector motor(s) from high to low speeds.

8. lnjector Pressure Gauge - Analog gauge indicating pressure applied to the injector.
Gauge scaled 0 psito 5000 psi.
{

2-12 230635-001t2386924
t.,

O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 2

Figure 2.13, Auxiliary Gauges

Auxiliarv Gauqes (Refer to Figure 2.13)

1. Chain Tension Gauge - Displays chain tension pressure, normally 500 psi.
Gauge scaled 0 psito 3000 psi.

2. Stripper Pressure Gauge - Measures and displays the hydraulic pressure to


stripper. Displays from 0 psi to 5000 psi.

3. Ghain Traction Pressure, End Gauge - lndicates traction pressure at both ends
of the injector drive chain. The minimum recommended chain traction is 800 psi.
Gauge scaled 0 psito 3000 psi.

4. Chain Traction Pressure, Middle Gauge - lndicates traction pressure at the


middle of the injector drive chain. Gauge scaled 0 psi to 3000 psi.

230635-001t2386924 2-13
7

Chapter 2 O 2005 Stewaft & Stevenson Services, lnc.

(D
@
e
@
@
@

r)A@t@l
gg',J vu)t6161
: : l=:l+l

Figure 2.14, Engine Gauges and lndicators

Enqine Controls (Refer to Figure 2.14)

1. DDC Electronic Controls - Displays a variety of real time engine parameters.

2. Emergency Stop Button - Causes immediate emergency shutdown of the engine.

The emergency stop contro! should only be used under emergency


conditions, such as an overspeed condition. Activating it can cause
serious engine damage to occur.

3. Stop Switch- Causes normal shutdown of the engine by cutting off the fuel supply.

4. Throttle - Controls engine speed.

2-14 230635-001t2386924
Chapter 2 O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

Do not over-oil pipe. Use oilers on the reel going in-hole to 2000
m (6562') only. Pulling out-hole, oil continuously. Only oil -njector
chainsonce or twice per job. Excessive oil can cause chain slip-
page and damage to inserts.

2.7 MAJOR COMPONENT OPERATION


2.7.1 INJECTOR HEAD

2.7.1.1 INJECTOR COMPONENTS

Hvdraulic Motor

The hydraulic motor is a variable displacement type and can be used in closed loop or open loop
systems. The motor is variable in range from 25'to 5". The variable disptacement motor has
two control modes: a lryg:stage control p g tryo Jpggqg, or a variable control mode. The
speeds provided by the two-stage controlare low speed wEen the motor is at maximum dis-
placement or high speed at minimum displacement. The variable control mode provides an
infinite adjustment from maximum to minimum displacement. The minimum displacement,
swivel angle, adjustment screw is located on top of the motor.

Gearbox /
The gearbox is a power transfer product that utilizes a planetary gear drive with a double reduction
feature. These drives are of a rugged coryrpact design which saves space and provides for long
service life. The gearbox is fully reversible, made possible by rcversing the direction of the input.
The drive delivers the power required for smooth operation and precise control.

Accumulators

The accumulators are bottle-like cylinders that store hydraulic pressure. They are precharged to
500 psi (3447.5 kPa) with nitrogen gas at S&S. Precharging maintains the hydraulic pressure
applied to the accumulators. The accumulators on the injector head help maintain hydraulic
pressure in the chain traction system.

Fluid Filter

Each injector head is equipped with two hydraulic fluid filters; one to filter incoming hydraulic fluid
for the fonvard direction, and one to filter incoming hydraulic fluid for the reverse direction. To
accommodate the fonvard and reverse flow of hydraulic fluid, the fitter head has a bypass valve
allowing the reverse flow of hydraulic fluid. Each filter also has a visual indicator to signal when
the filter element needs changing.

2-20 230635-001t2386924
7

O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.


Chapter 2

2.6 MOBILIZATION

Given the size and weight of the coiled tubing unit, travel routes must be chosen carefully, taking
into consideration bridges, sharp corners, rough road ways, and overhead obstacles.
A pretrip
inspection is recommended to confirm location layout and well condition. The area immediateiy
around the wellhead where the unit is to be positioned must be level. This will aid in the safe
operation of the crane and ensure that the reel operates correcfly.

2,6.1 SPOTTING THE UNIT

Under the guidance of the coiled tubing supervisor, position the unit so that the passenger
side of
the truck is in line with the left-hand side of the wellhead. lt may be positioned up to 3 m
at the
back and 3 m to the left from the well center, depending on wellhead height. Never position
the
wellhead behind the unit. With the unit in this position. set the parking brikes and insert chock
blocks behind and in front of the trailer/truck tires.

2.6.2 JOB PREPARATION

Coiled tubing has ceftain limitations. For best results, learn as much about the well
as possible:
casing size and depth, tubing size and depth, minimum internal diameter and depth, well
bore
fluid, debris (fish), and bottom hole pressure and temperature. This information willfacilitate
proper tool selection' lt is recommended that a check valve be run on
the end of coiled tubing at
all operations unless not applicable.

The pumping equipment can now be spotted on the passenger side of the unit just
ahead of the reel
and at least 25' away. This spacing will help reduce problems in the event of high-pressure
equip-
ment failure or fire. All flammable fluid storage tanks should be at least 150' u*ly iro,
the well.

Normally, a wellhead crossover connection will be required. Once in position and


secure, this
equipment should be function tested for operation. Attach the tubing guide to the injector
head,
then attach the guide/injector assembly to the wellhead.

Run a length of tubing down-hole so that the tools may be installed. Place the
reel control in the
out-hole position with enough pressure to stop the reelfrom rolling in-hole, but allow the
tubing to
be pulled off the reelwith the injector and crane. Once installed, prtttne tubing
back up into
the
stripper. Raise and swing the injector assembly so that it may be placed on top of the
BOp stack
and secured. The crane should remain connected to the injector to provide stability.
Additional
stability can be achieved by using the down chains from the injector base to the wellhead,
along
with the injector support legs.

Support legs must be used for proper injector stabilization.


r:r,{"!t i{iF4

230635-001t2386924
2-15
Chapter 2 O 2005 Stewaft & Stevenson Services, lnc.

With the wellhead valve still closed, a pressure test must be conducted on the pumping equip-
ment, high pressure line, coiled tubing, and BOP stack. This will confirm the integrity of the
system (pressure test to the rating of the weakest componen$. With the pressure test complete,
open the wellhead valve and set the controls to run down-hole.

While running down-hole, circulate if possible and do periodic


weightchecks (stop, pull up a few feet to determine string weight,
then continue running down-hole). Do not exceed a run-in speed
of 60 ft/min (18.3 m/min).

Once the coiled tubing tools have reached the desired depth, perform a finalweight check, and
proceed under the direction of the coiled tubing service engineer.

When pulling out of the well, use the level wind override when necessary to ensure that the
tubing is spooled correctly on the reel (side by side, no overlaps or crossovers). Speed should
be limited to 150 fUmin (45.7 m/min).

Proceed the last 100' (30.5 m) from the surface (tag up) with ex-
treme caution, so as not to damage the down-hole tools or pull
the nozzle through the stripper.

Close the wellhead valve, bleed off exce.ss pressure, remove the injector from the BOP stack,
and return it to the deck of coiled tubing unit. Lift the BOP fronn the wellhead and place it back on
the BOP stand;then, rig out allfluid handling equipment.

During all operations, a crewmember should make periodic checks of all equipment, taking note
of any oil leaks, loose bolts, etc. Before moving the equipment, perform all possible maintenance
and repairs.

2.6.3 RIGGING UP BOPS, INJECTOR, AND FLOW TEE

lf the unit is trailer- or truck-mounted, the splitter must be engaged first and the transmission
placed in the first geiar below overdrive in order to provide a 1:1 ratio between the engine and
hydraulic pumps (skid-mounted units are factory-built at 1:1). The governor control must be
engaged to transfer throttle control to the control cabin. The manual throttle control in the truck
cab must be fully extended before the governor control is engaged. Make sure the control cabin
throttle is in the idle position. The unit operator should:

1. Raise the controlcabin.

2. lncrease the engine speed to 1500 rpm.

NOTE: When removing the wellhead cap, use the crane if possible
and then put the flow tee on the wellhead, noting the outlet alignment.

2-16 230635-001t2386924
O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 2

3. Tighten the bolts on the flange so that the halves are parallel.

4. Using the lifting cap, remove the BOP from the unit and place it on a BOP stand on the
ground next to the wellhead.

l''S'i
;.#. i
.,riffi: Make sure the hydraulic hoses do not hang up when moving the
.3ffi - FAA
"iffi DL'r'

5. Hook up the lifting sling to the injector and winch up so that the sling becomes tight.

6. The crane operator should then walk to the driver's side of the unit to check the crane
alignment.

7. Next, confirm that the tubing unit operator has set the reel pressure and that the reel is
unchained while the reel brake is released.

8. Lift the injector high enough so that the stripper will clear the BOP stand.

NOTE: Crew members will need to roll out hydraulic hoses while
moving the injector.

Close the stripper retract valve and swing the injector towards the passenger side of the unit.

NOTE: The reel must be'pivoted to keep thetubing aligned with the
injector.

10. Position the injector above the BOP.

11. Check the O-ring seal for damage (change as necessary) and lubricate.

12. Lower the injector and rig to the BOP.

13. Lift the injector and BOP together, swing them over the wellhead, and align the hand
union conriection (some movement may be needed to algin the union correctly).

14. Once the hand union is made up, tie the injector to a rig anchor placed 5 m (16.4') behind
the well, in line with welland reelcenterline.

15. lnstall the injector support legs.

2.6.4 RECOMMENDED OPERATING PROGEDURES

Pivot the reel forfinal alignment and connect the pump line. The reel brake should be applied and
the stripper pressure set at 1500 psifor pressure testing.

230635-001t2386924 2-17
Chapter 2 O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

Once the pressure test is complete and the wellhead valves open, set the controls as follows:

1. lncrease engine speed to 2000 rpm.

2. Set the in;".to, traction pressure using the traction chart in section 2.7 .1.7 .

3. Set the injector chain tension.

4. Set the stripper pressure using the wellhead pressure/coiled tubing size formula.

5. Set the mechanical depth counter to 0.

6. Set the reel pressure to 700 psi (adjust as needed) with reel in out-hole position.

7. Release reel brake.

8. Set the injector speed and injector pressure control to 0 psi.

9. Place the injector control switch to "in hole."

10. Slowly increase injector pressure to 700 psi; the injector chain should start moving
(additional pressure may be required depending on wellhead pressure).

11. Proceed slowly through the wellhead, closely monitoring the string weight (if the tubing
tags an obstruction, the string weight will immediately read negative; immediately, pullthe
controlto neutral.

12. Once the tubing nozzle is through the wellhead, increase speed using injector pressure.

To stop the tubinq:

1. Decrease the injector pressure to 0 psi.

2. Place the injector switch to neutral.

To pull out of tne wen


1. lncrease the reel pressure to 2000 psi or higher (so the tubing is kept tight).

2. Place the injector control switch to "out".

3. lncrease the injector pressure; at 700 psi, the injector chains should starl moving, but
additional pressui'e may be needed (do not exceed maximum rated pull for the tubing
used).

4. lncrease speed by adjusting the pressure first, then the injector speed control pressure
(use speed control if the depth of the tubing is less than 2000 m; apply up to 200 psi).

5. At 30 m (98.4')from the surface, slow to 3 m/min (9.8 fvmin) or less.

2-18 230635-001t2386924
@ 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 2

6. Allow the nozzle to tag the bottom of the stripper at this speed, keeping a close eye on
the weight gauge.

7. Once the nozzle has tagged (sudden increase in string weight), immediately place the
injector control switch to neutral.

Decrease injector pressure and speed control pressure to 0.

9. Coiled tubing is now out of the well.

10. Shut the wellhead valves (close carefully to ensure pipe is out of valve gates).

2.6.5 RIGGING DOWN

With wellhead valves shut, tubing pressure bled to 0 psi, flow back line removed from flow tee,
and pump line removed from reel inlet, the injector, BOP, and flow tee can now be removed from
the wellhead.

Remove the flow tee flange bolts and undo the injector tie down cable. Set the engine speed to
1500 rpm. Set the reel pressure to 1500 psi (increase as needed to keep the tubing tight during
rig-down), and release the reel brake. Lift the injector, BOP, and flow tee off the wellhead, and
lower them to the ground. Undo the hand union below the BOP lift the injector with BOP, and
leave the flow tee on the ground. Set the injector and BOP on the BOP stand, and undo the hand
union on the stripper.

While crewmembers roll up the hydraulic hoses, boom up wrth the crane so that the injector is
close to the base of the crane and just high enough to clear the BOP stand on the deck of the
tubing unit. Swing the injector to the left over the deck to the injector stand. The coiled tubing
operator will need to pivot the reel at the same time to reduce the bending of the coiled tubing.
Set the stripper pressure to 0 psi, open the stripper retract valve on the bottom of the injector,
and lower the injector into its transport position. Pivot the reel so that it is parallel with the sides
of the tubing unit, and set the reel brake. Tie down the reel with the chains provided (front and
rear), open inside chain tension valves on the injector head, and dump the pressure in the
console. Lock the tubing guide into its transport position.

lf components are to be rigged up or down separately, use the BOP lifting cap to installthe BOP
onto the wellhead and back onto the transport stand. Roll hoses as the BOP is placed on the
unit. Place the flow tee on the unit. Place the crane in its transporl saddle and secure the block.
Lift the out-riggers into their transport position.

Lower the control cabin, disengage the hydraulic system, and remove the blocks from the
wheels. Check to make sure all equipment is fastened securely to the unit.

Rig-down is complete only after the accumulator is bled to 0 psi and all electrical power is off,
including crane power and lights.

The unit is now ready for transport.

230635-00112386924 2-19
Chapter 2 @ 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

Do not over-oil pipe. Use oilers on the reel going in-hole to 2000
m (6562') only. Pulling out-hole, oil continuously. Only oil injector
chainsonce or twice per job. Excessive oil can cause chain slip-
page and damage to inseds.

2.7 MAJOR COMPONENT OPERATION


2.7.1 INJECTOR HEAD
2.7.1.1 INJECTOR COMPONENTS

Hvdraulic Motor

The hydraulic motor is a variable displacement type and can be used in closed loop or open loop
systems. The motor is variable in range from 25" to 5". The variable displacement motor has
two control modes: a. two-qlqge -control providing two speeds, or a variable control mode. The
speeds provided by the two-stage control are low speed when the motor is at maximum dis-
placement or high speed at minimum displacement. The variable control mode provides an
infinite adjustment from maximum to minimum displacement. The minimum displacement,
swivel angle, adjustment screw is located on top of the motor.

Gearbox

The gearbox is a power transfer product that utilizes a planetary gear drive with a double reduction
feature. These drives are of a rugged compact design which saves space and provides for long
service life. The gearbox is fully reversible, made possible by reversing the direction of the input.
The drive delivers the power required for smooth operation and precise control.

Accumulators

The accumulators are bottle-like cylinders that store hydraulic pressure. They are precharged to
500 psi (3447 .5 kPa) with nitrogen gas at S&S. Precharging maintains the hydraulic pressure
applied to the accumulators. The accumulators on the injector head help maintain hydraulic
pressure in the chain traction system.

Fluid Filter

Each injector head is equipped with two hydraulic fluid filters; one to filter incoming hydraulic fluid
for the forward direction, and one to filter incoming hydraulic fluid for the reverse direction. To
accommodate the forward and reverse flow of hydraulic fluid, the filter head has a bypass valve
allowing the reverse flow of hydraulic fluid. Each filter also has a visual indicator to signal when
the filter element needs changing.

2-20 230635-001t2386924
L,

O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 2

Chains
I,

The hydraulic mot6r(s)/gearbox combination drives two endless chains, upon which are
mounted a series of gripper blocks and inserts. The inserts are the part of the chain that is in
contact with the flexible tubing. The inserts can easily be changed to switch from one tubing
size to another with minimum time down. The chain does not have to be removed from the
injector head to change the inserts. lf need be, the chains, themselves, can also be easily
changed. The amount of pressure (traction) the inserts apply to the flexible tubing is hydrauli-
cally controlled. This allows the operator to adjust the amount of traction the inserts apply to
the tubing. The amount of tension on the chain is also hydraulically controlled to prevent
excessive wear to the chain.

A hose MUST be connected to the RETURN Connector before


any system is operated;failure to do so could cause damage to the
equipment (blown seals, etc.). Check the insed locking pins for
damaged, worn, loose, and missing locking pins before and after
every job.

There are two sizes of inserts; the Standard lnsert and the Ex-
tended lnseft. lntermixing the two sizes on the lnjector Head can
damage the tubing and/or the chains.
t:ELtT l{s$d

Use care in performing the swivel angle adjustment. lf done in-


correctly, a possible overspeed condition could result, causing
irreparable damage to the motor(s).

2.7,1.2 INJECTOR HEAD SPECIFICATIONS

GENERAL MEASUREMENTS

Height (without extension legs) 81.88" (2079 mm)

width 42.0" (1066.8 mm)

Depth 58.63" (1489.2 mm)

COILED TUBING RANGE

Varia-Block O.75" to 1.5" (19.1 mm to 38.1 mm)

Varia-Block ll 0.75" to 3.5" (19.1 mm to 88.9 mm)

230635-001 t2386924 2-21


Chapter 2 O 2005 Stewaft & Stevenson Services, lnc.

2.7.1.2 INJEGTOR HEAD SPECIFICATIONS (Cont)

I niector Motor Displacement

LOW PRESSURE (3s00 psi)

Maxmum Motor Displacement

Speed 0.568 X Hydraulic Fluid Flow (gpm)

Pull 28.165 X Hydraulic Pressure (psi)

Minimum Motor Displacement

Speed '1.967 X Hydraulic Fluid Flow (gpm)

Pull 8.135 X Hydraulic Pressure (psi)

HIGH PRESSURE (5000 psi)

Maximum Motor Displacement

Speed 0.849 X Hydraulic Fluid Flow (gpm)

Pull 18.844 X Hydraulic Pressure (psi)

Minimum Motor Displacement

Speed 3.081 X Hydraulic Fluid Flow (gpm)

Pull 5.194 X Hydraulic Pressure (psi)

2-22 230635-001t2386924
;.,

O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 2

MODEL 4OO MODEL 8OO

Weight
5700 lb (2582.1k9) 6125|b (277aks)
(without tubing guide)

Operating Pressure 3000 psi (20, 685 kPa)

Maximum gpm (L/min) 110 (416.3) 110 (416.3)

Rated Speed & Pull

Speed 180 ftlmin (S4mlmin) 177 ftlmin (53.9 m/min)


HIGH
Pull 26, 000 rb (11, 776 kg) 26, 000 rb (11, 778 kg)

Speed 108 ft/min (32.9 m/min) 54 fVmin (16.5 m/min)


LOW
Pull 40, ooo rb (18, 120 kg) 80, 000 rb (36, 2ao kg)

Operating Pressure350O psi (24,132.5 kPal

Maximum gpm (L/min) 100 (378.5) 100 (378.5)

Rated Speed & Pull

Speed 200 fUmin (61 m/min) 200 fVmin (61 m/min)


HIGH
Pull 24,700 rb (11,189.1 kg) 25, 000 rb (11, 325 kg)

Speed 113 fVmin (34.4 mimin) 59 fUmin (18 m/min)


LOW
Pull 40, 000 rb (18,120 ks) 80, 000 rb (36, 240 kg)

Operating Pressure4600 psi (33, 096 kPa)

Maximum gpm (L/min) 64 (242.2) 64 t242.2)

Rated Speed & Pull

Speed 200 fUmin (61 m/min) 210ftlmin (M m/min)


HIGH
Pull 21, 000 lb (9513 kg) 22,000lb (9966 kg)

Speed 108 ft/min (32.9 m/min) 59 fUmin (18 m/min)


LOW
Pull 40, 000 rb (18, 120 kg) 80, 000 lb (36, 240 kg)

230635-001t2386924 2-23
Chapter 2 O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

2.7,1.3 INJECTOR HEAD ODOMETER CONVERSION TABLE

Stewart and Stevenson's new injector head odometer reads one mile for every 567 revolutions of
the drive shaft. This, however, does not correspond to one mile of injector usage. The following
conversion table should be used to determine actual injector usage:

CONVERSION ACTUAL INJECTOR


FACTOR USAGE

1 334.1 8 Feet

ODOMETER
MILEAGE x 0.2527
I
I Miles

406.66 Meters

0.4067 Kilometers

As an example, consider an odometer reading of 100 miles. To conveft to feet, multiply by


1334.18. This results in a total injector usage of 133,418'. Similarly, multiply by 406.66 to convert
to 40,666 meters.

2,7.1.4 PRELIMINARY CHECKS

Check all operating fluids, such as engine oil, engine coolant, etc. Grease all bearings and
drivelines. Check all connections. Make sure allfittings are tight, and that all hoses are con-
nected properly. lf any leaks are found, repair immediately.

Before using this equipment, any operator should carefully read the
operation instructions in this section, reviewthe safety summary and
conduct a preoperation safety inspection of the equipment.

lf the operator has ANY QUESTIONS about the safe use or main-
tenance of the coiled tubing unit, ASK THE SUPERVISOR - NEVER
GUESS . ALWAYS CHECK.

2.7.1.5 FLUID CONNECTIONS PANEL FUNCTIONS (Refer to Figurd 2.17)

1. HYDRAULIC INPUT FORWARD DIRECTION Connector. Allows input of hydraulic


fluid to motor(s) for fonrvard direction (into well).

2. HYDRAULIC INPUT REVERSE DIRECTION Connector. Allows input of hydraulic


fluid to motor(s) for reverse direction (out of well).

2-24 230635-001t2386924

t
@ 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 2

3.' FORWARD DIRECTION Gauge. Measures and displays pressure of hydraulic fluid
forforward direction input.

4. REVERSE DIREGTION Gauge. Measures and displays pressure of hydraulic


fluid for reverse direction input.

5. OILER Connector. Allows input of chain lubricant to chain oiler nipples in top of
frame over chains.

6. SPARE Connec'tor.

7. SPEED Connector. Used to control motor displacement which increases and de-
creases speed.

8. BRAKE Connector. Manual control to set and release brake.

9. CHAIN TENSION Connector. Used to control amount of tension applied to the chain to
keep the chain tight.

10. TRACTION - END Connector. Allows control of amount of pressure that chain
(gripper blocks) applies to tubing at ends of chain.

11. STRIPPER PACK Connector. Used to energize packing element to prevent well pres-
sure from venting past tubing.

12. TRACTION MIDDLE Connector. Allows control of


amount of pressure that chain (gripper blocks) applies to tubing
in middle of chain.
',,,,---,,
' "':i.,,' ' ,,,'rl::,,.. 13. STRIPPER RETRACT Gonnector. Removes pressure
: r'r,.-,.
::'" t' from packing element to facilitate changing of packing
| ',* elements.

14. WELL PRESSURE Gonnector. Connection to


optional debooster.

15. RETURN Gonnector. Allows hydraulic fluid to


return to tank.

'16. WEIGHT INDICATOR Connector. Connection


LOAD CELL.

17. LOAD CELL. Senses weight of tubing


string (hydraulic - standard equipment;
electronic - optional equipment).

Figure 2.15, Fluid Connections

230635-001t2386924 2-25
Chapter 2 O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

2.7.1.6 MOTOR SIDE GAUGE PANEL (Refer to Figure 2.18)

1. CHAIN fg'USlOtt GAUGE. Measures and displays input hydraulic pressure from the
CHAIN TENSION Connector.

2. SNUBBING GAUGE. Measures and displays hydraulic pressure being applied to valves
applying tension to chain.

3. TRACTION MIDDLE GAUGE. Measures and displays hydraulic pressure being applied
to tubing in middle of chain.

4. TRACTION END GAUGE. Measures and displays hydraulic pressure being applied to
tubing at ends of chain.

5. END TRACTION BLEED VALVE Handle. Used to relieve hydraulic pressure from
system to allow system to be worked on.

6. MIDDLE TRACTION BLEED VALVE Handle. Used to relieve hydraulic pressure from
system to allow system to be worked on.

7. TENSION BLEED VALVE. Used to relieve hydraulic pressure from system to allow
system to be worked on.

8. ACCUMULATORS. Stores hydraulic pressure and helps maintain system pressure.

9. HYDRAULIC FLUID FILTER (2 each). Used to filter impurities from hydraulic fluid. One
filter for each input.

i=t'
J

!:'::-./

Figure 2.18, Motor Side Gauge Panel


2-26 230635-001t2386924
O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 2

2.7.'1.7 PRESSURE RECOMMENDATIONS

Chain Tension

Later Stewart & Stevenson injector heads have tension cylinders with 2.25" diameter pistons.
These injector heads can snub 20,000 lb (9071.85 kg) with 2,515 psi(17.34 mPa) tension
pressure and 40,000 lb (18143.69 kg)with 5,030 psi (34.68 mPa) tension pressure. Operating
pressure for chain tension should be 500 psi (3447.5 kPa). At that pressure, the chain tension
allows the chain to move smoothly through the injector head. When the chains are slack, the
block ears that engage the chain can be broken. When the chain tension pressure exceeds 500
psi (3447.5 kPa), the chain joints wear quicker, decreasing the chain's longevity without improv-
ing the performance of theinjector head.

A tension circuit holds tension on the lower shafts with low hydraulic pressure whenever the
tension cylinder pressure drops below 500 psi (3447.5 kPa). The principle behind this circuit is
the incompressibility of hydraulic fluid, which if locked in the tension cylinders would cause the
cylinders to act as solid supports for the lower shafts. A pilot-operated check valve is used to
hold hydraulic pressure in the tension cylinders. As the snub load increases, on the lower shaft
the hydraulic oil can't move out of the cylinders and holds the lower shafts in place. To set the
hydraulic pressure in the tension cylinders, increase the pressure to 750 psi (5171.07 kPa) to
900 psi (6205.28 kPa), and then quickly dumps the tension pressure to the tank. The flow out of
the cylinders must pass through an orifice to the tank, while the check valve pilot pressure goes
directly to the tank. The check valve closes before the hydraulic pressure in the tension cylinders
is decreased. A pressure gauge in the tension cylinder manifold shows the pressure in the
tension cylinders, but the pressure gauge on the control panel shows 0 psi.

Well pressure exerts a force on the tubing to push the tubing out of the well which causes slack
in the chains unless the chain tension pressure is increased to compensate for this force. The
operator must compensate for well pressure by adding to the recommended chain tension
pressure an additional pressure which produces in the chain tension cylinders a force equal to
the force produced on the tubing by the well pressure. To find the pressure to add to the recom-
mended operating pressure go to the Varia-Block lll Snubbing Table on the next page. Locate the
well pressure on the right side column and follow the bottom row across to the tubing size and
read the pressure at the intersection. The table only considers well pressure on the tubing and
does not consider stripper and pipe friction.

230635-001t2386924 2-27
Chapter 2 O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

-g
-o
(E
F
ct)

5
lr
e
a
;(J
o
EI
G
G

2-28 230635-001t2386924
O 2005 Stewart a Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 2

Chain Traction

Chain traction is used to ensure that the tubing doesn't slip between the gripper blocks. The follow-
ing chart indicates the recommended traction pressure for a given tubing string weight.

Ghain Traction Table

Tubing String Weight Recommended Traction Pressure

PSI

LB MODEL

400 800 800L 1 100

5,000 700 700 400 400


10,000 700 700 400 400
15,000 800 800 500 500
20,000 900 900 550 550
25,000 1,100 1 ,100 700 700
30,000 1,300 1,300 800 800
35,000 1,400 1.400 900 900
40,000 1,600 1,600 950 950
45,000 1.700 1,000 1,000
50,000 1,800 1,100 1 ,100

55,000 1,900 '1,150 1 ,150

60,000 2,000 1.200 1.200


65,000 2,100 1,300 1,300
70,000 2,200 1,350 1,350
75,000 2,300 1,400 1,400
80,000 2,400 1,450 1,450
85,000 1,500
90,000 1.600
95,000 1,700
100,000 1,800
105,000 1.900
1 10,000 2,000

230635-001t2386924 2-29
7

Chapter 2 @ 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

Negative Snubbinq

Negative snubbing is the force required to force pipe into a pressurized well. The following chart
indicates the required tension pressure for a given negative pipe weight.

Snub Chart

TENSION PRESSURE REQUIRED NEGATIVE PIPE WEIGHT


600 psi -1,580 lb
700 psi -3,180 Ib
800 psi -4,780 tb
900 psi -6,360 lb
1,000 psi -7,960 tb
'l ,'100 ps -9,540 rb
'r,200 ps -11,140lb
1,300 ps -12,720 tb
1.400 ps -14,388 tb
1,500 ps -15,900 tb
1,600 ps -17,500 rb
1.700 psi -19,080 tb
1,800 psi -20,680 rb
1.900 psi -22,260lb
2,000 psi -23.860 rb
2,100 psi -25,440 tb
2,200 psi -27,040|b
2.300 psi -28,628|b
2,400 psi -30.2201b
2.500 osi -31,800 tb
2,600 psi -33,400 tb
2,700 psi -35,000 tb
2,800 psi -36.580 tb
2,900 psi -38,180 tb
3,000 psi -39,760 tb

2_30 230635-001t2386924
O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 2

l\,4inimum Angle (Degrees)

Size Specs 5 6, 7 8 I 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24

in' 1.62 1.88 2.15 2.42 2.69 2.95 3.21 3.48 3.73 4.00 1.26 4.77 5.03 5.28 5.53 5.79 6.03 6.28
Disp
cm3 22.1 26.5 30.9 35.2 39.6 14.0 48.3 52.6 57.0 61.2 65.5 69.8 74.0 82.1 86.6 90.7 94.9 98.9 103.0

107 Limiting
M12X70 I\,112X80 I\.412X90 M12X100
Scr. Size

tn 0.75 0.67 0.59 0.51 0.43 0.35 0.67 0.59 0.51 0.43 0.75 0.67 0.59 0.51 0.43 0.75 0.67 0.59 0.51 0.45
Dim.
X mm 19.0 17.0 15.0 13.0 110 9.0 17.0 15.0 13.0 11.O 19.0 1i.0 150 '13.0 11.0 19.0 17.O 15.0 13.0 11 .0

in3 2.01 2.42 2.81 3.61 4.0'1 441 4.80 5.20 5.59 5.98 6.36 6.75 7.14 752 7.90 8.28 8.65 9.O2 9.40
Disp
cm3 33.0 39.6 46.2 52.7 65.7 72.2 74.7 85.2 91.6 98.0 1M.3 110.7 117.0 123.3 129.5 141.8 147.9 154.0

160 Limiting
t\,412X80 N4'12X90 M'12X100 t\,412X110
Scr. Size

Dim.
in 0.75 0.65 0.57 047 037 0.69 0.61 0.49 0.11 0.71 0.63 0.53 0.43 4.75 0.65 0.55 0.47 0.37

x mm 19.0 16.5 14.5 12.0 9.s 17.5 15.0 10.5 18.0 '16.0 1 1.0 19.0 16.5 14.0 12.4 95

Figure 2.20, Hydraulic Motor t:


lt
ii

I
J
I
1- Limiting Screw 1
I

Hvdraulic Load Cell Adiustment

Perform the following procedures to adjust the hydraulic load cell for use in the injector head.
Refer to Figure 2.21 Hydraulic Load Cellon the next page, during the adjustment procedure.

1. Place a spring in each spring cup (1).

2. Fill the load cell (2) and connecting hoses with hydraulic fluid and bleed the air from the
load cell.

3. Dump the hydraulic fluid from the load cell back to the tank so that the load cell is in the
fully lowered position against the "C" mounting plate.

4. Zero the WEIGHT I N DICATOR gauge.

5. Pump up the load cell (2) untilthe injector is parallelwith the base.

6. Measure the gap that has opened between the "C" mounting plate (3) and the load cell
(2). The opening should be from 3116'to 3/8".

NOTE: lf the gap is inconect, go to step 7. tf the gap is conect, go to step 1 0.

230635-001 t2386924 2-33


Chapter 2 O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

7. Adjust the load cell mounting assembly to obtain the proper gap.

8. Dump the hydraulic fluid from the load cell (2) back to the tank.
g. Repeat steps 3 through 8 of the adjustment procedure until the gap is correct.
10. With the injector parallelto the base, turn the spring lock nuts one turn each to compress
the springs in the spring cups equally untilthe WEIGHT INDICATOR gauge reads 10,000
lb for the Series 400, and 18,000 lb for the Series 800L.

11. Dump the hydraulic fluid from the load cell (2) back to the tank. The WEIGHT INDICA-
TOR gauge should read "0" again.

12. Pump the load cell (2) up untilthe injector is parallelwith the base. The WEIGHT lNDl-
CATOR gauge should again read 10,000 lb for the Series 400, and 18,000 lb for the
Series 800L.

The weight reading will vary with temperature.

:: j'
:i i
li 1.. l

Figure 2.21, Hydraulic Load Cell

1 - Spring Gup

2 - Load Cell

3 - 'tC" Mounting Plate

2-34 230635-00112386924
L,

@ 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 2

2.7.2 REEL OPERATION

CTU reel assemblies have no control mechanisms to operate the assembly as an independent
unit. All controls for the coiled tubing reel are usually located in the operator's control cabin.

Tvpical CTU Reel Hvdraulic Circuit Operatins Sequence

Regardless of the operating system used, the general operating sequence should remain the
same provided all component parts are present. The following description will go through initia-
tion of operating commands, and the hydraulic execution of those commands will go through the
equipment usually furnished on the CTU reel.

Reel Operation Circuit '

The control console is set up lN HOLE / OUT HOLE When the reel pilot is in the OUT HOLE /
SPOOL lN position, controlled or reduced hydraulic pressure is supplied to the front side or inlet
of the reel motor. Hydraulic pressure maintains tension on the reel while tubing is being pulled
into the injector head. At the same time the tubing is being pulled into the injector head, the
opposite side or low side of the reel motor experiences 150 psi to 200 psi of back hydraulic
pressure to prevent cavitation damage to the reel motor. This back pressure ensures smooth
operation of the CTU reel.

The CTU reel brake is manually operated from the controlvalve located on the control console
in the control cabin. When the control valve for CTU reel brake is moved into the OFF position,
hydraulic pressure is applied to the reel brake, releasing the brake. The pilot pressure from the
control valve is sent to the reel direction control valve, mounted directly under the control
cabin. Hydraulic fluid is then directed to OUT HOLE i SPOOL lN mode. The amount of pres-
sure is controlled by the CTU reel tension pressure control mounted in the control cabin. This
pressure can be monitored by the hydraulic pressure gauge on the control panel.

The tubing reel brake must be released prior to operation of the


injector. Failure to do so can cause damage to the CTU compo-
nents.

Levelwind Up & Down Circuit

The levelwind circuit is operated by the main hydraulic system supply pressure and shares the
common hydraulic supply reservoir.

Shifting the controlvalve to the UP position sends hydraulic pressure through the load holding
valves, check valves, and to the hydraulic cylinders which lift the mechanism.

Shifting the control valve to the LOWER position opens the holding valves and allows hydraulic
fluid to return to the hydraulic supply reservoir. The weight of the levelwind assembly assists with
this function.

230635-001t2386924 2-35
t'

Chapter 2 O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

2.7.2.1 REEL COMPONENT ADJUSTMENTS FOR DIFFERENT TUBING SIZES

All CTU reels are capable of operation with a range of tubing sizes. As the tubing sizes are
changed on the reel, additional r"nodifications are necessary to accommodate larger and smaller
tubing sizes. Four main areas affected by a tubing size change are:

. Tubing ReelCapacity
. LevelwindSynchronizingSprockets
. Totalizing Counter Wheels
. lnhibitor lnjector Guides (Lubricator)

Care should be taken to ensure that operators have completed all changes to components and
are aware of changes in reel capacity before any operation of the unit.

Levelw i nd Svn ch ro n izi nq Sp rockets

Specific sprocket combinations are required to maintain drum and levelwind synchronization
during operation. Custom combinations can be provided for nonstandard tubing.

Verify the CTU reel design assembly type. They are either an internal or an external reel motor
design. Sprocket locations change on internal and external reel assemblies.

LEVELWIND ASSEMBLY TIMING SPROCKETS FOR DIFFERENT SIZED TUBING

OD of Tubing Small Driver Sprocket* Large Slave Sprocket*

'1.000" 12 44

1.250" 15 44

'1.500" '18 44

1.750" 21 44

2.000" 24 44

2.375" 22 34

2.875" 29 37

* Slave and driver sprocket locations vary. Be sure to identify reel design type and
proper sprocket location.

2-36 230635-001t2386924
i.,

@ 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 2

Total izi ng Cou nter Wheel s

Guide Counter Wheels are located just above the vertical slide section of the levelwind. lt contains
four guide wheels that cannot function properly unless they are sized for specific tubing sizes.

When preparing equipment to run a different tubing size, make sure the wheels match the new
tubing and that they are properly lubricated before operating the new configuration.

lnhibitor lniector Guides (Lubricator)

When this option is included, both guides, front and back, are located below the levelwind as-
sembly. The cylindrical assembly offers easy access and installation of a different set of guide
plates to accommodate other tubing sizes.

After changing the plates, check to ensure that the new assembly is fully charged and ready to
be put into service.

Pressure Debooster 4:1

There are two 4:1 deboosters on the coiled tubing unit. One is located on the side of the injector
head. The other debooster is located on the side of the tubing reel to read the pressure of the
circulating fluid inside the coiled tubing. Wellhead pressure is read from this debooster and sent
to the control console at a reduced scale.

A high pressure line connects the high pressure port on the debooster to the wellhead pressure
port on the stripper. Always ensure the debooster is filled with the recommended fluid upon
reassembly and all trapped air is bled from the system.

When reassembling the debooster:

1. Fill the base completely with fluid.


2. lnsert separator boot as shown above.
3. Attach body, ensuring that no air remains trapped.
4. Thread on the locking collar.
5. Use a hammer to tighten.
6. Bleed any line air using the bleeder valve located on the rear of the gauge housing.

2.7,3 COILED TUBING UNIT MAINTENANCE NOTES


Maintenance Benefits

The coiled tubing unit is ensured of its best performance and reliability when a scheduled pre-
ventive maintenance program is followed. A small cost and effort expended for a preventive
maintenance program yields improved performance and efficiency. For more maintenance
information, such as recommended lubricants, maintenance schedules, etc., refer to Chapter 3
and the O/VGC TC-12580 Coiled Tubing Unit Parts Catalog.

230635-001t2386924 2-37
Chapter 2 @ 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

Nature of Preventive Maintenance


rt

The nature of preventive maintenance demands operator awareness of the coiled tubing unit's
operation. Awareness demands consciousness of abnormalities such as leaks, knocks, or smoke.
Awareness demands knowing the injector head's equipment capabilities and perceiving the
equipment's service needs. Being aware can also be described as being watchful, or being alert.

Regardless of the method or manner of detection, the potential failure should be promptly cor-
rected in order to prevent a shutdown or a breakdown. The corrective actions taken or the
service rendered constitute preventive m a nte n a n ce.
i

2.7.4 POWER UNIT OPERATION


The function of the power pack is to provide hydraulic power to the coiled tubing unit. The power
pack may be either trailer-, skid-, or truck-mounted. Trailer- and skid-mounted power packs will
utilize their diesel engine to power the hydraulic pumps. Atruck-mounted unit may use the road
engine of the truck to power the hydraulic pumps through the use of a power splitter. ln most
cases it will be outfitted with a small air compressor and alternator to power any pneumatic or
electric controls.

The three pumps in the system are:

1. Two Parker pumps, one supplying system pressure for all hydraulic functions, and the
other dedicated to the crane.

2. One Sauer Danfoss pump supplying flow to the 1.25" or 1.5" power hoses to the injector
head.

For operations and maintenance information on these pumps, consult the vendor literature found
in the ONGC TC-12580 Coiled Tubing Unit Parls Catatog.

Before operating the power pack, the items listed below must be checked:

. Proper oil level.


. Proper coolant level.
. Dieselfueltanklevel.
. Fan and alternator belts.
. Close the accumulator valve.
. All suction valves to pumps should be opened.
' Open accumulator valve so you are not starling under hydraulic load. Close this valve
after engine is warmed up.
. Hydraulic oil level (bleed off 1 1 gal (42 L) accumulator first).
' Reel and injector head oilers (summer-50/50 of oil:diesel; winter-{iesel only).
. Reel and levelwind chains for correct adjustment and any link damage

2-38 230635-001t2386924

I
n,
t

@ 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 3

;
CHAPTER 3
MAINTENANCE /

lf the operator has ANY QUESTIONS about the safe mainte- ,""f,
nance of the unit, ASK THE SUPERVISOR - NEVER GUESS -
ALWAYS CHECK.

3.1 NATURE OF MAINTENANCE


Awareness The nature of maintenance demands operator awareness of the coiled tubing
unit's operation. Awareness demands consciousness of abnormalities such as unusual knocks
and perceiving
or smoke. Awareness also demands knowing the coiled tubing unit's capabilities
the equipment's seryice needs. Being aware can also be described as being watchful, or being
aleft.

Promptlv Corrected Regardless of the method and manner of detection, the potential failure
should be promptly corrected, in order to minimize the likelihood of a shutdown or a breakdown.
The corrective actions taken or the service rendered constitute maintenance.

3.1.1 ACTTONS

Maintenance calls for actions that lessen the need for major repair work. These actions can be
performed at an operator level, and can usually be categorized into (1) maintenance, (2) treating
for corrosion, and (3) servicing.

Maintenance The operational level maintenance described in this manual is primarily the action
of checking, adjusting, and testing for the proper operation and set points (calibrating), tightening
loose components, and determining operational readiness of the data unit's systems. Mainte-
nance is also maintaining the proper amounts (levels) of lubricating oil, coolant, fuel, etc., and
clean i ng filtration systems/chang i n g fi lters.

Treatinq for Corrosion This necessary, ongoing process consists of thorough cleaning,
lubrication, and assurance of protective finish integrity. Coiled tubing units transported to loca-
tions where high humidity or high temperatures are prevalent require extra awareness.

Servicinq Servicing the unit is performing major repair work such as replacing a control or
circuit, replacing software, rewiring, etc. An example of major electrical repair work is repairing/
changing wiring, troubleshooting systems, etc. Major repair work can be accomplished by
service-level personnel and by use of OEM manuals.

NOTE: While performing service on equipment, refer to the specific


equipment service manuals supplied in the ONGC TC-12580 Coiled
Tubing Unit Pafts Catalog.

\*-"

230635-001t2386924 3-1
7

Chapter 3 @ 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

3.2 SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE


General lnstructions Engine fluids and lubricants should be checked before and after each
operation. netl or replace as necessary. Fluid capacities are approximate based on
manufacturers' data. Capacities on individual units may vary due to custom changes. Filters
should always be changed with the fluids they protect to ensure long equipment life
and dependability.

Visually inspect allfittings and hoses before, and after, each operation. Tighten any loose fittings and
.replace any worn hoses, as necessary. This will ensure the longevity and dependability ofthe unit.

Perform maintenance on items daily, weekly, or when the hour meter registers the recom-
mended scheduled hours of operation. 'l

Guideline Because operating requirements for this unit will vary this maintenance program
should be used as a guideline in conjunction with an ongoing operational analysis program.

3.3 MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS


3.3.1 DAILY MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS
Daily maintenance is operational level service to the unit. These maintenance procedures are
part of the before and after operation checklists and operating procedures in Chapter 2.

NOTE: While performing service on equipment, always park equip-


ment on level ground and tag unit "Out of Service".

Preoperation Maintenance Tasks

Check Coiled Tubing Unit Connections

1. Verify that.all electrical interconnections and fuel lines are in place and secure.

2. Proceed with maintenance or return unit to service.

Check Enclosure Lights And Battery System

1. Check all lights of the deck assembly and all connections for electrical system and
proper positioning after being transported

2. Verify that batteries are charged, in place, and connections are secure.

3. Verify that all electrical interconnections to the control panelare in place and secure.

4. Proceed with maintenance or return unit to service.

3-2 230635-001t2386924
i
I
tL
Chapter 3 O 2005 Stewa( & Stevenson Services, lnc.

8. Replace the gearbox level plug (2).

9. Replace the gearbox filler plug in the port in the top of the frame .

3.3.5.1 INJECTOR HEAD TROUBLESHOOTING

The following troubleshooting charts provide information for diagnosing and correcting problems
with the Series 400 and 800 lnjector Head. This information will help you to quickly identify the
problem and to make the necessary repairs to bring the unit back into service. The categories
iovered with these charts are:

lnjector Running Without Control Signals - Flow Chart 1

lnjector Will Not Operate - Flow Char1.2

lnjector Head Not Operating Smoothly; Erratic - Flow Chart 3

lnjector Speed Does Not Change - Flow Chart 4

lnjector Has No Power - Flow Chafi 5

For troubleshooting of a more general nature, consult the troubleshooting tables in Chapter 2.
These tables cover the following topics:

General Hydraulic Problems

Transmission Problems

Brake Problems

NOTE: Remember, troubleshooting charts can only indicate problem


areas. They are not a substitute for the knowledge of a licensed
mechanic. Two completely different problems can have similar symp-
toms. Only qualified individuals should attempt repairs.

Flow Chaft 1 lnjector Running Without Control StEtna/s

Check null adjust on main


injector pump.

Check position of all injector


controls.

3-20 230635-00112386924
i
t.
\_-
O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 3

Flow Chart 2 lnjector Will Not Operate


Check for proper PTO
& gear ratio.
1:1

Check main injector pump Dead head main injector


output pressure in control hoses & dial pressure up
panel (note 1). (note 1).

Check injector control pilot Check pressure at outlets of


pressure joystick (note 2). , joystick. lt should be
variable.

Check injector pressure Contaminates in poppet & Clean, repair, or


adjust in control cabin seat assembly replace valve panel
(note 3). mount cabin.

Check auto and/or manual brake pressure, or air


braking system (note 4). braking system.

Case leakage should not


Check hydraulic motors. exceed 1.5 gpm under full
load.

Check counter balance


setting (note 5).

Note 1: Max pump output pressure: LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM-3500 psi, HIGH- PRESSURE SYSTEM 5000 psi.
Note 2: lnjector control pilot pressure 0 - 1000 psi.
Note 3: lnjector pressure adjust: LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM 0 - 3500 psii HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEM 0 - 5000 psi.
Note 4. Brake release pressure: Manual - 350 psi. Automatic - 750 - 800 psi.
Note 5: Counter balance setting 500 - 600 psi

230635-00112386924 3-21
7

Chapter 3 O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

Flow Chaft 3 lnjector Head Operating Erratically (

Check charge pressure at


main pump (note 1).

Check brake system circuit


(note 2).

Check counter balance


setting (note 3).

Chain tension pressure too


low (note 4).

Call Service Department (281) 345-5100

Stripper pack pressure too


high.

Remove load and operate Repair or replace damaged


injector or broken bearings.

Note 1: Charge pressure is 350 psi.


Note 2: Brake release pressure; Manual - 350 psi, Automatic - 750 - 800 psi.
Note 3: Counter balance setting 500 - 600 psi.
Note 4: Chain tension not to exceed 400 to 500 psi with no well pressure.

:a..

3-22 230635-001t2386924
O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 3

Flow Chart 2 lnjector Will Not Operate


Check for proper PTO
& gear ratio.
1:1

Check main injector pump Dead head main injector


output pressure in control hoses & dial pressure up
panel (note 1). (note 1).

Check injector control pilot Check pressure at outlets of


pressure joystick (note 2),, joystick. lt should be
variable.

Check injector pressure Contaminates in poppet & Clean, repair, or


adjust in control cabin seat assembly replace valve panel
(note 3). mount cabin.

Check auto and/or manual Low brake pressure, or air in


braking system (note 4). braking system.

Case leakage should not


Check hydraulic motors. exceed 1.5 gpm under full
load.

Check counter balance


setting (note 5).

Note 1: Max pump output pressure: LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM-3500 psi; HIGH- PRESSURE SYSTEM 5000 psi.
Note 2: lnjector control pilot pressure 0 - '1000 psl.
Note 3: lnjector pressure adjust: LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM 0 - 3500 psi: HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEM 0 - 5000 psi.
Note 4: Brake release pressure: Manual - 350 psi. Automatic - 750 - 800 psi.
Note 5. Counter balance setting 500 - 600 pst.

23063s-001t2386924 3-21
O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc. Chapter 3

Flow Chart 4 lnjector Speed Does Not Change

Check speed control in


control cabin (note 1).

Check speed control


quick disconnect on
injector head.

Check hoses for pinched


or damaged supply line.

Check for air in hydraulic


lines (note 3).

Note 1: Speed control 0 - 400 psi.


Note 2: System supply pressure 3000 psi
Note 3: Main iniector supply pump 350 - 5000 psi.

Flow Chart 5 lnjector Has No Power

Low brake pressure, or air Repair or replace


in braking system.

Check main injector pump Check charge pressure or


(note 1). system output pressure.

Check speed control Ensure tubing weight not Lower speed control
pressure (note 2). too heavy for high speed. pressure in control
cabin.

Check hydraulic motors on Case leakage should not


injector. exceed 1,5 gpm
per motor.

Note 1: Main injector supply pump 350 to 5000 psi.


Note 2: Speed control 0 to 400 psi.

230635-001t2386924 3-23
7

Chapter 3 O 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Services, lnc.

3.3.6 COILED TUBING REEL MAINTENANCE

lnspectinq is the action of visually going over the coiled tubing reel to check for loose fittings,
nuts, bolts, etc. lnspecting is also checking the frame and base for cracks in welds and support-
ing members.

Adiustinq is correcting misalignments, testing for leaking seals or 0-rings, and tightening loose
components.

Servicinq is the action of maintaining the proper amounts (levels) of lubricating grease and
hydraulic fluid. Servicing also encompasses replacing or cleaning filter elements, as well as
performing minor repair work. An example of minor repair work is replacing a master link on the
levelwind chain.

3.3.6.1 SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE

Scheduled maintenance is intended to ensure satisfactory operation and economical mainte-


nance costs. The "Recommended Maintenance Timetable," on the next page, lists operator level
inspections.

The designated intervals for scheduled maintenance are for normal operation under usual
conditions. Scheduled maintenance should be conducted more frequently if operating under
unusual or severe conditions including temperature, salt water, and blowing sand or dirt.

General Maintenance lnspection (Before Each Operation)

This is by no means the only maintenance required to ensure an optimum level of performance
and safety from CTU reel assemblies. However, it is a minimum reasonable level of assurance
that the equipment, under normal conditions and operations, will operate safely and effectively.

1. Perform a visual and manual inspection of all quick disconnect connections on the
hydraulic hoses.

2. Check the oil level in the power wheel.

3. lnspect visually and manually all hydraulic lines for leaks or loose connections.

4. Perform a visual inspection of all bulkhead connections, especially the return connec-
tions.

5. All pressure gauges must be in working order.

6. Perform a visual inspection of all chain link pins. Check master links with extra care.

7 . Check all bearings for signs of overheating and lubrication.

B. Perform a visual inspection of allfasteners.

3-24 230635-00112386924