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In the modern age there is no guarantee for man’s life, due to the carelessness. Due to the
lack of hospitals and poor treatment the human life became a big question. The need of a hospital
becomes so important in a society. In the society the important of a good and well equipped
hospital becomes a vital factor. In this modern age the man should give greater importance to
make up his existence for a longer period with a good health.

In now a day due to the pollution of the environment by several factors the world becomes a
dirty one. Due to that new disease is developing day by day. For that without full checkup the
doctors were not able to detect the exact disease. There the need of multispecialty or super
specialty hospital. In there we can check everything related to our health.

So as per our curriculum and with the importance of life we choose our project as the
planning and design of a multispecialty hospital. Limit state method is used for the structural
design of all members. , Limit state method includes the consideration of structures at both
working and ultimate load levels with a view to satisfy the requirements of both safety and


Highly complicated organ implants are also conducted in many Kerala hospitals. In many
cases these are life threatening conditions which require emergency intervention. Hospitals in
Kerala focus on providing complete medical care solutions and have well-equipped operation
theatres, trained trauma and critical care teams and the back-up support of labs and blood banks,
to deal with any emergencies

In the word itself multispecialty means it should contain more than one specialty. In a
multispecialty hospital there are major five specialties. They are Cardiology, Nephrology,

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Neurology &Neuro surgery, Gastroenterology & Urology. In order to that there are other
facilities such as casualty ,lobby ,enquiry ,security ,reception/registration, lifts for service such as
patients and equipments, stairs for fire escape and service ,ducts for electricity sanitary
etc.,pharmacy , cash/account , STD booth, MRI ,Ultrasonic ,CT scanning, sterilizing area,
canteen, operation theatre, mortuary, ramp, Rooms for separate consultancy ,oxygen networking,
AC plant,water tank, transformer house, Water treatment plant , parking area etc


Kerala has become one of the leading medical tourism destinations of India. There are a
number of specialty hospitals in Kerala that offer specialized care for complex medical
conditions. The quality of health care offered by the doctors, nurses and support staff make a
medical tourism in Kerala the preferred choice of patients seeking healthcare solutions in

Fig1. Model Of Multispecialty Hospital

Specialty hospitals in Kerala are at the forefront of medical tourism. Many of the
hospitals offer a complete package that includes consultancy with a medical specialist,
diagnosis, appropriate medical treatment, pre and post-operative care, and even arrangements
for a family member or attendant to stay with the medical tourist.

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Specialty hospitals in Kerala have opened their doors to patients from around the world and
have gained a reputation for their quality treatment and medical care.

Specialty Hospitals in Kerala offer treatment in various medical specialties. From specialized
eye care centers to brain and spinal surgery centers, specialty hospitals offer world-class care
in select medical disciplines. Many of the specialty hospitals in Kerala have faculty who have
studied and worked abroad and have returned to India to teach and to build a world-class
medical infrastructure in India. These specialty hospitals are now attracting patients from
around the world.

Some of the specialty hospitals in Kerala are:

 Amritha Institute of Medical Science & Research Centre, Ernakulam

 SreeChitraTirunal Institute of Medical Science, Trivandrum
 Chaithanya Eye Hospital & Research Institute, Trivandrum
 AtingalMultispeciality Hospital, Trivandrum
 Indo-American Brain & Spine Hospital, Vaikom
 Specialist's Hospital, Ernakulam
 Trichur Heart Hospital, Thrissur
 NIMS Hospital, Neyyattinkara
 KIMS Hospital, Trivandrum

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1.Commercial Building Structural Design And Analysis By: KevinDucharme, Mathew

Paladino , Advised by Professor Leonard Albano

Commercial buildings represent a large portion of new construction projects throughout the
U.S. Commercial buildings designed for consumer interaction and sales often present unique
structural and architectural design challenges due to the emphasis on aesthetics and
performance. This Major Qualifying Project investigated the design of a two-story
commercial building with a large span lobby for sales agents and consumers. The group used
the project to demonstrate fundamental knowledge of civil engineering gained from
undergraduate courses at WPI. Topics not covered in the undergraduate curriculum were
researched and explored including the design and construction of a dome roof and a partial
glass curtain wall.

The project team’s goal was to design an architectural plan and structural system that is cost
effective, safe, and accommodating to the proposed use. The project team established an
architectural layout and floor plan based on the building’s projected commercial use. The
floor plan and building layout were designed in accordance with the Massachusetts State
Building Code 7th Edition. The team then designed a structural framing system. All principle
structural members were designed, including beams, girders, columns, connections, and
foundation elements. Frame designs investigated both steel and concrete construction. Both
materials were compared and analyzed resulting in one final, cost-effective structural frame
using one of the materials. To explore new areas of interest the group included a dome roof, a
front glass wall,

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The literature analyzing the relationship between performance anddesign often considers only
one dimension of performance and design. For instance, authors use only profit for
performance or only information system for describing design. We could validate this model
thanks to simulation of the organizational behaviors in alternative designs andThis project
demonstrated the group’s knowledge of civil engineering while also dealing with a few
unique structural engineering design aspects that could be involved in real world applications.

2. Organisational Design And Hospital Performance By : Muriel Creteur, YevesPochet

This paper is only one part of a larger research that aims at modeling the relationship between
organizational design and hospital performance. This research is related to the changing
context of hospitalpayment systems. We observe the generalization of either prospective
payment systems or more controlledretrospective payment systems. We want to analyze
whether or not the traditional structure of hospitals is stillappropriate by analyzing the
existing literature in a single global model. Before modeling their relationship,we have to
define hospital performance and to determine which organizational design hospital could
choose.concept of hospital performance and provided criteria to evaluate it:
efficiency,financial results, the patient satisfaction, and the quality of care and human


In general, the future researches that will allow us to model the relationship between
organizational design and performance. The literature analyzing the relationship between
performance anddesign often considers only one dimension of performance and design. For
instance, authors use only profitfor performance or only information system for describing
design. In future research, we would like tointegrate this existing literature and its partial
contribution in a single global model.

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Organization and performance should be decrease the amount of information to be handled
and to increase the capacity of informationprocessing by means of rules, hierarchy and
planning,decrease the amount of information to be handled by creating slack
resources,increase the capacity of information handling by developing the information

3. Hospital Facilities And The Role Of Evidence Based Design By : Franklin

Becker,Kelley Department of Design and Environmental Analysis, Cornell
University,Ithaca, New York, USA

Virtually all of the research on patient-cantered care to date has focused on in-patientrather
than outpatient facilities and services. Despite the fact that hospitals arespending millions of
dollars to improve the physical attractiveness of their facilities,particularly public areas such
as lobbies and waiting areas, no studies have examinedin a hospital setting and with actual
patients whether the attractiveness of outpatient physical settings in which patients wait
affects perceived quality of care. To providemore systematic evidence about whether the
investment in more attractive patientareas increased the perceived quality of care, Becker and
Jones-Douglas (2006) collecteddata on patients’ perceived quality of care and the relationship
to perceived and actualwaiting times in both primary waiting areas and in exam rooms in six
outpatientfacility practices that varied significantly in physical attractiveness.


In general, Study assessing the relationship between the physical attractiveness of outpatient
facilitieson patients’ perceived quality of care to illustrate the role evidence-based designcan
play in facility planning and design. For researchon facilities and their relationship to
teamwork and collaboration amongmulti-disciplinary care teams. Implementing evidence-
based design, and suggests ways in which more formalacademic research can be combined
with practice-based research to garner the benefitsof systematic assessment in the context of
real world time and resource constraints.

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4. Characteristics Of Hospital Building Changes ,Process And Quality By : Giuseppe
Pellitleri, D.P.C.E., University Of PalermoFlavia Belvedere,D.P.C.E., University Of

Functional aspects of a hospital building often overshadowthe others that characterize its
architecture. These objects were pursued also through the contributionof disciplines very
different: like Environmental Psychology,expressive arts, ergonomic, art of gardening,
EvidenceBased Design, studies on the perception of shape andcolour. Several of these are
related to the architecture ingeneral, other are related to the hospital building inparticular. For
example, the Cognitive Psychology says thata corridor with more than two changes of
direction doesn’t help to create a mental map for the orientation.


Hospital buildings and humanization of spacessupporting the health activity are the basis
defining designguidelines and humanizeimportant spaces, like those supporting the health
activity.These criteria will be written for each aspect analyzed andderive directly from the
evaluation of its architectural quality according to the optimal parameters introduced.In fact
from the analysis carried out and observing actualtrends, we have saw that in those areas
optimal levels ofarchitectural quality in terms of humanization have notbeen
achieved.Obviously taking into account emerging criteria will beeasier for new hospitals.
More complex is to act withinexisting hospitals, where however is always essential tosolve
the problem of humanization. In existing buildingshumanization doesn’t follow the same
logics of newbuildings. Sometimes it is better to change their usemaking them housing or

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The present investigation is aimed to study the subsoil condition at the site and to
recommend the suitable foundation for the proposed building With the aid and necessity and
the requirement of the hospital we select the site near Kazhakootam, which is a developing
area in Kerala due to the launching of smart city in this area the need of a multispecialty
hospital become much important.


Kazhakootam is a locality in Thiruvananthapuram city, the capital of Kerala, India. It is

located on the National Highway 47 on the way to Kollam from the city, and has gained in
significance because of proximity to Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre,
andTechnopark.Kazhakootam is the heart of the IT sector of Thiruvananthapuram having the
Technopark as well as the offices of many multinational companies along the IT
corridor.Kazhakootam is well connected by road and rail.


The test is performed in a clean hole, 50 to 150mm in diameter. A casing or drilling

mud is used to support the sides of the hole. A thick wall split-tube sampler, 50.8 mm OD and
35mm Id, is driven into the undisturbed soil at the bottom of the hole under the blows of a
63.5 kg drive weight with75cm free fall. The minimum open length of the sample should be

The split tube sampler, commonly known as split spoon sample resting on the bottom of the
bore hole is allowed to sink under its own weight. It is then seated 15cm with the blows of
hammer falling through a height of 75cm.

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Thereafter the split spoon sampler is further driven by 30cm or 50 blows.The number of
blows required to affect each 15cm penetration is recorded.

The first 15cm drive may be considered as seating drive. The total blows required for second
and third 15cm of penetration is termed as the penetration resistance N. If the split spoon
sampler is driven less than 45cm (total), then the penetration resistance shall be for the last 30
cm of penetration. The entire sampler may sink under its own weight when very soft sub-soil
stratum is encountered. Under such conditions, it may not be necessary to give any blow to be
sampler and SPT value should be indicated as zero. The value ofstandard penetrationtest is

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The KIMS Hospital, the only biggest hospital in south Kerala, is owned by KIMS Group of
Hospital Ltd. It has been designed and commissioned as a 650 bedded hi-tech super specialty
hospital of world standard to impart excellent medical treatment at an affordable cost to the
sick and the suffering.

The management is committed to develop KIMS Hospital with a mission "care with courtesy
compassion and competence”.The hospital at present has the following departments, facilities
& special clinics.

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Planning and design should be done for each component and great care should be provided.
They are provided as per the code provisions such as and related to NBC, KBR. The role of
architecture in development of healthcare facilities is as old as civilization itself. Needless to
mention, it has responded to the changing needs of the health sector, just as it has done to the
other spheres of life. The resultant effect has been seen in provision of design solutions that
either enhanced the impact of delivery of care and/or made the delivery of care more
efficient. This contribution to the humanity is a tribute to the interdisciplinary approach in the
health facility planning and de- sign process. It also marks the significance of tailoring the
design solutions to the care needs of the individuals, both sick and otherwise, and all those
who are involved in the healthcare delivery process.

A suitable plot of land in the heart of Kazhakootam has been acquired for setting up the
Kazhakootam Medical Centre. The Hospital will be housed in 3660.62sq.ftbuilding.For
constructingbuilding total plinth area of basement floor is 797.68sq.ft and that of FAR area is
589.55sq.ft, total plinth area of ground floor is 814.15sq.ft and that of FAR area is
800.05sq.ft, total plinth area of second floor is 789.62sq.ft and that of FAR area is
775.52sq.ft,total plinth area of third floor is 291.71sq.ft and that of FAR area is 284.51sq.ft,
total plinth area of terrace floor is 119.23sq.ft and that of FAR area is 112.03sq.ft. There will
be a separate car parking facility for 100 cars. The Centre will be a modern hospital with each
specialty department having the finest in diagnostic and therapeutic equipment. Apart from
OP and IP wards, various ICU’s, four state-of-the-art major operation theatres with vertical
laminar flow ventilation, surgical control panel, ceiling pendants and anti-static seamless
flooring will maintain the highest standards of sterility and sophistication. The hospital will
have air-conditioned suites, air-conditioned deluxe rooms, air-conditioned rooms, ordinary
rooms and wards to suit different budgets.

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The softwaresand programused in this project,

• AUTOCAD 2011For making Layout and Detailing drawings

• MS OFFICE2007 For Estimation Tables and Report making
• STAAD PROV8I 2007  For design and analysis 

The software is released by Research Engineers International, California and U.S.A. It has an
initiative, user-friendly GUI, visualization tools, powerful analysis and design facilities and
seamless integration to several other modeling and design software products. The software has
provisions to allow us to specify the entire structure as a collection of its various elements to
discretize the structure. The software has an extremely friendly GUI that makes modeling easy
and accurate. For static, dynamic, or pushover analysis of bridges, containment
structures(tunnels and culverts),pipe racks, steel, concrete, aluminium or timber buildings,
transmission towers, stadiums or any other simple or complex structure, STAAD.Prov8 2007
has been the choice of design professionals around the world for their specific analysis needs. It
provides a comprehensive and integrated finite element and design solution, including a state-of
–the-art-user interface, visualization tools and international design codes. It is capable of
analyzing any structure exposed to a dynamic response, soil-structure interaction, or wind,
earthquake, and moving loads.

Once when the overall geometry of the structure has been specified, the section properties of the
individual member elements are specified .Thereafter, loading on the members are specified.
Following this, the support conditions relevant to the structure are specified well. The input to
the software can easily be inspected and modified with help of STAAD editor. Thereafter, the
analysis can be performed. The analysis yields us the parameters required for performing the
structural design of thestructure. The required value can directly be read from the STAAD output
file. The software also allows us to perform design as per specifications in various international
codes of practice.

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6.1 AUTOCAD 2011

All the drawing and detailing works were done by making use of AutoCAD 2011, released by
AUTODESK Inc. As such, this is the pioneering software in CAD. AutoCAD is a vector
graphics drawing program. It uses primitive entities such as lines, poly-lines, circles, arcs and
text as the foundation for more complex objects. AutoCAD’s native file format, DWG, and to
alesser e x tent, its interchange file format, D X F has become the standards for interchange of
CAD data.

6.2 MSOFFICE2007

MS Word is very popular word processing software issued by Microsoft Corporation. Over time,
it has evolved in to a very popular package for handling all times of documentation and
reporting. The software is very versatile and user friendly and has several features that makes
document editing efficient. Documentation of all the work was done in MS Word 2007.

6.3 STAAD PROV8I 2007

The purpose of analysis is to determine the moment and shear forces at various sections of the
structure under any loading condition. In order to perform the analysis the proportion of the
various structure elements are to be known in advance for the preliminary design is essential.
Thus in practice analysis and design are interactive. The structure consists of Ground and one
upper floor designed as framed structure. A frame consists of column and beams built
monolithically forming a network. Frame is designed for live load, Dead load. The beam and
column enslaving all the loads inclusive of wall and non load bearing walls. The frames are
analyzed using STADD PRO. STADD PRO is a suit for inter related structural software, offering
a complete solution for the professional structural Engineer’s STADD PRO consists of a
core.package and several optional functions

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The proposed three storied hospital building consist of total floor area of 1020m2 with 2000 m2
plot size. A building should be planned to make it comfortable, economical and to meet all the
requirements of the people. The efforts of the planner should be to obtain maximum comfort
with limited available resources. The hospital building to be analyzed and designed as per IS
specifications. Computer-aided drafting software program, AutoCAD, is used to create precise
drawings used in construction and manufacturing.

Fig 2. Typical Basement Floor Plan

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Fig3.Typical Ground Floor Plan

Fig 4.TypicalFirst Floor Plan

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Fig 5.TypicalSecond Floor Plan

Fig 6.TypicalThird Floor Plan

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The various loads considered for the analysis were:

Dead Loads as per IS: 875 (Part I) – 1987

These are the self-weights of the structure to be designed. The dimensions of the cross
section are to be assumed initially which enable to estimate the dead load from the known unit
weights of the structure. The values of the unit weights of the materials are specified in IS
875:1987(Part-I).Dead load includes self-weight of columns, beams, slabs, brick walls, floor
finish etc.

I. Dead load of slab

Self-weight of 120mm thick slab = 0.12× 25 = 3.0 KN/m2

Self weight of floor finish = 1.5 KN/m2

Total dead load of slab = 4.5 KN/m2

II. Dead load of brick wall

Self-weight of 230 mm thick brick wall = 0.23×(3.6-0.60)×19


100 mm thick wall = 0.13×(3.6-0.60)×19

= 7.41KN/m2

Parapet Load = 5 KN/m2

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Live Loads as per IS: 875 (Part II) - 1987

They are also known as imposed loads and consist of all loads other than the dead loads
of the structure. The values of the imposed loads depend on the functional requirement of the
structure. The standard values are stipulated in IS 875:1987(Part-II).

For ,Rooms=2.5kN/m2Balcony =3kN/m2Stair case =5kN/m2

Wind loads

These loads depend on the velocity of the wind at the location of the structure,
permeability of the structure, height of the structure etc. They may be horizontal or inclined
forces depending on the angle of inclination of the roof for pitched roof structures. Wind loads
are specified in IS 875 :( Part-3).

Basic wind speed in Kerala, Vb= 39 m/sec

Design wind speed,Vz=𝑉𝑏 × 𝑘1 × 𝑘2 × 𝑘3 [clause 5.3 of IS 875: (Part-3)]


k1 = probability factor

k2 = terrain, height and structure size factor

k3= topography factor

Basic wind pressure,Pz= 0.6 Vz2[clause 5.4 of IS 875:(Part -3)]

The wind loads are assigned as nodal forces on frames.

Wind force on each node,F = 𝐴𝑒 × 𝑃𝑧


𝐴𝑒 = Effective area on each node

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Design of the structures would have become highly expensive in order to maintain either
serviceability and safety if all types of forces would have acted on all structures at all times.
Accordingly the concept of characteristic loads has been accepted to ensure at least 95 percent of
the cases, the characteristic loads considered will be higher than the actual loads on the structure.
However the characteristic loads are to be calculated on the basis of average/mean load of some
logical combinations of all loads mentioned above.

IS 456:2000 and IS 1893(Part-1):2002 stipulates the combination of the loads to be considered in

the design of the structures. The different combinations used were:


1 1.5
1 1.0 2 1.0
1 1.0 3 1.0
1 1.5 2 1.5
1 1.5 3 1.5
1 1.2 2 1.2
1 1.2 3 1.2

All these combinations are built in the STAAD.Prov8 2007.Analysis results from the
critical load combinations are used for the design of the structural members.

DL - dead load, LL - live load, WL- X – wind load in (- X ) – direction, WL X – wind load
in X –direction, WL-Z – Wind load in (-Z) – direction,WL X – wind load in Z- direction

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Modeling was done using Staad, It includes generation of model, defining materials,
defining sections, defining loads, and load combinations, assignment of defined properties and
analysis of the model. And thus the process consists of structural modeling, material
specification, and property specification, assigning restraints and loading.


The structure geometry consists of joint members, their coordinates, member numbers,
the member connectivity information, etc. At first we have to fix the position of beams and
columns. Then the joint coordinates were fixed. Beam centre lines were taken for fixing joint
coordinates. Then the members were connected along the joint coordinates using the member
incidence command.

Fig 7. Centre Line Drawing For Typical Floor

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For creating model geometry centre line of the beam layout was prepared in Auto CAD referring
to the architectural plan. The model was then generated in STAAD, by editing grid dimensions
from the centre line layout from Auto CAD 2015.


For the analysis of the multistoriedhospital building the typical floor plan was selected.
The first step was fixing the position of beams and columns. Then the structure was discredited.
Discretization includes fixing of joint co-ordinates and member incidences. Using substitute
frame method the structure was modeled. Here the column points were taken as grids. Then the
members were connected along the joint co-ordinates using the member incidence command.
The completed floor with all structural members was replicated to other floors and the required
changes were made.


Structural analysis, which is an integral part of any engineering project, is the process of
predicting the performance of a given structure under a prescribed loading condition. The
performance characteristics usually of interest in structural design are:

 Stress or stress resultant (axial forces, shears and bending moments)

 Deflections
 Support reactions

Thus the analysis of a structure typically involves the determination of these quantities
caused by the given loads and other external effects. In the design of reinforced concrete
structures, the aim is to provide a safe, serviceable, durable, economical and aesthetically
pleasing structure. For the structure to be safe, it must be able to resist the worst loading
conditions. Under normal working conditions, the deformation and cracking must not be ex
cessive for the structure to remain serviceable, durable and aesthetically pleasing during the ex
tended design life. Furthermore, the structure should be economical with regard to both
construction and maintenance cost.

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The structure is analyzed with Staad. In order to analyze in Staad, We have to first
generate the model geometry, specify member properties, specify geometric constants and
specify supports and loads.

9.3.1Specifying Member Property

The next task is to assign cross section properties for the beams and columns. From the
load calculations and thumb rules preliminary dimension of beams and column were fixed. The
slab thickness and type is also obtained similarly. Thus the properties of the various frame
member sections such as cross sectional dimensions of beams, columns, RC walls, slabs was
defined and assigned.

The Member properties are:

 Slab

Thickness of the slab = 120 mm

 Beams

The dimensions of the beam:

B - 230 mm × 550 mm

 Columns

The dimensions of the column:

C- 230x 450 mm

C2-300 X 450mm

 RC Walls

Thickness of the RC walls = 200 mm

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 Staircase

The staircase is provided as an equivalent slab. The thickness of the slab used for staircase is 100

Rise = 150 mmTread = 300 mm

9.3.2Specifying Supports

The base nodes of all columns are restrained against translation and rotation about all
the 3 global axes. In other words, fixed supports were specified at these nodes.

9.3.3Specifying Material Properties

The material properties for various material used was defined and assigned.

Material Properties Considered are:

 Unit weight of masonry : 19 KN/m3
 Unit weight of R.C.C : 25 KN/m3
 Grade of concrete : M20 for R.C.C, Steel and Composite model
 Grade of steel : HYSD bars for reinforcement Fe 415
 Modulus of Elasticity for R.C.C : 5000√𝑓𝑐𝑘N/mm2
 Modulus of Elasticity for Steel : 2.1 x 105 N/mm2


The purpose of analysis is to determine the moment and shear forces at various sections of the
structure under any loading condition. In order to perform the analysis the proportion of the
various structure elements are to be known in advance for the preliminary design is essential.
Thus in practice analysis and design are interactive. The structure consists of Ground and one
upper floor designed as framed structure. A frame consists of column and beams built
monolithically forming a network. Frame is designed for live load, Dead load. The beam and
column enslaving all the loads inclusive of wall and non load bearing walls.

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The frames are analyzed using STADD PRO. STADD PRO is a suit for inter related structural
software, offering a complete solution for the professional structural Engineer’s STADD PRO
consists of a core.Package and several optional functions.

Fig 8. Elevation Of Hospital Building using STAAD


The properties of various frame member sections such as cross sectional dimensions of
the slab; beams, staircase, columns, shear walls etc. and material property were defined and

 Slab

Thickness of the slab = 120 mm

 Beams

The dimensions of the beams are: B1 - 230 mm × 550 mm

 Staircase

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The staircase was provided as an equivalent slab. The thickness of the slab used for staircase was
140 mm.

 Columns

The dimensions of the columns are as given below.

C1 = 230 x 450 mm

C2-300 x 450mm


The support condition given was pinned

Number of 390 Highest Node 394

Nodes of
Number 708 Highest Beam 809
Number of Basic Load 2
Number of Combination 0
Load Cases

Fig 9. Floor Plan View In STAAD

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Fig 10.3D View In STAAD

Fig11.3D rendered view of model in STAAD

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9.7.1 Analysis Ofbeam

Fig 12.Result From Staad

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Fig 13. Result From Staad

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Fig 14. Result From Staad

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9.7.2.AnalysisOf Column

Fig 15.Result From Staad

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Fig 16.Result From Staad

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Fig 17.Result From Staad

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Fig 18. Result From Staad

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Fig 19.Result From Staad

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Fig20: Shear force diagram

Fig 21. Bending moment diagram

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Fig 22.Displacement diagram

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The aim of structural design is to achieve an acceptable probability that the structure
being designed will perform the function for which it is created and will safely withstand the
influence that will act on it throughout its useful life. These influences are primarily the loads
and the other forces to which it will be subjected.

The design of R.C.C. structures will depend on the lay out. The lay out depends on action
performed by the structure. Planning and proportioning of structure is called structural design.
Some of the factors which govern the design are:

 Adequate strength and rigidity

 Should not interfere with the function for which the structure is intended.
 Be economical in first cost and maintenance.
 Should be strong enough to last for service in view.
 Be readily adaptable for future expansion.

The design will consist of:

 Working out forces and loads which the structure has to carry.
 Arrangements of various members-beams, columns etc, to support the structure.
 Computation of stresses, shears, moments etc in the members of the structure.
 Providing adequate sections to resist in the member.

An efficiently designed structure is one which the members are arranged in such a way
that weight, loads, and forces are transmitted to foundations by cheapest means consistent with
the intended use of the structure and nature of the site.

For the high rise buildings, masonry walls will be very heavy if conventional materials
are used. With the innovation of light weight concrete, light curtain walls etc. which reduced the

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dead weight considerably, new technological development like frame structure, shear wall
construction etc, were made very possible. Steel structures adopted for various uses in the form
of rigid frames consist of beam and column combinations in the form of portal frames, gable
frames etc. For frames which are designed for horizontal and vertical loads transmitted to it,
slabs, beams and columns are monolithically cast and space in between filled by brick or other
light weight materials making it lighter and reducing the weights on foundation.

The design methods used for the design of reinforced concrete structures are working
stress method, ultimate load method and limit state method. Here the limit state method of design
is adopted.

In the limit state method, the structure is designed to withstand safely all loads liable to
act on it through its life and also to satisfy the serviceability requirements, such as limitation to
deflection and cracking. The acceptable limit of safety and serviceability requirements before
failure is called limit state. All the relevant limit states should be considered in the design to
ensure adequate degrees of safety and serviceability .The structure should be designed on the
basis of most critical state and then checked for other limit states.As per IS 456:2000 the value of
partial safety factor for dead and live load combination is 1.5.


Slabs are structural elements having their depth much smaller than other two dimensions.
They usually carry a uniformly distributed load from the floors and roof of the building. Design
of reinforced concrete slab was done using IS 456:2000 and SP 16:1980.slabs of thickness120
mm was used in the building and designed as one-way or two-way slab as the case may be.
Grade of concrete M25 and grade of steel is Fe 415 are assumed for slab design. Typical slab
designs are shown below.

Department of Civil Engineering 38 PRSCET


10.3.1 Design Of Slab

Consider a slab in typical floor with maximum bending moment. Here consider S1 slab. The slab
end condition is one short edge discontinous. The slab is designed using IS456.

Interior panels = 3.6 x 5 m

Fck= 20 N/mm2
Fy= 415 N/mm2
Depth of slab:
Over all depth,D = 120 mm
Effective depth = {D – clear cover - 1/2 dia of bar}
d =120 – 15 – 10/2= 100 mm (Assuming 10 mm dia bar)
Effective span Lx &Ly:
I. Effective shorter span in the least of
a. Clean shorter span + d = 3.6+0.1 = 3.7 m
b. C/C distance of supports = clear span + bearing= 3.6 + 0.23 = 3.83
Effective span of shorter =L x = 3.7 m
II. Effective span is the least of
a. Clear longer span + d = 5 + 0.1 = 5.1 m
b. C/C distance of support= 5 + 0.23 = 5.23 m
Effective longer span = Ly= 5.1 m
Ly/L x = 5.1/3.7 = 1.37< 2
Hence it is two way slab.

Department of Civil Engineering 39 PRSCET

Self weight of slab =0.12 x 25= 3 KN/m2
Floor finish = 0.5 KN/m2
Material= 1.5 KN/m2
Live load = 5 KN/m2
Total characteristics load, W = 10 KN/m2
Factored load, Wd= 10 x1.5=15KN/m2
From Table 26 ofIS 456
Lx (-ve)= 0.0642
Lx (+ ve)= 0.0484
Ly( -ve) = 0.032
Ly( +ve)= 0.024
B.M along shorter span:-
Mx (- ve) wd L x 2= 0.0642 x 15 x 3.12= 9.254 KNm
Provide 10 mm dia bar @ 290 mm c/c(From Table 37 of sp16)
M x (+ve) = 0.0484 x 15 x 3.12= 6.977 KNm
Provide 10 mm dia bar @ 300 mm c/c
B.M along longer span:-
My (-ve) = 0.032 x 15 x 3.12= 4.61 KNm
Provide 10mm dia @ 300mm c/c
My( +ve) = 0.024 x 15 x 3.12= 3.46 KNm, Provide 10mm dia @ 300mm c/c
Verandah Slab:
Interior panel = 3 x 1.5m
Depth of slab:-
D = 120 mm
d = 120 - 15 - 10/2 = 100 mm
Effective span lx &ly:-
I. L x least of
1. Clear shorter span + d = 1.5 + 0.1 = 1.6 m
2. c/c distance of support = 1.5 + 0.23 = 1.73 m
L x = 1.6 M

Department of Civil Engineering 40 PRSCET

II. Ly least of
1. clear shorter span + d = 51 + 0.1 = 51.1 m
2. c/c distance of support = 51 + 0.3 = 51.3 m
Ly= 51.1m
Ly/L x = 51.1/1.6 = 31.937m
Ly/L x > 2 hence It is a one way slab
Self weight of slab = 0.12 x 25 = 3 KN/m2
Floor finish = 0.5 KN/m2
Material= 1.5KN/m2
Live load = 5 KN/m2
Total load wu= 10KN/m2
Total design load = 10 x 1.5 = 15KN/m2
Mu x = 0.1 wul x 2(or)Mu x =wl x 2/10= 0.1 x 15 x 1.62= 3.84KNm
Reinforcement detail:-
Mux = 3.84KNm
Provided 10 mm dia of bar 300 mm c/c (From Table 37 to sp 16)
Distributor steel:-
0.12% bd= 0.12/100 x 120 x 1000
Ast = 144m2
Provided 8mm dia of bar @ 340mm c/c. (From table 96 of sp 16)

Department of Civil Engineering 41 PRSCET

10.3.2 Design Of Beam

Consider a beam in typical floor with maximum bending moment. Here consider B beam.
The beam is designed using IS456.

Loads on beams
Wall load - 0.23 x 3.6 x 19 =13.11KN/m
Assuming beam size 300 x 400
Self load – 0.23 x 0.400 x 25 =2.3KN/m
Slab load – W = 15KN
Refer load calculation on slab
Slab shorter span on slab design Ly=5.1
Lx =3.7
W x L x /3=(15 x 3.7)/3 = 18.5KN/m
Total load = 13.11+2.3+18.5 = 33.91KN/m
Design of stirrups
Calculation of shear force
Va=Vb= total load /2 =(total load x Ly)/2 =86.47KN
Calculation of normal shear d=400-32, d=368
Tv=Vu /Bd =(1.5 x 86.47 x 103)/(300 x 368) =1.174
Calculation of permissible shear stress
Tc = % of tension steel
Pt= (Ast/Bd) x 100
Ast = 2x (π/4 x 62) = 56.56 mm2
Pt = (56.56 x 100)/(300 x 368) = 0.60%
Tc=0.50 Tc<Tv 0.05 < 0.85
Hence provide shear reinforcement.
Design of shear:
Vs =(Tv-Tc)bd=(0.85- 0.50) x 300 x 368 =38.64KN
Vus = Vs/D(cm) = (38.64/36.8) =0.89KN/cm
From sp-16 table no 62 we will get dia& spacing.
Hence provide 6mm dia @ 15cm c/c spacing.

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Check for spacing:
Spacing should be provided min of the following.
(a) 0.75d = 0.75 x 368 =276 mm
(b) Asvfy/0.4b =(2 x(62 x π/4) x 250)/(0.4 x 300) =153.2mm
(c) design spacing 45cm c/c
Hence provide 6mm dia stirrups @ 15 cm c/c
Mu at Left span = 11.577 KN-m
Mu at Mid span = 19.18 KN-m
Mu at Right span = 20.36KN-m
Calculation limiting moment of resistances:
Mu = 11.577 KN-m
Mulimt=0.138 fck bd2
= 0.138 x 20 x 300 x 3682
= 112.13 KN-m
Mu <Mulimit
Hence it is designed as simply reinforcement beam using sp-16
Mu/Bd2 =11.577 x 106 /230 x 3002 =1.39
Refer table no.2 at sp-16 and read out the value of percentage of reinforcement
Corresponding to fy = 415 N/mm^2 and fck = 20N/mm^2
For Mu/bd2 = 1.39 Pt= ?
1.40 0.426
Mu/bd^2 = 1.39 Pt = 0.422
Pt = 0.422 %
Area of reinforcement
Pt/Bd= Ast x 100/0.422 x 300 x 368
Ast required = 465.88 mm2
Hence provide 3 bars of 12 mmdia
Ast provided =470 mm

Department of Civil Engineering 43 PRSCET

Fig 23. Design OfBeam

10.3.3 Design Of Column

Consider a column in typical floor with maximum bending moment. Here consider C
column. The column is designed using SP 16.

Total loads on column:

Loads from roof = 77.35KN

Loads from floor= 94.58KN
Self wt. of column = 0.23 x 0.23 x 3 x 25 = 34.5KN
Total loads = 167KN
Column Axial load: Pu = 167 KN Cross section
Size -300 x 450mm

Department of Civil Engineering 44 PRSCET

Pu/fck x b x d= 167 x 10^3/20 x 300 x 450= 0.15
Calculation of Eccentricity: e= 1/500 + b / 30 = 4640/500 + 230/30 = 16.94m e≤20 mm
Mue = Pu xe = 167 x 0.020 = 3.34 Kn-m
Mue/fck bd^2 = 3.34 x 10^6 = 0.0112
P = .02 xfck=.04
Area of steel = 0.8 Bd /100 = 0.8 x 300 x 400/100 = 960mm ,
d’/D = 0.2
P/fck = 0.02
No. of bars for 12mm dia = 960/ p/4 x 12^2 = 8 bars

Least Of The Following:

 16dia of main reinforcement=16 x 12 =192 mm.

 48dia = 48 x 12 = 576 mm.

Provide 8 mm dia. @ 192 mm c/c when main bars size is 12 mm

Fig 24. Design Of Column

Department of Civil Engineering 45 PRSCET

10.3.4 Design Of Pile

As per IS 2911 (Part I/ Sec 3) -2010, the pile cap may be designed by assuming that the load
from column is dispersed at 45˚ from the top of the cap up to the mid depth of the pile cap from
the base of the column or pedestal. The reaction from piles may also be taken to be distributed at
45˚ from the edge of the pile, up to the mid depth of the pile cap. On this basis the maximum
bending moment and shear forces should be worked out at critical sections.

Assumptions Involved In The Design Of Pile Caps:-

1. Pile cap is perfectly rigid.
2. Pile heads are hinged to the pile cap and hence no bending moment is transmitted to piles
from pile caps.
3. Since the piles are short and elastic columns, the deformations and stress distribution are

Design Parameters Of Pile Caps:-

1. Shape of pile cap.
2. Depth of pile cap.
3. Amount of steel to be provided.
4. Arrangement of reinforcement.

Shape of pile cap

Whittle and Beattie have developed through computer program therelationship between
dimension of pile cap and the size of the pile. The minimum spacing of piles permitted from soil
mechanics depends on the type and end conditions. CP 2004 requires a minimum centre- to –
centre spacing of twice the diameter of the piles for end bearing and three times the diameter for
friction piles. IS 2911 part1, sections 1 and 2 recommended a minimum spacing of two and half
times the diameter of the pile for both driven cast in situ and bored cast in situ piles. For
accommodating deviations in driving of piles, the size of the pile cap ismade 300 mm more than
the outer- to outer distance of the exterior piles. (150mm on either side). The plan dimension of
the pile cap is based on the fact that the actual final position of piles can be in construction up to

Department of Civil Engineering 46 PRSCET

100 mm out of line from the theoreticalcentre lines. Pile caps should be made very large to
accommodate these deviations. In practice, pile caps are e x tended as much as 150 mm beyond
the outer face of the piles. Standard Pile Caps:

S-spacing of pile = F x hp where

hp = diameter of pile in mm

Depth of pile cap

The thickness of the Pile Cap is fixed such that it is adequate to resist shear without shear
reinforcement and the bars projecting from the piles and the dowel bars for the column can be
provided adequate bond length. As per IS 456- 2000, the minimum thickness on top of piles
should not be less than 300 mm. Pile cap depth should be kept on the high side to effect economy
in the consumption of steel and also to provide adequate rigidity to pile cap. Generally, pile cap
thickness should not be less than 500 mm which may be reduced to 300 mm at the free edges.
For pile caps to be rigid, pile cap has to be quite deep with 600 mm as the minimum depth. As a
guide line the formula given in Reinforced concrete by Reynolds may be followed.

For Pile dia> 550 mm,

Pile cap depth (h) = (2 hp + 100)mm
For Pile dia ≥ 550 mm,
h= ⅓ x( 8 hp + 600) mm

Table 1.Values Of pile DiameterAnd Pile Cap

Department of Civil Engineering 47 PRSCET

Practical Aspects on Pile cap Design:

The structural design of a pile cap is similar to the design of spread footing. The load
acting on the pile cap from the superstructure and piles are resisted by the developments of
bending moment and shear force in the pile cap. Codal provisions made in IS 2911(Part 1/sec3)-
1. The size of the pile cap is fixed in such way that it has clear overhang beyond the outermost
pile not less than 100mm, but preferably 150mm.
2. It should be deep enough to allow the necessary overlap of reinforcements from column and
3. The clear cover to the main reinforcement should not be less than 40mm.
4. The span to thickness ratio of the cap should not be more than 5 so that pile cap is rigid
enough to distribute the load uniformly to the piles.
5. Generally, its thickness should not be less than 500mm which may be reduced to 300mm at
the free edges.
6. The piles should at least 50mm into the pile cap.
7. A leveling course of not less 75mm thick concrete should be provided under the pile cap.

Design OfPile Cap

Pile Diameter = 400 mm
Spacing of piles 2 hp= 2 x 400 : 800 mm
Column Dimension B x D = 300 x 450 mm
Factored Load = 1072.8 KN
Factored Moment M x u = 51.29KN.m
Safe Load on Single Pile = 500KN
Concrete Mi x = M20
Steel Grade = Fe 415

Department of Civil Engineering 48 PRSCET

Design : -
1. Pile Cap Dimension :
Breadth of Pile Cap = C/c of Pile + hp /2+ 150 + hp /2 + 150
= 800 + 400/2+ 150 +400/2+ 150 =1500 mm
Width of pile cap = hp+ 150 + 150 = 700 mm
Depth of Pile cap = 2 hp+ 100 = 2 x 400 + 100 = 900 mm.

Fig 25. Plan Of Pile Cap Of Two Pile Group

Check for Pile Load capacity :-

Total factored a x ial compressive load

Self weight of Pile Cap = (1.5 x0.7 x 0.9 x 25 ) x 1.5 = 35.45 KN

Factored load from column Pu= 1072.80 KN
Total Factored Load Pu= 1108.25 KN
No. of Piles along one side of a x is = 2
y coordinate of Pile cap = 0.4 m
M x = Moment about x a x is = 51.29 KN.m

Department of Civil Engineering 49 PRSCET

Compressive load in A1 & A2 about x – x a x is
= (1108.25/2) + (51.29 X .4 /2 x 0.42 )
= 554.13 + 64.11=618.24 KN
Design working load = 618.24 /1.5 = 412.16 KN < Safe Load on Pile i.e500KN.O.K.

3. Bending Moment
Factored Moment in section Y-Y
Mu= 618.24 x ((0.8-0.3)/2)= 154.56 KN.m2
4. Check for effective depth
Mu = 0.138 fckb d2= 154.56 x 106
d required = √ (154.56 x 106) / 2.76 x 700 =282.84 mm
D provided = 900 mm
d available = 900 – 60 -12- 6 = 822 mm > d required . 282.84 mm
5. Check for Punching Shear (Two way shear)
Punching shear at a distance d/2 (i.e.822/2= 411mm) from face of column
= 1072.80 KN
The critical section of punching comes the centre of pile.
Hence the net load is to be taken. However the depth is checked for factored
axial load from column = 1072.80 KN
b= 700 x 822 mm
d= 822 mm
Perimeter of critical section = 2 (700 + 822) = 3044 mm
Punching shear stress = 1072.80 x 103/(3044 x 822) = 0. 43 N/mm2
Allowable shear stress for M20
= 0.25 √fck= 0.25 √20 = 1.12 N/mm2
Hence safe.

Department of Civil Engineering 50 PRSCET

6. Main Reinforcement
Mu= 154.56 x 106 KN.m
K = Mu / bd2 = 154.56 x 106 /(700 x 8222)= 0.33
Pt from Table 2 of Design Aid=0.11
Minimum Ast=( 0.12/100) x 700 x 822 = 690.48 mm2
Provide 7 Nos. 12 Φ RTS at bottom on both ways.
(Ast = 791 mm2 > 690.48 mm2)
Reinforcement at top :-
Minimum Ast= (0.12/100) x 700 x 822 = 690.48 mm2
Provide 7 Nos. 12 mm Dia RTS at top .
(Ast = 791 mm2 > 690.48 mm2)
7. Check for one way shear
Maximum Shear force at face of column = 618.24 KN
Shear stress = 618.24 x 103 / (700 x 822) = 1.07 N/mm2
For Pt= 0.20%
ζcfrom Table 61 of Design Aid to IS 456 -1978 = 0.33 N /mm2
Shear to be carried by stirrups shear
Vus=(1.07– 0.33) x 700 x 822 x 10-3= 425.80 KN.
Vus/d = 425.80 / 82.2 = 5.18 KN/cm
Provide 8 Φ RTS 4 legged stirrups @ 120 mm c/c.
(Vus/d =5.58 KN/m > 5.18 KN/cm ).

8. Sketch

Fig 26. Reinforcement Details Of Tow pile Group

Department of Civil Engineering 51 PRSCET

10.3.5 Design Of Staircase

Height of one storey= 3.6 m
Tread = 300 mm
Rise = 150 mm
Type legged stair case:
No. of steps = ht of one storey+roof tk./Rise= 3.6+0.12/15=24.8 ~ 25nos
No. of steps per flight = no. of steps/2 = 25/2= 12.5 ~ 13nos
Length of one flight= 13 x 0.3 = 3.9 m
Design of waist slab:
Self weight of slab = 0.15 x 1.5 x 25 = 5.625 KN/m

Your te x t here
Step weight = (1/0.3) x 1/2 x 0.3 x 0.5 x 1.5 x 2= 2.25 KN/m
Granite load = 1.45 x 1.5 x 0.5 = 1.08KN/m
Live load= 5 x 1.5 = 7.5KN/m
Total load = 16.455 KN/m
Landing slab:
Size = (3 x 1.39) m
Fck = 20 N/mm2
Fy = 415 N/mm2
Thickness of slab = 120 mm
Effective depth of slab:
d = D – cover –D/2 bar
assume 10 mm
d = 120 – 15 – 10/2
d = 100 mm

Department of Civil Engineering 52 PRSCET

Effective depth of slab:
I. l x least of
a. Lx = 1.39 + 0.1 = 1.49
b. c/c distribution = 1.4 + 0.23 = 1.63
L x = 1.49
II. Ly least of
a. ly = 3.6 + 0.1 = 3.7 m
b. c/c distribution = 3.93 m
Ly/L x = 3.93/1.49 = 2.63 (It is one way slab)
Loads :
Self weight of slab = 0.12 x 25 = 3 KN/m2
Floor finish = 0.15 KN/m2
Material = 1.5 KN/m2
Total characteristics load(W) = 10 KN/m2
Total design load (Wu) = 10 x 1.5 = 15KN/m2
Mu x = 0.1 Wu l x 2
= 0.1 x 15 x 1.52
= 3.375 KNm
Reinforcement detail:
Main reinforcement : [Table 37 of sp 16]
Provide 8mm ϕ bar @ 340 mm c/c
Distributor steel:
[Page No: 230 of sp 16]
= 0.12% bd
= 0.12/100 x 120 x 1000
Ast = 144 mm2
Provide 8mm ϕ bar @ 340 mm c/c

Department of Civil Engineering 53 PRSCET

10.3.5 Design A Septic Tank

1.Water supply=200lit/per/day
2. No of persons= 250Nos
3.Sewage generation= 80% of water supply
4.Detention period = 18hours
5.Cleaning period = once in a year
6.L: B = 4:1 & Depth of Storage of water = 1.8m
7.Sludge deposit = 30lit/person/year
8.Min Free Board required = 30cm (Rec= 50cm)
Total Waste water coming to septic tank = 100 x 5 x 200 x 80/ 100=80000 lit/day
Detention period = 18hours
Capacity of tank required =80000/24 x 18=60000lit
Capacity req for sludge accumulation = 30 x 5 x 100 = 15000lit / year
Total capacity req= 60000 + 15000= 75000lit
Plan area of the Septic tank = 75/1.8=41.67m2
L: B taken as 4:1, 4B x B= 41.67,B = (41.67/4)
B = 3.25m. L = 3.25x 4= 13m.
Total depth of Septic tank = 1.8+0.5= 2.30m

Fig 27. Model Of Septic Tank

Department of Civil Engineering 54 PRSCET

10.3.6. Design Of Sock Pit

Waste water coming out from septic tank= 80000lit / day

Percolation rate = 1500 lit / m3/ day
Volume of filter media = 80000 / 1500 = 53m3
Depth taken= 2.5m
Area of soak pit = 53/2.5 = 21.2 sqm
Dia of Soak well req= 21.2 x 4 / π= 5.2m

Fig 28. Model OfUnlined Sock Pit Filled With Stone Or Brick Aggregate

Department of Civil Engineering 55 PRSCET

Fig29.ModelOfLined Sock Pit

10.3.7Design Water Tank

Total no. of persons = 200 No’s

Percapita demand = 135 l/capita
(it is only used on half of a day so requires for 135/2)
Total quality of water = 200 x 135/2= 13500 litre
Quality of water stored for 2 days
= 2 x 13500 = 27000 litre
= 27000/1000 = 27
Area of water tank = 27/2 = 13.5m2
But we have = 18 > 13.5Hence ok.
Ht = volume/area
= 27/13.5 = 2m
Height of tank = 2+0.3 (free board)
= 2.3 m
Weight of water = 2.0 x 10 =20 KN/m2

Department of Civil Engineering 56 PRSCET

Design Of Water Tank Slab
Dead load of slab:
Size = 3x6m
Over all depth D = 120mm
Effective depth = D – cover –d/2
Assume 10 mm ϕ
D = 120 – 15 – 10/2 = 0.1 m
Effective span l x andly,
I. Effective span l x andly,
1) Clear shorter span + d = 3+ 0.1 = 3.1 m
2) c/c shorter span + d = 3 + 0.23 = 3.23m
Effective shorter span lx = 3.1 m
II. Effective span l x andly,
1) Clear longer span + d = 6 + 0.1 = 6.1 m
2) c/c distance of support = 6 + 0.23 = 6.23 m
Effective longer sapn ly = 6.1 M
ly/l x = 1.96 < 2It is two way slabs.
Self weight of slab = 0.12 x 25 = 3 KN/m
Weight of water = 2.0 x 10 = 20KN/m
Total = 23 KN/m
wd = 23 x 1.5 = 34.5KNm
ly/l x = 6.1/3.1 = 1.96m
From table 26 of IS 456 l x
l/l x dx

1.75 0.060
2.0 0.065
0.25 0.005

Table 2.l/l x and d x values

αx = 0.060 + [0.005/0.25 x (1.96 – 1.75)] = 0.0642

Department of Civil Engineering 57 PRSCET

Lx positive:
l/l x dx

1.75 0.045
2.0 0.049
0.25 0.004

Table 3.l/l x and d x values

αx = 0.045 + [0.004/0.25 x (1.96 – 1.75)] = 0.0484

αy( - ve) = 0.032
αy( + ve) = 0.024

Bending moment along shorter span:

Mx (- ve) = α x wd l x 2= 0.0642 x 34.5 x 3.12
= 21.28 KNm
M x (+ve) = α x wd l x 2 = 0.0484 x 34.5 x 3.12
= 16.05KNm
Bending moment along longer span:
Mx (- ve) = α x wd l x 2 = 0.032 x 34.5 x 3.12
= 10.61KNm
Mx (+ ve) = α x wd l x 2= 0.024 x 34.5 x 3.12
= 7.96KNm
Reinforcement detail:
From table 37 of sp 16
Bending moment along shorter span:
M x (+ve) = 16.05KNm
Provide 12mm dia bar @ 220 mm spacing
M x (-ve) = 7.96 KNm
Provide 12mm dia bar @ 160 mm spacing

Department of Civil Engineering 58 PRSCET

Bending moment along shorter span:
My (+ ve) = 7.96KNm
Provide 10mm dia bar @ 300 mm spacing
My (- ve) = 10.61KNm
Provide 10mm dia bar @ 250 mm spacing
Top slab of water tank design:
Size =3x6
Thickness of slab = 120 mm
Effective depth = 100 – 15 – 10/2 = 80 mm
Ly/l x = 6.08/3.08 = 1.97 <2
Two way slab
Self weight of slab = 0.12 x 25= 3KNm
Live load = 1 KN/m
Total load = 4 KN/m
wd = 6 KN/m
+ mu x = 0.0642 x 6 x 3.12 = 3.70KNm
-mu x = 0.032 x 6 x 3.12 = 1.86KNm
+ muy = 0.024 x 6 x 3.12 = 1.39KNm
-muy = 0.032 x 6 x 3.12 = 1.86KNm

R.c wall design:

Height of wall = 2.3 m
M = (1/2wh x h) x (1/3 x h)
= (1/2 x 10 x 2.3 x 2.3) x (1/3 x 2.3)
= 20.28 KN/m
Mu = 1.5 x 20.28 = 30.41 KNm

Department of Civil Engineering 59 PRSCET

Main reinforcement:
Mu = 0.87 fyAstd[1-fy Ast/fckbd]
30.41 x 106 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 150
(1-415 x Ast/20 x 1000 x 150)
30.41 x 106 =54.157 x 103Ast[1-383 x 10-3Ast]
561.51 = Ast[1-1.383 x 10 -3Ast]
Ast =382.5m2
Provide main bars ϕ12mm
Distribution reinforcement:
Ast minimum = 0.12% bD
= 0.12/100 x 1000 x 150=180mm2
Provide 8mm dia @ 280 c/c distance.

Fig 30. Detail Of RCC Water tank

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A well designed plan with drafted with proper ventilation and lighting. A thorough knowledge
about the various loads coming on a building was studied. Also acknowledge about doing
structural analysis and structural design was obtained through manually and with the STADD
software. And also help us to compare the analysis and design with manually and with STADD

This project gave us an opportunity to become self-confident n undertaking independent

projects on supervision of works by overcoming the practical difficulties and also transferring
the idea of actual planning and designing.

Department of Civil Engineering 79 PRSCET



The project was very helpful to improve our knowledge about, planning, designing and
now we are confidence satisfactory design more accurately. Here we have done the analysis
using Substitute frame method because this method simplifies the analysis of multistoried
building.The design functional elements are beam, column, stair, pile foundation, septic tank,
staircase, ramp slab, slab,water tank etc. as per relevant IS codes.Limit state method was used for
the design of various structural elements according to the provision of IS 456:2000,SP
16.STADD analysis and design were also done in this project. Drawings and reinforcement
details are included wherever is required.

Department of Civil Engineering 80 PRSCET





M30, Fe415 (Main), Fe415 (Sec.),

LENGTH: 5833.5 mm, SIZE: 300.0 mm x 400.0 mm, COVER: 25.0 mm


|(Maxm. Sagging/Hogging moments)|
(in mm) | P MZ MX Load Case | VY M X Load Case
0.0 | 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 | 62.70 -0.03 1
| 0.00 -62.94 -0.03 1 |
486.1 | 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 | 52.52 -0.03 1
| 0.00 -34.93 -0.03 1 |
972.3 | 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 | 42.35 -0.03 1
| 0.00 -19.87 -2.99 2 |
1458.4 | 0.00 6.24 -0.03 1 | 32.17 -0.03 1
| 0.00 -14.83 -2.99 2 |
1944.5 | 0.00 9.40 -0.03 1 | 10.36 -2.99 2
| 0.00 -9.79 -2.99 2 |
2430.6 | 0.00 27.62 -0.03 1 | 10.36 -2.99 2
| 0.00 -4.76 -2.99 2 |

Department of Civil Engineering 81 PRSCET

2916.8 | 0.00 30.88 -0.03 1 | 10.36 -2.99 2
| 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 |
3402.9 | 0.00 29.20 -0.03 1 | 10.36 -2.99 2
| 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 |
3889.0 | 0.00 22.58 -0.03 1 | 10.36 -2.99 2
| 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 |
4375.1 | 0.00 15.39 -2.99 2 | -28.90 -0.03 1
| 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 |
4861.3 | 0.00 20.43 -2.99 2 | -39.08 -0.03 1
| 0.00 -5.52 -0.03 1 |
5347.4 | 0.00 25.47 -2.99 2 | -49.26 -0.03 1
| 0.00 -27.00 -0.03 1 |
5833.5 | 0.00 30.50 -2.99 2 | -59.44 -0.03 1
| 0.00 -53.42 -0.03 1 |

Department of Civil Engineering 82 PRSCET


(in mm) | Reqd./Provided reinf. | Reqd./Provided reinf. | (2 legged)
0.0 | 503.43/ 549.78( 7-10í )| 0.00/ 157.08( 2-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm
486.1| 271.13/ 314.16( 4-10í )| 0.00/ 157.08( 2-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm
972.3 | 245.78/ 314.16( 4-10í )| 0.00/ 157.08( 2-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm
1458.4| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm
1944.5| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm
2430.6| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm
2916.8| 0.00/ 157.08( 2-10í )| 238.73/ 314.16( 4-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm
3402.9 | 0.00/ 157.08( 2-10í )| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm
3889.0 | 0.00/ 157.08( 2-10í )| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm
4375.1 | 0.00/ 157.08( 2-10í )| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm
4861.3 | 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm
5347.4 | 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 227.93/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm
5833.5| 422.73/ 471.24( 6-10í )| 268.15/ 314.16( 4-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm
VY = 50.35 M X = -0.03 LD= 1
Provide 2 Legged 8í @ 140 mm c/c
VY = -47.08 M X = -0.03 LD= 1
Provide 2 Legged 8í @ 140 mm c/c

Department of Civil Engineering 83 PRSCET



M30, Fe415 (Main), Fe415 (Sec.),

LENGTH: 3600.0mm , CROSS SECTION: 450.0 mm x 300.0 mm , COVER: 40.0 mm



About Z About Y
INITIAL MOMENTS : 19.98 73.59
ADDITION MOMENTS (Maz and May) : 1.51 0.00
REQD. STEEL AREA : 2063.49 Sq.mm.
REQD. CONCRETE AREA: 132936.52 Sq.mm.
MAIN REINFORCEMENT : Provide 20 - 12 dia. (1.68%, 2261.95 Sq.mm.)
(Equally distributed)
TIE REINFORCEMENT :Provide 8 mm dia. rectangular ties @ 190 mm c/c

Department of Civil Engineering 84 PRSCET

Puz :2436.90, Muz1 : 87.12, Muy1 : 142.37

INTERACTION RATIO: 1.00 (as per Cl. 39.6, IS456:2000)



(in mm) (in New)
-------- -------------
8 39987.59
10 25959.87
12 27648.93
16 20295.33
20 59454.21
25 29522.95
32 9115.61
*** TOTAL= 211984.48

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Department of Civil Engineering 86 PRSCET


1. Design of reinforced concrete structures Krishna Raju

2. Structural analysis 1 & 2 Bhavikatti

3. IS: 875 (Part 1)-1987, Indian Standard Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other than

earthquake) for Building and Structures, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

4. IS: 875 (Part 2)-1987, Indian Standard Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other

than earthquake) for Building and Structures, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

5. IS: 875 (Part 3)-1987, Indian Standard Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other than

earthquake) for Building and Structures, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

6. IS: 1893 (Part 1) 2002- Indian StandardCriteria for earthquake resistant design of

structures, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

7. IS: 13920:1993, Ductile detailing of reinforced concrete structures subjected to seismic

forces, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

8 IS 456:2000, Indian standardPlain and reinforced concrete – Code of Practice,Bureaof

Indian standard, 2000, New Delhi.

9.SP 16: 1980, DesignAids for Reinforced Concrete to IS: 456-1978, Bureau of Indian

Standards, New Delhi.

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