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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL

In the modern age there is no guarantee for man’s life, due to the carelessness. Due to the

lack of hospitals and poor treatment the human life became a big question. The need of a hospital

becomes so important in a society. In the society the important of a good and well equipped

hospital becomes a vital factor. In this modern age the man should give greater importance to

make up his existence for a longer period with a good health.

In now a day due to the pollution of the environment by several factors the world becomes a

dirty one. Due to that new disease is developing day by day. For that without full checkup the

doctors were not able to detect the exact disease. There the need of multispecialty or super

specialty hospital. In there we can check everything related to our health.

So as per our curriculum and with the importance of life we choose our project as the

planning and design of a multispecialty hospital. Limit state method is used for the structural

design of all members. , Limit state method includes the consideration of structures at both

working and ultimate load levels with a view to satisfy the requirements of both safety and

serviceability.

Highly complicated organ implants are also conducted in many Kerala hospitals. In many

cases these are life threatening conditions which require emergency intervention. Hospitals in

Kerala focus on providing complete medical care solutions and have well-equipped operation

theatres, trained trauma and critical care teams and the back-up support of labs and blood banks,

to deal with any emergencies

In the word itself multispecialty means it should contain more than one specialty. In a

multispecialty hospital there are major five specialties. They are Cardiology, Nephrology,

Neurology &Neuro surgery, Gastroenterology & Urology. In order to that there are other

facilities such as casualty ,lobby ,enquiry ,security ,reception/registration, lifts for service such as

patients and equipments, stairs for fire escape and service ,ducts for electricity sanitary

etc.,pharmacy , cash/account , STD booth, MRI ,Ultrasonic ,CT scanning, sterilizing area,

canteen, operation theatre, mortuary, ramp, Rooms for separate consultancy ,oxygen networking,

AC plant,water tank, transformer house, Water treatment plant , parking area etc

Kerala has become one of the leading medical tourism destinations of India. There are a

number of specialty hospitals in Kerala that offer specialized care for complex medical

conditions. The quality of health care offered by the doctors, nurses and support staff make a

medical tourism in Kerala the preferred choice of patients seeking healthcare solutions in

India

Specialty hospitals in Kerala are at the forefront of medical tourism. Many of the

hospitals offer a complete package that includes consultancy with a medical specialist,

diagnosis, appropriate medical treatment, pre and post-operative care, and even arrangements

for a family member or attendant to stay with the medical tourist.

Specialty hospitals in Kerala have opened their doors to patients from around the world and

have gained a reputation for their quality treatment and medical care.

Specialty Hospitals in Kerala offer treatment in various medical specialties. From specialized

eye care centers to brain and spinal surgery centers, specialty hospitals offer world-class care

in select medical disciplines. Many of the specialty hospitals in Kerala have faculty who have

studied and worked abroad and have returned to India to teach and to build a world-class

medical infrastructure in India. These specialty hospitals are now attracting patients from

around the world.

SreeChitraTirunal Institute of Medical Science, Trivandrum

Chaithanya Eye Hospital & Research Institute, Trivandrum

AtingalMultispeciality Hospital, Trivandrum

Indo-American Brain & Spine Hospital, Vaikom

Specialist's Hospital, Ernakulam

Trichur Heart Hospital, Thrissur

NIMS Hospital, Neyyattinkara

KIMS Hospital, Trivandrum

CHAPTER 2

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

Paladino , Advised by Professor Leonard Albano

Commercial buildings represent a large portion of new construction projects throughout the

U.S. Commercial buildings designed for consumer interaction and sales often present unique

structural and architectural design challenges due to the emphasis on aesthetics and

performance. This Major Qualifying Project investigated the design of a two-story

commercial building with a large span lobby for sales agents and consumers. The group used

the project to demonstrate fundamental knowledge of civil engineering gained from

undergraduate courses at WPI. Topics not covered in the undergraduate curriculum were

researched and explored including the design and construction of a dome roof and a partial

glass curtain wall.

The project team’s goal was to design an architectural plan and structural system that is cost

effective, safe, and accommodating to the proposed use. The project team established an

architectural layout and floor plan based on the building’s projected commercial use. The

floor plan and building layout were designed in accordance with the Massachusetts State

Building Code 7th Edition. The team then designed a structural framing system. All principle

structural members were designed, including beams, girders, columns, connections, and

foundation elements. Frame designs investigated both steel and concrete construction. Both

materials were compared and analyzed resulting in one final, cost-effective structural frame

using one of the materials. To explore new areas of interest the group included a dome roof, a

front glass wall,

CONCLUSION

The literature analyzing the relationship between performance anddesign often considers only

one dimension of performance and design. For instance, authors use only profit for

performance or only information system for describing design. We could validate this model

thanks to simulation of the organizational behaviors in alternative designs andThis project

demonstrated the group’s knowledge of civil engineering while also dealing with a few

unique structural engineering design aspects that could be involved in real world applications.

This paper is only one part of a larger research that aims at modeling the relationship between

organizational design and hospital performance. This research is related to the changing

context of hospitalpayment systems. We observe the generalization of either prospective

payment systems or more controlledretrospective payment systems. We want to analyze

whether or not the traditional structure of hospitals is stillappropriate by analyzing the

existing literature in a single global model. Before modeling their relationship,we have to

define hospital performance and to determine which organizational design hospital could

choose.concept of hospital performance and provided criteria to evaluate it:

efficiency,financial results, the patient satisfaction, and the quality of care and human

resources.

CONCLUSION

In general, the future researches that will allow us to model the relationship between

organizational design and performance. The literature analyzing the relationship between

performance anddesign often considers only one dimension of performance and design. For

instance, authors use only profitfor performance or only information system for describing

design. In future research, we would like tointegrate this existing literature and its partial

contribution in a single global model.

Organization and performance should be decrease the amount of information to be handled

and to increase the capacity of informationprocessing by means of rules, hierarchy and

planning,decrease the amount of information to be handled by creating slack

resources,increase the capacity of information handling by developing the information

systems.

Becker,Kelley Department of Design and Environmental Analysis, Cornell

University,Ithaca, New York, USA

Virtually all of the research on patient-cantered care to date has focused on in-patientrather

than outpatient facilities and services. Despite the fact that hospitals arespending millions of

dollars to improve the physical attractiveness of their facilities,particularly public areas such

as lobbies and waiting areas, no studies have examinedin a hospital setting and with actual

patients whether the attractiveness of outpatient physical settings in which patients wait

affects perceived quality of care. To providemore systematic evidence about whether the

investment in more attractive patientareas increased the perceived quality of care, Becker and

Jones-Douglas (2006) collecteddata on patients’ perceived quality of care and the relationship

to perceived and actualwaiting times in both primary waiting areas and in exam rooms in six

outpatientfacility practices that varied significantly in physical attractiveness.

CONCLUSION

In general, Study assessing the relationship between the physical attractiveness of outpatient

facilitieson patients’ perceived quality of care to illustrate the role evidence-based designcan

play in facility planning and design. For researchon facilities and their relationship to

teamwork and collaboration amongmulti-disciplinary care teams. Implementing evidence-

based design, and suggests ways in which more formalacademic research can be combined

with practice-based research to garner the benefitsof systematic assessment in the context of

real world time and resource constraints.

4. Characteristics Of Hospital Building Changes ,Process And Quality By : Giuseppe

Pellitleri, D.P.C.E., University Of PalermoFlavia Belvedere,D.P.C.E., University Of

Palermo

Functional aspects of a hospital building often overshadowthe others that characterize its

architecture. These objects were pursued also through the contributionof disciplines very

different: like Environmental Psychology,expressive arts, ergonomic, art of gardening,

EvidenceBased Design, studies on the perception of shape andcolour. Several of these are

related to the architecture ingeneral, other are related to the hospital building inparticular. For

example, the Cognitive Psychology says thata corridor with more than two changes of

direction doesn’t help to create a mental map for the orientation.

CONCLUSION

Hospital buildings and humanization of spacessupporting the health activity are the basis

defining designguidelines and humanizeimportant spaces, like those supporting the health

activity.These criteria will be written for each aspect analyzed andderive directly from the

evaluation of its architectural quality according to the optimal parameters introduced.In fact

from the analysis carried out and observing actualtrends, we have saw that in those areas

optimal levels ofarchitectural quality in terms of humanization have notbeen

achieved.Obviously taking into account emerging criteria will beeasier for new hospitals.

More complex is to act withinexisting hospitals, where however is always essential tosolve

the problem of humanization. In existing buildingshumanization doesn’t follow the same

logics of newbuildings. Sometimes it is better to change their usemaking them housing or

dormitories.

CHAPTER 3

3. SITE INVESTIGATION

3.1 GENERAL

The present investigation is aimed to study the subsoil condition at the site and to

recommend the suitable foundation for the proposed building With the aid and necessity and

the requirement of the hospital we select the site near Kazhakootam, which is a developing

area in Kerala due to the launching of smart city in this area the need of a multispecialty

hospital become much important.

located on the National Highway 47 on the way to Kollam from the city, and has gained in

significance because of proximity to Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre,

andTechnopark.Kazhakootam is the heart of the IT sector of Thiruvananthapuram having the

Technopark as well as the offices of many multinational companies along the IT

corridor.Kazhakootam is well connected by road and rail.

mud is used to support the sides of the hole. A thick wall split-tube sampler, 50.8 mm OD and

35mm Id, is driven into the undisturbed soil at the bottom of the hole under the blows of a

63.5 kg drive weight with75cm free fall. The minimum open length of the sample should be

60cm.

The split tube sampler, commonly known as split spoon sample resting on the bottom of the

bore hole is allowed to sink under its own weight. It is then seated 15cm with the blows of

hammer falling through a height of 75cm.

Thereafter the split spoon sampler is further driven by 30cm or 50 blows.The number of

blows required to affect each 15cm penetration is recorded.

The first 15cm drive may be considered as seating drive. The total blows required for second

and third 15cm of penetration is termed as the penetration resistance N. If the split spoon

sampler is driven less than 45cm (total), then the penetration resistance shall be for the last 30

cm of penetration. The entire sampler may sink under its own weight when very soft sub-soil

stratum is encountered. Under such conditions, it may not be necessary to give any blow to be

sampler and SPT value should be indicated as zero. The value ofstandard penetrationtest is

2.45

CHAPTER4

4.CASE STUDY

The KIMS Hospital, the only biggest hospital in south Kerala, is owned by KIMS Group of

Hospital Ltd. It has been designed and commissioned as a 650 bedded hi-tech super specialty

hospital of world standard to impart excellent medical treatment at an affordable cost to the

sick and the suffering.

The management is committed to develop KIMS Hospital with a mission "care with courtesy

compassion and competence”.The hospital at present has the following departments, facilities

& special clinics.

CHAPTER 5

5.1 GENERAL

Planning and design should be done for each component and great care should be provided.

They are provided as per the code provisions such as and related to NBC, KBR. The role of

architecture in development of healthcare facilities is as old as civilization itself. Needless to

mention, it has responded to the changing needs of the health sector, just as it has done to the

other spheres of life. The resultant effect has been seen in provision of design solutions that

either enhanced the impact of delivery of care and/or made the delivery of care more

efficient. This contribution to the humanity is a tribute to the interdisciplinary approach in the

health facility planning and de- sign process. It also marks the significance of tailoring the

design solutions to the care needs of the individuals, both sick and otherwise, and all those

who are involved in the healthcare delivery process.

A suitable plot of land in the heart of Kazhakootam has been acquired for setting up the

Kazhakootam Medical Centre. The Hospital will be housed in 3660.62sq.ftbuilding.For

constructingbuilding total plinth area of basement floor is 797.68sq.ft and that of FAR area is

589.55sq.ft, total plinth area of ground floor is 814.15sq.ft and that of FAR area is

800.05sq.ft, total plinth area of second floor is 789.62sq.ft and that of FAR area is

775.52sq.ft,total plinth area of third floor is 291.71sq.ft and that of FAR area is 284.51sq.ft,

total plinth area of terrace floor is 119.23sq.ft and that of FAR area is 112.03sq.ft. There will

be a separate car parking facility for 100 cars. The Centre will be a modern hospital with each

specialty department having the finest in diagnostic and therapeutic equipment. Apart from

OP and IP wards, various ICU’s, four state-of-the-art major operation theatres with vertical

laminar flow ventilation, surgical control panel, ceiling pendants and anti-static seamless

flooring will maintain the highest standards of sterility and sophistication. The hospital will

have air-conditioned suites, air-conditioned deluxe rooms, air-conditioned rooms, ordinary

rooms and wards to suit different budgets.

CHAPTER 6

• MS OFFICE2007 For Estimation Tables and Report making

• STAAD PROV8I 2007 For design and analysis

The software is released by Research Engineers International, California and U.S.A. It has an

initiative, user-friendly GUI, visualization tools, powerful analysis and design facilities and

seamless integration to several other modeling and design software products. The software has

provisions to allow us to specify the entire structure as a collection of its various elements to

discretize the structure. The software has an extremely friendly GUI that makes modeling easy

and accurate. For static, dynamic, or pushover analysis of bridges, containment

structures(tunnels and culverts),pipe racks, steel, concrete, aluminium or timber buildings,

transmission towers, stadiums or any other simple or complex structure, STAAD.Prov8 2007

has been the choice of design professionals around the world for their specific analysis needs. It

provides a comprehensive and integrated finite element and design solution, including a state-of

–the-art-user interface, visualization tools and international design codes. It is capable of

analyzing any structure exposed to a dynamic response, soil-structure interaction, or wind,

earthquake, and moving loads.

Once when the overall geometry of the structure has been specified, the section properties of the

individual member elements are specified .Thereafter, loading on the members are specified.

Following this, the support conditions relevant to the structure are specified well. The input to

the software can easily be inspected and modified with help of STAAD editor. Thereafter, the

analysis can be performed. The analysis yields us the parameters required for performing the

structural design of thestructure. The required value can directly be read from the STAAD output

file. The software also allows us to perform design as per specifications in various international

codes of practice.

6.1 AUTOCAD 2011

All the drawing and detailing works were done by making use of AutoCAD 2011, released by

AUTODESK Inc. As such, this is the pioneering software in CAD. AutoCAD is a vector

graphics drawing program. It uses primitive entities such as lines, poly-lines, circles, arcs and

text as the foundation for more complex objects. AutoCAD’s native file format, DWG, and to

alesser e x tent, its interchange file format, D X F has become the standards for interchange of

CAD data.

6.2 MSOFFICE2007

MS Word is very popular word processing software issued by Microsoft Corporation. Over time,

it has evolved in to a very popular package for handling all times of documentation and

reporting. The software is very versatile and user friendly and has several features that makes

document editing efficient. Documentation of all the work was done in MS Word 2007.

The purpose of analysis is to determine the moment and shear forces at various sections of the

structure under any loading condition. In order to perform the analysis the proportion of the

various structure elements are to be known in advance for the preliminary design is essential.

Thus in practice analysis and design are interactive. The structure consists of Ground and one

upper floor designed as framed structure. A frame consists of column and beams built

monolithically forming a network. Frame is designed for live load, Dead load. The beam and

column enslaving all the loads inclusive of wall and non load bearing walls. The frames are

analyzed using STADD PRO. STADD PRO is a suit for inter related structural software, offering

a complete solution for the professional structural Engineer’s STADD PRO consists of a

core.package and several optional functions

CHAPTER 7

7. PLANNING

7.1 GENERAL

The proposed three storied hospital building consist of total floor area of 1020m2 with 2000 m2

plot size. A building should be planned to make it comfortable, economical and to meet all the

requirements of the people. The efforts of the planner should be to obtain maximum comfort

with limited available resources. The hospital building to be analyzed and designed as per IS

specifications. Computer-aided drafting software program, AutoCAD, is used to create precise

drawings used in construction and manufacturing.

Fig3.Typical Ground Floor Plan

Fig 5.TypicalSecond Floor Plan

CHAPTER 8

These are the self-weights of the structure to be designed. The dimensions of the cross

section are to be assumed initially which enable to estimate the dead load from the known unit

weights of the structure. The values of the unit weights of the materials are specified in IS

875:1987(Part-I).Dead load includes self-weight of columns, beams, slabs, brick walls, floor

finish etc.

Self-weight of 120mm thick slab = 0.12× 25 = 3.0 KN/m2

=13.11kN/m2

= 7.41KN/m2

Live Loads as per IS: 875 (Part II) - 1987

They are also known as imposed loads and consist of all loads other than the dead loads

of the structure. The values of the imposed loads depend on the functional requirement of the

structure. The standard values are stipulated in IS 875:1987(Part-II).

Wind loads

These loads depend on the velocity of the wind at the location of the structure,

permeability of the structure, height of the structure etc. They may be horizontal or inclined

forces depending on the angle of inclination of the roof for pitched roof structures. Wind loads

are specified in IS 875 :( Part-3).

Where:

k1 = probability factor

Where:

8.1. LOAD COMBINATIONS

Design of the structures would have become highly expensive in order to maintain either

serviceability and safety if all types of forces would have acted on all structures at all times.

Accordingly the concept of characteristic loads has been accepted to ensure at least 95 percent of

the cases, the characteristic loads considered will be higher than the actual loads on the structure.

However the characteristic loads are to be calculated on the basis of average/mean load of some

logical combinations of all loads mentioned above.

the design of the structures. The different combinations used were:

1 1.5

LOAD COMB 5 COMB LOAD DL + LL + WLZ

1 1.0 2 1.0

LOAD COMB 6 COMB LOAD DL + LL + WL X

1 1.0 3 1.0

LOAD COMB 7 COMB LOAD DL + LL + WLZ

1 1.5 2 1.5

LOAD COMB 8 COMB LOAD DL + LL + WL X

1 1.5 3 1.5

LOAD COMB 9 COMB LOAD DL + LL + WLZ

1 1.2 2 1.2

LOAD COMB 10 COMB LOAD DL + LL + WL X

1 1.2 3 1.2

All these combinations are built in the STAAD.Prov8 2007.Analysis results from the

critical load combinations are used for the design of the structural members.

Note:

DL - dead load, LL - live load, WL- X – wind load in (- X ) – direction, WL X – wind load

in X –direction, WL-Z – Wind load in (-Z) – direction,WL X – wind load in Z- direction

CHAPTER 9

Modeling was done using Staad, It includes generation of model, defining materials,

defining sections, defining loads, and load combinations, assignment of defined properties and

analysis of the model. And thus the process consists of structural modeling, material

specification, and property specification, assigning restraints and loading.

The structure geometry consists of joint members, their coordinates, member numbers,

the member connectivity information, etc. At first we have to fix the position of beams and

columns. Then the joint coordinates were fixed. Beam centre lines were taken for fixing joint

coordinates. Then the members were connected along the joint coordinates using the member

incidence command.

For creating model geometry centre line of the beam layout was prepared in Auto CAD referring

to the architectural plan. The model was then generated in STAAD, by editing grid dimensions

from the centre line layout from Auto CAD 2015.

For the analysis of the multistoriedhospital building the typical floor plan was selected.

The first step was fixing the position of beams and columns. Then the structure was discredited.

Discretization includes fixing of joint co-ordinates and member incidences. Using substitute

frame method the structure was modeled. Here the column points were taken as grids. Then the

members were connected along the joint co-ordinates using the member incidence command.

The completed floor with all structural members was replicated to other floors and the required

changes were made.

9.3STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Structural analysis, which is an integral part of any engineering project, is the process of

predicting the performance of a given structure under a prescribed loading condition. The

performance characteristics usually of interest in structural design are:

Deflections

Support reactions

Thus the analysis of a structure typically involves the determination of these quantities

caused by the given loads and other external effects. In the design of reinforced concrete

structures, the aim is to provide a safe, serviceable, durable, economical and aesthetically

pleasing structure. For the structure to be safe, it must be able to resist the worst loading

conditions. Under normal working conditions, the deformation and cracking must not be ex

cessive for the structure to remain serviceable, durable and aesthetically pleasing during the ex

tended design life. Furthermore, the structure should be economical with regard to both

construction and maintenance cost.

The structure is analyzed with Staad. In order to analyze in Staad, We have to first

generate the model geometry, specify member properties, specify geometric constants and

specify supports and loads.

The next task is to assign cross section properties for the beams and columns. From the

load calculations and thumb rules preliminary dimension of beams and column were fixed. The

slab thickness and type is also obtained similarly. Thus the properties of the various frame

member sections such as cross sectional dimensions of beams, columns, RC walls, slabs was

defined and assigned.

Slab

Beams

B - 230 mm × 550 mm

Columns

C- 230x 450 mm

C2-300 X 450mm

RC Walls

Staircase

The staircase is provided as an equivalent slab. The thickness of the slab used for staircase is 100

mm.

9.3.2Specifying Supports

The base nodes of all columns are restrained against translation and rotation about all

the 3 global axes. In other words, fixed supports were specified at these nodes.

The material properties for various material used was defined and assigned.

Unit weight of masonry : 19 KN/m3

Unit weight of R.C.C : 25 KN/m3

Grade of concrete : M20 for R.C.C, Steel and Composite model

Grade of steel : HYSD bars for reinforcement Fe 415

Modulus of Elasticity for R.C.C : 5000√𝑓𝑐𝑘N/mm2

Modulus of Elasticity for Steel : 2.1 x 105 N/mm2

The purpose of analysis is to determine the moment and shear forces at various sections of the

structure under any loading condition. In order to perform the analysis the proportion of the

various structure elements are to be known in advance for the preliminary design is essential.

Thus in practice analysis and design are interactive. The structure consists of Ground and one

upper floor designed as framed structure. A frame consists of column and beams built

monolithically forming a network. Frame is designed for live load, Dead load. The beam and

column enslaving all the loads inclusive of wall and non load bearing walls.

The frames are analyzed using STADD PRO. STADD PRO is a suit for inter related structural

software, offering a complete solution for the professional structural Engineer’s STADD PRO

consists of a core.Package and several optional functions.

The properties of various frame member sections such as cross sectional dimensions of

the slab; beams, staircase, columns, shear walls etc. and material property were defined and

assigned

Slab

Beams

Staircase

The staircase was provided as an equivalent slab. The thickness of the slab used for staircase was

140 mm.

Columns

C1 = 230 x 450 mm

C2-300 x 450mm

Nodes of

Number 708 Highest Beam 809

Elements

Number of Basic Load 2

Number of Combination 0

Cases

Load Cases

Fig 10.3D View In STAAD

9.7 RESULT FROM STAAD

Fig 13. Result From Staad

Fig 14. Result From Staad

9.7.2.AnalysisOf Column

Fig 16.Result From Staad

Fig 17.Result From Staad

Fig 18. Result From Staad

Fig 19.Result From Staad

Fig20: Shear force diagram

Fig 22.Displacement diagram

CHAPTER 10

10.STRUCTURAL DESIGN

10.1.GENERAL

The aim of structural design is to achieve an acceptable probability that the structure

being designed will perform the function for which it is created and will safely withstand the

influence that will act on it throughout its useful life. These influences are primarily the loads

and the other forces to which it will be subjected.

The design of R.C.C. structures will depend on the lay out. The lay out depends on action

performed by the structure. Planning and proportioning of structure is called structural design.

Some of the factors which govern the design are:

Should not interfere with the function for which the structure is intended.

Be economical in first cost and maintenance.

Should be strong enough to last for service in view.

Be readily adaptable for future expansion.

Working out forces and loads which the structure has to carry.

Arrangements of various members-beams, columns etc, to support the structure.

Computation of stresses, shears, moments etc in the members of the structure.

Providing adequate sections to resist in the member.

An efficiently designed structure is one which the members are arranged in such a way

that weight, loads, and forces are transmitted to foundations by cheapest means consistent with

the intended use of the structure and nature of the site.

For the high rise buildings, masonry walls will be very heavy if conventional materials

are used. With the innovation of light weight concrete, light curtain walls etc. which reduced the

dead weight considerably, new technological development like frame structure, shear wall

construction etc, were made very possible. Steel structures adopted for various uses in the form

of rigid frames consist of beam and column combinations in the form of portal frames, gable

frames etc. For frames which are designed for horizontal and vertical loads transmitted to it,

slabs, beams and columns are monolithically cast and space in between filled by brick or other

light weight materials making it lighter and reducing the weights on foundation.

The design methods used for the design of reinforced concrete structures are working

stress method, ultimate load method and limit state method. Here the limit state method of design

is adopted.

In the limit state method, the structure is designed to withstand safely all loads liable to

act on it through its life and also to satisfy the serviceability requirements, such as limitation to

deflection and cracking. The acceptable limit of safety and serviceability requirements before

failure is called limit state. All the relevant limit states should be considered in the design to

ensure adequate degrees of safety and serviceability .The structure should be designed on the

basis of most critical state and then checked for other limit states.As per IS 456:2000 the value of

partial safety factor for dead and live load combination is 1.5.

10.2.DESIGN OF SLAB

Slabs are structural elements having their depth much smaller than other two dimensions.

They usually carry a uniformly distributed load from the floors and roof of the building. Design

of reinforced concrete slab was done using IS 456:2000 and SP 16:1980.slabs of thickness120

mm was used in the building and designed as one-way or two-way slab as the case may be.

Grade of concrete M25 and grade of steel is Fe 415 are assumed for slab design. Typical slab

designs are shown below.

10.3MANUAL DESIGN

Consider a slab in typical floor with maximum bending moment. Here consider S1 slab. The slab

end condition is one short edge discontinous. The slab is designed using IS456.

Fck= 20 N/mm2

Fy= 415 N/mm2

Depth of slab:

Over all depth,D = 120 mm

Effective depth = {D – clear cover - 1/2 dia of bar}

d =120 – 15 – 10/2= 100 mm (Assuming 10 mm dia bar)

Effective span Lx &Ly:

I. Effective shorter span in the least of

a. Clean shorter span + d = 3.6+0.1 = 3.7 m

b. C/C distance of supports = clear span + bearing= 3.6 + 0.23 = 3.83

Effective span of shorter =L x = 3.7 m

II. Effective span is the least of

a. Clear longer span + d = 5 + 0.1 = 5.1 m

b. C/C distance of support= 5 + 0.23 = 5.23 m

Effective longer span = Ly= 5.1 m

Ly/L x = 5.1/3.7 = 1.37< 2

Hence it is two way slab.

Loads:

Self weight of slab =0.12 x 25= 3 KN/m2

Floor finish = 0.5 KN/m2

Material= 1.5 KN/m2

Live load = 5 KN/m2

Total characteristics load, W = 10 KN/m2

Factored load, Wd= 10 x1.5=15KN/m2

From Table 26 ofIS 456

Lx (-ve)= 0.0642

Lx (+ ve)= 0.0484

Ly( -ve) = 0.032

Ly( +ve)= 0.024

B.M along shorter span:-

Mx (- ve) wd L x 2= 0.0642 x 15 x 3.12= 9.254 KNm

Provide 10 mm dia bar @ 290 mm c/c(From Table 37 of sp16)

M x (+ve) = 0.0484 x 15 x 3.12= 6.977 KNm

Provide 10 mm dia bar @ 300 mm c/c

B.M along longer span:-

My (-ve) = 0.032 x 15 x 3.12= 4.61 KNm

Provide 10mm dia @ 300mm c/c

My( +ve) = 0.024 x 15 x 3.12= 3.46 KNm, Provide 10mm dia @ 300mm c/c

Verandah Slab:

Interior panel = 3 x 1.5m

Depth of slab:-

D = 120 mm

d = 120 - 15 - 10/2 = 100 mm

Effective span lx &ly:-

I. L x least of

1. Clear shorter span + d = 1.5 + 0.1 = 1.6 m

2. c/c distance of support = 1.5 + 0.23 = 1.73 m

L x = 1.6 M

II. Ly least of

1. clear shorter span + d = 51 + 0.1 = 51.1 m

2. c/c distance of support = 51 + 0.3 = 51.3 m

Ly= 51.1m

Ly/L x = 51.1/1.6 = 31.937m

Ly/L x > 2 hence It is a one way slab

Load:-

Self weight of slab = 0.12 x 25 = 3 KN/m2

Floor finish = 0.5 KN/m2

Material= 1.5KN/m2

Live load = 5 KN/m2

Total load wu= 10KN/m2

Total design load = 10 x 1.5 = 15KN/m2

Mu x = 0.1 wul x 2(or)Mu x =wl x 2/10= 0.1 x 15 x 1.62= 3.84KNm

Reinforcement detail:-

Mux = 3.84KNm

Provided 10 mm dia of bar 300 mm c/c (From Table 37 to sp 16)

Distributor steel:-

0.12% bd= 0.12/100 x 120 x 1000

Ast = 144m2

Provided 8mm dia of bar @ 340mm c/c. (From table 96 of sp 16)

10.3.2 Design Of Beam

Consider a beam in typical floor with maximum bending moment. Here consider B beam.

The beam is designed using IS456.

Loads on beams

Wall load - 0.23 x 3.6 x 19 =13.11KN/m

Assuming beam size 300 x 400

Self load – 0.23 x 0.400 x 25 =2.3KN/m

Slab load – W = 15KN

Refer load calculation on slab

Slab shorter span on slab design Ly=5.1

Lx =3.7

W x L x /3=(15 x 3.7)/3 = 18.5KN/m

Total load = 13.11+2.3+18.5 = 33.91KN/m

Design of stirrups

Calculation of shear force

Va=Vb= total load /2 =(total load x Ly)/2 =86.47KN

Calculation of normal shear d=400-32, d=368

Tv=Vu /Bd =(1.5 x 86.47 x 103)/(300 x 368) =1.174

Calculation of permissible shear stress

Tc = % of tension steel

Pt= (Ast/Bd) x 100

Ast = 2x (π/4 x 62) = 56.56 mm2

Pt = (56.56 x 100)/(300 x 368) = 0.60%

Tc=0.50 Tc<Tv 0.05 < 0.85

Hence provide shear reinforcement.

Design of shear:

Vs =(Tv-Tc)bd=(0.85- 0.50) x 300 x 368 =38.64KN

Calculation:

Vus = Vs/D(cm) = (38.64/36.8) =0.89KN/cm

From sp-16 table no 62 we will get dia& spacing.

Hence provide 6mm dia @ 15cm c/c spacing.

Check for spacing:

Spacing should be provided min of the following.

(a) 0.75d = 0.75 x 368 =276 mm

(b) Asvfy/0.4b =(2 x(62 x π/4) x 250)/(0.4 x 300) =153.2mm

(c) design spacing 45cm c/c

Hence provide 6mm dia stirrups @ 15 cm c/c

Mu at Left span = 11.577 KN-m

Mu at Mid span = 19.18 KN-m

Mu at Right span = 20.36KN-m

Check:-

Calculation limiting moment of resistances:

Mu = 11.577 KN-m

Mulimt=0.138 fck bd2

= 0.138 x 20 x 300 x 3682

= 112.13 KN-m

Mu <Mulimit

Hence it is designed as simply reinforcement beam using sp-16

Mu/Bd2 =11.577 x 106 /230 x 3002 =1.39

Refer table no.2 at sp-16 and read out the value of percentage of reinforcement

Corresponding to fy = 415 N/mm^2 and fck = 20N/mm^2

For Mu/bd2 = 1.39 Pt= ?

1.350.409

1.40 0.426

Mu/bd^2 = 1.39 Pt = 0.422

Pt = 0.422 %

Area of reinforcement

Pt/Bd= Ast x 100/0.422 x 300 x 368

Ast required = 465.88 mm2

Hence provide 3 bars of 12 mmdia

Ast provided =470 mm

Fig 23. Design OfBeam

Consider a column in typical floor with maximum bending moment. Here consider C

column. The column is designed using SP 16.

Loads from floor= 94.58KN

Self wt. of column = 0.23 x 0.23 x 3 x 25 = 34.5KN

Total loads = 167KN

Column Axial load: Pu = 167 KN Cross section

Size -300 x 450mm

Calculation:

Pu/fck x b x d= 167 x 10^3/20 x 300 x 450= 0.15

Calculation of Eccentricity: e= 1/500 + b / 30 = 4640/500 + 230/30 = 16.94m e≤20 mm

Mue = Pu xe = 167 x 0.020 = 3.34 Kn-m

Mue/fck bd^2 = 3.34 x 10^6 = 0.0112

P = .02 xfck=.04

Area of steel = 0.8 Bd /100 = 0.8 x 300 x 400/100 = 960mm ,

d’/D = 0.2

P/fck = 0.02

No. of bars for 12mm dia = 960/ p/4 x 12^2 = 8 bars

10.3.4 Design Of Pile

As per IS 2911 (Part I/ Sec 3) -2010, the pile cap may be designed by assuming that the load

from column is dispersed at 45˚ from the top of the cap up to the mid depth of the pile cap from

the base of the column or pedestal. The reaction from piles may also be taken to be distributed at

45˚ from the edge of the pile, up to the mid depth of the pile cap. On this basis the maximum

bending moment and shear forces should be worked out at critical sections.

1. Pile cap is perfectly rigid.

2. Pile heads are hinged to the pile cap and hence no bending moment is transmitted to piles

from pile caps.

3. Since the piles are short and elastic columns, the deformations and stress distribution are

planer.

1. Shape of pile cap.

2. Depth of pile cap.

3. Amount of steel to be provided.

4. Arrangement of reinforcement.

Whittle and Beattie have developed through computer program therelationship between

dimension of pile cap and the size of the pile. The minimum spacing of piles permitted from soil

mechanics depends on the type and end conditions. CP 2004 requires a minimum centre- to –

centre spacing of twice the diameter of the piles for end bearing and three times the diameter for

friction piles. IS 2911 part1, sections 1 and 2 recommended a minimum spacing of two and half

times the diameter of the pile for both driven cast in situ and bored cast in situ piles. For

accommodating deviations in driving of piles, the size of the pile cap ismade 300 mm more than

the outer- to outer distance of the exterior piles. (150mm on either side). The plan dimension of

the pile cap is based on the fact that the actual final position of piles can be in construction up to

100 mm out of line from the theoreticalcentre lines. Pile caps should be made very large to

accommodate these deviations. In practice, pile caps are e x tended as much as 150 mm beyond

the outer face of the piles. Standard Pile Caps:

hp = diameter of pile in mm

The thickness of the Pile Cap is fixed such that it is adequate to resist shear without shear

reinforcement and the bars projecting from the piles and the dowel bars for the column can be

provided adequate bond length. As per IS 456- 2000, the minimum thickness on top of piles

should not be less than 300 mm. Pile cap depth should be kept on the high side to effect economy

in the consumption of steel and also to provide adequate rigidity to pile cap. Generally, pile cap

thickness should not be less than 500 mm which may be reduced to 300 mm at the free edges.

For pile caps to be rigid, pile cap has to be quite deep with 600 mm as the minimum depth. As a

guide line the formula given in Reinforced concrete by Reynolds may be followed.

Pile cap depth (h) = (2 hp + 100)mm

For Pile dia ≥ 550 mm,

h= ⅓ x( 8 hp + 600) mm

Practical Aspects on Pile cap Design:

The structural design of a pile cap is similar to the design of spread footing. The load

acting on the pile cap from the superstructure and piles are resisted by the developments of

bending moment and shear force in the pile cap. Codal provisions made in IS 2911(Part 1/sec3)-

2010:

1. The size of the pile cap is fixed in such way that it has clear overhang beyond the outermost

pile not less than 100mm, but preferably 150mm.

2. It should be deep enough to allow the necessary overlap of reinforcements from column and

piles.

3. The clear cover to the main reinforcement should not be less than 40mm.

4. The span to thickness ratio of the cap should not be more than 5 so that pile cap is rigid

enough to distribute the load uniformly to the piles.

5. Generally, its thickness should not be less than 500mm which may be reduced to 300mm at

the free edges.

6. The piles should at least 50mm into the pile cap.

7. A leveling course of not less 75mm thick concrete should be provided under the pile cap.

Data

Pile Diameter = 400 mm

Spacing of piles 2 hp= 2 x 400 : 800 mm

Column Dimension B x D = 300 x 450 mm

Factored Load = 1072.8 KN

Factored Moment M x u = 51.29KN.m

Safe Load on Single Pile = 500KN

Concrete Mi x = M20

Steel Grade = Fe 415

Design : -

1. Pile Cap Dimension :

Breadth of Pile Cap = C/c of Pile + hp /2+ 150 + hp /2 + 150

= 800 + 400/2+ 150 +400/2+ 150 =1500 mm

Width of pile cap = hp+ 150 + 150 = 700 mm

Depth of Pile cap = 2 hp+ 100 = 2 x 400 + 100 = 900 mm.

Total factored a x ial compressive load

Factored load from column Pu= 1072.80 KN

Total Factored Load Pu= 1108.25 KN

No. of Piles along one side of a x is = 2

y coordinate of Pile cap = 0.4 m

M x = Moment about x a x is = 51.29 KN.m

Compressive load in A1 & A2 about x – x a x is

= (1108.25/2) + (51.29 X .4 /2 x 0.42 )

= 554.13 + 64.11=618.24 KN

Design working load = 618.24 /1.5 = 412.16 KN < Safe Load on Pile i.e500KN.O.K.

3. Bending Moment

Factored Moment in section Y-Y

Mu= 618.24 x ((0.8-0.3)/2)= 154.56 KN.m2

4. Check for effective depth

Mu = 0.138 fckb d2= 154.56 x 106

d required = √ (154.56 x 106) / 2.76 x 700 =282.84 mm

D provided = 900 mm

d available = 900 – 60 -12- 6 = 822 mm > d required . 282.84 mm

5. Check for Punching Shear (Two way shear)

Punching shear at a distance d/2 (i.e.822/2= 411mm) from face of column

= 1072.80 KN

The critical section of punching comes the centre of pile.

Hence the net load is to be taken. However the depth is checked for factored

axial load from column = 1072.80 KN

b= 700 x 822 mm

d= 822 mm

Perimeter of critical section = 2 (700 + 822) = 3044 mm

Punching shear stress = 1072.80 x 103/(3044 x 822) = 0. 43 N/mm2

Allowable shear stress for M20

= 0.25 √fck= 0.25 √20 = 1.12 N/mm2

Hence safe.

6. Main Reinforcement

Mu= 154.56 x 106 KN.m

K = Mu / bd2 = 154.56 x 106 /(700 x 8222)= 0.33

Pt from Table 2 of Design Aid=0.11

Minimum Ast=( 0.12/100) x 700 x 822 = 690.48 mm2

Provide 7 Nos. 12 Φ RTS at bottom on both ways.

(Ast = 791 mm2 > 690.48 mm2)

Reinforcement at top :-

Minimum Ast= (0.12/100) x 700 x 822 = 690.48 mm2

Provide 7 Nos. 12 mm Dia RTS at top .

(Ast = 791 mm2 > 690.48 mm2)

7. Check for one way shear

Maximum Shear force at face of column = 618.24 KN

Shear stress = 618.24 x 103 / (700 x 822) = 1.07 N/mm2

For Pt= 0.20%

ζcfrom Table 61 of Design Aid to IS 456 -1978 = 0.33 N /mm2

Shear to be carried by stirrups shear

Vus=(1.07– 0.33) x 700 x 822 x 10-3= 425.80 KN.

Vus/d = 425.80 / 82.2 = 5.18 KN/cm

Provide 8 Φ RTS 4 legged stirrups @ 120 mm c/c.

(Vus/d =5.58 KN/m > 5.18 KN/cm ).

8. Sketch

10.3.5 Design Of Staircase

Data

Height of one storey= 3.6 m

Tread = 300 mm

Rise = 150 mm

Type legged stair case:

No. of steps = ht of one storey+roof tk./Rise= 3.6+0.12/15=24.8 ~ 25nos

No. of steps per flight = no. of steps/2 = 25/2= 12.5 ~ 13nos

Length of one flight= 13 x 0.3 = 3.9 m

Design of waist slab:

Self weight of slab = 0.15 x 1.5 x 25 = 5.625 KN/m

Your te x t here

Step weight = (1/0.3) x 1/2 x 0.3 x 0.5 x 1.5 x 2= 2.25 KN/m

Granite load = 1.45 x 1.5 x 0.5 = 1.08KN/m

Live load= 5 x 1.5 = 7.5KN/m

Total load = 16.455 KN/m

Landing slab:

Size = (3 x 1.39) m

Fck = 20 N/mm2

Fy = 415 N/mm2

Thickness of slab = 120 mm

Effective depth of slab:

d = D – cover –D/2 bar

assume 10 mm

d = 120 – 15 – 10/2

d = 100 mm

Effective depth of slab:

I. l x least of

a. Lx = 1.39 + 0.1 = 1.49

b. c/c distribution = 1.4 + 0.23 = 1.63

L x = 1.49

II. Ly least of

a. ly = 3.6 + 0.1 = 3.7 m

b. c/c distribution = 3.93 m

Ly/L x = 3.93/1.49 = 2.63 (It is one way slab)

Loads :

Self weight of slab = 0.12 x 25 = 3 KN/m2

Floor finish = 0.15 KN/m2

Material = 1.5 KN/m2

Total characteristics load(W) = 10 KN/m2

Total design load (Wu) = 10 x 1.5 = 15KN/m2

Mu x = 0.1 Wu l x 2

= 0.1 x 15 x 1.52

= 3.375 KNm

Reinforcement detail:

Main reinforcement : [Table 37 of sp 16]

Provide 8mm ϕ bar @ 340 mm c/c

Distributor steel:

[Page No: 230 of sp 16]

= 0.12% bd

= 0.12/100 x 120 x 1000

Ast = 144 mm2

Provide 8mm ϕ bar @ 340 mm c/c

10.3.5 Design A Septic Tank

1.Water supply=200lit/per/day

2. No of persons= 250Nos

3.Sewage generation= 80% of water supply

4.Detention period = 18hours

5.Cleaning period = once in a year

6.L: B = 4:1 & Depth of Storage of water = 1.8m

7.Sludge deposit = 30lit/person/year

8.Min Free Board required = 30cm (Rec= 50cm)

Total Waste water coming to septic tank = 100 x 5 x 200 x 80/ 100=80000 lit/day

Detention period = 18hours

Capacity of tank required =80000/24 x 18=60000lit

Capacity req for sludge accumulation = 30 x 5 x 100 = 15000lit / year

Total capacity req= 60000 + 15000= 75000lit

Plan area of the Septic tank = 75/1.8=41.67m2

L: B taken as 4:1, 4B x B= 41.67,B = (41.67/4)

B = 3.25m. L = 3.25x 4= 13m.

Total depth of Septic tank = 1.8+0.5= 2.30m

10.3.6. Design Of Sock Pit

Percolation rate = 1500 lit / m3/ day

Volume of filter media = 80000 / 1500 = 53m3

Depth taken= 2.5m

Area of soak pit = 53/2.5 = 21.2 sqm

Dia of Soak well req= 21.2 x 4 / π= 5.2m

Fig 28. Model OfUnlined Sock Pit Filled With Stone Or Brick Aggregate

Fig29.ModelOfLined Sock Pit

Percapita demand = 135 l/capita

(it is only used on half of a day so requires for 135/2)

Total quality of water = 200 x 135/2= 13500 litre

Quality of water stored for 2 days

= 2 x 13500 = 27000 litre

= 27000/1000 = 27

Area of water tank = 27/2 = 13.5m2

But we have = 18 > 13.5Hence ok.

Ht = volume/area

= 27/13.5 = 2m

Height of tank = 2+0.3 (free board)

= 2.3 m

Weight of water = 2.0 x 10 =20 KN/m2

Design Of Water Tank Slab

Dead load of slab:

Size = 3x6m

Over all depth D = 120mm

Effective depth = D – cover –d/2

Assume 10 mm ϕ

D = 120 – 15 – 10/2 = 0.1 m

Effective span l x andly,

I. Effective span l x andly,

1) Clear shorter span + d = 3+ 0.1 = 3.1 m

2) c/c shorter span + d = 3 + 0.23 = 3.23m

Effective shorter span lx = 3.1 m

II. Effective span l x andly,

1) Clear longer span + d = 6 + 0.1 = 6.1 m

2) c/c distance of support = 6 + 0.23 = 6.23 m

Effective longer sapn ly = 6.1 M

ly/l x = 1.96 < 2It is two way slabs.

Load:

Self weight of slab = 0.12 x 25 = 3 KN/m

Weight of water = 2.0 x 10 = 20KN/m

Total = 23 KN/m

wd = 23 x 1.5 = 34.5KNm

ly/l x = 6.1/3.1 = 1.96m

From table 26 of IS 456 l x

l/l x dx

1.75 0.060

2.0 0.065

0.25 0.005

Lx positive:

l/l x dx

1.75 0.045

2.0 0.049

0.25 0.004

αy( - ve) = 0.032

αy( + ve) = 0.024

Mx (- ve) = α x wd l x 2= 0.0642 x 34.5 x 3.12

= 21.28 KNm

M x (+ve) = α x wd l x 2 = 0.0484 x 34.5 x 3.12

= 16.05KNm

Bending moment along longer span:

Mx (- ve) = α x wd l x 2 = 0.032 x 34.5 x 3.12

= 10.61KNm

Mx (+ ve) = α x wd l x 2= 0.024 x 34.5 x 3.12

= 7.96KNm

Reinforcement detail:

From table 37 of sp 16

Bending moment along shorter span:

M x (+ve) = 16.05KNm

Provide 12mm dia bar @ 220 mm spacing

M x (-ve) = 7.96 KNm

Provide 12mm dia bar @ 160 mm spacing

Bending moment along shorter span:

My (+ ve) = 7.96KNm

Provide 10mm dia bar @ 300 mm spacing

My (- ve) = 10.61KNm

Provide 10mm dia bar @ 250 mm spacing

Top slab of water tank design:

Size =3x6

Thickness of slab = 120 mm

Effective depth = 100 – 15 – 10/2 = 80 mm

Ly/l x = 6.08/3.08 = 1.97 <2

Two way slab

Self weight of slab = 0.12 x 25= 3KNm

Live load = 1 KN/m

Total load = 4 KN/m

wd = 6 KN/m

+ mu x = 0.0642 x 6 x 3.12 = 3.70KNm

-mu x = 0.032 x 6 x 3.12 = 1.86KNm

+ muy = 0.024 x 6 x 3.12 = 1.39KNm

-muy = 0.032 x 6 x 3.12 = 1.86KNm

Height of wall = 2.3 m

M = (1/2wh x h) x (1/3 x h)

= (1/2 x 10 x 2.3 x 2.3) x (1/3 x 2.3)

= 20.28 KN/m

Mu = 1.5 x 20.28 = 30.41 KNm

Main reinforcement:

Mu = 0.87 fyAstd[1-fy Ast/fckbd]

30.41 x 106 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 150

(1-415 x Ast/20 x 1000 x 150)

30.41 x 106 =54.157 x 103Ast[1-383 x 10-3Ast]

561.51 = Ast[1-1.383 x 10 -3Ast]

Ast =382.5m2

Provide main bars ϕ12mm

Distribution reinforcement:

Ast minimum = 0.12% bD

= 0.12/100 x 1000 x 150=180mm2

Provide 8mm dia @ 280 c/c distance.

11. ESTIMATION

Department of Civil Engineering 62 PRSCET

Department of Civil Engineering 63 PRSCET

Department of Civil Engineering 64 PRSCET

Department of Civil Engineering 65 PRSCET

Department of Civil Engineering 66 PRSCET

Department of Civil Engineering 67 PRSCET

Department of Civil Engineering 68 PRSCET

Department of Civil Engineering 69 PRSCET

Department of Civil Engineering 70 PRSCET

Department of Civil Engineering 71 PRSCET

11.1 ABSTRACT OF ESTIMATION

Department of Civil Engineering 73 PRSCET

Department of Civil Engineering 74 PRSCET

Department of Civil Engineering 75 PRSCET

Department of Civil Engineering 76 PRSCET

Department of Civil Engineering 77 PRSCET

Department of Civil Engineering 78 PRSCET

CHAPTER 12

A well designed plan with drafted with proper ventilation and lighting. A thorough knowledge

about the various loads coming on a building was studied. Also acknowledge about doing

structural analysis and structural design was obtained through manually and with the STADD

software. And also help us to compare the analysis and design with manually and with STADD

software.

projects on supervision of works by overcoming the practical difficulties and also transferring

the idea of actual planning and designing.

CHAPTER 13

13. CONCLUSIONS

The project was very helpful to improve our knowledge about, planning, designing and

now we are confidence satisfactory design more accurately. Here we have done the analysis

using Substitute frame method because this method simplifies the analysis of multistoried

building.The design functional elements are beam, column, stair, pile foundation, septic tank,

staircase, ramp slab, slab,water tank etc. as per relevant IS codes.Limit state method was used for

the design of various structural elements according to the provision of IS 456:2000,SP

16.STADD analysis and design were also done in this project. Drawings and reinforcement

details are included wherever is required.

CHAPTER 14

14. APPENDI X

BEAM NO 180

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SECTION |FLEXURE | SHEAR

|(Maxm. Sagging/Hogging moments)|

(in mm) | P MZ MX Load Case | VY M X Load Case

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

0.0 | 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 | 62.70 -0.03 1

| 0.00 -62.94 -0.03 1 |

486.1 | 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 | 52.52 -0.03 1

| 0.00 -34.93 -0.03 1 |

972.3 | 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 | 42.35 -0.03 1

| 0.00 -19.87 -2.99 2 |

1458.4 | 0.00 6.24 -0.03 1 | 32.17 -0.03 1

| 0.00 -14.83 -2.99 2 |

1944.5 | 0.00 9.40 -0.03 1 | 10.36 -2.99 2

| 0.00 -9.79 -2.99 2 |

2430.6 | 0.00 27.62 -0.03 1 | 10.36 -2.99 2

| 0.00 -4.76 -2.99 2 |

2916.8 | 0.00 30.88 -0.03 1 | 10.36 -2.99 2

| 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 |

3402.9 | 0.00 29.20 -0.03 1 | 10.36 -2.99 2

| 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 |

3889.0 | 0.00 22.58 -0.03 1 | 10.36 -2.99 2

| 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 |

4375.1 | 0.00 15.39 -2.99 2 | -28.90 -0.03 1

| 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 |

4861.3 | 0.00 20.43 -2.99 2 | -39.08 -0.03 1

| 0.00 -5.52 -0.03 1 |

5347.4 | 0.00 25.47 -2.99 2 | -49.26 -0.03 1

| 0.00 -27.00 -0.03 1 |

5833.5 | 0.00 30.50 -2.99 2 | -59.44 -0.03 1

| 0.00 -53.42 -0.03 1 |

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY OF REINFORCEMENT. AREA (Sq.mm)

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SECTION | TOP | BOTTOM | STIRRUPS

(in mm) | Reqd./Provided reinf. | Reqd./Provided reinf. | (2 legged)

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

0.0 | 503.43/ 549.78( 7-10í )| 0.00/ 157.08( 2-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm

486.1| 271.13/ 314.16( 4-10í )| 0.00/ 157.08( 2-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm

972.3 | 245.78/ 314.16( 4-10í )| 0.00/ 157.08( 2-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm

1458.4| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm

1944.5| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm

2430.6| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm

2916.8| 0.00/ 157.08( 2-10í )| 238.73/ 314.16( 4-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm

3402.9 | 0.00/ 157.08( 2-10í )| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm

3889.0 | 0.00/ 157.08( 2-10í )| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm

4375.1 | 0.00/ 157.08( 2-10í )| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm

4861.3 | 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm

5347.4 | 227.35/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 227.93/ 235.62( 3-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm

5833.5| 422.73/ 471.24( 6-10í )| 268.15/ 314.16( 4-10í )| 8í @ 140 mm

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT DISTANCE d (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROM FACE OF THE

SUPPORT

SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 590.0 mm AWAY FROM START SUPPORT

VY = 50.35 M X = -0.03 LD= 1

Provide 2 Legged 8í @ 140 mm c/c

SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 590.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT

VY = -47.08 M X = -0.03 LD= 1

Provide 2 Legged 8í @ 140 mm c/c

14.2 COLUMN DESIGN RESULTS

COLUMN N O. 351

LENGTH: 3600.0mm , CROSS SECTION: 450.0 mm x 300.0 mm , COVER: 40.0 mm

** GUIDING LOAD CASE: 2 BRACED LONG(Z) /SHORT(Y)

-------------------------------------------

DESIGN A X IAL FORCE (Pu) : 69.8

About Z About Y

INITIAL MOMENTS : 19.98 73.59

MOMENTS DUE TO MINIMUM ECC. : 1.40 1.55

SLENDERNESS RATIOS : 12.00 8.00

MOMENTS DUE TO SLENDERNESS EFFECT : 1.51 0.00

MOMENT REDUCTION FACTORS : 1.00 1.00

ADDITION MOMENTS (Maz and May) : 1.51 0.00

TOTAL DESIGN MOMENTS : 41.70 73.59

REQD. STEEL AREA : 2063.49 Sq.mm.

REQD. CONCRETE AREA: 132936.52 Sq.mm.

MAIN REINFORCEMENT : Provide 20 - 12 dia. (1.68%, 2261.95 Sq.mm.)

(Equally distributed)

TIE REINFORCEMENT :Provide 8 mm dia. rectangular ties @ 190 mm c/c

SECTION CAPACITY BASED ON REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED (KNS-MET)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Puz :2436.90, Muz1 : 87.12, Muy1 : 142.37

(in mm) (in New)

-------- -------------

8 39987.59

10 25959.87

12 27648.93

16 20295.33

20 59454.21

25 29522.95

32 9115.61

------------

*** TOTAL= 211984.48

CHAPTER 15

16REFERENCES

3. IS: 875 (Part 1)-1987, Indian Standard Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other than

earthquake) for Building and Structures, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

4. IS: 875 (Part 2)-1987, Indian Standard Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other

than earthquake) for Building and Structures, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

5. IS: 875 (Part 3)-1987, Indian Standard Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other than

earthquake) for Building and Structures, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

6. IS: 1893 (Part 1) 2002- Indian StandardCriteria for earthquake resistant design of

9.SP 16: 1980, DesignAids for Reinforced Concrete to IS: 456-1978, Bureau of Indian

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