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Author: Muhammad Bilal Nadeem

Verification of Series and Parallel Load
Resistance and Reactance
Abstract: In this document we are going to discuss how we can simulate the series and parallel loads on MATLAB. How we
can design the circuit of same apparent power in different configurations. What are the advantages and disadvantages of series
and parallel RL circuits?


of total power (apparent power) which is utilized to do the

useful work called active power.

T HIS document is about the design of load resister and

inductance in series and parallel configuration. Both
of these configurations consume same apparent power.
What is actually need for Power Factor Improvement?Real
power is given by P = VIcosφ. To transfer a given amount
of power at certain voltage, the electrical current is
First we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of inversely proportional to cosφ. Hence higher the pf lower
the parallel configuration circuit. The advantages are: will be the current flowing. A small current flow requires
Every unit that is connected in a parallel circuit gets equal less cross sectional area of conductor and thus it saves
amount of voltage. It becomes easy to connect or conductor and money.From above relation we saw having
disconnect a new element without affecting the working of poor power factor increases the current flowing in
other elements. If any fault happened to the circuit, then conductor and thus copper loss increases. Further large
also the current is able to pass through the circuit through voltage drop occurs in alternator, electrical
different paths. The disadvantages are: It requires the use transformer and transmission and distribution lines which
of lot of wires. We cannot increase or multiply the voltage gives very poor voltage regulation. Further the KVA rating
in a parallel circuit. Parallel connection fails at the time of machines is also reduced by having higher power factor
when it is required to pass exactly same amount of current as, Hence, the size and cost of machine also reduced. So,
through the units. In our homes all the appliances are electrical power factor should be maintained close to unity.
connected in parallel so that all of the appliances get same Now what are the methods of Power Factor
voltage. Improvement? Improving power factor means reducing the
phase difference between voltage and current. Since
Now we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of majority of loads are of inductive nature, they require some
the series configuration circuit. The advantages are: Series amount of reactive power for them to function. This
circuits do not overheat easily. This makes them very reactive power is provided by the capacitor or bank of
useful in the case of something that might be around a capacitors installed parallel to the load. They act as a
potentially flammable source, like dry plants or cloth. source of local reactive power and thus less reactive power
Series circuits are easy to learn and to make. Their simple flows through the line. Basically they reduces the phase
design is easy to understand, and this means that it’s difference between the voltage and current. They are 3
simple to conduct repairs. We can add more power devices; phase synchronous motor with no load attached to its shaft.
they have a higher output in terms of voltage. The current The synchronous motor has the characteristics of operating
that flows in a series circuit has to flow through every under any power factor leading, lagging or unity
component in the circuit. Therefore, all of the components depending upon the excitation. For inductive loads,
in a series connection carry the same current. The synchronous condenser is connected towards load side and
disadvantages are: If one point breaks in the series circuit, is overexcited. This makes it behave like a capacitor. It
the total circuit will break. As the number of components draws the lagging current from the supply or supplies the
in a circuit increases, greater will be the circuit resistance. reactive power. This is an ac exciter mainly used to
[1] We will now discuss the power factor improvement. improve pf of induction motor. They are mounted on shaft
of the motor and is connected in the rotor circuit of the
motor. It improves the power factor by providing the
exciting ampere turns to produce required flux at slip
The term power factor comes into picture in AC circuits frequency. Further if ampere turns are increased, it can be
only. Mathematically it is cosine of the phase difference made to operate at leading power factor.[2]
between source voltage and current. It refers to the fraction

II.PROCEDURE We calculated the value of resistance and inductance which
Develop the circuit shown below. came out as R=465.38Ω and L=0.296H

Connect Series branch and put the values previously


Observed outputs shown in fig 2.

Set RLC load as shown in figure below. Fig 2: Series load with R=465.38Ω and L=0.296H

Now connect both these models (RL Series Load and RL

Series Branch) in series, observed total power being fed
became half of the original power. Thus S= 50W+j10KVA.
This is shown figure 3

Fig 3: Series load and series branch connected is series

Now we calculated the value of resistance and inductance

Set the AC voltage source according to figure given below. (if connected in parallel). This comes out to be

R=484Ω L=7.703H

Connect Parallel branch and put the values previously


Observed outputs shown is figure 4.

Attach a series load of 100w and 20vars.

Observed the outputs in fig 1.

Fig 4: parallel RL branch

Now connect these models (RL Series Load, RL Series

Branch and RL ParallelBranch) in series, observe the total
power being fed and calculate it mathematically.

Hence S=33.33W+ j6.667VAR

Fig 1: Series load with 100W+j20KVAR

Economically series arrangement would be preferred as it

involves less amount of wire.

In this lab, we have observed that the values of the
resistance and inductance are greater in case of parallel as
compared to series combination for same apparent power.
We have also noted that as the load increases the power
dissipation decreases across the load due to decrease in
current. We have also noted that in series the current in
inductor and resistor is same but voltages are different but
in case of parallel voltage across the inductor and resister
is same but current is different. In parallel configuration if
any fault happened to the circuit, the current is remain able
to pass through the circuit through different paths. This
property of parallel combination makes it to use widely.[3]

We have successfully simulated all the circuits with the
help of MATLAB. We have now understood the advantages
and disadvantages of the two configurations. We have
learnt how to design the circuit of same apparent power in
different configurations.

[1] https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-advantages-and-
[2] https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-methods-for-
[3] https://www.yellowpages.ca/tips/the-advantages-of-