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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Vehicle Dynamics
- ACKERMANN STEERING MECHANISM
- AIR SUSPENSION SYSTEM
- FSAE Suspension Optimization
- Electrodynamic Suspension System
- Vehicle Dynamics
- Vehicle Dynamics_Thomas D
- 04 Dynamics
- Optimization of Formula Car Double Wishbone Suspension System
- Suspension System
- Diesel Engine Hydraulically Driven Rear Wheel Manual Lever
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- Aerodynamic drag of car Brief.ppt
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- Suspension Bible
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- Magnetic Suspension
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- VehDynamics

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STEADY-STATE CORNERING

The cornering behaviour of a motor vehicle is an important performance mode often equated with

handling. "Handling" is a loosely used term meant to imply the responsiveness of a vehicle to driver

input, or the ease of control. As such, handling is an overall measure of the vehicle-driver combination.

The driver and vehicle is a "closed-loop" system – meaning that the driver observes the vehicle direction

or position, and corrects his/her input to achieve the desired motion. For purposes of characterizing only

the vehicle, "open-loop" behaviour is used. Open loop refers to vehicle response to specific steering

inputs, and is more precisely defined as "directional response" behaviour.

The most commonly used measure of open-loop response is the understeer gradient. Understeer

gradient is a measure of performance under steady-state conditions, although the measure can be used to

infer performance properties under conditions that are not quite steady-state (quasi-steady-state

conditions).

Open-loop cornering, or directional response behaviour, will be examined in this section. The

approach is to first analyze turning behaviour at low speed and then consider the differences that arise

under high-speed conditions. The importance of tyre properties will appear in the high-speed cornering

case and provide a natural point for systematic study of the suspension properties influential to turning.

deplasare

maneuverability [U.S.]; manoeuvrability [U.K.]: abilitate de a schimba direcţia de deplasare a unui

vehicul

handling: the relative ability of a vehicle to negotiate curves

The term manoeuvrability mean the maximum performance, usually the time to complete a given

manoeuvre, of a vehicle subjected only to physical limitations (like traction limits, available power etc.)

but without considering the limitations of the controller (i.e., if the driver is perfect).

We term handling mean the maximum performance of the same vehicle, but considering the

limitations of the control actuation subsystem (i.e., the driver).

In other words, manoeuvrability means the maximum performance that a vehicle can produce

without considering the driver’s limitations, whereas handling measures how much of this potential can

really be exploited by a driver who may apply only limited inputs to the system.

- 139 -

11.1. CORNERING MODALITIES

Fig. 11.1. Cornering realised by inducing different circumferential speeds to the outer and inner wheels

- 140 -

11.2. LOW-SPEED CORNERING

The first step to understanding cornering is to analyze the low constant-speed turning behaviour of

a motor vehicle. At low speed (parking lot manoeuvres without acceleration) the tyres need not develop

lateral forces. Thus they roll with no slip angle, and the vehicle must negotiate a turn as illustrated in

Figure 11.4 (6.1). If the rear wheels have no slip angle, the centre of turn must lie on the projection of

the rear axle. Likewise, the perpendicular from each of the front wheels should pass through the same

point, named instantaneous centre of turn. If they do not pass through the same point, the front tyres

will "fight" each other in the turn, with each experiencing some scrub (sideslip) in the turn. The ideal

turning angles on the front wheels are established by the geometry seen in the figure, and define the

steering angles for the turn.

For proper geometry in the turn (assuming small angles), the steer angles are given by:

L

δo ≅ tgδo = (6-1)

( R + t / 2)

L

δi ≅ tgδi = (6-2)

( R + t / 2)

The average angle of the front wheels (again assuming small angles), is defined as the Ackerman

Angle:

δ = L/R (6-3)

The terms "Ackerman Steering" or "Ackerman Geometry" are often used to denote the exact

geometry of the front wheels shown in Figure 11.4 (6.1). The correct angles are dependent on the

wheelbase of the vehicle and the radius of turn. Errors, or deviations, from the Ackerman in the left-right

steer angles can have a significant influence on front tyre wear. Errors do not have significant influence

on directional response; however, they do affect the cantering torques in the steering system. With

correct Ackerman geometry, the steering torques tend to increase consistently with steer angle, thus

providing the driver with a natural feel in the feedback through the steering wheel. With the other

extreme of parallel steer, the steering torques grow with angle initially, but may diminish beyond a

certain point, and even become negative (tending to steer more deeply into the turn). This type of

behaviour in the steering system is undesirable.

The other significant aspect of low-speed turning is the off-tracking that occurs at the rear wheels.

The off-tracking distance, ∆, may be calculated from simple geometry relationships as:

∆ ≅ R [1 - cos(L/R)] (6-4a)

Using the expression for a series expansion of the cosine, namely:

- 141 -

z2 z4 z6

cos z = 1 − + − ...

2! 4! 6!

Then

∆ ≈ L2/(2 R) (6-4b)

For obvious reasons, off-tracking is primarily of concern with long-wheelbase vehicles such as

trucks and buses. For articulated trucks, the geometric equations become more complicated and are

known as "tractrix" equations.

The turning circle dimension (twice the turning radius) represents the diameter of the circle

created by the outer front wheel when making a full turn. There are two ways of measuring the turning

radius: curb to curb and wall to wall. The latter is always larger because it takes into account front-end

overhang. As the vehicle turns, the inside wheels make a smaller circle than the outside tyres.

Off-tracking is the difference in radii from the turning centre to the vehicle centreline at the

foremost and rearmost axles of the vehicle or combination and represents the increase beyond the

tangent track occasioned by a turn. The spiral pattern generated will determine the off-tracking and

turning path of the vehicle or combination of vehicles. The track will determine whether or not the

roadbed is of sufficient width to accommodate the vehicles and is a significant factor in determining the

ability of a vehicle or combination to negotiate turns safely and compatibly with other traffic. Off-

tracking increases with length of wheelbase for a single vehicle; however, on the overall wheelbase for a

doubles or triples combination, the off-tracking is about equal to or less than a shorter overall wheelbase

tractor-semitrailer combination.

Fig 11.5. ISO Requirements regarding articulated vehicles turning circle and off-tracking

Even the tractor-fulltrailer combination consist of three rigid bodies, theirs off-tracking can be

smaller than the off-tracking of tractor-semitrailer combination. This is possible due to the shorter length

of individual vehicles and to the optimised steering system of the fulltrailer.

Two systems are used to steer the fulltrailers:

• the drawbar and the trailer’s front axle form a rigid body which is named dolly; this can pivots

upon a vertical axis passing through the middle of the trailer’s front axle;

• the trailer’s front axle is non-pivoting but is equipped with a steering mechanism that direct outer

the trailer’s front wheels, reducing therefore the off-tracking.

- 142 -

Fig 11.6. Tractor-trailer combinations in transitory turn:

left – with dolly; right – with trailer steering system

The designers of articulated vehicle have to deal not only with the problem of turning circle and

off-tracking, but must also to avoid the contact between the bodies of tractor and trailer. As can be seen

in the right side of the previous figure, this problem is not solved. This concern is more stringent if

considers the possible longitudinal and lateral declivities of the road.

The trailer length influences directly the off-tracking so that vehicles with longer trailers need

more space to turn. The position of the articulation point and the trailer’s front overhang affect the off-

tracking and also the wall to wall turning circle. To simplify the driver’s vehicle control during

cornering, the most outer point of the road train must be in the front side of the tractor (the most outer

point of the trailer must not exceed the trajectory of the front outer corner of the tractor).

Under cornering conditions, in which the tyre must develop a lateral force, the tyre will experience

lateral slip as it rolls. The angle between direction of heading and its direction of travel is known as slip

angle α. These are illustrated in Figure 11.8 (6.2).

- 143 -

Fig. 11.8. (6.2) Tyre cornering force properties

The lateral force, denoted by Fy, is called the "cornering force" when the camber angle is zero. At

a given tyre load, the cornering force grows with slip angle. At low slip angles (5 degrees or less) the

relationship is linear. Hence, the cornering force is described by:

Fy = Cα α (6-5)

The proportionality constant, Cα, is known as the "cornering stiffness" and is defined as the slope

of the curve for Fy versus α at α=0. In SAE convention, a positive slip angle produces a negative force

(to the left) on the tyre, implying that Cα must be negative; however, SAE defines cornering stiffness as

the negative of the slope, such that Cα takes on a positive value. The same definition for the cornering

- 144 -

stiffness is adopted in the ISO convention, because the slip angle in Figure 11.8 is positive but the lateral

force is negative.

The cornering stiffness is dependent on many variables. Tyre size and type (radial- versus bias-ply

construction), number of plies, cord angles, wheel width, and tread are significant variables. For a given

tyre, the load, inflation pressure and camber are the main variables. Speed does not strongly influence

the cornering forces produced by a tyre. The plots in figure 11.9 (6.3) illustrate the influence of many of

these variables.

Because of the strong dependence of cornering force on load, tyre cornering properties may also

be described by the "cornering coefficient" which is the cornering stiffness divided by the load. Thus the

cornering coefficient, CCα, is given by:

CCα = Cα /Fz (6-6)

Cornering coefficient is usually largest at light loads, diminishing continuously as the load reaches

its rated value. At 100% load, the cornering coefficient is typically in the range of 0.2 daNy/daNz/deg ≈

11.5 daNy/daNz/rad or 0.2 (lb cornering force per lb load per degree of slip angle).

The lateral force is resisted by the lateral cornering forces at the wheels. Cornering forces can only

be generated between a rubber tire and the road surface when the tire rolls at an angle to its longitudinal

plane; that is, a certain wheel slip angle is required.

Fig. 11.10. Tyre under slip: components of velocity and friction force in the tyre-ground contact patch

(upper view, right turn)

The degree of lateral cornering force which a pneumatic tire can provide depends upon numerous

factors, such as wheel slip angle, wheel load, tire design and dimensions, tire pressure and the amount of

grip (friction) afforded by the road surface.

The pneumatic tire’s specific response characteristics mean that, at a constant slip angle, higher

- 145 -

wheel loads will not evoke proportional increases in cornering forces. In the example presented in Figure

11.11, doubling the wheel load increases the cornering force by a factor of only 1.5…1.7. The slip angle

must also be increased if the cornering force is to be doubled. This explains why the axle supporting the

greater load assumes a larger slip angle than its less heavily loaded counterpart, assuming that identical

ratios of lateral (side) force to tire contact force act on both axles.

Fig. 11.12. Cornering forces Fs and slip angle α on a 3-axle vehicle with non-steered tandem axle

The most important reasons for steering a vehicle are to produce lateral acceleration (for example,

to avoid an obstacle) and yaw velocity (to quickly change the heading angle, for example to reorient the

vehicle in a new direction of travel).

At high speed, the turning equations differ from the low speed geometrical equations because

guiding forces will be present to develop lateral acceleration. But the lateral forces are a consequence of

the slip angles that are present at each wheel. Note that slip angles appear also, even al low speed, when

vehicle is subjected to longitudinal forces that induce longitudinal acceleration.

Cornering and handling qualities of a motor vehicle constitute important aspects of the active

safety, directly related with the traffic accidents. Consequently, even for the design stage, knowing the

handling characteristics and controlling the means that can influence them have very big importance for

the automotive engineers. Computer simulation permits to obtain useful information about vehicle’s

dynamic behaviour, easily and rapidly.

- 146 -

11.5.2. “Bicycle Model” for Cornering

The dynamic model presented here – an extension of the so called “bicycle” model – is able to

describe the basic cornering behaviour in various travelling conditions of a two-axle vehicle and can

include other influences for steering, traction and braking systems. It can lead to a better understanding

of the automotive dynamics.

Normally, experimental data, achieved in real conditions tests, is necessary first to calibrate the

model (to realise fine adjustment of the model parameters values) and validate the model (to confirm the

correctness of the results).

The planar dynamic model presented in Figure 11.14 it is called “single-track” or “bicycle” model

of the vehicle. Its main characteristic is the replacement of the both wheels of an axle with only one

wheel that has an equivalent kinematic and dynamic behaviour. The model disregards the effects of roll

movement, considering a very stiff suspension (rigid body-axles assembly).

It considers that the vehicle moves on an even curvilinear trajectory, with his instantaneous centre

r r r

of rotation Cr determined by the speed vectors v f and v s of front and rear axles. The speed vector v

corresponds to the centre of gravity Cg, which generally adopts as the control point (the control point of

a vehicle is a point who’s current position and trajectory presents maximal interest for the driving

process).

It considers a fix coordinate system xOy, independent of vehicle. Also adopts an axis system

linked to vehicle, which has the origin in the centre of gravity and his axis are a longitudinal axis t and a

transversal axis n (perpendicular to the axis t).

The aerodynamic force is the resultant of the components Ra and Ran, which act on the two

directions and focus in the centre of pressure Cp.

The influence of road declivity is taken into consideration by the forces Rp and Fdr, both acting in

the centre of gravity. The force Rg, disposed on the longitudinal axis of the car, represents the grade

resistance; the force Rgn, acting on the n direction, is a consequence of the road declivity in the vehicle’s

transversal direction.

In the tyre-road contact surfaces, on the front and rear wheels act the tangential forces Xf and Xr,

the lateral forces Yf and Yr, and the normal forces to the path Zf and Zr.

To consider the load transfer between the wheels on inner and outer sides of turn or between the

axles during traction or braking it is necessary to use supplementary models that include the behaviour

of suspension.

r

The speed vector v of the centre of gravity makes with longitudinal axis t the angle β, named

r

sideslip angle and indicating the lateral deviation of the vehicle. The speed v can be decomposed in two

- 147 -

perpendicular components:

vt = v cos β

(11)

vn = v sin β

contained respectively in vehicle longitudinal and transversal planes.

Consequence of the translational speed and angular velocity, in the centre of gravity will act:

• the tangential acceleration (on the speed direction)

dv

av = ; (12)

dt

• the centripetal acceleration (on the direction CgCir)

acp = v ( β& + Ψ& ) = v ( β& + ω ) =v2/R; (13)

• the yaw acceleration

dω

ε= = ω& = ψ&& . (14)

dt

Decomposing the translational accelerations av and acp on the directions t and n, obtains the

expressions for the centre of gravity acceleration’s longitudinal and transversal components:

at = av cos β − acp sin β

. (15)

an = av sin β + acp cos β

In the hypothesis of a non-violent cornering (the transversal acceleration an under 4 m/s2), it can

consider that the lateral forces on tires are proportional to the corresponding slip angles.

Yf = Cf β f

. (16)

Ys = Cs β s

Combining relations (1…5), it can be written the system of three differential-equations

(translations on directions t and n plus yaw) that describes the vehicle behaviour in any cornering

situations, including transitory state:

∑ Ft

m

∑ Fn . (17)

m

ψ&& = ∑

Mz

Jz

The three unknowns (the speed v, the slip angle β and the yaw angle ψ) can be determined

approximately by computer integration only if are known their initial values, the temporal evolutions of

forces and yawing moment and the vehicle inertial characteristics (m – vehicle mass; Jz – vehicle

moment of inertia about z axis).

The resultant of exterior forces and torque entering in the previous system of equations are

computed using the projections on t and n directions of gravitational, aerodynamic and tyres forces. To

calculate the longitudinal and lateral forces on tyres it is necessary to consider the road friction

characteristics and the driving and braking torques produced by the drivetrain and brakes.

If considers small sideslip angle β (sinβ ≈ tanβ ≈ β and cosβ ≈1), then the system of equations

become:

- 148 -

v& − v ( β& + ψ& ) β =

∑ Ft

m

∑ Fn . (18)

m

ψ&& = ∑

Mz

Jz

The first equation shows that if the sum of the longitudinal forces remains constant during

cornering, the vehicle velocity will decrease, or, in other words, to mentain the same velocity when

negotiate a turn it is necessary to push more the accelerator pedal.

The steady-state cornering equations are obtained if considers constant sideslip angle ( β& =0) and

null values for translational and yaw accelerations: v& =0 (v constant) and Ψ&& =0 ( Ψ& =ω constant).

ΣFt ΣFt

− vψ&β = vωβ = −

m m

ΣFn Σ Fn

− vψ& = or vω = − . (19)

m m

ΣMz ΣMz = 0

0=

Jz

The third equation shows that in steady-state cornering the sum of the moments over the z axis in

the centre of gravity must be null. That means the tyres of the nearest axle to the centre of gravity must

generate the biggest lateral force and, as consequence, will experience the biggest sideslip angle.

A vehicle is said to understeer if the slip angle at the front axle is bigger than the slip angle at the

rear axle. The opposite applies for a vehicle which oversteers. A vehicle is said to have a neutral steering

behaviour if the front slip angle and rear slip angle are equal. The circle in the Figure 11-15 passes

through the centres of the bycicle-model contact patches and through the instant centre in the case of

null slip angles (Ackermann conditions). Having the orientations of the real velocities of the model tyres

it obtains the instant centre in the actual cornering situation. The steering behaviour of the vehicle can

now be easily identified: if this point is on the circle, the vehicle will have neutral steer, if the point is

inside circle the vehicle will oversteer.

(understeer – outside circle; neutral steer – on circle; oversteer – inside circle)

- 149 -

Another way to indicate the steering behaviour it is connected to the lateral deviation of the tyres.

The oversteering vehicle present a more evident sliding tendency at the rear tyres, figure 11.16. That

means it is yawing faster than an understeering vehicle and will generate bigger lateral accelerations,

which means the vehicle can negotiate turns with higher speeds. That’s why the race drivers prefer

oversteering attitude of their vehicles. But this kind of steering behaviour necessitates skill and

experience because the yawing process it is unstable and may need steering wheel corrections in an

opposite way than the bend is oriented. For example, if the driver wants to increase the velocity, that

may accentuate the rear whels sliding and, to mentain the desired course, it is necessary to reduce the

steering angle of the front whels, possible steering them in the other direction.

This kind of driving is too tricky for the unexperinced or normal drivers, and that’s why the series

motor vehicles are designed to present easy understeering: to steer more the vehicle, the driver will

rotate more the steering wheel in the same way with the desired trajectory, which is natural and

instinctive.

A vehicle will not necessarily display the same self-steering effect at all possible rates of lateral

acceleration. Some vehicles always understeer or oversteer, and some display a transition from

understeer to oversteer as lateral acceleration increases, while other vehicles respond in precisely the

opposite manner.

11.6.2. Yaw

- 150 -

11.6.3. Characteristic and Critical Speed

- 151 -

11.7. STEERING GEAR INFLUENCES

Fig. 11.19. Steering mechanisms: left – rigid axle; right – articulated axle

Fig. 11.20. Variable ratio principle (here low steering angles correspond to low steering ratio)

• best possible efficiency for direct actuation (to reduce driver’s effort);

• small efficiency (but not zero) for inverse actuation (to “feel” the road).

- 152 -

11.7.4. AWS – All-Wheel Steering

- 153 -

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