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Towuti Lake is one of the lakes which are involved in Malili Lake System located in South

Sulawesi. The lake is also part of the Indo-Pacific hotspot (Indo-Pacific Warm Pool) area. This
hot pool is an area surrounded by a vast ocean area with high rainfall levels. As a result, it
accelerates the process of weathering and sedimentation. The result of well-preserved sediment
deposits will be a potential indicator of climate and environmental reconstruction (Russell and
Bijaksana, 2012).

The sediments entering Towuti Lake has varied minerals as they pass through rivers along the
streams. Variations of these minerals will provide a hint of minerals that will be deposited on the
bottom of the lake.

Previous research conducted by Russell and Bijaksana (2012) identified that the northern part
of Towuti Lake recorded variations of sediment input from the Mahalona River and
reconstructed the hydrological connectivity of the Malili Lake System. This is corroborated by
Vogel et al. (2015) stated that the Mahalona River delta progrades towards the deepest basin of
the lake in the northern sub-basin and becomes the main control of the sediment deposition
process. In addition, a combination of seismic data and cores at the furthest extent of the delta
indicates that the current sedimentary deposits are strongly influenced by lateral deposition of
the Mahalona River.

As per the research conducted by Morlock (2016), surface sediment samples show that the
Mahalona River is the main source of sediment deposited in the northern part of Towuti Lake.
The geochemical composition is characterized by high concentration of Mg and relatively low
concentration of Al, K, and Ti.

Based on Marlock's research, the source of Mg deposited in the northern part of Towuti Lake is
considered to be originally from Matano Lake that goes into Mahalona Lake. Considering the
topographic conditions, however, the Mg mineral from Matano Lake should mainly be deposited
in Mahalona Lake and only a few can go into Towuti Lake. On the other hand, it is important to
note that the Mahalona River stream does not only come from the Mahalona Lake but also may
come from Lampenisu River through the joining point between the two rivers.

To determine the mineral source coming into the northern part of Towuti Lake, the mineral
characterization should be done in Lampenisu River, Mahalona River, and the joining point.
Because the minerals to be investigated are magnetic minerals, susceptibility measurements
and magnetic analysis would be conducted to detect them.

Moreover, rock magnetic investigations were supported by XRD (X-ray diffraction) and
geochemical analysis using XRF to detect key elements. Analysis of REE (rare earth element)
was also applied to know the effect of the rare earth element towards mineral enrichment in
deposited flowing sediments of both Lampenisu and Mahalona River.