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PHILOSOPHY – AN INTRODUCTION  Aristotle “all men seek wisdom”

 Therefore, all of us are philosophers

 School of Athens by Raffaello Sanzio  Objective: to teach us how to reflect on our
 Agora own experiences, so that we may gain
– marketplace for people to talk wisdom
– sciences, maths, polis, everything
?How do we distinguish wisdom from knowledge?
PHILOSOPHY  Knowledge is the acquisition of ideas,
 Science of all things information and theories, application
 Cause and principles of everything certain principles and formula, and mastery
 People have doubts, wonder, questions of certain procedures
 Wisdom is the understanding of the
?WHAT IS THE BASIC STUFF THAT MADEUP meaning, or causes of things; it is a more
EVERYTHING? general view and a degree of appreciation
 Answered through myths of reality
 After myths, people achieved through  We attain wisdom the through reflecting
reason/logos or daily experiences
 Thus starting PHILOSOPHY
PLATO – believed that there are two worlds:  Philosophy is defined as the science of all
 Physical world is imperfect things
 World of ideas is perfect/the real one ?Why is there something rather than
 Idealism nothing?
 Our ideas belong to our “real” world – in their ultimate principles and cases
 Transcend from physical to ideas – as known by natural reason alone
 Constant search for truth and meaning of
ARISTOTLE – did not believe Plato life
 This world is all that there is  Rational investigation and interpretation of
 Realism reality
 Grasp reality through reason
 Sciences slowly deviated from Philosophy  Examination of the fundamental grounds of
– math, physics, politics, history reality and ideas communicating beliefs


 Philosophy – deeper way of thinking or  Philosophy does not aim to produce useful
understanding the things that happen all or material benefits that science and
around us or the things that we do technology can give
 Common meaning:  Philosophy does not aim to satisfy the
– belief, principle, or idea (Michael Jordan) material needs of man
– reason, rationale, basis of something (Bridge)  Its objective is to provide food for the mind
– the study of the cause of something and nourishment for the spirit
(Education)  The value of philosophy is found in its ability
– Being philosophical [very profound or very to provide what the mind or spirit needs
analytical] (Black Mirror)  Philosophy does not offer definitive and
– Philosopher v. Pilosopo exact answers to questions people ask
 The basic question of philosophy is “why?”
ETYMOLOGY  Philosophy questions everything
 Philo: love/philion  For philosophy, what is more important is the
 Sophia: Wisdom question rather than the answers
 Philosopher: love of wisdom  Philosophy nurtures the mystery further as an
 Philosophus: Someone who searches for essential part of reality
truth – “Unrestricted drive to know all that there is
 A wise person should be able to admit to know” is seeded in a person’s mind
that he is wrong  However, the attempt is futile
 Philosophy encourages people to ask
 Philosophy usually contemplates simple things questions to enable them to free their minds
 But the true intention is to assert that there is still from accepting anything without
the element of unthought-of in everything questioning it (critical disposition)
 Philosophy wants to instill is the never ending  Only in challenging can we be a better
desire to look at things again believer of our beliefs
 Philosophy keeps alive people’s sense of
PYTHAGORAS wonder by sharing them familiar things in
 570-495 BCE their unfamiliar aspects
 The Greek philosopher who coined the term  “Philosophy is like love. It is better done
philosophia than defined.”
 He was a philosophus trying to search for
 The art of philosophy (like any art) is done
 To philosophize is to satisfy one’s wondering,  Death of Socrates
to search for the meaning and reason of  He was killed by the Athenian Government
things  Major critic of almost everything
 Philosophy exist because people  Young people kept flocking to see his
continue to wonder wisdom
 To contemplate the reasons, causes, and  Government was threatened
meanings of things and of man’s existence  Accusation: corrupting the minds of young
through reason people; establishing other gods
 Death by Hemlock
2. Critical Evaluation  Socrates: the unexamined life is not worth living
(469 BCE – 399 BCE)
 Philosophical activity has two basic  A more profound examination of the
components – reason and experience underlying meanings and causes of the
 Knowledge can be classified to: problems regarding human existence
o Rational (from reason)  The aim or end is to find the meaning and
Ex. 1+1=2 reasons behind one’s experiences in life
o Empirical (from experience)  One benefit is critical thinking
Ex. The boiling point of water is 100°C
 Reason enables people to reflect on or TASK AND SIGNIFICANCE OF PHILOSOPHY
examine the underlying meaning or reasons  The fundamental task of philosophy is to
of things or realities clarify ideas or expose ambiguous
 Many of maths don’t need experience; concepts, elucidate, problematic issues,
but you need both create logical explanations, amplify
 Experience provides then with the initial solutions, re-evaluate or criticize another
data of their reflection or examinations philosophy, and synthesize diverse
perspectives without being simplistic
BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY  “The problem may not be the situation,
 Metaphysics but the people themselves – our
–The branch of Philosophy that studies the attitudes towards the situation.”
nature of reality
 What is being?  Understand things
 “meta” – beyond o Ability to grasp things
 Why is there something rather than 1. Understanding context – know
nothing? the origin
 Epistemology 2. Know both sides – reality is
–The branch of Philosophy that studies the double-sided; weigh the good
nature and scope of knowledge and bad
 How do I know that I know? 3. Understanding issues related to
 How do I know if I am right? the topic – no one issue is isolated
 Value Theory  Thinking by and for oneself
–Ethics: the branch of Philosophy that o We are distinct entities
studies and evaluates human conduct o We have the capacity to think on our
 What is good? own
 Why am I responsible for my actions? o Other people’s personalities affect us
–Aesthetics: the branch of Philosophy that in our childhood
studies the nature of beauty o In thinking can we remove
 What is beauty? superstition in our lives
 Is there beauty? o We learn to ask
 Logic  Thinking proactively
–The art of correct thinking o Critical thinking
 “The toolbox of Philosophy” o Taking initiatives
 Other Branches of Philosophy o Not allowing to be passive
–Theodicy: questions the nature of a God o Not giving up easily
–Political Philosophy: What is the ideal state; o Anticipating consequences
how to live in society o Ex. Nurse waiting for doctor to see
–Philosophy of Religion: studies our belief of patient. Nurse taking initiative to
a supreme being; why do we seek a being prepare instruments
greater than us?  Being open-minded
–Philosophy of the human person o Different ideas are not reasons to not
be able to talk with others
o We must open ourselves to another’s
ideas and respect it
o Listen to different stands
o This helps you to be educated
o A mature mental attitude
 Considering different perspectives
o Above factors must be considered
o Considering different paths to the
o Someone who understands different
perspectives of people
o Balance other people’s perspectives
o Open all your lights for enlightenment
o Consider others for making choices
o Not everyone has the exclusivity to
the truth
o Not all perspectives should be
 Questioning and Challenging Different
o Associated with opposition
o Interpreted in a negative way
o Constructive: aims to seek
clarification to the issue
o Destructive: questioning/challenging
for the sake of challenging (does not
aim to find answer

 Critical thinking is a cognitive process by

thinking/weighing ideas to solve problems


1. Define the Problem
 Recognizing that there is actually a
 Maybe we are the problem
2. Generating Possible Solutions
 Divergent thinking – collects/gathers
different perspectives to answer different
3. Evaluating Solutions
 Convergent thinking – narrow down the
possible solutions and evaluate the best
possible solution
4. Applying the Solutions
 Theoretical solutions make sense in
5. Critiquing Given Solutions through Dialects
 Through dialogue: thesis, anti-thesis,

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