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180MVAr, 420kV, 3-ph, 50Hz 128MVAr 500kV 3-ph, 50Hz

Variable SHR - Export Fixed Shunt Reactor - Export

Shunt Reactor
Know How Session
50MVAr, 420kV 3-ph SHR + NGR –
For PGCIL, India
Topics on Shunt Reactors
υ EM TR India - Factory portfolio, EM TR factory
υ Engineering Function & its process flow, design Tools
υ Classifications of Series & Shunt reactors
υ Shunt reactor – Application, sizing, fundamental equations, core types with airgap
υ Reference Standards on Shunt reactors
υ Operating characteristics of Shunt reactors
υ Salient features of SIEMENS reliable shunt reactors
υ Internal & External parts of shunt reactors
υ Routine & type test of finished shunt reactors and its challenges
υ Design input for shunt reactors – offer preparation
υ Typical - Technical data sheet (GTP) of shunt reactors (for customer review)
υ List of past reference, site photos
υ Future role of Variable shunt reactors
Siemens EM TR - Product
■ Generator Step Up
Transformers Single Phase and 3-Phase
■ Auto Transformers up to 750 MVA / 1200 kV

■ Power Transformers
T ■ Station Transformers

■ Single & Dual tank

Single Phase and 3-Phase
■ Symmetric & asymmetric
up to 500 MVA / 800 kV
Phase Angle

Single Phase and 3-Phase

■ Line or bus fixed shunt
reactors upto 125MVAr / 800 kV
■ Variable shunt reactors

■ Locomotive Transformers Single phase and 3-phase

up to 100 MVA / 230 kV
■ Track-side Transformers
CST – 2.5MVA
■ Cast resin Transformers
TR Segment
Navi Mumbai Factory
Engineering Function

υ Electrical design team (Offer / Order design) - ED

υ Winding design team - WD

υ Mechanical design team – Internal / External Parts - MD

υ Control design team - CD

υ Global Mechanical Hub

Electrical Design Process Flow
Offer design Order design

Enquiry after Bid/No-Bid Input from order design

decision Contract review.

Matrix of
Quality Gate 2.1 Quality
& MOC Gate 2.3 &
Electrical Data sheet &
Refer to Offer drawing Refer to
design using Electrical design
GTC preparation GTC
Global Tool
MOC ordering
Yes Yes
Score MOC Score
>15? >15?
No No Electrical
design output
Quality Gate 2.2
Material Cost
Design review /
customer drawing
Engineering process workflow
Engineering process workflow
Tools in Engineering
Electrical Design Winding Design Mechanical design


Optimization THERMAL Modeling &
Heating Drawing FRAME TDR
PC Drosselspule KT3701 - WAB OD
Cooling AutoCAD K35000 KT42001
Excel tools
DROP / OIL “Calculate Lead
EDRO DRAS MagNet 3D tool
MS Excel
Excel Tool – Flat SER
Dimension MS Word
Reactor loss tool
Test diagrams GUPS Control Design K65000
Voltage tables KT75820
(Excel) In-rush MS Excel
Creo layout
SAPR for current AutoCAD
PPP layout
RDS Excel
transients Clamping pressure
Stray Gap Excel
Manual check for preparation
paper insulation & Excel
stray gaps
Reactor classification
Reactors are classified according to application and construction

⋅ Series reactor -Connected in series to limit system fault current of system
⋅ Shunt reactor - Connected across ph-N or ph-ph for compensation of
capacitive current
⋅ Neutral earthing reactors – Neutral of power system to limit to line to
earth fault current to a desired value

⋅ Air core reactor
⋅ Gapped core reactor
⋅ With or without tapping
Few Application of Series Reactor
Generator Line series reactor
To limit short circuit withstand capacity of
generator before its feeder lines.

Feeder Series reactor

Located on feeders from operating station, to
minimize the resultant effect of short circuit on
other parts of the system and saves cost of
associated circuit breaker.

Duplex Series Reactor

This is a center tapped reactor, used to divide
current source and limit magnitude of short
circuit fault current.
Few Application of Series Reactor
Tie Line Reactor
The enables, easier method of expanding a
system. It is relatively low cost means of
expansion of a system with little modification
to existing switchgear.

Synchronizing reactor
Enables expansion of a system by
sectionalizing the existing bus and tying all
the bus sections through reactors to a
common bus, Found in large industrial
power plants.
Motor Starting Reactors
Used when it is necessary to reduce the
starting current of AC motor so that system
disturbances are reduced.
Few Application of Series Reactor
Damping Reactor
Used to limit high transient inrush current
flowing into capacitor bank when they
are switched in. It also suppresses
harmonics. It is connected in series with

Smoothing Reactor
To filter out all harmonics present in DC
system. It can be HV DC or Low Voltage
DC to limit transient over current
Application of Shunt Reactor

Shunt reactors balance capacitive

energy in a long unloaded transmission
line by their reactive energy and allow
optimum system operation by

 Maintaining grid voltage within limits compatible with the systems insulation
level under normal service conditions. (Lightly loaded condition)

 Controlling over-voltage under abnormal conditions (loss of system

interconnections due to load shedding operations or from a line-ground fault)

• Taking care
Reactors forof medium
switching transients.
and high voltage networks improve the
stability and efficiency of power transmission
Voltage increase at line end (low-load)

P2, Q 2

U1 Q U2
Voltage profile at no or low load (P2),”Ferranti effect”

1,0 pu

U1 U2
Shunt reactor stabilize system voltage

P2, Q 2

U1 U2
Voltage profile at no or low load (P2), with connected SR

1,0 pu

U1 U2

The shunt reactor consumes reactive power

generated by the transmission line
Shunt reactor stabilize the system voltage

P2, Q 2

U1 Q U2
Voltage profile at no or low load (P2), with connected SR

1,0 pu

U1 U2

Switching in the reactor gives a step change in the

voltage on the transmission line
Voltage profile is load dependent

(R) + X
P2, Q 2
U1 U2
Increased load (P2), voltage profile with connected SR

1,0 pu

U1 U2
Reactor rating
Inductance “L” calculation
Rated reactance Xr (rated inductance Lr)
Reactance specified at rated voltage and rated frequency in ohms per phase.
It is derived from rated power and rated voltage.
e.g. 75MVAr 500kV 3-ph Shunt reactor operating at 50Hz.

U 2
500 kV 2
Xr < r
< < 3333 .3Ζς / Phase ∴
Sr 75 MVAr
X r < 2 √ ο √ f √ Lr

Lr < X r / 2 √ ο √ f < 3333 .3 / 2 √ ο √ 50 < 10 .610 Henry

Things to note:
Inductance ↓ (get reduced) with ↑ (increased) reactive power for given Ur
Fundamental equation of Shunt
Basic Design –
Iron core reactor

+ small dimensions lFe iron core

+ very high current possible

- limited linearity If
- high weight
application in high current coil
reactors for industrial rectifier

Inductivity: L < w 2 √ λFe √
l Fe
Basic Design
– Iron core reactor with air gaps

+ wide range of applications lFe iron core

+ wide range of rated power and voltage
+ optimized weight and dimensions
- limited linearity
- complex design w
application in high voltage shunt air gap

Inductivity: L ≡ w √ λ0 √

Why core pockets needed?

υ With increase in power rating of reactor, reactance reduces and

total gap length of the gapped core reactor must be increased.
Increasing gap length results increased eddy current losses in core
pockets and adjacent winding due to fringing flux.

υ Therefore, it instead of increasing single gap, multiple gaps are

made to get increased gap length.

υ Each gapped limb consists of a number of cylindrical core pockets

piled up one on top of the other, separated by air gap which are
filled with spacers.
Basic Design
– Iron core reactor with air gaps (Optimized)

Air gap is divided into several lFe iron core

small air gaps.

Inductance If
L < w √ λ0 √
l2 w
lair l3
l air < l1 ∗ l 2 ∗ l 3 ∗ l 4 B

Page 25
Neutral connection of SHR

Neutral connection of EHV class Shunt Reactor

1. Line reactor – Neutral connected to Neutral Grounding Reactor

2. Bus reactor – Neutral solidly earthed

Types of single phase cores
1/2 0/2 designation: “X / Y”
X : number of wound limbs
Y: number of return limbs

single-phase transformers air-gap shunt reactors

shunt reactors series reactors
2/0 2/2

single-phase transformers;
single-phase transformers shunt reactors; HVDC
shunt reactors
Types of three phase cores

3/0 3/2

power, generator and special extra high power transformers and

transformers, shunt reactors shunt reactors
+ 45 % reduced vertical dimension for yokes
(pos. aspect for transportation)
0/2 - increased weight of core assembly

large series reactors

Core Construction of Reactors
Type of core construction
 Gapped core type
 Air core type (No magnetic material)

Advantage of Gapped Core Construction:

⋅ Magnetic flux densities of air space is
enhanced due to silicon steel plates [which
has far higher permeability]. Thus effective
volume space for winding reduces in case of
gapped core reactor than air core type ,
resulting in smaller dimensions and lighter in
weight in comparison to air core.
⋅ Magnetic field of gapped core is controlled
by means of gaps.
⋅ But flux density in CRGO is limited by linear

Gapped core type is further classified as

 Parallel laminated core type
 Radially laminated core type
Parallel vs. radially laminated core pocket

With parallel laminated core pockets, the

fringing flux intrudes the silicon plates at
right angles and thus becoming unsuitable
for large reactors due to local over

In case of radially laminated core,

fringing flux entirely comes in/out towards
the thickness direction of silicon steel
plates which results in reduced eddy
current losses and local over heating can
be prevented.
Radially laminated core pocket

Core packets

Suitable for large reactors

Core packets are made by radially

assembling the core laminations

Fringing flux entirely comes in or out

towards the thickness direction of
Resin impregnated
silicon steel plates & results in reduced
eddy current losses & reduced local
core packets
over heating.
Core Assemblies of shunt reactors

iron core

distance disk
clamping bandage
radial lamination
radial laminated stack with air gaps
Standard on Reactors
National and International standard on reactors

International Standard : IEC 60076 – Part 6 (Reactors)

Indian Standard : IS 5553 (Part 1 to 8)

ANSI standard : IEEE C57 21 and C57-16


Zero Sequence Impedance

In case of 3 phase reactor units, ratio of Zo/Zp of reactors are affected by
return limbs.

 With return limb : ratio is 0.9 to 1.0 (approx.)

 Without return limb : ratio is 0.5 to 0.7 (approx.)

If not important [from system point of view], customer can opt for lower value
of zero sequence impedance.

Then 3 limbed core (without return limb) can be used for 3-phase reactors.
But for single phase reactor, Zo/Zp is 1.0
Dielectric withstand of shunt reactors
Winding and main insulation structures of reactors do not differ significantly
from those of power transformers.
Line end are either at top yoke or centre are designed similar to transformers

Insulation structure & clearance are considered based dielectric and magnetic
considerations using proven global design tools.

This is reflected by the final test results:

υ Full wave Lightning impulse withstand of line and neutral
υ Switching impulse withstand
υ PD of ACLD test. (Typical values are less than IEC limiting value)
υ Separate source AC withstand of neutral
Thermal performance of shunt reactors
Similar to transformers to achieve desired thermal performance of shunt
reactors, SIEMENS uses proven global design tool

This is reflected by the final temperature rise of test results:

υ Top oil temperature rise
υ Average winding temperature rise
υ Hot spot winding temperature rise
Vibration & Noise of gapped core reactors

 Design & construction of liquid-immersed reactors should avoid the

detrimental effects of excessive stress due to vibration.
Primary area of concern are
υ Vibration of core & coil assembly
υ Vibration of tank with associated stresses developed in plates/braces/welded parts
υ Vibration of instruments, accessories & cooling equipment.

 Vibration occur mainly due to magnetic attraction force of core gap.

 Vibration of active part are transferred to tank through mechanical contacts and oil.
⋅ Maxi. amplitude of vibration tank wall = 200 μm (0.2mm) (peak-to-peak)
⋅ Maxi. resulting dynamic stress in tank and cover = 20N/sq.mm
⋅ Maxi sound pressure are as per NEMA TR-1 unless specified.

To reduce vibration & noise

1. Pertinent magnetic flux density is selected.

2. Ceramic spacers having higher longitudinal elasticity is used.
3. Overall core is tightened toward the axial direction with sufficient force.
4. Anti vibration pads are used between active part and tank if found necessary.
Non-linear magnetic property (V-I curve)

Once above the

saturation point, the
extra current needed
Saturation point
to further increase
Below & up to the
the flux density is
saturation point only a
small current is needed
to magnetize the core
steel and the extra
current needed to reach
a marginal increase flux
density is small

Linear relationship
between applied
voltage and reactor
Non-linear magnetic property (V-I curve)

Transformer Academy
November 17 Page 39
Harmonic current

Steady state harmonics in reactor current arise from partial saturation in

the magnetic circuit. These effects are in fact very small, and without
“practical importance” for relaying and communication interference. Of all
harmonics the third harmonic will be dominant.

In the reactor neutral the third harmonics in the three phases add together and
act like a zero sequence current.

The harmonics of the current in all three phases are measured at

specified voltage by means of a harmonic analyzer & expressed as a
percentage of the fundamental component.

Usually, SIEMENS achieves much lower harmonic values of harmonics.

Asymmetry between phases

In the case of three-phase shunt reactors or banks of three single-phase

reactors, the reactance in the three phases, when connected to a power
system of symmetrical voltages, shall not deviate from the average by more
than ±2 % but always within the above-mentioned ±5 % tolerance.

But SIEMENS achieves much less on variation between phases due to

better manufacturing process.
SIEMENS Reactors

 Skilled manpower trained in Nurnberg,

Germany for reactor manufacturing as per
highest standards followed

 Stringent manufacturing processes

 Strict quality norms for incoming and

in-process quality checks.

 In house core packet assembly set up

Shunt Reactor under testing in Siemens Transformers (India)

Siemens Transformers India is fully integrated in the global network of Siemens

transformer factories worldwide with full access to its complete and latest know-how.
Internal & external parts of shunt reactors

1.Gapped core radially laminated


2.Winding assembly & clamping 4

Part of Gapped
Core Shunt
3.Tank & Cover Reactor

5 3
Major external accessories of SHR

υ Bushings (line end & neutral)

υ Conservator
υ Oil temperature Indicator
υ Winding temperature Indicator
υ Magnetic Oil level gauge
υ Pressure relief Device
υ Sudden pressure raise relay
υ Air cell in conservator
υ On-tank or bank mounted radiators
υ Valves (drain, sampling, etc.)
υ Access ladder or platform
υ Rating & diagram plates, labels
υ Bushing current transformers
υ Lifting, hauling, air release, inspection
(Rollers for movement in S/s
Plinth mounting is preferred option)
Reliable shunt reactors

Resin impregnated
core packets


Robust clamping
Resin Impregnated core packets

Spacers in core packets

•Spacers are made of ceramic discs

•High dimensional accuracy & stability

under pressure and temperature

•Very stiff and high modulus of elasticity

•Inert materials and hence do not react

with oil
Robust clamping arrangement

Peculiarity of a gapped core reactors is that there are “pulsating attraction

forces” at twice the power frequency “acting within the core structure” due to
different permeability of materials of gapped limbs.

It is necessary to design the core parts so that they are strong, stiff and
sufficiently pre-stresses to handle the force without excessive strain or
displacement of the parts.
Tests on finished shunt reactors - Routine

Routine Tests on reactors

1. Measurement of winding resistance
2. Reactance and loss measurement
3. Measurement of IR & PI
4. Measurement of insulation power factor and capacitance
between winding and earth
5. Measurement of insulation power factor and capacitance of
Condenser bushings
6. Full wave lightning impulse test on Line end & Neutral (if applicable)
7. Switching impulse test (if applicable)
8. Separate source voltage withstand test
9. Long duration induced over voltage (ACLD) test & PD measurement
10. Gas-in-oil analysis
11. Oil leakage test on assembled reactor
12. 2kV test on auxiliary equipment wiring .
13. 2kV core assembly dielectric and earthing continuity test
Type Tests on finished shunt reactors

1. Sweep frequency response analysis

2. Tank vacuum test & Tank pressure test
3. Vibration & tank stress measurement
4 Temperature rise test at specified voltage
5. Measurement of harmonic content of current
6. Measurement of acoustic noise level at specified voltage
7. Linearity of magnetic characteristics (Knee point voltage
8. Measurement of zero-sequence reactance (not applicable in case of
1-phase reactors)
Challenges of reactor testing

 Requirement of large reactive power is sometimes a constraint for

testing large EHV reactors at rated voltage.

(unlike transformers, for testing reactors both voltage & current of

rated reactive power is needed)

 Hence, it is important to review the test facilities and perform

calculation to check the feasibilities in testing reactors of especially
EHV voltage and large reactive power .

 Testing feasibility has to be performed case to case basis.

Design inputs of shunt reactors


1 Reference Standard IEC 60076-6 / Any other std…if any
Application Reactive power compensation
2 (Line / Bus)
3 Construction and type Gapped Core, Outdoor, Oil immersed
4 Reactive Power at rated voltage MVAr
5 No of phases
6 Rated frequency Hz 50 or 60
Rated voltage Max continuous kV Lint to Line values for both shall be
7 operating voltage kV specified
8 Highest system voltage(LL) kV
9 Type of cooling ONAN / ONAF / any other
10 Reactance of reactor Ω/ph = (kV)x (kV) / (3 phase MVAR)
11 Tolerance on reactance +/-5% as per IEC 60076-6
Knee Point voltage from Ur &
12 tolerance %
Design inputs of shunt reactors


Maximum, Minimum and yearly weighted
13 Ambient temperature deg C avg.
14 Voltage level for temperature rise test Ur or Um
15 Top Oil temperature rise K
16 Average winding temperature rise K
17 Winding hot spot rise K
Impulse withstand / Switching Impulse
18 Insulation level of Reactor /ACLD
a Line end
b Neutral end
Max noise pressure level (along with
Voltage level Ur or Um for
19 measurement) dB
20 Termination arrangement
a Line end
b Neutral end
21 Type of tank construction MS welded with bolted cover
22 Vacuum withstand of tank
23 Max vibration specified
24 Max Tank stress
25 Transportation limitation if any Max weight and largest package size
26 Special test requirement if any
27 Special seismic requirement if any
28 Site altitude (meter above MSL)
1 Reference Standard IEC 60076-6 IEC 60076-6
2 Construction and type Gapped Core, Outdoor, Oil immersed Gapped Core, Outdoor, Oil immersed
3 Reactive Power at rated voltage MVAr 58.3 25
4 No of phases Single Single
5 Rated frequency Hz 50 50
6 Rated voltage kV 500/√3 500/√3
7 Highest system voltage kV 550/√3 550/√3
8 Type of cooling ONAN ONAN
9 Reactance of reactor & its tolerance Ω/ph 1428.5 (+/-5% tolerance) 3333.3(+/-5% tolerance)
10 Knee Point voltage & tolerance % 130% (+/-5% tolerance) 130% (+/-5% tolerance)
Temperature rise of reactor at rated
11 voltage
Top Oil temperature rise K 60 60
Average winding temperature rise K 65 65
Winding hot spot rise K 78 78
12 Insulation level of Reactor
Line end LI 1550 SI 1175 LI 1550 SI 1175
Neutral end LI 550 AC 230 LI 550 AC 230
13 Max noise pressure level at rated voltage dB 77 74
14 Termination arrangement
Line end Condenser Bushing (550kV/600A) Condenser Bushing (550kV/600A)
Neutral end Condenser Bushing (123kV/600A) Condenser Bushing (123kV/600A)
15 Type of tank construction MS welded with bolted cover MS welded with bolted cover
16 Vacuum withstand of tank Full vacuum Full vacuum
First Shunt Reactor
50MVAr 420kV, 3-ph, 50Hz
dispatched from India - 2011
50MVAr, 420 kV Shunt Reactor- PGCIL Jaipur
125MVAr, 420 kV Shunt Reactor- TORRENT
50MVAr, 420 kV Shunt Reactor- PGCIL Sohawal
Reactors enable the safe and economic
operation of AC grids
Fixed shunt reactors vs. variable shunt reactors
Generator Transformer Transmission Line Consumer (P&Q)

U1 U2

Fixed shunt reactor

With increasing load fixed shunt

100% 100%
reactors will overcompensate

U1 U2 U1 U2

Variable shunt reactor

Variable shunt reactors can be

adjusted according current load
100% 100%
situation and therefore always
compensate accurate
U1 U2 U1 U2

Restricted © Siemens AG 2017

Page 58 Siemens
Reactors enable the safe and economic
operation of AC grids
The reactive power problem
Switchyard Renewable Generation
HV Grid Transformer Q1 Transmission Line


Reactive Power demand with and w/o compensation

[MW] / Power
350 [MVAr] Q1 w/o
250 Q1 fix SHR

1) Without compensation
50 2) With a fixed shunt
0 reactor
2) ResTime [h] 3) With a variable shunt
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 reactor

Restricted © Siemens AG 2017

Page 59 Siemens
Typical market drivers which call for variable
shunt reactors

Increasing renewable power generation e.g. wind

farms, PV sites

Rapid grid extension

Urbanization driving switch from overhead lines to

cable connections

Load centers with variable load cycles on consumer

side e.g. industrial complexes or daily cycles of AC usage

Shunt reactors fitting to various ratings

Restricted © Siemens AG 2017

Page 60 Siemens
Increasing dynamics in power grid require
operators to provide a flexible reactive power
Grid operators require… Variable shunt reactors offer…
Flexible reactive ƒ Better network voltage control

power ƒ Optimized reactive power compensation
ƒ Reduced reactive power loading of the
Grid efficiency grid

ƒ Cost efficient solution for flexible

stabilization reactive power supply
ƒ Less purchase of reactive power
Active power ƒ Reduced losses (reactor, line &
capacity connected equipment) & noise
ƒ Increased active power capacity of line
solutions ƒ Minimal space requirements

ƒ Flexibility on network changes
Low Space ƒ Independence of other grid operators
ƒ Higher reliability with VSR spare concept

Variable Shunt Reactors are perfectly adapting to changing network

conditions and contributing to increased cost effectiveness
Restricted © Siemens AG 2017
Page 61 Siemens