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Project Proposal and Feasibility Study

ENGR 339/340 Senior Design Project

Calvin College

2014-2015

Submitted By:

Nick VanDam, Carl Cooper, Jessica Par, Brad Kunz

For Review By:

Calvin College Engineering Department


Attn: Professor Mark Michmerhuizen

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©Carl Cooper, Brad Kunz, Jessica Par, Nick VanDam, and Calvin College

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Executive Summary
As technology spreads into markets which were once unexplored, advantages of new processes and
information available can arise as a result. With many individuals becoming increasingly interested in
tracking their personal fitness levels throughout the day, technology has recently advanced enough in
order to make this available and efficient to do so. With many personal fitness tracking devices already
on the market, a company known as BioBit has identified a unique need in this market that has yet to be
successfully fulfilled, namely the area of group fitness. With teams and workout groups unable to track
data both individually and as a cohesive group, information is difficult to compare and analyze between
multiple individuals. BioBit sees a need where a team-oriented fitness tracking device can be used in
order to easily track and display information to active groups such as sports teams and training groups.

A team of four electrical and computer engineering students from Calvin College decided to solve this
problem by designing a wearable tracking device that will send real-time data to an Android app where
the user can see the entire team’s fitness information. This fitness tracking system is designed for
coaches, trainers, athletes, and sports teams. Each athlete will wear a fitness device, which will collect
data from biometric sensors. These sensors include the ability to track information such as a user's heart
rate, acceleration, and steps taken. The data taken from these sensors will then be sent to a centralized
hub, which communicates with all the devices in the network via Wi-Fi. Once the information is received
by the hub, it is then published to a web-hosted server and database to be stored and later referenced
by the partnering Android app. The intent of the partnering Android app is to provide the fitness leader,
such as a coach or trainer, a user-friendly interface in order to compare and analyze the data obtained.
With this information in hand, a unique advantage is then available to the users in order to make
educated and timely assessments based on the real-time data received through the technology.

BioBit is requesting $430,000.00 as startup capital. It will be used for both additional design of
prototypes and the first production models that will be sold. This capital will also support the salaries of
the designers, workers, facilities, marketing, and raw materials. Through growth and additional
production, BioBit plans to be debt free by its 3rd year, giving the company greater flexibility and cash
flow to continue into the future. The goal of the core group of designers is to have a deliverable product
by May of 2015.

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Table of Contents
Executive Summary....................................................................................................................................... 3
Table of Contents .......................................................................................................................................... 4
1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 10
1.1 Calvin College Engineering Program ........................................................................................... 10
1.2 Team Information ....................................................................................................................... 10
1.2.1 Carl Cooper ............................................................................................................................. 10
1.2.2 Brad Kunz................................................................................................................................ 11
1.2.3 Jessica Par ............................................................................................................................... 11
1.2.4 Nick VanDam .......................................................................................................................... 11
1.3 Report Overview ......................................................................................................................... 12
1.4 Design Norms .............................................................................................................................. 13
1.4.1 Trust........................................................................................................................................ 13
1.4.2 Integrity .................................................................................................................................. 13
1.4.3 Caring...................................................................................................................................... 13
2. Project Requirements ......................................................................................................................... 13
2.1 Project Statement ....................................................................................................................... 14
2.2 Requirements .............................................................................................................................. 14
2.2.1 Functional Requirements ....................................................................................................... 14
2.2.2 Electrical Requirements.......................................................................................................... 15
2.2.3 Software Requirements.......................................................................................................... 15
2.2.4 Communication Requirements .............................................................................................. 15
2.2.5 Physical Requirements ........................................................................................................... 16
3. System Design ..................................................................................................................................... 16
3.1 System Communication .............................................................................................................. 16
3.1.1 Possible Solutions ................................................................................................................... 17
3.1.2 Decision Criterion ................................................................................................................... 17
3.1.3 Decision Matrix....................................................................................................................... 18
3.2 Wearable Location ...................................................................................................................... 20
3.2.1 Possible Solutions ................................................................................................................... 20
3.2.2 Decision Criterion ................................................................................................................... 21

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3.2.3 Decision Matrix....................................................................................................................... 22
3.3 End-User Application Platform ................................................................................................... 23
3.3.1 Possible Solutions ................................................................................................................... 23
3.3.2 Decision Criterion ................................................................................................................... 23
3.3.3 Decision Matrix....................................................................................................................... 24
3.4 Overall System Block Diagram .................................................................................................... 25
4. Fitness Tracking Device ....................................................................................................................... 26
4.1 Fitness Tracking Device Architecture .......................................................................................... 26
4.2 Hardware .................................................................................................................................... 26
4.2.1 Processing and Communication Board .................................................................................. 26
4.2.2 Heartbeat Sensor.................................................................................................................... 28
4.2.3 Step Sensor ............................................................................................................................. 30
4.3 Battery......................................................................................................................................... 32
4.3.1 Requirements ......................................................................................................................... 32
4.3.2 Alternatives ............................................................................................................................ 32
4.3.3 Decision .................................................................................................................................. 33
4.3.4 Implementation ..................................................................................................................... 34
4.4 Software ...................................................................................................................................... 34
4.4.1 Communication Board............................................................................................................ 34
5. Central Hub ......................................................................................................................................... 34
5.1 Central Hub Architecture ............................................................................................................ 34
5.2 Hardware .................................................................................................................................... 34
5.2.1 Requirements ......................................................................................................................... 34
5.2.2 Alternatives ............................................................................................................................ 35
5.2.3 Decision Criterion ................................................................................................................... 36
5.2.4 Decision .................................................................................................................................. 36
5.2.5 Implementation ...................................................................................................................... 37
5.3 Software ...................................................................................................................................... 37
5.3.1 Server...................................................................................................................................... 37
5.3.2 Data Transmission Protocol.................................................................................................... 37
5.3.3 Packet Processing ................................................................................................................... 37
6. End-User Application .......................................................................................................................... 38

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6.1 Software Design .......................................................................................................................... 38
6.1.1 Overview................................................................................................................................. 38
6.1.2 Functionality ........................................................................................................................... 38
6.1.3 Inputs ...................................................................................................................................... 38
6.1.4 Outputs ................................................................................................................................... 38
6.1.5 Software Updates ................................................................................................................... 39
7. Physical Design Specifications............................................................................................................. 39
7.1 System Enclosure ........................................................................................................................ 39
7.1.1 Wearable Design .................................................................................................................... 39
7.1.2 Material Selection .................................................................................................................. 43
8. Prototype and Deliverables ................................................................................................................ 43
8.1 Final Prototype ............................................................................................................................ 43
8.2 Deliverables ................................................................................................................................ 43
8.2.1 Fall Semester Deliverables ..................................................................................................... 44
8.2.2 Spring Semester Deliverables ................................................................................................. 44
9. Testing ................................................................................................................................................. 44
9.1 Completed Testing ...................................................................................................................... 44
9.1.1 Raspberry Pi............................................................................................................................ 44
9.1.2 Intel Edison ............................................................................................................................. 45
9.2 Future Testing ............................................................................................................................. 45
9.2.1 WLAN on the Raspberry Pi ..................................................................................................... 45
9.2.2 Send Data from Sensors to Intel Edison ................................................................................. 45
9.2.3 Send Data from Database to Mobile App .................................................................................. 46
9.2.4 Battery Test for Intel Edison Board ........................................................................................ 46
9.2.5 Server Traffic Test................................................................................................................... 46
10. Business Plan................................................................................................................................... 46
10.1 Vision and Mission Statement .................................................................................................... 46
10.2 Industry Profile and Overview .................................................................................................... 46
10.2.1 Industry Background and Overview ..................................................................................... 47
10.3 Regulatory restrictions ................................................................................................................ 47
10.4 Significant Trends ........................................................................................................................ 48
10.4.1 Growth Rate ......................................................................................................................... 48

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10.4.2 Barriers to Entry and Exit...................................................................................................... 48
10.4.3 Key Factors for Success in the Industry ................................................................................ 48
10.4.4 Outlook for the Future ......................................................................................................... 48
10.5 Business Strategy ........................................................................................................................ 49
10.5.1 Desired Image and Position in Market ................................................................................. 49
10.5.2 Company Goals and Objectives ............................................................................................ 49
10.6 SWOT Analysis............................................................................................................................. 49
10.6.1 Internal Strengths ................................................................................................................. 49
10.6.2 Internal Weaknesses ............................................................................................................ 50
10.6.3 External Opportunities ......................................................................................................... 50
10.6.4 External Threats ................................................................................................................... 50
10.7 Competitive Strategy .................................................................................................................. 50
10.7.1 Cost Leadership and Differentiation .................................................................................... 50
10.7.2 Focus..................................................................................................................................... 51
10.8 Company Products and Services ................................................................................................. 51
10.8.1 Product Description and Service Features ........................................................................... 51
10.8.2 Uniqueness ........................................................................................................................... 51
10.8.3 Customer Benefits ................................................................................................................ 51
10.8.4 Warranties and Guarantees ................................................................................................. 52
10.8.5 Future Product or Service Offerings ........................................................................................ 52
10.9 Marketing Strategy ..................................................................................................................... 52
10.9.1 Target Market ....................................................................................................................... 52
10.9.2 Market Size and Tends ......................................................................................................... 53
10.9.3 Advertising and Promotion .................................................................................................. 53
10.9.4 Pricing ................................................................................................................................... 54
10.10 Competitive Analysis ............................................................................................................... 55
10.10.1 Existing competitors ........................................................................................................... 55
10.10.2 Potential competitors......................................................................................................... 55
10.11 Description of Management Team ......................................................................................... 56
10.11.1 Key managers ..................................................................................................................... 56
10.11.2 Future Additions to Management Team ............................................................................ 57
10.11.3 Operations .......................................................................................................................... 58

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10.2 Financial Statements ....................................................................................................................... 59
10.2.1 Income Statement (Annual, 3 years) ....................................................................................... 59
10.2.2 Cash Flow Statement (Quarterly, 3 years) ............................................................................... 60
10.3 Break-Even Analysis ........................................................................................................................ 61
10.4 Ratio Analysis .................................................................................................................................. 62
11. Project Management ...................................................................................................................... 63
11.1 Team Organization .................................................................................................................. 63
11.1.1 Documentation Organization ............................................................................................... 63
11.1.2 Division of Work ................................................................................................................... 63
11.1.3 Milestones ............................................................................................................................ 64
11.2 Schedule .................................................................................................................................. 64
11.2.1 Schedule Management......................................................................................................... 64
11.2.2 Critical Path .......................................................................................................................... 64
11.3 Operational Budget ................................................................................................................. 64
11.4 Method of Approach ............................................................................................................... 65
11.4.1 Design Methodology ............................................................................................................ 65
11.4.2 Research techniques ............................................................................................................ 65
11.4.3 Team communication........................................................................................................... 65
12. Conclusions ..................................................................................................................................... 65
12.1 Project Feasibility .................................................................................................................... 65
12.1.1 Technical Aspect ................................................................................................................... 65
12.1.2 Cost Aspect ........................................................................................................................... 66
12.2 Lessons Learned ......................................................................................................................... 66
12.3 Credits and Acknowledgements ............................................................................................. 67
13. References ...................................................................................................................................... 68

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Table of Figures
Figure 1. Team Photo (left to right) - Brad Kunz, Nick VanDam, Jessica Par, and Carl Cooper .................. 10
Figure 2 - High-level System Diagram ......................................................................................................... 14
Figure 3 – Diagram of Range for Wi-Fi and Bluetooth Over Standard Soccer Field Dimensions ................ 20
Figure 4 - Level One Block Diagram of the Overall System ......................................................................... 26
Figure 5 - Intel Edison Size Comparison ...................................................................................................... 27
Figure 6 - Adafruit FLORA Size Comparison ................................................................................................ 28
Figure 7 – Polar HeartRate Sensor .............................................................................................................. 29
Figure 8 – TI TIDA-00011 Sensor ................................................................................................................. 30
Figure 9 – Pulse Sensor SEN-11574............................................................................................................. 30
Figure 10 - SparkFun Triple Axis Accelerometer - ADXL335 ....................................................................... 31
Figure 11 - STP156 Pedometer ................................................................................................................... 31
Figure 12 – Raspberry Pi B+ ........................................................................................................................ 35
Figure 13 – BeagleBone Black ..................................................................................................................... 36
Figure 14 - Chest-Mounted Wearable Concept .......................................................................................... 40
Figure 15 - Waist-Mounted Wearable Concept .......................................................................................... 40
Figure 16 – Wrist-Mounted Concept View of Face ..................................................................................... 41
Figure 17 – Wrist-Mounted Concept Right Side View ................................................................................ 41
Figure 18 – Wrist-Mounted Concept Side View of Wrist Strap .................................................................. 42
Figure 19 – Wrist-Mounted Wearable Concept Wire View ........................................................................ 42
Figure 20 - Overview of Company Structure (dotted line to show initial organization) ............................. 59

Table of Tables
Table 1 - Decision Matrix for Communication Protocol.............................................................................. 19
Table 2 - Decision Matrix for Device Placement ......................................................................................... 22
Table 3 - Decision Matrix for Device Placement ......................................................................................... 24
Table 4 - Battery type comparison .............................................................................................................. 32
Table 5 - Decision Matrix for Central Hub................................................................................................... 36
Table 6 – Project Deliverables and Timeline ............................................................................................... 43
Table 7 - Income Statement for First Three Years ...................................................................................... 59
Table 8 - Cash Flow for First Three Years (Yearly Overview) ...................................................................... 60
Table 9 – Cash Flow for First Three Years (Quarterly) ................................................................................ 61
Table 10 - Break-Even Analysis ................................................................................................................... 61
Table 11 - Ratio Analysis ............................................................................................................................ 63

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1. Introduction
This section will provide an introduction to the Senior Design Project by introducing the Calvin College
Engineering Program, giving details of the Senior Design team, breaking down the Project Proposal and
Feasibility Study document, and giving an overview of the team's design norms they are incorporating
into the project.

1.1 Calvin College Engineering Program


The Calvin College Engineering Program uses everything the students are taught over their college
career and accumulates it into one final design project. This Senior Design Project is focused on applying
the skills and knowledge the students have gained from interdisciplinary and concentration focused
classes to a project of the students’ choice. The project encompasses brainstorming to a deliverable
prototype over the course of the students’ senior year. Teams are typically constructed of four members
and can include multi concentrations if the project requires it.

1.2 Team Information


The BioBit team consists of four senior engineering students of the electrical & computer concentration.
The team came across the idea of a team/group oriented fitness tracker based on the combination of
their desire to work with a wireless communication and the members’ interest in personal fitness. The
members of the team can be seen in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Team Photo (left to right) - Brad Kunz, Nick VanDam, Jessica Par, and Carl Cooper

1.2.1 Carl Cooper


Carl Cooper is a senior at Calvin College studying Electrical/Computer Engineering. During the summer
of 2014, he had the opportunity to work with Professor Kim in the Calvin College Engineering
Department to develop a system that would monitor sustainable energy systems wirelessly with

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smartphone apps. He gained experience creating and sending data over wireless networks,
programming microcontrollers and Android apps, and reducing power consumption on both
microcontrollers and smartphones. He understands the benefit of being able to track players on sports
teams from his experience of playing on sports teams all the way through elementary and high school in
Chiang Mai, Thailand, including Varsity Basketball and Volleyball.

In his spare time Carl enjoys pursuing the outdoors through rock climbing and backpacking, as well as all
things audio, from recording to building guitar amps and effects pedals.

1.2.2 Brad Kunz


Brad Kunz is a senior Electrical/Computer Engineering major at Calvin College, who grew up in
Hudsonville, MI. Brad has had two previous internship experiences. Most recently, in the summer of
2014, he was a part of the Digital Ventures team at Steelcase’s headquarters in Kentwood, MI. This
Research and Development team was focused on finding new and insightful ways to integrate
technology into the office space. He was exposed to various wireless communication protocols, along
with the early stages of product development and design. In the summer of 2013 Brad worked with the
Automotive Plastics team at Royal Technologies Corporation in Hudsonville, MI.

Brad enjoys staying active through playing sports such as soccer, tennis, golf, hiking, and going to the
gym. He is also interested in audio projects and music production.

1.2.3 Jessica Par


Jessica Par is a senior at Calvin College studying Electrical/Computer Engineering. The past two summers
(2013 and 2014), Jessica had the opportunity to intern at Koops Inc. in Holland, Michigan as a Control
Engineer. At this internship, Jessica was involved in many different aspects of the design and building of
factory automation solutions. She was also involved in the Controls Design department and developed
electrical schematics, pneumatic schematics, and bills of material. Jessica gained experience building
control panels in the Machine Assembly group and worked with Koops Launch Engineers to debug and
prove out several different pieces of automation. She also learned to create documentation manuals for
a variety of machines and be onsite at the customer’s facility performing service and support.

Jessica is currently working as a Student Office Assistance at the Engineering Department. She organizes
documents, updates the engineering website, helps plan the department events, and assists professors
when needed. She is also a student leader for Calvin’s Women and Engineering club. She plans social
events and study groups for the women engineers.

In her spare time, Jessica enjoys being active through going to the gym with friends, rock climbing,
camping.

1.2.4 Nick VanDam


Nick VanDam is a senior Electrical/Computer Engineering major with a designation in International
Engineering. Nick is currently an employee under two different organizations. Since 2008, Nick has been

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working for Grand Rapids Christian High School Athletics as an Event Manager and Facility Caretaker.
Nick also works as an intern at URS Corporation within the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)
division. He has held this position since May of 2013. This position is concerned with the technology
behind roadways which helps to improve the safety and efficiency of our transportation systems.
Surveillance systems, vehicle detectors, dynamic message signs (DMS), and their means of
communication (Fiber & Wireless) are all things encountered through this position.

In his spare time, Nick is also working on side projects involving mechanical and electrical repairs for
both the Calvin and local communities.

1.3 Report Overview


Detailed below is a short description of each section of the Project Proposal and Feasibility Study
document.

Section 2: Project Requirements


Section 2 covers the requirements of the project specified by customers and what was identified
as a team.

Section 3: System Design


Section 3 evaluates alternative solutions for the system design based on team and customer
determined criterion. The section discusses the thought process of the decisions made.

Section 4: Fitness Tracking Device


Section 4 breaks down what components will go into the fitness tracking device and how it will
affect the design. The design is broken down based on requirements, alternatives, decision
criterion, and gives a final decision for each component.

Section 5: Central Hub


Section 5 discusses the design of the central hub and the components that will compose it. The
hub is broken down based on requirements, alternatives, decision criterion, and gives a final
decision on how the central hub will be designed.

Section 6: End-User Application


Section 6 discusses what application platform is best suited to help implement the team’s design
and it also breaks down how the application will operate.

Section 7: Physical Design Specifications


Section 7 discusses the requirements for the physical portions of the design and how it shall be
designed to withstand the exposure it receives from its environment.

Section 8: Prototype and Deliverables


Section 8 discusses the prototype and stretch goals for the design. It also outlines the
deliverables of each stage of the project.

Section 9: Testing
Section 9 outlines how the system components will be incrementally tested.

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Section 10: Business Plan
Section 10 outlines a business plan for a potential startup company that is developed around
selling this project.

Section 11: Project Management


This section explains how the team operates, each team member’s role, how the team is
organized, and details the project timeline.

Section 12: Conclusions


Section 12 concludes the PPFS. It summarizes the current progress, determines project
feasibility, identifies potential risks looking forward, gives lessons learned, and gives credit to
the people and sources that helped in project development.

1.4 Design Norms


The Calvin College Engineering Department encourages the integration of design norms into every
project that the students encounter during their college career and to continue this integration into
their work careers. These design norms are not necessarily the “Christian” way to do engineering but
help raise questions in the design process that require the use of the Christian faith.

1.4.1 Trust
Trust is something that shall be integral to the design. The users of the devices are relying on them to
improve their fitness. Trust will be achieved by providing reliable data, and constructing a dependable
and comfortable device. The customer should feel comfortable enough to know that the device’s
primary goal is to help improve fitness and not harm them.

1.4.2 Integrity
This fitness tracking device shall have a harmonious form and functionality to it. The users of this device
should feel comfortable using the device in any situation and feel like it is merely an extension of their
body and not something that will hinder their performance in any way.

1.4.3 Caring
Caring is another design norm to be considered in the design process. The team wants the user to know
that this fitness device is for their physical, mental, and emotional benefit.

2. Project Requirements
For the design scope and standards set forth by the team, please refer to the content herein. It is in
these section where the requirements are defined which the team's core values and standards are
present.

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2.1 Project Statement
With the market for personal fitness tracking devices oversaturated with little variation in product
characteristics, very little has been done on the side of team-oriented fitness trackers. Therefore,
BioBit's goal is to design a team-oriented fitness tracker to provide a better way to gauge the intensity
and effectiveness of workouts. This fitness tracking system is designed for coaches, trainers, athletes,
and sport teams.

The solution that the team proposes provides a team-oriented fitness wearable that will connect to a
centralized hub, where the data from all the wearable devices will be collected. The user will be able to
access the fitness data using an Android app anytime within the local area network (LAN) via Wi-Fi
communication protocol. The product will provide the users the ability to access their data in real time.
A high-level system diagram of this can be seen in Figure 2.

Figure 2 - High-level System Diagram

2.2 Requirements
A list of requirements regarding the breakdown of functionality, electrical systems, software,
communication protocol standards, and physical requirements are listed below. It should be noted that
the corresponding requirement name to each definition will be used in the remaining of the report
rather than restating the definition.

2.2.1 Functional Requirements


REQ 2.2.1.1 The wearable devices shall be located on the body so as to be comfortable for the user and
still able to collect the desired data.

REQ 2.2.1.2 All devices shall have power on, off, and reset capabilities.

To provide proper functionality to users, they shall be able to turn on and off the devices when
they are ready to use them and when they are done with the devices. They also need to be able
to reset the devices in case some error occurs or they would like to restart the system.

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REQ 2.2.1.3 All devices shall indicate status such as ON/OFF and mode.

In order for the users to easily recognize when devices are on or off, there will be an LED to
indicate when the device is on.

REQ 2.2.1.4 All devices shall be water resistant.

The devices will be used outdoors, thus submitting them to wind and rain as well as sweat from
being worn on the body of athletes.

2.2.2 Electrical Requirements


REQ 2.2.2.1 The devices shall consume power to last at least two hours.

A typical practice session is two hours, so all devices being used shall have adequate power
supplies to last two hours at the minimum.

REQ 2.2.2.2 Devices shall be able to run on a 3V or 5V power supply.

REQ 2.2.2.3 All devices shall be portable and have internal rechargeable power supplies.

The battery will last a minimum of one practice session and it is inconvenient and expensive to
buy batteries and change them after every practice. To save time and money, each device shall
be rechargeable from a micro USB port.

REQ 2.2.2.4 The first prototype will incorporate a heart rate sensor.

REQ 2.2.2.5 A second prototype will incorporate a pedometer sensor.

2.2.3 Software Requirements


REQ 2.2.3.1 Users shall be able to navigate displays on a mobile app.

Different data are important to different users so they shall be able to select what data they
want to be displayed. Data can also be grouped in several ways, such as by individual or by the
whole team, so users shall be able to choose what data is displayed and what format it will be
displayed (lists, graphs, charts).

REQ 2.2.3.2 Hub software shall run on an easily customizable operating system.

REQ 2.2.3.3 The hub shall run a database to store the data.

REQ 2.2.3.4 App software shall run on Android or iOS.

REQ 2.2.3.5 Software shall be able to send data real time.

2.2.4 Communication Requirements


REQ 2.2.4.1 The protocol used needs to be accessible to smartphones.

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The project requires the use of a smartphone for the coach so it shall be compatible with
smartphones, which limits the protocol to Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15), Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11), or
ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4) combined with one of the other two.

REQ 2.2.4.2 The protocol needs to handle a minimum of 22 athletes.

The project shall be useful to a soccer team with 11 players per team and thereby shall support
a minimum of 22 players at a time.

REQ 2.2.4.3 The protocol needs to work over a minimum range of 88.5 m.

If the hub is centered on the side of a soccer field, the maximum distance a player may be from
the hub is the opposite corner, or 88.5 m away.

REQ 2.2.4.4 The protocol shall use adequate power to last a minimum of two hours.

The device shall be able to last for an entire practice session. Most practices do not last longer
than two hours, so the protocol shall not consume so much power that it will drain the battery
in less than two hours.

2.2.5 Physical Requirements


REQ 2.2.5.1 The design shall not hinder the motion of the user.

REQ 2.2.5.2 The device shall be produced at maximum weight of 4 ounces.

REQ 2.2.5.3 The device shall be intuitive for operation and wear.

REQ 2.2.5.4 The design shall consider the environment when selecting materials for construction.

REQ 2.2.5.5 The design shall use a minimal number of parts.

REQ 2.2.5.6 The device and central hub shall be able to resist minor exposure to water.

REQ 2.2.5.7 The device shall be impact resistant from consistent exposure to athletic activity.

3. System Design
This section discusses the approach to the system design and how it serves as a solution to the problem
stated earlier in the document. The section will look at several design alternatives that will affect the
scope of the design. At the end of each section there is a selected best design based on a decision
matrix. These high-level decisions will go into further detail in the following sections of this document.

3.1 System Communication


This section explores the wireless communication protocol that the devices will use to send and receive
data. The wireless communication protocol chosen is a large decision as it has a great impact on other

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decisions made throughout because the microprocessors that are chosen shall have the capability to use
the protocol or have a way to interface with the protocol. The three most common wireless protocols
are listed below and rated in a decision matrix to determine the most suited protocol for this project. It
was found that Wi-Fi is the best choice for this product because it can be implemented in the most
intuitive and reliable manner.

3.1.1 Possible Solutions


The three most common wireless protocols Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and ZigBee are listed below and a brief
overview of each is given.

3.1.1.1 Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) is a wireless communication based on Ethernet (IEEE 802.1). It was designed to
connect devices together on a wireless local area network (WLAN) and ultimately to a router and the
World Wide Web. It uses collision avoidance (more specifically Carrier Sense Multiple Access with
Collision Avoidance, CSMA/CA) to eliminate communication problems arising from multiple devices
talking at the same time. It is one of the most prevalent forms of wireless communications, being found
in computers and smartphones. This gives it an advantage because there is a wealth of information on
how it works and how to use it. It also gives the project the possibility to post information on the
Internet, thus expanding the accessibility of the data from the WLAN to anywhere in the world there is
Internet.1

3.1.1.2 Bluetooth
Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15) is a form of wireless communication developed to provide a low power
alternative over a short range. It is primarily used to connect peripheral devices to a master, such as
Bluetooth mice and keyboards to a computer. It is also increasingly being used in smartphones to
connect to speakers, other smartphones, and even personal fitness tracking devices. Bluetooth uses
adaptive frequency hopping to prevent data packet collisions. Bluetooth has an advantage that it uses
very little power, thus making devices last longer between charges.2

3.1.1.3 ZigBee
ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4) was developed to address the shortcomings of Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. It was
designed to create wireless personal area networks (WPAN) for applications that use a lower
transmission of data rate. It has lower power consumption than Wi-Fi but it can also have a larger range
than Bluetooth. ZigBee also uses CSMA/CA to handle issues that could arise from multiple devices trying
to transmit at the same time. It was designed to be used in applications such as home automation or
other wireless communication between devices around the home.3

3.1.2 Decision Criterion


The following subsections outline the areas that the team decided were critical in the decision of
wireless communication protocol.

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3.1.2.1 Range
Each wireless communication has a different range and this is significant to the decision of which
communication to use. As determined by REQ 2.2.4.3, the protocol shall be able to transmit data from
each player back to the coach over a range of 80 m. Thus a suitable communication will allow players to
cover this distance and still reliably get data back to the coach.

3.1.2.2 Power Consumption


The power consumed by each protocol is crucial to the project because the devices shall be able to last
for an entire practice. The less power the wireless protocol uses the better, because not only will it allow
the device to last for one practice, it could also potentially last for several practices, which puts less
effort on the coach to make sure that they are charged.

3.1.2.3 Battery Life


The total number of hours that a battery will last if a certain protocol is used at maximum power gives a
worst case scenario for each protocol. The longer the battery life, the better the protocol.

3.1.2.4 Central Hub


Depending on the protocol used, a central hub may or may not need to be used. Adding a central hub
to the project will raise the price of producing the product, which will increase the price to the end user.
On the other hand, if the protocol does not require a central hub but does require implementing a mesh
network and routing data through devices to get back to the host, it may increase the scope of the
project.

3.1.2.5 Bit rate


The bit rate of the protocol determines how fast data can be sent. A faster bit rate indicates the ability
to send more data and send data at faster intervals. While not highly critical because the amount of data
that will need to be sent is not a significant amount, a faster bit rate is beneficial in the event of adding
more sensors or decreasing the rate at which packets are sent.

3.1.2.6 Network Size


The number of devices that a network can contain for each protocol is important to the success of the
project. As determined by REQ 2.2.4.2 the protocol that is chosen shall be able to handle a minimum of
22 players on the field at a time. If the protocol can handle more devices, it will get a better score
because more sensor devices could be added to the network for different applications. If the chosen
protocol does not handle 22 devices per network, some other form of networking shall be chosen, such
as forming and disbanding networks quickly to route packets between devices. This adds complexity
that may be out of the scope of the project, resulting in a lower score.

3.1.3 Decision Matrix


From the criteria described in the previous section, a decision matrix was constructed, as seen in Table
1. Each criterion has its own weight that multiplies the ranking of the design alternatives being
considered. The weights are based on which criterion is considered critical to implementing the design

18
with the given requirements. The alternative with the highest summed total from each criterion is to be
considered the best solution4.

Table 1 - Decision Matrix for Communication Protocol

3.1.3.1 Best Solution


From the decision matrix, it is clear that Wi-Fi is the best option. It will cover the range that is needed as
well as the number of players required, as seen in Figure 3. It has the highest bandwidth and bit rate. It
also has an ample worst case scenario of battery life for an entire practice. Another major contribution
to the decision of Wi-Fi was the ease of collecting data and implementing a database on a central hub as
well as the possibility of having that data available outside of practice on the Internet. If ZigBee was
chosen, an additional wireless protocol would have to be used because phones do not have the
capability to transmit and receive data over ZigBee. This adds extra and unnecessary complexity to the
project. Bluetooth does not cover the required range or network size so additional work would have to
be done to quickly form and disband networks to route data through other devices on the field to the
central hub.

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Figure 3 – Diagram of Range for Wi-Fi and Bluetooth Over Standard Soccer Field Dimensions

3.1.3.2 Recognized Weaknesses


One of the biggest problems with Wi-Fi is that it consumes the most power. While the power
consumption shall be low enough to meet the requirements, it is something that will need to be
addressed and focused on make sure that it complies with the requirements. Depending on what power
consumption other components have and the size of the battery, the power consumption of Wi-Fi could
be a problem. Another issue that may arise is that while the accepted range of Wi-Fi is 100 m, if the
antennas on the hardware that are selected are low quality, there will be a loss in range and signal
strength. To compensate for this, better antennas can be obtained, or data can be stored until devices
are in range of the central hub again.

3.2 Wearable Location


The location on the body of the wearable is integral to the design as it can limit the capabilities of the
design and the nature in which it is implemented. The top four suggested wearable locations, as per a
customer survey, are evaluated in the following subsections. The team determined that a wrist and a
chest mount are two locations that will be explored further.

3.2.1 Possible Solutions


The possible solutions listed below were the top four responses in an early customer survey sent to local
Grand Rapids, MI coaches, fitness trainers, exercise science professors, and athletes.

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3.2.1.1 Wrist
The age of smart watches is here and smart fitness devices were only a few steps ahead of them. The
wrist is a go-to location for personal fitness wearables because of its easy placement and it can serve as
a fashion piece. The wrist is also a good location for devices that require personal interaction with it,
such as button pushing, screen reading, and user-program interaction.

3.2.1.2 Chest
Chest mounts have also been used as a location for fitness trackers. The main purpose for placing a
fitness wearable on the chest is to get an accurate reading for a heart rate measure. A fitness tracker
typically requires skin contact, depending on what data it is attempting to collect. The chest mount
would have the bulk of the device placed on the back of the user with the heart rate sensor placed
around the front near the heart on a strap.

3.2.1.3 Head
A fitness wearable could be placed on the head in the form of a headband. This location is capable of
measuring the desired data, but it would be subject to the largest volume of sweat and it would have to
have a very low profile in the headband. Tracking from the head is a possible future design to be
integrated into helmet designs for contact sports.

3.2.1.4 Waist
A wearable device located on the waist has similar capabilities and requirements to the chest mount. It
would be worn like a belt and an adequate location to take heart rate readings would have to be found.

3.2.2 Decision Criterion


The criterions listed below are what the team deem critical to the wearable location decision.

3.2.2.1 Sensor Capability


The placement of the wearable is largely dependent on whether or not the data can be measured at
that location. Certain places on the body are better suited for taking heart rate readings and step data
than others. A wearable placed on an extremity would be more difficult to decipher the step motion
with the added noise from the swinging of arms or legs. Measuring the heart rate is based on how close
arteries are to the surface of the skin to get a good reading. The four placements were based on the
ease of recording the desired data from body.

3.2.2.2 End-User Desirability


There are certain locations that end-users are more willing to wear this fitness tracker. This particular
criterion was based on the responses received from the customer survey. Responders were asked where
on the body they thought athletes would feel most comfortable with the tracker being placed.

3.2.2.3 Size Restrictions


The size of the device is dependent on where it is placed on the body. Certain locations would require a
lower profile and a reduced sized product. Locations that restrict size and complicate the design were
rated lower than those that allowed for adequate amount of space.

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3.2.2.4 Unobtrusiveness
The location of the fitness tracking device needs to be placed in such a way that the user feels
comfortable and that it will not hinder their performance. This is based on movement during fitness
activities and whether the user would have to place it on the body under their clothes.

3.2.2.5 Weight
Given that the system would be about the same weight regardless of body placement, this criterion is
based on where the added weight of a wearable would be least noticeable to the user.

3.2.2.6 Materials Cost


Depending on the placement of the fitness device there may be different materials required. This
criterion helps determine the location that would have the smallest material cost to implement.

3.2.3 Decision Matrix


From the criteria described in the previous section, a decision matrix was constructed below in Table 2.
Each criterion has its own weight that multiplies the ranking of the design alternatives being considered.
The weights are based on which criterion is considered critical to implementing the design with the
given requirements. The alternative with the highest summed total from each criterion is to be
considered the best solution.

Table 2 - Decision Matrix for Device Placement

3.2.3.1 Best Solution


From Table 2 it can be seen that the best location for the fitness device is either a wrist or a chest
mount. The team will design for a wrist wearable, but will keep the chest mounted option open. The
reason for this choice is the increased comfort for the user and ease of use of the wrist compared to the
chest.

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3.2.3.2 Recognized Weaknesses
For a wrist mounted device, the biggest weakness would be in the physical design. This is because the
design would have to find a middle ground between device functionality and size of the device.
Depending of the resources, budget, and capabilities of the team, a small wrist mounted wearable that
users would be willing to wear may not be capable for a prototype. However, the team is willing to
accept a larger device for a first prototype that could be reduced in a final design. Another issue the
team may face is that the wrist is not the most ideal location to track heart rate as the finger, ear, and
heart are better locations.

The chest mounted design has a few more issues than a wrist mounted design because it again will be
very difficult to design a device that can be mounted on the chest that users would be willing to wear.
This would be overcome by reducing the profile and adjusting where exactly on the chest it would be
located. Other weaknesses include having to deal with more sweat and not restrict movement or
breathing as well as be more adjustable for people of different size and shapes. Furthermore, it would
need to be designed more carefully in the event of a fall because it is important that it would not injure
the athlete or break due to the increased forces compared to a wrist mounted design.

3.3 End-User Application Platform


This section will explore which application platform is most suitable for the team’s goals to display the
fitness tracking data. There are only enough resources for one application platform to be pursued. The
team concluded that Android is the best platform to pursue as a part of the design.

3.3.1 Possible Solutions


The two platforms that will be compared below are Google’s Android and Apple’s iOS. The means of this
comparison is shown using decision criterion and a final decision matrix.

3.3.1.1 Apple’s iOS


Apple’s iOS is very popular and considered by some to be the elite operating system in smartphones.
BioBit could benefit by creating an iOS app. Apple has been in the smartphone business longer and often
apps are published to its app store and get updates first. Furthermore, apps that make it onto the app
store shall be well refined and polished, which means that the developer shall design to meet these
rules.

3.3.1.2 Android
Android devices are becoming increasingly popular and now control over 80% of the market5 so
naturally BioBit would like to pursue this option. Android is developed by Google and is distributed as
open-source. One reason it is so popular is that there are a wide variety of devices that run Android with
many different price points and features. This presents a challenge to the developer to make sure that
the app will run on a variety of devices with different size screens and capabilities.

3.3.2 Decision Criterion


The criterions below are the categories the team considers critical to choosing an application platform.

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3.3.2.1 Usability
The usability of the operating system that is chosen is very important to the success of the project. Not
only does the team need to be able to develop an app in that operating system, but the usability on the
users’ side is also important. Android is developed using Java, which is very user friendly even if the
programmer has never coded in Java before. Android is open-source, which at times can make it easy to
use because there is documentation and it is customizable, but at other times more complicated and
difficult to use. On the other hand, iOS uses Objective C, which is quite different than the programming
languages the team members know and is more complicated than Java.6

3.3.2.2 Implementation
As the developers need to be able to design an app to use, the most crucial issue is whether or not such
an app can even be implemented. Furthermore, the ease of implementation is something that shall be
taken into consideration. Both Android and iOS are able to implement the desired functionality in an
app but Android is most likely easier to implement than iOS because of the programming language and
the rules are not as strict.

3.3.2.3 Customization
Both iOS and Android provide ample customization to the developer and the end user, but iOS has to
follow stricter guidelines than Android. Android is also much more customizable to the end user and
there is a wide variety of device specifications in Android that the developer needs to be aware of when
developing an app.

3.3.2.4 User Interface


The user interface would be the same for both Android and iOS. If both were used it would be ideal to
make the user interface and graphics look the same or similar on both operating systems for the sake of
consistency for users.

3.3.2.5 Cost to Enter Market


Both iOS and Android require a license to make applications for their platform. With a limited budget,
the team will look toward using the lowest cost platform.

3.3.2.6 Ease of Market Entry


Each platform also has its own route and requirements to get third party applications available on their
app store. The easier it is to develop and enter the market with an application the better.

3.3.3 Decision Matrix


From the criterion described in the previous section, a decision matrix was constructed, as seen below in
Table 3. Each criteria has its own weight that multiplies the ranking of the design alternatives being
considered. The weights are based on which criterion is considered critical to implementing the design
with the given requirements. The alternative with the highest summed total from each criterion is to be
considered the best solution.

Table 3 - Decision Matrix for Device Placement

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3.3.3.1 Best Solution
From the above discussion, the team shall focus primarily on developing an Android application. If there
is time, it would be a good stretch goal to develop an iOS application because many coaches and
athletes use iPads and iPhones. If BioBit was going to market, an iOS app would be needed, but it does
not fit in the scope of this project.

3.3.3.2 Recognized Weaknesses


While Android may be easier to implement, there are some weakness that shall be addressed. There
are many different screen sizes and densities and the app shall be tested on many devices to make sure
that it is compatible with these differences but the team only owns seven inch Android tablets. Ideally
the team would be able to test the app on several different screen sizes such as phones and 10" tablets.
To do this testing, the team may be able to borrow devices from friends and a variety of phones can also
be simulated using the Android development environment, but the emulator is very slow and does not
always work well.

3.4 Overall System Block Diagram


Below, in Figure 4, a high level view of the overall system is shown in the form of a block diagram. The
block diagram shows three subsystems: a fitness sensing device, a central hub, and a mobile device.
There will be multiple fitness devices connected wirelessly to the central hub’s Wi-Fi module, but for
simplicity only one is shown. The battery charger shown is to indicate the charging process of the
battery in the fitness device, but is not a permanent connection. Dashed lines are wireless connections
while solid lines are wired.

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Figure 4 - Level One Block Diagram of the Overall System

4. Fitness Tracking Device


Within the contained selections below, a discussion of the fitness tracking device and a breakdown of
the components of the design are covered. The tracker is the core device that will be measuring the
user’s biometrics. Each subsection will discuss individual components, which includes requirements,
alternatives, decision criteria, the decision, and implementation.

4.1 Fitness Tracking Device Architecture


The main component of the fitness device is the processing and communication board. This board will
receive power from the battery that is located within the device and the battery will also power the
sensors. These sensors will have a data communication line to the I/O pins on the onboard processor
and the Wi-Fi chip on the board will wirelessly send the data to the central hub.

4.2 Hardware
This subsection will discuss the design decision process for the hardware of the fitness device.

4.2.1 Processing and Communication Board


The device’s microprocessor and communication chip will be located on the same board for simplicity
and ease of implementation. The microprocessor will interpret incoming sensor data and compile them
into data packets that the Wi-Fi chip will send wirelessly to the central hub.

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4.2.1.1 Requirements
The processing and communication board shall be fully capable of handling the data load and
computations that it would be processing and it also shall be able to communicate the data. The board
shall have the ability to write custom software on it. The board shall have input and output pins
available to receive or send data to other components. The communication of the board shall be able to
send the data in the size, signal strength, and distance desired. The board shall fill the following
requirements listed earlier in the document: REQ 2.3.1.5, REQ 2.3.2.1, REQ 2.3.2.2, REQ 2.3.3.5, REQ
2.3.4.1, and REQ 2.3.4.2.

4.2.1.2 Alternatives
The two ways to solve these requirements are either to fabricate a custom circuit board with the desired
processing, storage, and communication capabilities, or to purchase a general purpose board that
encompasses the listed requirements.

Two examples of pre-fabricated boards that could solve the listed requirements are the Intel Edison
board and Adafruit’s FLORA. The Intel Edison7 seen below in Figure 5, is a development kit made for
wearables. It features a dual core CPU, a single core microprocessor, integrated Wi-Fi and Bluetooth,
along with memory and storage.

Figure 5 - Intel Edison Size Comparison8

The Adafruit FLORA9, seen in Figure 6, is an Arduino-compatible microcontroller designed for wearable
projects. It has built in USB support and has a modified version of the Arduino IDE. It offers multiple
compatible boards that include components like GPS, accelerometers, sensors, and capacitive touch10.

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Figure 6 - Adafruit FLORA Size Comparison

4.2.1.3 Decision Criterion


The decision will be made based on the ease of implementing the design and what capabilities either
alternative gives us. The board shall be designed to work with a wearable device and offer the ability to
expand if design stretch goals are pursued. Other criterion include price per board and labor time
required to get it to a point of implementing within the design.

4.2.1.4 Decision
The processing and communication board alternative chosen was a prefabricated board in the form of
the Intel Edison. The Edison offers plenty of computing power and the communication protocol desired
for the design. It is also is better suited for the team’s fitness tracker than the Adafruit FLORA because
the FLORA is aimed toward integrating in fabric and requires multiple partner boards to implement the
design. A customized fabricated board will not be pursued due to budget and time constraints.

4.2.1.5 Implementation
The implementation for the Intel Edison board is intended to provide the main capabilities to process
and transmit the data obtained by the sensors back to the centralized hub. This will be done via Wi-Fi
wireless communication protocol in a LAN setup. With the implementation of the board, features such
as physical design, electrical requirements, and wireless communication standards shall be evaluated in
order to ensure consistent and reliable functionality.

4.2.2 Heartbeat Sensor


One of the sensors needed to complete the system is a heartbeat sensor. This sensor will give the user’s
heart rate and send the measured data to the processor.

4.2.2.1 Requirements
Defined by both the end-user and the device capabilities, the requirements for a heartbeat sensor
would include size, protocol used, and power requirements. With this, the team can look to optimize
these requirements to meet a middle ground on all aspects in order to reach a decision on what

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manufacturer to choose and how to implement it. The board shall fill the following requirements listed
earlier in the document: REQ 2.2.1.1, REQ 2.2.2.1, REQ 2.2.2.2, REQ 2.2.2.4, REQ 2.2.5.2, and REQ 2.5.1.

4.2.2.2 Implementation
Depending on the application of the device and location on the body, the implementation of the device
is highly variable. What is known at this point, is that the heart rate monitor needs to be incorporated
into the housing of the device as this component does not function properly unless in direct contact
with an individual's skin.

4.2.2.3 Alternatives
Within the exploration of possible sensors for heart rates, there are two major alternative designs for
tracking the information. These two types include both conductive and optical sensors. The conductive
design uses two exposed metal tabs that contact the skin directly. As the blood pulses through the body
of the user, the conductance between these two tabs fluctuates. It is this fluctuation that is registered as
a heartbeat. As for the design of the optical sensor, light is emitted on the skin. With this light, the
amount received or reflected back to the device is dependent on the transparency of the skin. As the
users’ pulse passes through the area, the transparency of the area changes and a different amount of
light is received by the sensor, thus registering a heart beat on the device. For a product evaluation of
sensors on the market, please refer to the contents herein.

The Polar Heart Rate Sensor11, as seen in Figure 7 below, provides a simple 32-bit heart rate buffer
solution. With multiple interfaces, including USB, Logic-Level serial, and I2C, various types of
communication methods can be used to utilize the device. This expands the options of connectivity
between the sensor and the Intel Edison board. Additionally, dual heart rate processing algorithms are
both averaged together and presented as raw data independently, thus providing redundancy and
accuracy.

Figure 7 – Polar HeartRate Sensor

Secondly, the features of the TI TIDA-0001112, as seen in Figure 8 below, present a new set of options
with measuring the pulse from the veins in the wrist. This heart rate sensor has dual processing
algorithms with both averaged and raw compilations, much like the Polar heart rate sensors as listed
above.

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Figure 8 – TI TIDA-00011 Sensor

Finally, the Pulse Sensor SEN-1157413, as seen in Figure 9 below, is uniquely set apart from the previous
options as it is Arduino compatible and operates via a simple optical sensor with amplification and noise
cancellation integrated. This sensor draws 4 a milliamp current at 5 volts. With its size, 0.625" diameter
and 0.125" thick, it could certainly become an advantage when looking to make a compact device.

Figure 9 – Pulse Sensor SEN-11574

4.2.2.4 Decision
With the team designing the Intel Edison and Raspberry Pi for communication, a heartbeat sensor has
yet to be determined. Following the efficient and reliable establishment of communication between the
two devices, the sensors will be one of the next components to implement into the design.

4.2.2.5 Implementation
Along with the decision of a heart beat sensor, the implementation is dependent on the size of the
device and its means of communication. What is known at this time is that the team will look to
implement the sensor in a discrete manner that is also placed in a way to properly and consistently track
the data it is intended for.

4.2.3 Step Sensor


A second sensor that is required for the system is a step sensor. This data will be transferred to the
processor to process the data and send it on the central hub.

4.2.3.1 Requirements
When scanning the market for potential step sensors and/or accelerometers, the team will again look to
acquire a component that has a minor footprint in both size and weight without compromising quality
and accuracy. The step tracker is dependent on how the device is oriented on the body, while an

30
accelerometer requires maintenance of axis in order to determine motion direction and speed. The
board shall fill the following requirements listed earlier in the document: REQ 2.2.1.1, REQ 2.2.2.1, REQ
2.2.2.2, REQ 2.2.2.5, REQ 2.2.5.2, and REQ 2.5.1.

4.2.3.2 Alternatives
The alternatives listed below are the result of research of the current market. It is outside of the team’s
scope to design customized sensors.

The SparkFun Triple Axis Accelerometer - ADXL335 sensor14, as seen in Figure 10 below, functions with
three axes, allowing for a measure of vertical movement if desired. With its low noise and power
consumption of 320 µA, its g-force sensing range is an impressive ± 3g. The dimensions of the board
and sensor above are 17.8mmx17.8mm.

Figure 10 - SparkFun Triple Axis Accelerometer - ADXL335

Similarly to the SparkFun accelerometer, the STP156 pedometer 15, as seen in Figure 11 below, is a triple
axis MEMS G sensor accelerometer. Its working voltage rests between 2.5 volts and 3.3 volts and an
error range of ±5% per step, which is a significant factor to be considered. The dimensions of the board
and sensor come out to be 11.26mmx41.8mm.

Figure 11 - STP156 Pedometer

4.2.3.3 Decision
With the team designing the Intel Edison and Raspberry Pi for communication, an accelerometer sensor
has yet to be determined. Following the efficient and reliable establishment of communication between
the two devices, the sensors will be one of the next components to implement into the design.

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4.2.3.4 Implementation
Depending on the application of the device in coordination with location on the body, the
implementation of the device varies slightly. However, what is known at this point is that the step
sensor needs to be oriented in the correct way when placed on the body. This is so the axis being read of
the sensor directly coordinates with an individual’s direction and rate of motion.

4.3 Battery
Due to the needed mobility of the fitness device, a battery will be the source of power. The subsection
below details the requirements, implementation, alternatives, and decision.

4.3.1 Requirements
As a power source is critical to the function of the devices operations, the criterion for the battery set
forth to do this task shall meet all system requirements. As bench testing and current draw
measurements of individual components have yet to be performed, the true voltage and current
requirements of the device are unknown. However, the ranges of voltage requirements are expected to
fall between 3V and 5V. The battery itself shall be compact, efficient (low emission of heat), and
rechargeable. The board shall fill the following requirements listed earlier in the document: REQ 2.2.1.1,
REQ 2.2.2.1, REQ 2.2.2.2, REQ 2.2.2.3, REQ 2.2.4.4, REQ 2.2.5.1, REQ 2.2.5.2, and REQ 2.2.5.4.

4.3.2 Alternatives
The alternatives when regarding the power source for the wearable technology are laid out in Table 4
below. Within this table there is a brief explanation and specification for content such as capacity,
weight, comparative price, and benefits versus disadvantages.

Table 4 - Battery type comparison

NiCd NiMH Li Ion Li Pol

Capacity Per Volume 50-150 140-300 250-730 300


(Wh/L)

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[volume energy density]

Specific Energy 45-80 60-120 90-120 130-200


(Wh/kg)
[Weight energy density]

Memory Effect Yes Yes No No

Minimum Voltage before 1V 1V 2.8 V 3.7 V


damage

Internal Resistance 100-200 200-300 25-50 16-18 Ohm


(mOhm)

Energy Density/Price 2.3 2.75 2.5 1.7


(Wh/$)

Price (comparably) $ $$ $$$ $$$

Discharge due to Leakage 20% 30% 18% 27%


(Full Charge/Month)

Environmental Issue XXX X X X


- Cd is highly - recyclable - recyclable (not - recyclable (not
toxic - less toxic efficient) efficient)

Pros - fast charging - higher capacity - high specific - high specific


- high number (compared to energy energy
of cycles NiCd) - low self-
- good temp - less memory discharge
performance effect
- recyclable

Cons - memory effect - complex charge - requires - high cost


- high self- algorithm protection circuit
discharge - high self- - subject to aging
discharge

4.3.3 Decision
With the team designing the Intel Edison and Raspberry Pi for communication, battery has yet to be
determined. Following the efficient and reliable establishment of communication between the two
devices, the battery will be one of the next components to be implemented into the design. At this time,
the team is looking further into rechargeable Lithium Ion batteries between 3.3 volts and 5 volts to
power the wearable device.

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4.3.4 Implementation
Prior to procurement of the specific power source selected, much of the implementation is left
dependent on the decision made. However, the battery shall be accessible to be recharged and
interchanged if needed. This power source will then connect directly to the PCB boards and the
corresponding components.

4.4 Software
The section herein discusses the requirements pertaining to the systems software and communication
board.

4.4.1 Communication Board


The operating systems required to use the Intel Edison board are any of the following: Windows 32-bit
or 64 bit, Mac OS, or Linux 32-bit or 64-bit. The developer can choose whichever operating system works
best for them. The developer environments that the Edison supports are Arduino IDE, Eclipse using C,
C++, and Python, and Intel’s own XDK which supports Node.JS and HTML5. 16

5. Central Hub
This section outlines the central hub architecture, the hardware, and software design and discusses
many aspects of each subsystem that will be implemented within the central hub. The team looked at
several options of single board computers and decided to use a Raspberry Pi as the central hub.

5.1 Central Hub Architecture


To create the entity of the central hub, a device will be used as a server that is in charge of receiving and
managing all the data coming from the wearable devices. This data will be stored in a database and then
made available through the use of an Android application. The device shall be capable of acting as a
wireless hub/router so that it can create a wireless network and allow other devices connect to the
network.

5.2 Hardware
The following sections discuss the design and decision process for the central hub hardware
components.

5.2.1 Requirements
The central hub is a key component in the system as it shall be capable of creating a secure wireless
network, running a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server, running a server with a
database to store data, and send data to an Android app. The hub shall fill the following requirements
listed earlier in the document: REQ 2.2.1.1, REQ 2.2.1.2, REQ 2.2.1.3, REQ 2.2.1.4, REQ 2.2.3.2, and REQ
2.2.3.3.

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5.2.2 Alternatives
There are several options for how the central hub could be implemented. The team could design their
own circuit board with the required functions, use a computer, or buy smaller boards with certain
functions and connect them together to achieve the functions that are required. Designing a circuit
board for this complex a device is out of the scope of the project. Connecting smaller boards is not a
good choice because it can become expensive to buy them all separately and it would result in a larger
device. These issues result in the best option being a computer. There is no need to use a personal
computer (PC) as this would drive up the price, have more functionality than the project requires, and
increase the size of the device, so it was decided that the hub shall be implemented with a single board
computer. A single board computer is a computer all on one circuit board. It has a CPU, memory, and
I/O ports, but does not have as high specifications and processing power as a PC.

5.2.2.1 Raspberry Pi B+
A Raspberry Pi B+17, as seen in Figure 12 below, is a single board computer that is capable of acting as a
central hub. The Raspberry Pi is a small computer that typically runs a version of Linux called Raspbian,
but can run other operating systems. A Raspberry Pi uses a 700 MHz Low Power ARM1176JZFS
Applications Processor CPU and has 512MB of SDRAM. It has 40 pins for connecting inputs and outputs
as well as 4 USB 2.0 ports, but in this application they may not need to be used. To give the Raspberry Pi
Wi-Fi capabilities, a USB Wi-Fi module would need to be connected. Since it runs Linux, it is fully capable
of creating a Wi-Fi network and running a server.

Figure 12 – Raspberry Pi B+

5.2.2.2 BeagleBone Black


A BeagleBone Black18 is a similar type of single board computer, as shown in Figure 13 that can run a
number of operating systems, including Linux. It has an AM335x 1 GHz ARM Cortex-A8 and 512 MB
DDR3 RAM as well as 4GB 8-bit eMMC on-board flash storage. It would also need a USB Wi-Fi module to
have Wi-Fi capabilities. It is also fully capable of creating a Wi-Fi network and running a server.

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Figure 13 – BeagleBone Black

5.2.3 Decision Criterion


The decision criteria used were power consumption, amount of reference material, price, and
processing power. Both are capable of performing the required tasks and have similar specifications so
the specifications were a minimal factor in the decision.

Table 5 - Decision Matrix for Central Hub

5.2.4 Decision
The team decided to use a Raspberry Pi B+ as the central hub. The Raspberry Pi has been around longer
and is more widely used so it has a much wider community and reference material. While the
BeagleBone may be better in terms of processing power, the Raspberry Pi is slightly cheaper and still has
the power that the team needs. Not only is the base price of the Raspberry Pi cheaper than the
BeagleBone, both would need a USB Wi-Fi module and to get the same amount of storage as the
Raspberry Pi, the BeagleBone would need an SD card as well. There are no exact numbers for the power
consumption of the Raspberry Pi available like the BeagleBone, but generally the reported numbers are
less than the BeagleBone. All of these factors combined with the fact that the team had access to a
Raspberry Pi to do some testing made it the better choice.19

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5.2.5 Implementation
A Raspberry Pi B+ has been purchased and some initial testing was completed to make sure that it could
set up a server as further explained in section 9.

5.3 Software
The central hub will need to run software developed by the team to achieve the desired functionality. A
wireless network will need to be created with the central hub as the access point. The team will need to
write software on the hub so that when it turns on, it creates a secure network and will allow other
devices to connect to it and start a server.

5.3.1 Server
The hub will need to run a server for the fitness devices to send data to and for the mobile app to
connect and receive data from. To achieve these connections, the hub will need to run a database on
the server and use a scripting language such as Personal Home Page: Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) or
JavaScript to handle receiving and serving data to and from clients. There is server software available for
free that come equipped with all of these functions, such as a Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP stack
(LAMP). Alternatively, Mongo DB and Node.JS could be used. As such, the team will not have to write
code to make a server, but will have to develop code to make the server perform as desired.

5.3.2 Data Transmission Protocol


With the wireless protocol chosen to be Wi-Fi, there are two primary defined protocols that the team
could use: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Both use Internet
Protocol (IP) addresses and ports to indicate what device and program the packet is from and where it is
going. TCP is used as the basis for the Internet because it includes protocols to make sure that packets
are not lost. With TCP, a connection shall be set up between the two devices, an acknowledgement shall
be sent when data is received, and the connection shall be closed by both devices. UDP on the other
hand, does not implement any methods of making sure packets are received. It sends a packet and
hopes that it gets there. With this in mind, UDP is faster than TCP because it does not have to go
through a three way handshake, but it is more susceptible to data loss. TCP provides reliable
communication, but the server shall be able to handle many clients at a time if connections are kept
open.20

The other option the team has is to define a transmission protocol to get a better balance between the
two. UDP could be used with part of the packet defining an acknowledgement and implementing retries
if an acknowledgment is not received, but this may not be in the scope of the project. The team has not
decided yet what route to go or whether defining a protocol is out of the scope of the project.

5.3.3 Packet Processing


Packets will be stripped of headers as they go up the protocol stack until the application gets the data.
The software on the server will then decipher this data and add it to the database or send new data to
an app.

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6. End-User Application
For a description of the details of the end-user Android application and how it will be integrated into the
system, please refer to the content below.

6.1 Software Design


A detailed description of the Android application software components and functionality are discussed
below.

6.1.1 Overview
This application is designed to be used by the head of the practice session whether it be the coach,
fitness trainer, or a professor. It will be the final presentation of all data and status from the athletes
wearing the fitness devices. The application will provide easy navigation between stats and the
biometrics the fitness trackers are collecting. This Android application will be available to use on any
Android device, primarily targeting tablets. The decision to go with Android as the desired application
platform can be viewed in section 3.3 End-User Application Platform.

6.1.2 Functionality
The main function of the application is to provide a user interface to the data being recorded in the
fitness devices. The application will be able to be filtered in two ways. First, the whole group can be
viewed with as much data presented as allowed in the space. Team metrics will be available in this view
as well. The other way the data can be viewed is looking at an individual. This will show more metrics on
each player that is not logical to group with the team metrics such as past heart rate levels, step rates,
and trailed location.

6.1.3 Inputs
The inputs to the system will be the user’s touch and the data from the central hub as the application
updates. The user will have complete control of the application through the touch screen on the Android
device. They will be able to navigate the system and they will be able to manually request for updated
data from the central hub. The central hub will also send an input to the application via Wi-Fi. These will
be provided in the form of data packets that the application will be able to decode and use to display
updated information.

6.1.4 Outputs
The system’s output will be primarily in the form of what is seen on the screen of the Android device.
The two ways this data will be shown is as a team and individual data, this is detailed in 6.1.2
Functionality. The team has plans to make it possible to send an individual’s or the team’s data out in
the form of a PDF. This PDF could either be sent via email inside the app or would just be saved to the
Android device, where it could be sent from the host’s Android email application.

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6.1.5 Software Updates
If there needs to be updates to the application they will be done as quickly as possible to fix the
problem. This will be done by uploading a patch or update to the Google Play Store, where the app was
originally downloaded from. The user will have to be connected to the internet via Wi-Fi or cell service in
order to access these updates.

7. Physical Design Specifications


As the team looks to design the technical aspects regarding the implementation of the BioBit device, the
physical housing and design shall also be valued in order to provide the end-user a sleek and intuitive
design. With this, the BioBit looks to be compact, comfortable, light weight, and use minimal materials.
It shall be compact as there is zero tolerance when it comes to hindering the movement and
performance of a user. Comfort and weight are also driven from this viewpoint in order to provide an
optimal product to the market. The following subsections acknowledge these requirements set forth by
team BioBit in greater detail, please refer to the content herein.

7.1 System Enclosure


The system enclosure section will describe the detailed information of the device such as the product
weight, placement, and the material selection for the device.

7.1.1 Wearable Design


Within the wearable design sub-sections, a discussion of the design decisions for the wearable device
can be found. This includes the evaluation of product weight and physical specifications.

7.1.1.1 Product Weight


When determining weight, a comparison to similar devices on the market was taken into account.
Because of this, a range between 26g (0.92oz) and 37.9g (1.34oz) was found to be the acceptable weight
for fitness wearable devices. However, without the funding, time, and man-power to achieve such a
minimal weight, the team has left the requirement to remain above the market average. With these set
guidelines, the design of the BioBit will not only be driven for technical capabilities, but also restricted
for the weight of the components in respect to the material chosen.

7.1.1.2 Physical Specifications


The physical specifications are concerned with the comfort and location when fitting the apparatus to
the end-user. This device, no matter how sophisticated and efficient, will not be accepted by the
customer unless it fits a physical requirement of fit and comfort. In the following figures, a concept of
each type of wearable was made. A chest mount, waist clip, and wrist-wearable were considered and
each are shown respectively. These three types of wearables were determined by the team’s initial
market research survey out to local athletic departments and training facilities. Of the different
organizations and individuals who participated in our survey, twelve noted they would prefer the wrist,
while eight liked the idea of a waist clip and five noted they would desire a chest mounted device.

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7.1.1.2.1 Chest Mounted
As identified in the consumer survey, five parties identified the concept of a chest mounted wearable as
the most desired fit. With a chest mounted design, as seen in Figure 14, the team would make an effort
to minimize the hindrance of the device as the chest is an area that athletes would prefer to not be
constricted. This design would need to keep in mind all types of individuals and to be a one-size fits-all.

Figure 14 - Chest-Mounted Wearable Concept

7.1.1.2.2 Waist Mounted


A significant interest was also expressed by the consumers for a waist clip. With this, the team has the
most flexibility with size and shape but needs to keep weight in mind. This is so as not to pull on the
waistband of the individual while moving laterally and vertically. In this housing, as seen in Figure 15,
more sensors and possibilities could be explored as there is great potential for accommodation of
sensors and additional hardware. However, a device at the waist may present difficulties in connecting
sensors to the individual.

Figure 15 - Waist-Mounted Wearable Concept

7.1.1.2.3 Wrist Mounted


Finally, much like what is already on the market, the consumer identified a wrist wearable as the most
desired device type to wear on the body. In this location, the majority of motion and functions are not
interfered with, while also being readily viewable and accessible to the user. The complications which
may be incurred with this design are size and weight. As a result, a variety of sensing abilities may be
restricted in order to downsize and meet power requirements. However, with this placement being the
most desired application, the team is choosing to move forward with design and implement into the
final product. Because additional detailed is required in the chosen design, multiple perspectives of the
official prototype can be seen below in Figures 16, 17, 18, and 19.

40
Figure 16 – Wrist-Mounted Concept View of Face

Figure 17 – Wrist-Mounted Concept Right Side View

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Figure 18 – Wrist-Mounted Concept Side View of Wrist Strap

Figure 19 – Wrist-Mounted Wearable Concept Wire View

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7.1.2 Material Selection
In coordination of minimizing weight and maximizing comfort, the design is to mainly be constructed of
plastic. Taking advantage of the 3D plastic printer available, an ABS plastic will be used to build the main
body of the wrist-mounted device. The design will also take into account the necessary void space for
electronic components and buttons. These buttons, as shown in the right-side view of the device above,
will control features such as ON/OFF and mode select. As far as the interaction with the user, LEDs are
considered to be arranged in a way to provide information such as heart beat or speed. In short, plastic
will be used from the printer available, with minimal alternative materials in order to properly house the
electronics and operate the device.

8. Prototype and Deliverables


This section will discuss the prototype the team will be constructing and will outline the deliverables
from the project.

8.1 Final Prototype


The final prototype's design has been outlined in the previous sections. The prototype shall be ready and
functional by the time the team needs to present on the send-off Senior Design night held in late spring
of 2015. The prototype on that final night is expected to be between 2-4 fitness devices that will talk to
a centralized hub and be able to interact with the system via a fully functional Android app. The
constraints on the amount of devices that will be prepared for the final presentation are budget and
time.

8.2 Deliverables
The team will be providing a wide array of deliverables through the project including reports,
presentations, a website and prototypes. A breakdown of what will be provided and the known dates
that will be made available are located in Table 5.

Table 6 – Project Deliverables and Timeline

Deliverable Date Description


Presentation 1 Oct 17, 2014 Introductory presentation to provide a broad overview of
problem, solution, and design norms; 6 minutes followed by
Q&A.
Presentation 2 Dec 3, 2014 Second presentation to reintroduce project, includes current
status, scope redefinition, and feasibility; 7-9 minutes followed
by Q&A.
Website Oct 22, 2014 Team dedicated website used to post updates, documents, and
give a general overview of the project.
Team Poster Oct 31, 2014 A poster that gives a quick overview of the team and project
design.
PPFS Dec 8, 2014 Defines the project proposal and the feasibility of the project, it
details things like system design, design decisions made,

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management, and budget.
Detailed Business Dec 8, 2014 This document is made in conjunction with senior design in
Plan BUS-357 to outline a business and financial plan as if this
project were to become a profitable business.
Presentation 3 TBD The third presentation of the project giving a status update.
Presentation 4 TBD The final in-class presentation of the project.
Final Report TBD Final report of the project, which will include portions of the
PPFS, design details, progress details, and other updates.
Final Prototype May 9, 2015 The deliverable prototype that will be on display on Senior
Design Night.
Final Presentation May 9, 2015 A presentation given on Senior Design Night about the overall
project.

8.2.1 Fall Semester Deliverables


The first and most important deliverable of the fall is the PPFS. It is the document that defines
the problem, outlines the design decisions and solution, and details the feasibility of the project. Other
deliverables that will be made available via the team's website are the first two presentations along with
the team's poster. In order to access these deliverables please visit the team's website at
http://www.calvin.edu/academic/engineering/2014-15-team10/ .

8.2.2 Spring Semester Deliverables


Throughout the second semester the team will give two more presentations to the senior
engineering class and professors, these will be made available on the team's website as well. At the end
of the school year the team will publically showcase the final prototype and give a final presentation on
Calvin College's Senior Design Night. The team will also compile a final report that will detail the design
process and the design as a whole.

9. Testing
This section describes some of the completed testing with the processors, and how the team will
approach further testing of the device components.

9.1 Completed Testing


During the fall semester of 2014, two tests of the team's hardware components were carried
out. A server and a database were run on a Raspberry Pi and the Intel Edison was used to send dummy
data packets to the Raspberry Pi's database. These tests were completed in the team's Computer
Architecture and Digital Systems Lab.

9.1.1 Raspberry Pi
The Raspberry Pi was used to host a server and run a database. The server that was put on the
Pi ran by was an Apache webserver. An Apache HTTP server is the most common webserver software
used. This webserver ran a MySQL database that was controlled via the web using phpMyAdmin

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software. This software provided a GUI that made it possible to set up the database in MySQL. The
Raspberry Pi's server hosted a webpage that gave the ability to manually enter data into the database
and displayed all of the data entries. The webpage was written in the PHP and HTML. These languages
can interact easily and they are widely used in web-based applications.

The testing results were encouraging as the Raspberry Pi was set-up as a server and database
easily. This proves that a Raspberry Pi will be a good solution for our central hub. The Raspberry Pi also
allows for external storage expansion which will most likely be needed for the database.

9.1.2 Intel Edison


When the Edison was obtained, it had to be set up so that it could be used. The latest version of the
operating system was installed and all the appropriate programs were installed on the computer being
used to connect to the Edison. The Arduino IDE was used to turn the Edison into a web client. Code was
written in C/C++ that would connect to the server running on the Raspberry Pi and send random values
for all the entries in the database table using an HTTP GET request.

This test gave the team some experience working with the Edison and figuring out what its capabilities
are. It showed that the Edison can send data to a server easily once it is set up properly, thus making it a
feasible solution for the wearable device. The Edison can also be easily programmed by a computer and
send data to a serial monitor for debugging purposes. It will also automatically run the code when it
boots, so it does not have to be reprogrammed every time it starts, which means a coach can simply
turn on the devices and hand them out.

9.2 Future Testing


The team has a number of tests they plan on completing during the spring semester. Most of the tests
revolve around achieving communication or data transfers between components in the system design.

9.2.1 WLAN on the Raspberry Pi


The central hub has the requirement to set up its own wireless local area network (WLAN) for the
devices and the mobile app to communicate on. A Wi-Fi dongle will be plugged into the Raspberry Pi
and software shall be written to do this. This was attempted with the first test of the Raspberry Pi when
a server and database were set up. But the team ran into issues with Calvin College's Wi-Fi network. Due
to time constraints the team did not pursue the solution and settled for a wired connection on the
Raspberry Pi.

9.2.2 Send Data from Sensors to Intel Edison


Once the group makes a decision on the sensors to design with, the next step is to make sure the Intel
Edison will accept the data and be able to put it into data packets to send to the database. This testing
will have to be done with each sensor the group decides to integrate into the design.

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9.2.3 Send Data from Database to Mobile App
After the team has a functioning app, there shall be a test that proves that data sent from the central
hub can be received by the mobile app. Once this is proven the team member that is designing the
application can move forward with manipulating the data to be aesthetically pleasing and easy to
understand.

9.2.4 Battery Test for Intel Edison Board


A battery will have to be selected to power the fitness device. After this, the team will be able to run
tests on how long the fitness device, primarily the Intel Edison board, can be powered. This will help in
feasibility of the design along with helping the team make power saving decisions for the device.

9.2.5 Server Traffic Test


Another test that shall be completed before the system can be constructed is how much traffic the
server set up by the Raspberry Pi can handle. If the server cannot handle the traffic requirement of 22
devices then the team will have to find a new alternative to handle the traffic.

10. Business Plan


The outline of the business goals and the details of how the company plans to achieve financial success
are described herein. Company values, industry profiles, competitor analysis, and regulatory restrictions
are also included below.

10.1 Vision and Mission Statement


The company's vision, mission statement, values, and principle are the building blocks of the company’s
success and are discussed below.

10.1.1 Entrepreneur's vision and mission statement for the company:


The vision of BioBit is to become a standard in group workout sessions by supplying a need through
innovation, while remaining competitive and relevant. The mission of the company is to make a reliable,
yet cost effective product.

10.1.2 Values and principles on which the business stands:


BioBit values team work, honesty, efficiency, and sustainability. The company also strives to develop a
design team that is established under the principles of integrity, stewardship, transparency, and caring.
BioBit guarantees the information our devices provide the users to be clear and concise, with a simple
and user friendly interface.

10.2 Industry Profile and Overview


Within the industry profile and overview, the major customer groups and market sectors are identified.
With this, BioBit found that the best market to enter includes trainers, coaches, and for academic
research concerning gathering of human biometric data.

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10.2.1 Industry Background and Overview
The sophistication of data compilation and analysis has certainly seen major growth in the past century
as electronics and automation have quickly dominated a large spectrum of markets. Specifically, the
market of athletics and training has shown their need for technological advancements in order to better
understand biomechanics and conditioning of athletes and trainees. That being said, BioBit looks to fill a
void in this market by allowing a team or training group to compile and analyze data as both a single unit
and individually.

10.2.2 Major Customer Groups

BioBit will be marketed towards two major customer groups, first being trainers and coaches who could
use our product in their practice and training sessions. The second major customer group the field
academic research.

10.2.2.1 Trainers and Coaches


Both trainers and coaches would look to utilize the device as a tool to give to their workout participants
and players. By doing this, they would be able to compile and analyze data on a real-time basis in order
to be able to make educated and quick decisions when regarding the output of the individual. By
allowing trainers and coaches to have this information readily available, the participant is the
benefactor, as their performance may be maximized by using this device. These types of customers
would be looking for high reliability and precision in a device such as this.

10.2.2.2 Academic Research


In an academic application, researchers and professors would look to utilize device in human
performance labs and classroom settings. By allowing these types of customers to use BioBit, there is
another avenue to explore the exercise sciences. Because BioBit can be used in both individual workouts
and groups settings, the end-user would be able to analyze the effects and differences in different types
of workout settings, a dynamic that has seen minimal research thus far.

10.3 Regulatory restrictions


For customers looking to use BioBit in research or training applications, there are no known restrictions
or regulations. It shall also be noted however, the safety and health of the individual shall be held
prominent. The regulations and restrictions are established when a coach is looking to use the collection
of devices with their team, depending on the level of competition in which they participate. The
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) states that no wearable technological device may
utilized in a competition setting in which to provide a particular party an advantage in performance or
disclosed knowledge. These regulations are also upheld by most state high school athletic associations.
That being said, BioBit is intended, by its designers, to be utilized by the end-user in practice and
workout settings. By having this regulation established, devices can be designed and marketed knowing
the end application; not to be used in competition settings.

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10.4 Significant Trends
Currently, the wearable technology market has quickly grown into an application for a single user in
order to monitor themselves for both workouts and leisure. Current products which fall under the
classification would include, but are not limited to, smart watches and sports bands. The increasing
market value has shown that there has been significant growth in the past decade as the retail market
value has increased ten-fold in less than four years21. Because of this, users have shown that they are
willing to pay high prices for devices similar to BioBit, so the value and market need for an item like
BioBit certainly exists, and this is where BioBit looks to thrive and capitalize within the market.

10.4.1 Growth Rate


Because the wearable technology market is growing so quickly, current manufacturers are challenged by
staying up-to-date and unique. With growth in the number companies and device types in the market,
the price of each unit has also grown 20% in the past four years, providing insight that individuals are
willing to pay for better technology even if that means it is at a higher cost22 .

10.4.2 Barriers to Entry and Exit


A variety of barriers may prevent new companies, such as BioBit, from entering the wearable fitness
technology market. Because wearable technology devices can quickly grow in sophistication and price,
the priority to provide the greatest value for the lowest price possible is crucial in order to compete on a
retail level. Dealing with electronics and wireless networks also increases the detail required for design
and manufacturing of such device. This too can exist as a potential barrier to a company looking to enter
the market, as the cost of a startup would be large and difficult to overcome without a predefined
strategy. New companies may also have a tough time becoming a known participant in the marketplace
as this takes both time and money to become established and respected among customers and
competitors.

10.4.3 Key Factors for Success in the Industry


The key to success for a business in the fitness wearable technology market is to be able to compete in
two distinct ways. A business can become successful when they compete on both cost and
differentiation. The customers for these types of devices are looking for an intuitive and sleek design so
as to minimize hindrance while receiving unique and valuable information that may not be otherwise
obtainable. However, these factors quickly become obsolete when the cost of the product cannot
compete within the marketplace. Because of this, the company will look to excel at both performance
and value with their final deliverable product to market.

10.4.4 Outlook for the Future


Moving forward, the market looks to continue its trend of rapid growth in sales and diversify its product
line. The cost for components and size of units will decrease, while reliability and accuracy will continue
to be refined. When projecting towards the future, researchers expect a growth of 1,000% in retail
market value of wearable technology over the next four years23. This trend is estimated to continue

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through the year 2025, upon which, the market will see more of a plateau and stabilize itself with price
points and growth.

10.5 Business Strategy


The subsections following describe BioBit's desired image and position in the market, along with the
company's goals and objectives for its operational and financial characteristics.

10.5.1 Desired Image and Position in Market


The desired image of the company is to produce a quality fitness wearable with a low cost that will be
focused towards helping coaches, sporting teams, and group-performed the exercises. With these
identified customers, BioBit will look to establish a reputation of honesty, reliability, and excellence. This
reputation will be prominent through the ability of the devices to track biometric data and the
accompanying android app, which can provide real-time data in a clear and concise manner.

10.5.2 Company Goals and Objectives


This section describes the operational and financial goals of BioBit.

10.5.2.1 Operational
The operational goal of the company is to bring an ethic of teamwork with efficiency, sustainability,
integrity, stewardship, and caring to the customers who will use the product. The product shall be
designed in such a way to provide maximized quality and minimized cost.

10.5.2.2 Financial
The financial goal of the company is to use the first generation design to make enough profit to repay
both the startup loan and reinvest in the company’s future. BioBit will be financially aggressive when it
comes to paying off its start-up debt. This will help reduce the risk for the company and the employees
in the unfortunate circumstance of economic instability. Once BioBit has its debts taken care of and
starts seeing a profit, the company plans to expand the brand and potentially increase the product
diversity but this will be done in financially responsible means so as to stick to the company’s value of
sustainability.

10.6 SWOT Analysis


A SWOT analysis is a study undertaken by a company, in this case BioBit, in order to identify its internal
strengths and weaknesses, as well as its external opportunities and threats. The practice of this analysis
in regards to the company’s specific characteristics is identified below. The advantage for doing an
analysis such as this is to maximize operational and financial success through self-awareness.

10.6.1 Internal Strengths


The major internal strength of the company is its leaders; they are people who strive for quality and to
meet the needs of customers. They are aware that the quality of work they complete reflects them and
the company’s image. Every team member is dedicated to seeing the company succeed and have

49
financial responsibility for the company’s success due to their own monetary investment in the
company. Another strength is the product itself. The product will be of the highest quality while
maintaining a low cost, which creates a reputation in the marketplace of a well-engineered product.

10.6.2 Internal Weaknesses


There are several weaknesses that shall be addressed when marketing the product. One weakness is the
limited target market. Because of this, the company shall aggressively market the product. A second
weakness is the lack of experience in marketing and minimal name recognition. Since the company is a
startup, the sales representatives will need to show strong confidence in the company’s products and
use both the rapidly growing market and customers in order to win further business in place of its direct
competitors.

10.6.3 External Opportunities


First and foremost, the company hopes to move into a marketplace that under-developed. By starting
off on a small scale, a team-oriented fitness device can exhibit high quality features and performance
while still retaining a value price in order to compete with larger, mass-producing companies. With the
wide popularity of sports and the increasingly competitive nature between teams, coaches will be
looking for innovative ways to improve their team. This is a golden opportunity for our company to
promote our product. This opportunity is mirrored in the fitness industry, in the last few years the role
influence of fitness a human’s health has seen a dramatic increase and BioBit could capitalize in this
market.

10.6.4 External Threats


An external threat to the company is when competitors see the opportunity BioBit is exploring, and will
attempt to make a similar product with a comparable price point. This, in turn, may reduce the
company's profit margin and force the company to sell at a lower price. Furthermore, a threat may exist
if companies, both old and new, were to start integrating this sort of functionality into their smart
watches. Especially as many established companies have smart watches that already have the capability
to detect heart rate and steps taken. To reduce this threat, our company will sell the product with the
lowest possible price point, and thus maximizing value.

10.7 Competitive Strategy


BioBit plans to stay competitive in the fitness tracking market by differentiating itself from similar
competitors and providing a low-cost solution to fill market needs. BioBit will also have a focus on
marketing to build a customer base. For further details please see the corresponding sections below.

10.7.1 Cost Leadership and Differentiation


The company plans to compete using both cost leadership and product differentiation. The company is
looking to generate its own niche in the market by selling the product with a lower price range than
what is not currently covered by other competing companies. The company is not planning to compete
with the existing higher-quality systems in the market, but is looking to have comparable quality to mid-

50
range products. On the other hand, the company is planning to provide lower prices than competitors
and offer the best value products to the market.

10.7.2 Focus
The focus of the company is creating a quality product with a low cost. Currently Polar, BioBit’s main
competitor in this market, provides an expensive solution for team-oriented fitness tracking. The
company hopes to find a niche in this price range gap while providing a quality product. Most
importantly, the company will focus on marketing to build trust with the customers and continue
competing in the market. Once the company has a returning customer base it can use this leverage to
get into other markets and build the BioBit brand.

10.8 Company Products and Services


BioBit will begin by selling one product in the form of a package of fitness devices, a central hub, and
access to the mobile application. The subsections below will go into detail about the company's product,
the services offered, and some of the benefits that go along with it.

10.8.1 Product Description and Service Features


BioBit’s flagship product will be a fitness tracking device worn on the wrist. The devices will provide
coaches and trainers to view real-time data from the player’s devices. These devices will track
biometrics such as heart-rate and steps taken. The data will be displayed on an app that the coach or
trainer can filter and look at their desired statistics along with previous logged sessions.

The baseline package that will be available on the market will include 15 fitness tracking devices, 1
central hub, and access to the mobile application. This baseline package is customizable based on the
number of devices the customer desires.

10.8.2 Uniqueness
BioBit will differentiate our product from our competitors’ by creating a package of group-oriented
fitness trackers compared to personal fitness trackers. Most fitness trackers currently in the market are
for personal use only and link up to an app on the person’s phone when there is a Bluetooth connection.
Our system will do everything a personal fitness device can do and have the advantage of evaluating the
grouped data in one location. BioBit also allows the user to not be required to be within communication
distance of a phone, as many athletes typically do not have their phone on them when they train.

10.8.3 Customer Benefits


Not only will BioBit offer our customers the benefit of improved fitness information and analytics, but
BioBit will also give additional benefits to returning customers. These would include offers such as
discounted pricing, early availability of new products, along with opportunities to be involved in beta
testing.

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10.8.4 Warranties and Guarantees
BioBit will come with a limited warranty. This warranty will cover any issue that arises with the product
that is determined not to be a customer related issue but is an issue with how the product was
designed, fabricated, or assembled. This warranty will not account for any abuse of the product or if it
becomes dysfunctional from being used outside of the directed method. Customers will be given
updates to the software of the tracking device and frequent updates to BioBit’s tracking app. If there is a
design flaw in the product, BioBit will guarantee a quick product replacement or a full refund.

10.8.5 Future Product or Service Offerings


BioBit has plans to extend its reach into the fitness tracking market by offering other products that
include, but are not limited to, a personal fitness device, variations on the group-oriented device, and
equipment integrated fitness trackers. The knowledge that BioBit accumulates from making a group-
oriented fitness tracker will make it very possible for BioBit to enter the personal fitness tracking
market. It is also a goal of BioBit to be able to make a customizable tracker, so the customer can track
whatever data they desire. This could be achieved by getting BioBit to a price point where it can include
all desired sensors. Another market BioBit would like to implement technology into is activities that are
not currently explored such as football or hockey. These trackers could be placed in the chest pads or in
the helmet depending on the activity it is used for.

10.9 Marketing Strategy


This section will describe the goal of increasing sales and achieving a sustainable competitive advantage
of the company. With this strategy, the company may be able to approach the market with a specifically
designed tactic in order to set themselves up for the best opportunity to succeed. To view the details of
this approach and the various components taken into account, please view the content herein.

10.9.1 Target Market

10.9.1.1 Problem to be Solved and Benefits to be Offered


The problem that BioBit is trying to solve is to make a team oriented fitness device. The majority of the
market currently offers individual devices, which do not typically offer much variety for the user to
select what type of data to track. The company’s focus will primarily be on customers for sports teams,
coaches, and people who work out as group. This device will give the customers efficient access to their
data in an intuitive android app.

10.9.1.2 Demographic Profile


BioBit’s market demographic profile includes coaches, trainers, athletes, and educational research labs.
Coaches and fitness trainers will benefit the most from this technology as they will be able to make
adjustments real time in their sessions. They will be able to see how the group is doing as a whole and
see who needs to work harder during the sessions. Athletes benefit from this system as they will be able
to see their progress form session to session. Finally, educational research labs can use this system to
conduct scientific research for the application being researched.

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10.9.1.3 Other Significant Customer Characteristics
The significant customer characteristic of BioBit’s product is that the unit can be used in a group setting,
thus connecting multiple customers to the same network. This provides the opportunity for a cohesive
and collaborative environment giving an advantage for easily comparing and monitoring multiple
individuals on a single interface.

10.9.1.4 Customers' Motivation to Buy


The main motivation for customers to buy BioBit’s product is for athletic benefit as individuals and as a
whole and better team fitness analytics. The customer would be motivated to buy a device that is team-
oriented with the same capabilities and efficiency of a larger, mass-producing competitor. The customer
can track their data as a team and will be able to access that data at anytime, anywhere. These
capabilities, that are not readily available on the market, make BioBit’s product valuable to the
customers.

10.9.2 Market Size and Tends

10.9.2.1 Market Size


The advantage of entering the fitness tracking device market at this time is that it is growing at an
exponential rate from year to year. As the company grows, the market will certainly accept whatever
product line is available as the demand and excitement for these types of product are only increasing for
the years to come. With the focus leaning heavily oh high school and college athletics initially, expansion
into professional and private fitness groups can be explored as a second wave of marketing. The reason
BioBit is looking to focus on a smaller demographic initially, is so that the demand does not outweigh
what can be supplied. As integration of a full production line and operation is optimized, the marketing
into larger sectors will be of high interest to the long-term success of the company.

This identified plan within BioBit correlates with how other similar companies have entered the market.
As personal fitness trackers did not catch on until they were well established in the market, the majority
of sales took off eight months after the device had been introduced.24

10.9.2.2 Rate of Growth


As the implementation of team-oriented fitness trackers into the market is still occurring, much of the
market comparison and research was done in the personal fitness tracking devices sector. When looking
at the personal fitness device market, multiple sources are forecasting that the retail value is to
continually grow 1000% by 201825.

10.9.3 Advertising and Promotion

10.9.3.1 Message
The primary message that BioBit wishes to deliver is simply its vision and purpose. BioBit wants to be
known as an innovative company that is delivering the next-generation of fitness devices that center
around teams. Quality and integrity are a part of that message and help convey a sense of trust in both
the company and its products.

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10.9.3.2 Media
In the first year of the product being on the market BioBit use online and social media as its primary
means of promotion. This is best option due to budget restrictions, as they tend to be cheaper than
print or TV advertising and will be one of the best ways to reach out to the target market. Further into
the BioBit brand, when the budget for marketing has increased, the team will explore any and all
options of advertising in order to expand BioBit’s reach.

10.9.3.3 Budget
As explained in detail below within the financial cash flow section, BioBit views the advertising and
promotion of both the company and its product line very seriously. This is due to the fact that
establishing a presence and maintaining a good reputation among competitors is pivotal to a company’s
success, especially upon the startup of a product line. Because of this opinion, BioBit has chosen to allot
$100,000 annually towards the marketing and advertisement of the company and its products. This
equates to 16% of the company’s total annual fixed operating costs.

10.9.3.4 Plans for generating publicity


The biggest way that BioBit plans to generate publicity is by showcasing and demonstrating the
products. This will help the company create a buzz about the features and abilities of the product. On
top of this, BioBit will use social media to connect with people, share product demos, and get feedback
on the product design.

10.9.4 Pricing
The pricing for a single unit is dependent on the quantity the company is able to sell annually as well as
the cost of materials and operation. Because of this BioBit intends on offering a single unit for sale for
$13,949.14 the first year, $5,954.17 the second year, and $3,155.94 the third year. It is at these price
points that the company must sell at a minimum. However, because similar devices on the market range
from $14,300 to $16,100 BioBit will look to sell at a maximized price point which that offers the best
value and a lower price than any competitor. With the minimal sale price of a BioBit unit in the first year
being 3% lower than any other competitor, BioBit is confident that they can sell at this price into years
two and three, thus maximizing profit margins while still offering the cheapest price to consumers
compared to direct competitors.

10.9.4.1 Desired image in market


The image that BioBit strives to is to provide a high quality product that customers can rely on with a
relatively low implementation cost. BioBit wants to create a product and provide services that will
create a loyal customer base that will keep returning when BioBit brings more products to market as
well as recommend our products to others.

10.9.4.2 Discount policy


Being a small startup company, BioBit will not offer discounts to the customers in the beginning years.
However, this policy may be modified as company growth warrants and more flexibility is available with
pricing. If this discount policy is implemented in future years, it will first be offered to valued customers
as well as new customers of particular interest to the company in order to expand its market.

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10.10 Competitive Analysis
BioBit will have to remain competitive in a rapidly growing market in order to create a sustainable
business. The subsections below will detail who BioBit’s competitors are and what companies have the
capabilities to enter the market and become a competitor.

10.10.1 Existing competitors

10.10.1.1 Polar
3Polar has a product called ‘Team2 Pro’ which falls under the necessary classifications in order to
compete directly with our product. This means it is a wearable tracking device that is team-oriented.
However, the price and the lack of variety tracking methods are what hold this product back. The cost of
a single unit is approximately $17,200; which includes a hub, computer interface, and numerous
trackers. In order to compete with Polar, BioBit looks to provide a better value by lower price and
increasing the variety of tracking sensors.

10.10.1.2 LUMOlift
LUMO has a product currently on the market named the LUMOlift. This is an individual-oriented device
which helps aid in tips for posture and muscle energy longevity. The LUMOlift provides competition to
the BioBit through its unique tracking and data gathering. However, this device is for an individual and
thus is not team-oriented. The market price for a single LUMOlift is $210.00.

10.10.1.3 Mayfonk
Mayfonk is a vertical leap tracker with a direct focus towards athletes involved in high jump, basketball,
and volleyball. The Mayfonk competes on the same level with BioBit through its intuitive design on a
mobile application supported through iOS. This device is intended for a single person and is worn on the
hip which tracks only vertical leap. The base price for a single unit and its accompanying mobile
application is $180.00.

10.10.2 Potential competitors

10.10.2.1 FitBit
FitBit already is a leader in personal fitness tracking wearables. If this company looks to enter the market
of team oriented devices, it could pose as a threat to BioBit. Fitbit has shown it is very detailed oriented
and efficient in its current market and because of this, may look for additional avenues to increase their
footprint in the fitness tracking market.

10.10.2.2 Nike
Nike also has gotten into the personal tracking systems and is currently in direct competition with the
FitBit. If one of the two companies should choose to explore the production of team-oriented devices,
the chances of the other company to follow would be very high. Nike currently dominates its markets
through strong sales and marketing teams while following through on customer service. If Nike chooses
to join, it could also implement its current products, such as shoes, into its design and essentially double

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dip in the sales of a device and apparel. If this is the case, it could pose as a challenge for BioBit to
compete on sales and marketing.

10.10.2.3 Samsung
Finally, Samsung may also be interested in similar markets as it has started to include sensors in its
products, such as their smartphones. Samsung could potentially pose as a competitor as it would more
than likely be very strong in its mobile application and intuitive design. While this is an aesthetic
attribute it still hold weight as it bridges the gap between the technology and the user, allowing for ease
of use and efficiency.

10.11 Description of Management Team

10.11.1 Key managers

10.11.1.1 President: Nick VanDam


Nick VanDam is a senior Electrical/Computer engineering major with a designation in International
Engineering. Nick is currently an employee under two different organizations. Firstly, since 2008, Nick
has been working for Grand Rapids Christian High School Athletics as an Event Manager and Facility
Caretaker. Second, Nick also works as an intern at URS Corporation within the Intelligent Transportation
Systems (ITS) division. He has held this position since May of 2013. This position is concerned with the
technology behind roadways which helps to improve the safety and efficiency of our transportation
systems. Surveillance systems, vehicle detectors, dynamic message signs (DMS), and their means of
communication (Fiber & Wireless) are all things encountered through this position.

In his spare time, Nick is also working on side projects involving mechanical and electrical repairs for
both the Calvin and local communities.

10.11.1.2 VP of Engineering: Brad Kunz


Brad Kunz is a senior Electrical/Computer Engineering major at Calvin College, who grew up in
Hudsonville, MI. Brad has had two previous internship experiences. Most recently, in the summer of
2014, he was a part of the Digital Ventures team at Steelcase’s headquarters in Kentwood, MI. This
Research and Development team was focused on finding new and insightful ways to integrate
technology into the office space. He got exposure to various wireless communication protocols, along
with the early stages to product development and design. In the summer of 2013 Brad worked with the
Automotive Plastics team at Royal Technologies Corporation in Hudsonville, MI.

Brad enjoys staying active through playing sports such as soccer, tennis, golf, going hiking and going to
the gym. He also interested in audio projects and music production.

10.11.1.3 VP of Software and Product Testing: Carl Cooper


Carl Cooper is a senior at Calvin College studying Electrical/Computer Engineering. During the summer
of 2014, he had the opportunity to work with Professor Kim in the Calvin College Engineering
Department to develop a system that would monitor sustainable energy systems wirelessly with
smartphone apps. He gained experience creating and sending data over wireless networks,

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programming microcontrollers and Android apps, and reducing power consumption on both
microcontrollers and smartphones. He understands the benefit of being able to track players on sports
teams through playing on sports teams all the way through elementary and high school in Chiang Mai,
Thailand including Varsity Basketball and Volleyball.

In his spare time Carl enjoys pursuing the outdoors through rock climbing and backpacking as well as all
things audio from recording to building guitar amps and effects pedals.

10.11.1.4 VP of Research, Development, and Project Manager: Jessica Par


Jessica Par is a senior at Calvin College studying Electrical/Computer Engineering. The past two
summers, summer of 2013 and 2014, Jessica had an opportunity to intern at Koops Inc., in Holland,
Michigan as a Control Engineer. At this internship, Jessica was able to get involved in many different
aspects of the design and building of factory automation solutions. She was also get involved in Controls
Design department and developed electrical schematics, pneumatic schematics, and bills of material.
Jessica gained experience building control panels in the Machine Assembly group and worked with
Koops Launch Engineers to debug and prove out several different pieces of automation. She also learned
to create documentation manuals for a variety of machines and be onsite at the customer’s facility
performing service and support.

Jessica is currently working as a Student Office Assistance at the Engineering Department. She organized
documents, update the engineering website, help plan the department events, and assist professors
when they need a hand. She is also a student leader for Calvin’s Women and Engineering club. She plans
social events and study groups for the women engineers.

In her spare time, Jessica enjoys being active through going to the gym with friends, rock climbing,
camping. She also likes to watch TV shows such as Castle, Bones.

10.11.2 Future Additions to Management Team

10.11.2.1 VP of Finance
With the need of a Vice President of Finance, the company would look to stabilize their business
financially and look for consistent growth in an ethical and strategic manner. An individual who is a
Certified Public Accountant (CPA) and a Master of Business Administration (MBA) would best fit the
requirements the company is looking for in this position.

10.11.2.2 VP of Marketing
In this role, the Vice President of Marketing would take on a role to drive the market acceptance and
reputability through the company’s image and its products. An individual who has had past experience
in marketing technological devices and has received a Master’s in Business Marketing would best fit this
role in the company.

10.11.2.3 VP of Sales
When looking to fill the role of Vice President of Sales, the company would look for an individual who
can maintain the image of the company through managing a sales division and its respective

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geographical regions. The company would prefer to have an individual which has a minimum of 15 years
of experience in a direct or related market.

10.11.2.4 Head of Facilities and Production Manager


The Head of Facilities and Production Manager would be required to communicate and manage the
production facilities and be knowledgeable in the engineering field through previous education. With
this role, the individual may also be required to explore avenues to optimize production through
equipment, facilities, staff, and materials.

10.11.3 Operations

10.11.3.1 Legal form of ownership chosen and rationale


The members of BioBit have determined that it would be in their best interests to form a limited liability
company, also known as an LLC. While there is more of a process to go through to become an LLC, the
protection it adds to the personal liability of those employed in business related transactions is well
worth it. While it is unlikely that the company would be sued, separating the employees from that
liability is important in case legal action is taken. Furthermore, as BioBit will need a loan to get the
company started, there is a need to separate the individual’s assets from the company’s. Another
benefit of forming an LLC is that the business would be easier to sell in the event of foreclosure or the
owners decide to turn their efforts elsewhere. Additionally, BioBit will have more flexibility than a
corporation and will be taxed more like a partnership, which puts less stress on the company26.

10.11.3.2 Company structure (organization chart)


BioBit will be a small company and, because of this, there will not be many positions to occupy initially.
There will be a president overseeing the whole company with three vice presidents below him/her.
Each vice president will be in charge of a separate division. The company will start off with just three
divisions related to production – engineering, software and product testing, and research and
development – but as the company grows marketing, sales, and finance divisions will be added. Initially
the vice presidents will oversee the entire operation of each division, but in the future it may be
beneficial to add subdivisions with a head of each. The company structure can be seen below in Figure
20. Initially, all members of BioBit will be owners of the company, but as BioBit grows only the president
and vice presidents will be owners.

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Figure 20 - Overview of Company Structure (dotted line to show initial organization)

10.11.3.3 Decision making authority


Each vice president has control over the decisions made in their division and any minor decisions can be
made by the vice president. However, any major decisions that will either alter the structure of the
company or significantly alter the product shall be passed by the president, who in turn, shall inform the
other vice presidents. Transparency of each division is essential in a small business so vice presidents
shall inform the other vice presidents and president of decisions that are made, but only significant
decisions shall be approved by the other owners.

10.2 Financial Statements


To analyze the financial feasibility of BioBit LLC, several financial statements were used. The following
sections go over the Pro-Forma Statement of Income and Cash Flow Statement.

10.2.1 Income Statement (Annual, 3 years)


The income statement in Table 6 shows the costs and revenues for the first three years of business. The
bottom of the table lists the net income after tax for each year. As can be seen in the table, after the
first year the company will be making an approximate $185 thousand, which can be used to expand
production and pay off debt. By the end of the second year, the net income will be around $1.5 million
and $5.8 million by the end of the third year.

Table 7 - Income Statement for First Three Years

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10.2.2 Cash Flow Statement (Quarterly, 3 years)
The cash flow statement is an important document because it shows how the cash moves through the
company. This statement for the first three years can be seen in Table 7 and it is expanded into each
quarter in Table 8 and it should be noted that the company ends with a positive cash balance at the end
of each year. The cash flow statement also lists the loan information; including receiving the loan and
the payoff plan. As the company ends each year with a positive cash balance, BioBit LLC will pay off the
loan in the second year split into four payments to be paid out each quarter. As the note under Table 2
states, there are no changes in assets and liabilities other than cash, notes payable, and equipment so a
balance sheet is not needed.

Table 8 - Cash Flow for First Three Years (Yearly Overview)

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Table 9 – Cash Flow for First Three Years (Quarterly)

10.3 Break-Even Analysis


The break-even analysis is shown in Table 9 shows the break even sales volume to be just over $1 million
each year. BioBit plans on exceeding this point each year as there is a large market for the product.

Table 10 - Break-Even Analysis

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10.4 Ratio Analysis
The ratio analysis for the first three years of business can be seen below in Table 10. It should be noted
that the profit margin ranges from 13% to 43%, which exceeds the minimum of 10% as budgeted each
year. With these numbers comparable to market, the 13% is far too low; however, 43% is a great margin
of value. This means that to improve profits, costs would need to be reduced. It should also be noted

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that the net asset turnover decreases after years two because the company gains assets over the first
three years so even though the revenue is increasing, the ratio decreases.

Table 11 - Ratio Analysis

11. Project Management


This section describes the organization structure of how the team plans to organized project documents
and how they break down the project work load between the team members. In addition, this section s
also describes the outline of the initial project schedule and discusses the method that the team uses to
approach the project.

11.1 Team Organization


Within the team organization sections is a description of the team's work division, document
organizations, and milestones. The document organization section will describe the locations of project's
documents. The division of work describes how the team divided work and the team's major decisions
made are describe under milestones.

11.1.1 Documentation Organization


The team has used a combination of locations to keep documents. Google Drive has been used to keep
meeting minutes, research documents, Senior Design lecture notes, and it hosts a forum for the group
to communicate through. Formal documents are located on Microsoft's OneDrive. Files such as CAD
drawings, presentation material, weekly updates, and website code are hosted on Calvin's Shared drive.
These methods make it possible to access all the files and documents from anywhere there is an
internet connection.

11.1.2 Division of Work


During the fall semester, the division of work depended on the task at hand. No team member had
specific designated tasks. When there was work to be done the team got together and divided and
conquered. This happened with early design and research of the project. Once the testing began, the
team split into two groups. Nick and Brad worked on the Raspberry Pi while Jessica and Carl worked on
the Intel Edison board. This division was in conjunction with the team’s Engineering 325 lab. The team
plans on splitting up the development of the design in the spring semester by assigning specific portions
of the projects to each person.

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11.1.3 Milestones
The major milestones for the fall semester in the project are shown below.

 Project Selection
 Project Proposal and Approval
 September 15- PPFS Outline
 October 15- First Oral Presentation
 October 17- Choose communication: Wi-Fi
 October 22- Project website
 November 2 - Chose Components: Intel Edison and Raspberry Pi
 November 10- PPFS Draft
 November 12- Bought Intel Edison and Raspberry Pi
 December1- Second Oral Presentation
 December 4- Tested processors and communication
 December 8- PPFS

11.2 Schedule

11.2.1 Schedule Management


The team created a Gantt chart for how the team will approach the project and the PPFS. The team
found that the Gantt chart was a better use of determining what tasks had to be done and in what
order. The team used the process of setting up the Gantt chart to set hard deadlines. The team found it
easier to operate from these hard deadlines rather than follow the deadlines of the Gantt chart. This
method was used as the team found it more efficient to meet deadlines and hold individual
responsibilities from week to week compared to following the method of a Gantt chart. The team had
weekly meetings on Wednesdays to discuss the current project status and what needs to be done for
the coming week. During these meetings, the schedule could have been altered based on the previous
week’s progress or if new issues came up.

11.2.2 Critical Path


The main critical path that the team faces is choosing the right components for the device. The team
shall make decisions on hardware such as the processor, sensors, server/database, and the
communication protocol. The team made a decision on the processors. A Raspberry pi will be used for
the central hub and an Intel Edison board will be used in the wearable device. The team has yet to make
a decision on what sensors to use. The decision for the sensors will be a top priority at the start of the
second semester.

11.3 Operational Budget


Team BioBit will manage funds by staying within a reasonable financial range and use the funds
appropriately. Currently, the team is in the process deciding the components for the project. The team
will create an excel sheet that includes the components name, the cost, the brand, and the component
purchase date. The budget will be updated using the excel chart.

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11.4 Method of Approach
This section is to describe the design methodology, the research techniques, team communication, and
the specific design norms that have influenced the team’s design decisions.

11.4.1 Design Methodology


The team took on a design methodology of designing first for our found requirements. These
requirements, whether they were noted by our potential customers or set by the team, were the basis
of the team's design. The team also tried to design with our design norms of trust, integrity and caring in
mind. These would tailor some of the design choices to make sure that our product would be the best
the team could produce and meet the customer's expectations.

11.4.2 Research techniques


To find relevant information to the project, the team uses a combination of informal websites and the
Heckman Library databases. During the early stages of the design the team would sit down and break up
the research for each specific facet of the system design. The team would rely on a combination of
online tutorials and reviews of products to help understand the design and what type of elements would
be required to complete the design. Once a reliable and helpful source was found the source was noted
and placed in a topic specific Google Doc for future reference.

11.4.3 Team communication


The team used email and texting as their primary communication. The team found these
communications to be the most effective. The team also has a forum that can be used for discussing
topics and communicating with the entire team.

12. Conclusions
This section will discuss the feasibility of the project looking forward, along with a listing of lessons
learned along the way and identifying remaining issues. The document will end by giving credit to those
who have helped the team during this project.

12.1 Project Feasibility


The project's feasibility has been evaluated and analyzed based on the May 9, 2015 completion date. It
has been determined that the project is feasible. There have been great strides in the fall semester in
research, design, and testing. The team is dedicated and determined to finishing the project on time.

12.1.1 Technical Aspect


The system design has already begun to take shape in the form of the Intel Edison board and the
Raspberry Pi. The Intel Edison was able to send test data into the Raspberry Pi's database it runs on its
server. This is reassuring to the team's technical ability and time requirement to get all the technical
aspects of the project in place before the due date.

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One concern with the project looking forward is the sensor network. The team's industrial consultant,
Eric Walstra of Gentex Corporation, warned that this may be the most challenging portion of the project.
He suggested that this not be overlooked as it easily could be when trying to schedule work for the
future. The team plans on making this priority number one during the spring semester to make sure we
give ourselves enough time to fully test and integrate the sensors into the design.

Another technical concern for the team is how to integrate a mobile app into the design. No one on the
team has created a sophisticated mobile app. First and foremost the team needs to develop a fully
functional app and then focus on the aesthetics of the app as if the team were going to release this
application on major app store.

12.1.2 Cost Aspect


The team has been conservative with its budget for the first semester. The only two things that have
been purchased for the project have been the Raspberry Pi and the Intel Edison board. But these have
not been claimed for reimbursement yet as some of the teammates are considering keeping the
components after the project is finished. The team does not anticipate going above the budget given by
the Calvin College Engineering Department. If this becomes a concern the scope of the project may have
to be scaled back, such as creating fewer fitness devices for prototype.

12.2 Lessons Learned


Throughout the first semester of the project the team has learned some valuable lessons that they can
apply to the remainder of the project. First lesson was given to us by Eric Walstra about scheduling. He
said that we are like the 95% of the working population that do not hold true to their Gantt chart. While
the task of setting up a Gantt chart can be very helpful in determining the work breakdown, it is much
easier to work from hard deadlines instead of the intermediate goals set in Gantt charts. The team plans
to sit down at the beginning of the second semester and breakdown the rest of the project's tasks which
will be turned into hard deadlines to meet.

A second learned lesson for the team is the need for weekly meetings. These meetings are important to
touch base, evaluate the current status of the project and to look forward at the near and distant future
goals. This will become increasingly important in the second half of the project as the team will be
breaking apart and working on their own portions of the design. Each teammate will have to give
detailed updates of their progress and communicate with others in the group to successfully integrate
their portion into the system.

The large role of communication within a project of this size is another lesson that the team has
realized. The team has been warned by plenty of professional mentors that communication is key in a
group project. But the best way to learn this is by actually being a part of a large project. Communication
will be key in the rest of the project when the individual components come together to create the whole
working system.

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12.3 Credits and Acknowledgements
The team would not be as far as we are if it weren't those around us. We would like to thank those
people. First, Professor Mark Michmerhuizen as the team's advisor. He has given us plenty of feedback
from the project design, to formal documents, along with words of advice and encouragement. We
would also like to thank the three other professors, Professor David Wunder, Professor Jeremy
VanAntwerp and Professor Ned Nielsen, who lead the Senior Design class along with Professor
Michmerhuizen. They are quick to help any team that approaches them and have given their respective
lectures that helps teams to grow and become more professional. Team 10 would also like to thank Eric
Walstra for being the team's industrial consultant and providing an outside professional viewpoint to
the project. Finally, we'd like to thank the Calvin College and Grand Rapids Christian High School athletic
departments along with the Calvin College Kinesiology department Professors for their suggestions and
their willingness to help the team’s project development.

The team would also like to thank our friends and family for their continued and unconditional support.
They are the ones that help us get through this tried and testing time in our academic lives and we hope
we can make them proud through our work.

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13. References

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Lee, Jin-Shyan, Yu-Wei Su, and Chung-Chou Shen. "A Comparative Study of Wireless Protocols- Bluetooth, UWB,
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Comparative Study of Wireless Protocols- Bluetooth, UWB, ZigBee, and Wi-Fi. Acedemia.edu. Web. 18 Oct. 2014.
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yourself/edison.html>.
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30163.html

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