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International Journal of Mechanical and Production

Engineering Research and Development (IJMPERD)


ISSN(P): 2249-6890; ISSN(E): 2249-8001
Special Issue, Feb 2019, 238-253
© TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF EGGSHELL & COIR REINFORCED HYBRID

HDPE COMPOSITE MATERIAL

GOLLA.CHITTI BABU1, M.VENKATAIAH2, ANNAVARAPU VAMSI KRISHNA3,


ANCHE KARTHIK CHOWDARY4 & KANAMARLAPUDI ANUVANDHANA5
1
Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vignan’s Foundation for Science, Technology and
Research University (VFSTR), Vadlamudi, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
2
Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vignan’s Foundation for Science, Technology and
Research University (VFSTR), Vadlamudi, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
3,4,5
Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vignan Lara Institute of Technology and Science,
Vadlamudi, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
ABSTRACT

The main aim of our project is to study the Mechanical behavior of eggshell powder and coir reinforced
polyethylene composite. It is prepared using the eggshell powder, Coir as reinforcements and highdensity polyethylene

Original Article
(HDPE) as a matrix by injection molding and casting methods. Finely divided particles of coconut fiber and different
wt. % of eggshell powder were properly mixed in HDPE via thorough mixing with hand. After that, the resultant
mixture has been processed in an injection molding and then obtained material is then cast into required dies. Various
tests are conducted such as Tensile, Impact, Hardness and their properties have been studied in detail. The material can
be used in the applications of Aerospace and Automobile etc.

KEYWORDS: Eggshell Powder, Polyethylene Matrix Composite, Mechanical Properties & Coconut Fiber (Coir)

INTRODUCTION

A composite material is a material made from two or more constituent materials with different
significantly different physical or chemical properties. when combined, produce a material with characteristics
different from individual components. The new material may be preferred for many reasons such as stronger,
lighter and less expensive when compared to traditional materials.

The developments in composite material after meeting the challenges with a light weight of the Aerospace
sector have cascaded down for catering to domestic and industrial applications. Composites, the wonder material
with light weighted, high strength — to — weight ratio and stiffness properties have come a long way in replacing
the conventional materials like metals, wood etc. A unique feature of composites is that the characteristics of the
finished product can be tailored to a specific engineering requirement by the careful selection of matrix and
reinforcement type.

Strictly speaking, the idea of the composite material is not a new or recent one. Nature is full of examples
wherein the idea of the composite material is used. Since the early 1960’s, there has been an increasing demand for
materials that are stiffer and stronger yet lighter in fields as diverse as aerospace, energy and civil constructions.

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239 Golla.Chitti Babu, M.Venkataiah,
aiah, Annavarapu Vamsi Krishna,
Anche Karthik Chowdary & Kanamarlapudi Anuvandhana

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
Reinforcement
Egg Shells

It is material available in nature from egg-laying


egg laying beings, which in this case are hens. The outermost layer of the
egg is called eggshell.
shell. There are two types of eggs available from this species of birds, they are i) White eggs & ii) Brown
eggs. For the preparation of this eggshell
shell composite,
composite we took white egg shells.

Figure 1: Egg Shells

Coconut Fiber (Coir)

The coconut fiber or coir is a naturally available fiber


fib with high cellulose content and also easily available. It has
good mechanical properties like tensile strength, tensile modulus, impact strength etc. So, it is generally used as
reinforcement in natural composites.

Figure 2: Coconut Fibre

Matrix Used
High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE)

Polyethylene is a type of plastic and is available in different grades with varying properties like density, High-
High
Density melting point, tensile strength and also their processing methods. Some of these grades are M5306, P5400,
M5306L, 003DF49 and so on. Among all the available grades 003DF49 is chosen considering its properties and processing
methods is best suited for the purpose.

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Mechanical Behavior of Eggshell & Coir Reinforced Hybrid 240
HDPE Composite Material

Figure 3: HDPE Granules

Manufacturing Process

The white eggshells,


shells, as said in the above paragraph are emptied and then dried under the sun for quite some time.
By doing this we can ensure that a considerable amount of the moisture is removed from them. These egg shells are
crushed with hand to form small pieces, which in turn are grinded in a mixer to form the powder. This powder is then
sieved using different sieves to get a fine sized powder. This powder is then collected and stored in a container.

Figure 4: Eggshell Powder

Coconut fiber,, which is present around the shell of dried coconut is collected and each strand of this fiber
fib is cut to
a size of 3mm. These particles are then placed in a mixer to reduce their size to an even finer level. This powder is then
sieved using different sieves to get a fine sized powder. This powder is then
then collected and stored in a container.

Figure 5: Coconut Fiber Powder

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241 Golla.Chitti Babu, M.Venkataiah,
aiah, Annavarapu Vamsi Krishna,
Anche Karthik Chowdary & Kanamarlapudi Anuvandhana

The above mentioned grade of HDPE granules i.e. 003DF49 are taken and are thoroughly mixed with the
reinforcing materials in the required proportions, which being i) 90% HDPE+ 5% CFP + 5% ESP, ii) 85% HDPE + 5%
CFP + 10% ESP, iii) 80% HDPE + 5% CFP + 15% ESP. These different compositions are placed in different containers.

Figure 6: 10% Composition Figure 7: 15% Composition Figure


ure 8: 20% Composition

Now the injection molding


lding machine is made ready for processing the prepared compositions. Firstly, pure
003DF49 grade HDPE granules are fed into the hopper and they are allowed into the machine’s barrel, an injection
chamber, nozzle. This cleans the machine’s internal surface and thus eliminates the possibility of doping the composite
with unwanted materials which result in the change of properties.

Figure 9: Injection Molding Machine

After the cleaning process is completed, one of the mixtures is fed into the injection molding
mo machine and the
semi-solid, twisted cylindrical rod-like
like structures obtained from the machine’s nozzle are collected and allowed to solidify
completely by placing them in a well-ventilated
ventilated area. This is followed by the processing of the remaining two compositions
by the injection molding
lding machine in the same procedure
pr and is allowed to solidify for a certain period of time as stated
above.

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Mechanical Behavior of Eggshell & Coir Reinforced Hybrid 242
HDPE Composite Material

Figure
ure 10: HDPE before Mixing with Reinforcements

Figure
ure 11: HDPE after Mixing with Reinforcements

These structures are then placed in a grinding machine and are ground to form smaller pieces of the size equal to
the HDPE granules. Now these granule sized particles of different compositions are again fed separately into the hopper of
the injection molding
lding machine and are processed using it but required dies are
are placed at the nozzle of the machine.

Figure 12: Composite after Grinding

Different dies are used to prepare different types of samples to carry out tests like impact, tensile, bending,
hardness. The dimensions of the dies are given below:

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243 Golla.Chitti Babu, M.Venkataiah,
aiah, Annavarapu Vamsi Krishna,
Anche Karthik Chowdary & Kanamarlapudi Anuvandhana

Dimensions of the die used for tensile sample preparation

Length = 124 mm.

Thickness = 3 mm.

Edges width = 18.5 mm.

Middle width = 13 mm.

Fig
Figure 13: Die for the Tensile Test Specimen

Dimensions of the die used for hardness sample preparation

Length = 95 mm.

Thickness = 3 mm.

Width = 10 mm

Fig
Figure 14: Die for the Hardness Test Specimen

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Mechanical Behavior of Eggshell & Coir Reinforced Hybrid 244
HDPE Composite Material

Dimensions of the die used for impact sample preparation

Length = 62 mm.

Thickness = 9 mm.

Width = 10 mm.

Fig
Figure 15: Die for the Impact Test Specimen

Testing of the Specimens


Tensile Test

The tensile test is mainly used to determine strength, ductility, toughness, resilience and other mechanical
properties.

Principles of the Tensile Test

If a metallic specimen is subjected to a gradually increasing uniaxial tensile load, it gets plastically deformed and
finally fails (breaks). During plastic deformation, changes in cross-sectional
cross sectional area and length occur.
occur

Figure 16: Tensometer

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245 Golla.Chitti Babu, M.Venkataiah,
aiah, Annavarapu Vamsi Krishna,
Anche Karthik Chowdary & Kanamarlapudi Anuvandhana

Test Procedure

In tensile testing, the metallic specimen is gripped at opposite ends of a tensile testing machine and subjected to a
progressive increasing tensile load till it fractures. A data of load acting on the specimen with a progressive extension of
the specimen is obtained. The machine used for tensile testing is the Tensometer. During specimen,
specimen preparation care should
be taken to avoid sharp changes in section to reduce stress concentration. This reduces the chances of failure
failu of the
specimen at low-stress
stress values. The specimen used may also be of a rectangular or square cross-section
cross depending on the
plate or sheet from which it was prepared. Tensile tests are done on fixed lengths called as gauge lengths. The ends of the
specimen
ecimen may be threaded or may be made with a pin end or be made with a shoulder depending on the type of gripping
device used on the machine.

Fig
Figure 17: Tensile Test Specimen before Testing

Fig
Figure 18 tensile Test Specimen after Testing

Brinell Hardness Test

This test is mainly used to determine the indentation hardness that is the resistance offered by the specimen to
indentation (i.e., penetration of a hard object into the specimen under test). Indentation hardness test is a function of
plasticity and density of the specimen under test.

Fig
Figure 19: Brinell Hardness Testing Machine

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Mechanical Behavior of Eggshell & Coir Reinforced Hybrid 246
HDPE Composite Material

Principle of Hardness Test

If a specimen is subjected to a constant load at any point on the surface using a hardened steel ball then it forms an
indentation on its surface.

Test Procedure

The method consists in forcing a hardened steel ball, 2.5, 5 or 10 mm in diameter, at a constant
c load P into the flat
surface of the metal. When the load is removed, an impression (indentation) remains on the surface of the metal.

The Brinell hardness number BHN is defined as the ratio of the load applied to the ball in the test, to the area of
the surface of the impression obtained. If the surface of the impression is expressed in terms of the ball diameter “D” and
diameter “d” of the impression

Then BHN is given by,

BHN= 2P/ π D (D - √(D2 - d2 ))

The ball diameter D and the constant load P are selected to suit the composition of the composite, its hardness and
the thickness of the test specimen.

The load, P = 300 D2 is taken far steel and east iron P = 10 D2 is taken for copper and its alloys, and P = 2.5 D2 is
taken for soft metals [aluminum etc.,]

Figure
ure 20: Hardness Test Specimen before Testing

Figure
ure 21: Hardness Test Specimen after Testing

Impact Test

Impact tests are used to determine the ability of the materials to withstand impact or shock or suddenly applied
load while in service. This test evaluates the toughness of materials, i.e., the ability of a material to absorb energy during
durin
plastic deformation.

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247 Golla.Chitti Babu, M.Venkataiah,
aiah, Annavarapu Vamsi Krishna,
Anche Karthik Chowdary & Kanamarlapudi Anuvandhana

Figure 22: Izod Impact Machine

Principle

The principle used in impact testing machines is that a notched specimen with a standard blow from a pendulum
hammer absorbs a certain amount of energy before it breaks and the energy absorbed by the specimen during impact
measures its impact strength. The amount of absorbed energy depends on the physical nature of the material. If the material
is tough it absorbs more energy and so it requires more energy in order to fracture. If it is brittle it absorbs less energy and
so it breaks more easily.

Procedure

There are two types of impact test machines available. They are i) Izod& ii) Charpy. As of the availability, we
used the Izod
zod impact testing machine to test the specimen. In the process of carrying out Izod testing, the specimen is
placed in a vertical manner with the v notch facing the blow of the pendulum hammer. Once the specimen is fixed in the
machine’s vice, the pendulum hammer is released and the blow from the hammer breaks the specimen.

Fig
Figure 23: Specimen Arrangement in a Machine

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Mechanical Behavior of Eggshell & Coir Reinforced Hybrid 248
HDPE Composite Material

Fig
Figure 24: Impact Test Specimen before Testing

Fig
Figure 25: Impact Test Specimen after Testing

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Tensile Properties

Tensometer is used to determine the ultimate tensile strength and percentage elongation in length of the materials.
The specimen geometry was in a rectangular shape and uniaxial load was applied to each end of the respective samples
until it fails. Stress-strain curve was plotted from the force-extension
force extension data on a special graph paper during the tests and the
required mechanical properties were determined on the curve as shown in table 1, 2, 3

Table 1:
1 Ultimate Tensile Strength of 10% Composition
Ultimate Tensile Strength
Sample Number Composition
(N/sq. mm)
1 10% 18.1
2 10% 17.9
3 10% 16.3

Therefore, the ultimate tensile strength of 10% composition of the material is taken as the average value of the
three samples results in 17.43 N/sq. mm.

Table 2:
2 Ultimate Tensile Strength of 15% Composition
Ultimate Tensile Strength
Sample Number Composition
(N/sq. mm)
1 15% 17.9
2 15% 19.9
3 15% 18.6

Therefore, the ultimate tensile strength of 15% composition of the material is taken as the 24 the average value of
the three samples results in 18.8N/sq. mm.

Table 3:
3 Ultimate Tensile Strength of 20% Composition
Ultimate Tensile Strength
Sample Number Composition
(N/sq. mm)
1 20% 18.9
2 20% 20.1
3 20% 18.4

Therefore, the ultimate tensile strength of 20% composition of the material is taken as the average value of the
three samples results in 19.13N/sq. mm.

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249 Golla.Chitti Babu, M.Venkataiah, Annavarapu Vamsi Krishna,
Anche Karthik Chowdary & Kanamarlapudi Anuvandhana

Out of various compositions of composites studied in this work 20% composition shows the higher ultimate
tensile strength. The tensile strength of the composite is in increasing order of 10%, 15%,20% compositions respectively.

Figure 26: Ultimate Tensile Strength of Different


Compositions of Composite Material

At a certain value of peak load, the displacement observed in this composite material of 10%,15%,20%
composition is as shown in table 4, 5, 6

Table 4: Load and Displacement of 10% Composition


Sample Peak load Displacement
Composition
Number (N) (mm)
1 10% 706.1 14.59
2 10% 696.3 10.18
3 10% 637.5 9.23

Therefore, the load and displacement of 10% composition of the material are taken as the averagevalue of the
three samples. At peak load of 679.9N, the 10% composition of material shows 11.33mm displacement.

Table 5: Load and Displacement of 15% Composition


Peak load Displacement
Sample Number Composition
(N) (mm)
1 15% 696.3 12.63
2 15% 774.8 13.06
3 15% 725.7 10.70

Therefore, the load and displacement of 15% composition of the material are taken as the average value of the
three samples. At peak load of 732.2N, the 15% composition of material shows 12.13mm displacement.

Table 6: Load and Displacement of 20% Composition


Peak load Displacement
Sample Number Composition
(N) (mm)
1 20% 735.5 12.40
2 20% 784.6 12.82
3 20% 715.9 12.32

Therefore, the load and displacement of 20% composition of the material are taken as the average -value of the
three samples. At peak load of 745.3N, the 20% composition of material shows 12.51mm displacement.

Impact Factor (JCC): 7.6197 SCOPUS Indexed Journal NAAS Rating: 3.11
Mechanical Behavior of Eggshell & Coir Reinforced Hybrid 250
HDPE Composite Material

Out of various compositions of composites studied in this work 20% composition shows the higher load and
displacement. The load and displacement of the composite are in increasing order of 10%15%, 20% compositions
respectively.

Figure 27: Load and Displacement of Different Compositions of Composite Material

Impact Strength

Impact tests are used to determine the ability of the materials to withstand impact or shock or suddenly applied
load. It also evaluates the toughness of materials i.e.; the ability of the material to absorb energy during plastic
deformation. The amount of absorbed energy depends on the physical nature of the material. If the material is tough it
absorbs more energy and so it requires more energy in order to fracture.

The Impact test on various compositions of composite materials is conducted on Impact test machine. As a result,
the impact energy of different compositions is as shown in Table 7

Table 7: Impact Strength of Different Compositions of Composite Material


Izod Scale Reading Izod Scale Reading
Sample Composition
(kg-m) (joules)
1 10%(5% ESP+5% CFP) 0.64 6.27
2 10%(5% ESP+5% CFP) 0.75 7.35
3 15%(10% ESP+5% CFP) 0.65 6.37
4 15%(10% ESP+5% CFP) 0.49 4.80
5 20%(15% ESP+5% CFP) 0.33 3.23
6 20%(15% ESP+5% CFP) 0.8 7.84

The average of samples of different compositions is calculated. Out of various compositions of composites
studied in this work 10% composition shows the higher impact strength. The impact strength of the composite is in
increasing order of 20%,15%,10% compositions respectively as shown in Figure 28

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251 Golla.Chitti Babu, M.Venkataiah, Annavarapu Vamsi Krishna,
Anche Karthik Chowdary & Kanamarlapudi Anuvandhana

Figure 28: Impact Strength of different Compositions of Composite Material

Hardness

Hardness test is to determine the indentation hardness of Specimens. The amount of resistance offered by material
for indentation or penetration is defined as the indentation hardness. With the help of Brinell, hardness test Brinell hardness
number is calculated.

BHN=load/surface area

Where Surface area =(π/2) *D*(D-√D2-D12)

D=diameter of ball =5mm

D1=diameter 0f indentation

The Hardness test on various compositions of composite materials is conducted on the Brinell hardness test
machine. As a result, the diameter of indentation of different compositions is as shown in Table 8

Table 8: Diameter of Indentation of Different Compositions of Composite Material


Sample Diameter of
Composition
Number Indentation(mm)
1 10% 2.2
2 10% 2.3
3 15% 2.5
4 15% 2.4
5 20% 2.3
6 20% 2.2

Based on the ball size the value of load applied is 250 kgs. And Brinell hardness number is calculated as shown in
Table 9 The average of samples of different compositions is calculated.

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Mechanical Behavior of Eggshell & Coir Reinforced Hybrid 252
HDPE Composite Material

Table 9: Hardness of Different Compositions


of Composite Material
Composition Hardness
10% 59.5
15% 49.70
20% 59.5

Figure 29: Hardness of different Compositions of Composite Material

CONCLUSIONS

The following points are clear after conducting experiments on eggshell and coconut coir reinforced hybrid HDPE
composite material. In this work, we found the mechanical behavior of the composite material such as its ultimate tensile
strength, peak load, and displacement, impact strength, hardness. Ultimate Tensile strength is more for 20% composition
(5% CFP+15% ESP). As the addition of filler material increases the ultimate tensile strength also increases. Peak load and
displacement are high for 20% composition. At load 745.3N it shows the displacement 12.51 mm. Impact strength is high
for 10% (5% CFP+5% ESP) composition. Due to its high strength, it is preferred. Hardness is more for both 10% and 20%
composition. By using eggshell and coconut coir as reinforcement the Aerospace and Automobile parts can be
manufactured due to its less cost and properties. In future Bending test, Wear test has to be conducted on the same
composition of samples and studies can be made on hardness.

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