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Nissan Company

IV Semester BBA




Sr. No. Title Pg. No.

executive summary

1 Introduction 4

2 Company Profile 54

3 Research Methodology 72

4 Data Analysis and Interpretation 76

5 Findings and Suggestions 92

6 Questionnaire 96

Bibliography 100


Employee relationship refers to the relationship between employees and management as a

framework of organizational justice consisting of organizational culture and management style as
well as rules and procedural sequence for grievances and conflict management indeed, the
objective of employee relationship is to achieve harmonious employee relations and minimize
conflict practices in employment. Torrington and Hall (1998).

Organizational performance is a function of employee performance .Organization effectiveness

depend on constantly improving the performance of organization members and maintaining the
human potential that serves as the backbone of the organization Kerning and Jaeger (1990) Most
organizations in an attempt to increase productivity have come up with motivation of employees
aimed at improving on the organization performance and condition of job, hence proper

Organizations should induce their employees to work hard towards achieving the business set
objectives. This can be done through provision of incentives Peter Drucker (1999) Organization
renewal is increasingly perceived to depend not only on management skills in areas such as
finance, production and marketing, but also critically in the intertwined fields of people
management. Armstrong M (1987)

The values, beliefs, altitudes and behavior of the enterprises employees are held to occupy
strategic roles in corporate success. All organizations which aim at high performance need to
have policy agenda to create relationship with the employees or working people, which support
their business objectives what this calls for, is to have an employee management relations Sultan
Kermally (1997)


Role of Communication in Employee Relationship

A healthy employee relationship ensures a positive environment at work and also helps the
employees to achieve their targets at a much faster rate. People are more focussed, can
concentrate better in their assignments and hence the output increases. Employees are not
engaged in constant fights, are eager to help each other and do not take work as a burden. They
enjoy each and every moment at work and do not take leaves often.

Communication is not only important in our daily lives but also plays a crucial role at workplace.
It is one of the most important factors which either improves or spoils the relationship among

The communication has to be transparent and precise for a warm relationship among
employees. Clarity in thoughts is important. Don’t assume that the other person will come to
know on his own what is going on in your mind. The thoughts must be converted sensibly into
relevant words such that the other person is able to understand you well.

The employees must be very clear about what is being expected from them. Their key
responsibility areas, roles and responsibilities must be communicated to them in the desired form
for them to perform their level best. Don’t play with words. Be straightforward and precise in

what you expect from your team members. Don’t blame them later. Haphazard thoughts and
abstract ideas only lead to confusions and spoil the relationship among the employees.

Let us go through the below example:

Janet was working as a key accounts manager with a leading advertising firm. First she wanted
Ted to prepare a report on marketing and sales strategies undertaken by her organization, then
she wanted him to prepare a report on the branding techniques and finally she asked him to also
include the promotion strategies. She herself was not very clear about her expectations. Poor Ted
was so confused that he submitted an incomplete report to Janet. She was not at all happy with
Ted’s performance and always side-lined him in future.

In the above example, Janet was not very clear about the content of the report and also confused
Ted. One needs to express his ideas clearly for the other person to understand it correctly. Poor
communication in this case spoiled the relation between Janet and Ted who were once good

Had Janet told Ted to prepare an exhaustive report on Marketing, sales, branding as well as the
promotion techniques undertaken by the organization, things would been crystal clear and Ted
would not have made any mistakes. One should be first very clear about his needs, expectations
and then only communicate it to the other person.

Don’t change statements quite often. Be firm. One should not tamper any data or manipulate
truth. You would never gain anything out of it. Be honest and pass on information in its desired
form. If your boss has asked you to download some information to your fellow team members,
please do pass it on as it is. Don’t try to add or delete words as it would earn you a bad name. No
one would trust you in future or come to your help whenever required. Remember honesty
always pays in the long run.

Think twice before you speak. Avoid using foul words against anyone at the workplace as it
spoils the ambience of the office and leads to several disputes among individuals. Don’t say
anything which would hurt anyone. Avoid lose talks. It is okay to enjoy at work but one should
never cross his limit. If you do not agree to anyone’s ideas, it is better to discuss things with him

rather being rude or harsh. Whatever you communicate has to be crisp, relevant and should make
sense. Don’t utter non sense at work. Be a little professional in your approach.

Important information should be passed on in the presence of each and every employee for
better clarity. Every employee should have the liberty to express his views and ideas. Don’t
expect you would clear your doubts later on, ask questions then and there. No one would feel
bad, rather appreciate your interest and attentiveness but do not jump in between. Do wait for
your turn to speak. Don’t meet anyone separately as the other person might feel neglected or left
out resulting in major displeasure and conflict among the team members. Do take care of your
pitch and tone. It should not be too loud.

Depend more on written modes of communication as they are more reliable as compared to
verbal communication. An individual might back out if the information is passed on to him
verbally as there are no records, but it never happens in written modes of communication. Prefer
passing on information through Emails. All the related team members must be marked a carbon
copy so that everyone knows what is being communicated to his fellow member. One should
master the art of writing emails. Remember an email is nothing but a mirror image of one’s
thoughts. Make sure that your mail is self-explanatory and everyone is clear about your ideas and

An employee needs to be constantly motivated to avoid a dip in his performance. If someone has
performed exceptionally well, do not hesitate to praise him. Words like “Well
done”,“Bravo”,“Great Performance” go a long way in making the individual happy. If you are
satisfied with your team member’s performance, do communicate your feelings to him.

Communicate effectively with your fellow team members and you would never have a problem
with anyone. People would respect you and work would be fun for you.

Employee relationship

Employee means an individual who works part time or fulltime under a contract of employment
whether oral or written, express or implied, and has recognized rights and duties.

Employees are one of the major stalk holders for every organization, both commercial and non
profit organizations. Employees give the best part of their lives to organization; there is therefore

a morale obligation to let them know how they are performing. At the same time organizations
have to measure the performance of all their resources unlike technology and capital. This
resource peoples has expectation and interests and they are manifested in behavior which
impacts performance.

Torrington and Hall (1998) refers to the relationship between employees and management as a
framework of organizational justice consisting of organizational culture and management style as
well as rules and procedural sequence for grievance and conflict management indeed, the
objective of employee relationship is to achieve harmonious employee relations and minimize
conflict practices in employment

Employee relationship techniques

A technique refers to approaches which are used to make considerable differences. Which
include the following, Through monetary rewards, Improving the quality of working conditions
plus job enrichment, promotion, credits for work done and job security create relationships with

Monetary rewards

According to Peter Drucker (1999) there was not enough evidence for the alleged turning away
from material rewards. Economic incentives were becoming right rather than rewards. There was
no doubt that we live in a money motivated world .Any amount of human relations cannot
compensate for lack of monetary rewards. Rewards could act as the catalyst for improved
performance and better productivity .They can be effective method to reward performance
excellence and reign force everyone alignment towards company goals Kottler P (1988)

Improving the quality of working condition plus job enrichment

Employees have aspirations and needs. This category focuses on the organizational efforts to
meet those aspiration and needs in relation to providing good working environment.

Promotion, credits for work done and job security create relationship with employees

Credit for work done this wants issues from the egoistic classification of needs and can be
supplied by management through verbal praise of excellence work, monetary rewards for
suggestions, and public recognition through rewards.

Job security because of the threats from technological change, this wants is high on the list of
priorities for many employees and lab our unions. The underlying need of general security is also
high on the list of priorities in the suggested need hierarchy of Maslow. Sultan kermally (1997).

Formal communication

At the center of any successful employee relationship is the important aspect of keeping
employees informed about general matters affecting their work role. Communication and
consultation within the organization contribute to increased understanding of management
actions. Misunderstandings arising from day-to-day activities and improved trust between
employers and employees.

Communication is a two way process that needs to be made for upward as well as for downward
communication .formal communication channels are those that are officially acknowledged and
approved, such as circulars, meetings, posters and so on.

According to Cole (1997) organizations should acknowledge the supreme importance of Formal
communication channels in the organization, and ensure that adequate mechanisms exists to
stimulates and channel the exchange of information, suggestions, feelings and opinions between
management and employees.

Greenbaum (1974) described four major purposes of organization communication. He identified

regulation purposes where communication is intended to ensure that employee behavior is
consistent with the goals of the organization.

Seconds innovation purposes whereby the organization seeks to change the way that things are
done. Third, integration purposes where the aim to encourage employees to identify with
organization and raise morale .Fourth, information purposes, which employees will need in order
to do their jobs. All these are important aspects that management uses to enhance business
processes within an organization and ensure that it remains as an entity

Cutter buck (1993) also added by identifying some roles of communication which they classify
as task communication, Educational and motivational communication.

Employee participation

This involves employees participating in decision making .Processes of an organization. The

employee participates in an organization through consultations, collective bargaining to workers.
Employee participation refers to the practice in which employees take part in management
decision and it is based on the assumption of community of interest between employer and
employee in furthering the long-term prospects of the enterprise and those working in it. The
British institute of management (1977).

Theories of Employee relationship

The human relations approach

This study manipulates a relationship between employees and management. It is believed that
employee’s management could stimulate more and better work, through boosting morale and
team spirit.

Elton mayo theory

The human relations movement began the Hawthorne experiments which was conducted from
1924 to 1933 at the Hawthorne plant of the western Electric company in Cicero, Elton mayo,
Known as the father of the Hawthorne studies, identified Effect or the bias that occurs when
people known that they are being studied. It was discovered that informal work group, social
environment of employees, the friendless and association with co-workers, flexible interactions
between bosses and employees, all these worked together to boost peoples productivity. Hence a
concept of social man motivated by social needs, wanting rewards, and the job relationship and
responding more to work group pressures than to management control was adopted by mayo and
his group.

Acceptance Theory
According to Chester Bernard (1968) He looked at the legitimacy of the supervisor directives
and the extent of the subordinates’ acceptance He developed the concepts of strategic planning
and the acceptance theory of authority. Strategic planning is the formulation of major plans or
strategies, which guide the organization to pursue its major objectives. His acceptance Theory of
authority states that managers only have as much authority as employees allow them to have.
The acceptance theory of authority suggests that authority flows downwards but depends on
acceptance by the subordinates

Douglas Mc Gregory Theory

Mc Gregor (1966) put forward a theory relating to the altitude of workers towards work and the
style of supervision. If an organization assumes that people do not like to work, do not want
responsibility and will avoid it if they can, there has to be very tight supervision of such workers.
Performance would be dependent on the style of supervision these were the theory x assumption.
On the other hand, if workers like to work and take responsibility and they perform better with
very little supervision then they should be allowed to work with a minimum of supervision and
direction. These were the theory y assumption

The Human resources theorists’ approach

The behavioral approach did not always increase productivity. Later researchers applied
psychology and social logy and anthropology in their researchers and came out with fundamental
improvements and approaches to management theory and practice. Thus, motivation and
leadership techniques became a topic of great interest. The human resource school under that
employees are very creative and competent, and that much of their talent is largely untapped by
their employers. Employees want meaningful work; they want to contribute, they want to
participate in decision making and leadership functions. It actually presented substantial
progression from human relation. These theories include the following.

The hierarchy of needs theory

The Hierarchy of needs theory advanced by Abraham Maslow (1943) contends that human
motives develop in a sequence according to the five levels of needs; physiological needs security
needs affiliation, esteem and need for self actualization. He concluded that when one set of needs
is satisfied, it ceases to be a motivator

The expectancy theory

Victor (1964) advanced the expectancy theory. He contends that people will be motivated to do
things to reach a goal if they believe in the worth of that goal and if they can see that what they
do will help them in achieving it. If employees wants to be promoted or to have a high salary
increase and he attaches a high value of the outcome and in addition, he feels that to achieve his
goal and is motivated to act accordingly to expectancy theory, is the result of employees making
choices depending on their goals and expectations

Herzberg theory

He found that job satisfaction was\related to employee’s achievement, recognition and taking
responsibility for their job. In other words job satisfaction was related to fulfilling higher level
needs. He called the factors that satisfy high needs motivators. Herzberg theory became very
influential. Many organizations adopted it and saw improvements. However, his critics point out
that there is no evidence of the relationship between employees’ satisfaction and productivity
and that his theory was too simplified to deal with complex situations.

The Equity theory

Developed by J. Stacy Adams it refers to an individual’s subjective judgment about the fairness
of the rewards she receives relatives to inputs such as effort, experience, and education, in
comparison with the rewards of others who fall under the same group. If the relations are
unequal then inequality will be perceived and will reduce the morale of the affected employees

Benefits of employee relationship

It promotes teamwork which achieves organization goals. Teams are collections of people who
must rely on group collaboration if each member is to experience the optimum of success and
goal achievement. Keith (1989).

Good employee’s relationships boost employee morale and encourage discipline among
employees. Hence reducing labor unrest like strikes which would affect organization

Good relationship with employees promotes motivation at work that is employees will be willing
to work. Motivation helps to increase the amount of commitment, which improves performance
and create a good company image.

Ways in which managers can create relationships with employees

1. Creating and maintaining employee motivation.

2. Obtaining commitment from the workforce,


3. Establishing mutually beneficially channels of communication throughout the


4. Achieving high level of efficiency.

5. Negotiating terms and conditions of employment with employees’ representative.

6. Sharing decisions making with employees and engaging in a power struggle with trade
unions. Likert B (1967)

Organization Performance
Organization performance is a function of employee performance. Organization effectiveness
depends on constantly improving the performance of organizational members and developing
and maintaining the human potential that serves as the backbone of the organization. Kerning
and Jaeger, (1990). Organization performance refers to how well an organization is performing.
Good performance is an indicator of success and development of all organizations. Today best
practices evaluate organizational performance in terms of financial results, Products innovations,
customer loyalty and people performance helps ensure organizational goals are being achieved
Armstrong (1987)

This is the ability to achieve organizational goals more effectively and efficiently. If an
organization is to meet its goals effectively and efficiently ways of accurately measuring
management performance must be implemented for performance to be effective employers
should recognize the legitimate desires and needs of employees for progress in their professions
Harold Koontz (1994) ways in which employees performance can be increased to achieve
organizational goals include proper incentives systems, these include financial incentives and
non financial incentives.

Performance is a major concern to all organizations. It’s the level at which an organization is
placed in a particular industry various measures are used to measure it, ranging from gross sales,
profit, market share ,competitive advantage and customer rating. Performance of an industry in

an economy could best be measured in terms of time taken to finish and costs incurred in relation
to the original planned project duration and financial budget Ubeku (1983).

The term performance will be used as a global concept that represents the results of
organizational activities. Effectiveness and efficiency will be reviewed as components of

Measures of performance
Performance refers to how well one does a piece of work or activity and the ability to bring about
desired results in the satisfactory manner. Good performance is an indicator of success and

The perspective of organizational performance is considered as a function of organization ability

to reach and maintain equilibrium with its environment

Performance dimension should be reduced to clear setting of targets. Measurable in quantity as

well as time and can be captured in an effective information system

According to Sultan (1997) business performance can be measured by many indicators for
instance asset base, market share, quality, customer satisfaction and profitability. He however
contends that satisfaction with using financial measures to gauge business performance has been
expressed by some researchers based on the intensity and nature of criticism directed at the
traditional accounting systems that are often harmful to the evaluation process. For purposes of
this study, organizational performance will be measured using profit figures
Characteristic of performing organization

Learning organizations
Poor organizational performance has been defined as characterizing of sluggishness, excess
bureaucracy and over control of organizations as frustrating the self development effort of
individual members and failing to capitalize on potential.

According to Margerison (1976) learning organizations which facilitate the learning of all its
members and continually transform itself in other words, they are organization where learning is
greater than, or at least equal to the rate of change that is taking place in the environment in

which it operates. It therefore seen as a way of keeping ahead of the competitors and gaining
competitive advantage.

Individual performance
There are individual variables that have been recognized as having a positive impact on
performance. These variables include commitment both attitudinal and behavioral,
empowerment, leadership, culture, Flexibility and learning. Keeney (1990) argues that the
organization will benefit from unleashing the reserves of lab our resourcefulness by facilitating
employee responsibility, commitment and involvement. Leadership, rather than management, is
often identified as one of the keys to a high performance organization. It is seen as the power to
inspire and motivate the ability to employees with the desire to change the organization and to be
the best.

Culture has also been linked to organizational effectiveness. Meek (1992) suggests that there is
an assumption that culture will unite all employees behind the stated goals of the business. He
further agrees that strong organizations cultures are associated with excellence.

Total quality management

According to Torrington and Hall (1997) Identified in their study of companies that those who
adapted TQM processes experienced overall better performance in terms of employee
relationship, productivity customer satisfaction, market share and improved productivity TQM is
therefore a long term strategy for improvement

Managing Organizational performance

Economy The cost of all the inputs of an organization. Organization should analyses all the
inputs and acquire them at least monetary cost. This is what sourcing globally is all about.
Because of globalization and development in telecommunication and computer technology,
access to global networks becomes possible and facilitates global sourcing.

Efficiency, efficiency refers to the relationship between input and output and it is usually
expressed as a ratio. Having obtained low costs inputs they should be utilized and deployed
productively. The focus should be on productivity producing more with same inputs or
producing more with same input or producing more with same inputs or producing more with
proportionally fewer inputs.

Employees As far as employees are concerned organizations should invest in their employees to
enable them to gain new competencies of the Organizations employees

Ethics leaders not only must lead but they also must follow depends on their own personnel
values and the values they want to impress upon the organizations they lead. Their values and
their mission will drive the performance of their organization.

Environment environmental considerations are acquiring more attention from various stalk
holders such as shareholders do press the company to publish regular audits, social and
environmental performance

Keep score of achievement and performance

Organizations need maps of their journey and destination they constantly have to review their
routes and keep score of their achievement. Score cards should incorporate various perspectives
that drive performance.

Professor Kaplan has given as the basic framework the responsibility falls on all organization to
adopt and adapt score cards according to their needs and the nature of their business.

Differentiate on the basis of your customers and employees

Organizations should not shift their focus from customers it is very easy and tempting to get
involved in measuring everything and get into the measuring trap thereby forgetting the
achievement of an organization. The differentiating factor in the new millenniums is going to be
focusing on customer retention, needs and loyalty. Yes, many organizations in the 1990s have
attempted to be customer driven, but paying service as some organizations have done, is not
enough the true measures of survival and performance is going to be customer retention and
loyalty. And it is important to bear in mind that it is not system but people who deliver customer

Relationship between employees and organizational performance

Employee relationship is the major factor determining the performance of employees. Good
relationship with employees can be created through motivating employees, effective
communication, good working conditions and effective communication .Deming (1997) as he
cited workforce as a major contributor to higher contributor to high productivity levels. A basic

obligation of employees is adequate performance. How well an employee fulfills his or her
obligation depends on the degree to which the management and the employees on what defines
satisfactory performance

The values, beliefs and behavior of the enterprises employees are held to occupy strategic role in
corporate success. All organization which aims at high performance need to have a policy
agenda to create relationship with their or working people, which support their business
objectives what this therefore calls for is to have an employee management relation.

Also Douglas Mc Gregor (1966) said staff contributed more to the organization if they were
treated as responsible and valued employees

George Elton mayo (1927) also stated that the need for recognition, security and sense of
belonging was more important in determining workers morale and productivity than the physical
conditions under which they work.

Building Good Employee Relations through Communication

Effective communication is essential to effective management. Many organisations are yet to

realize the power of communication when it comes to handling employee relations. Previously,
employee relations had been viewed as a forte of human resources, but nowadays, the
communication department is left to formulate and aid the HR department in executing strategic
communication in relation to employees.

Organisations mostly communicate with their employees on news and information, policy,
recruitment, staff development, conditions and other announcements. In the current competitive
work place, employees play a bigger role than just working for the organisation. They are also
key stakeholders of the organisation as they take up other roles such as customers, members of
the local community and shareholders. Communication with employees has now evolved to play
a more diverse role in fostering good relations to the point that it ceases to be a simple matter of
communicating on work related issues.

Good communication lays a good foundation for the success of the organisation. Poor
communication creates an atmosphere of uncertainty and vacillation in the workplace. By
effecting strategic communication practices in place, employees feel more motivated and
committed to the organisation. It is crucial to consider the message when formulating its content
as employees are likely to be concerned with what affects them. The first step in enhancing
employee relations is to conduct a communication audit to find out how the staff feels, how they
perceive their organisation’s culture and the way it communicates. This aids in the formulation
of effective and efficient communication strategies.

To maintain positive employee relations, organisations should employ an array of tactics for
employees to communicate their suggestions and apprehensions to management. This helps
employees to feel more engaged with the organisation and it minimizes the chances of issues
developing into crises.

The management should strive to engage with employees by meeting and talking with them. This
can be achieved by using a ‘management by walking around’ style whereby management walk
around the entire organisation, talking to the employees, organising social events which helps
create bonds and creating employee recognition and reward systems.

The Best Practices for Manager-Employee Relations


Good relationships between employer and employee don't just happen. They are the result of a
strategy and activities that employee relations managers design to improve communication
between employees and management. Employee relations managers create ways to boost
employees' attitudes. Best practices incorporate labor and employment laws, resourcefulness and
human resource expertise in developing practices that improve working relationships.

HR Access

One of the most effective ways to strengthen the employer-employee relationship is through face
time -- or, increasing the amount of personal interaction with employees. All too often, the
human resources department is situated in a remote and inaccessible area in the workplace. This
prevents employees from making a quick stop to ask human resources staff about benefits, taxes,
payroll and workplace issues. Best practices for employee relations include making human
resources more accessible to employees. Employee relations managers improve access to human
resources through modifying HR department hours to accommodate employee schedules and
talking to employees during regular walkthroughs of the worksite to put a face on human


Putting a face on human resources changes the perception of HR, which some employees
describe as the equivalent of going to the school principal's office. When the bulk of an
employee relations manager’s work is teaching supervisors and managers to administer
discipline and effect negative employment actions, employees understandably feel that HR's

function is not one of an employee advocate. Best practices implement and support activities that
improve the perception of human resources from an administrative-based department to one that
acts in the best interest of the organization, its workforce and individual employees. Treating
employees as internal customers is a big step in moving toward positive interaction with


Maintaining an open line of communication with upper management is an essential step in

improving the employer-employee relationship. Employee relations managers engage in periodic
exchanges with managers. Regular conversations about workplace strategy and the state of
human capital improve the possibility of HR being embraced as a integral member of the
organization's C-level leadership team. C-level leadership includes the chief management team,
meaning the chief executive officer, chief financial officer, chief information officer and chief
human resources officer. Gaining access to this elite group is an accomplishment aided by
employee relations managers who engage in communication best practices.

Employee Satisfaction

Managers who focus on employee relations devote a significant amount of their time to
measuring and ensuring job satisfaction. They use tools such as employee focus groups, surveys,
one-on-one conferences with supervisors, managers and exit interviews to determine the causes
of low employee morale. The most effective task employee relations managers have is
identifying what underlies employee satisfaction and resolving matters that cause dissatisfaction
in the workplace. That being said, best practices involve developing action plans and establishing
goals for correcting workplace problems -- always in a top-down direction with the support and
assistance of executive leadership.


Human Resource Policies alludes to standards and guidelines of direct which "figure, rethink,
break into subtleties and choose various activities" that administer the association with
representatives in the fulfillment of the association goals.

HR Policies cover the following:


1. Policy of procuring individuals with due regard to factors like reservations, sex, conjugal
status, and such.
2. Policy on terms and states of business pay arrangement and techniques, long periods of
work, additional time, advancement, exchange, lay-off and so forth.
3. Policy with respect medicinal help ailment advantages, ESI and organization health
4. Policy with respect to lodging, transport, uniform and recompenses.
5. Policy with respect to preparing and advancement requirement for, techniques for, and
recurrence of preparing and improvement.
6. Policy in regards to mechanical relations, worker's guild acknowledgment, aggregate
dealing, complaint system, participative administration and correspondence with laborers.


There are five principal sources for determining the content and meaning of policies:

1. Past practice in the association.

2. Prevailing practice in opponent organizations.
3. Frames of mind and rationality of organizers of the organization as likewise its executives and the
top administration.
4. Frames of mind and theory of center and lower the board.
5. The learning and experience picked up from taking care of incalculable work force issues on
everyday premise.


Organizations should have personnel policies as they ensure the following benefits:

 The work associated with detailing approaches necessitates that the administration give profound
idea to the fundamental needs of both the association and the representatives. The
administration must look at its fundamental feelings just as give full thought to the overarching
rehearses in different associations.

 Built up approaches guarantee reliable treatment of all staff all through the association.
Preference and separation are, in this manner, limited.
 Congruity of activity is guaranteed despite the fact that top administration staff change. The CEO
of an organization may have an exceptionally stable work force the board theory. He/she may
convey the approaches of the association in his/her head, and he she may apply them in a
completely reasonable way. Be that as it may, what happens when he/she resigns? The residency
of office of nay chief is limited. Be that as it may, the association proceeds. Arrangements advance
 Policies fill in as a standard of exhibition. Real outcomes can be contrasted with the arrangement
with decide how well the individuals from the association are living upto the expert aims.
 Sound policies help assemble worker inspiration and steadfastness. This is particularly evident
where the strategies reflect built up standards of reasonable play and equity and where they help
individuals develop inside the association.
 Sound policies help resolve intrapersonal, relational and intergroup clashes.


1. Principle of individual development is to offer full and equal opportunities to each employee to
realize his/her full potential.

2. Principle of scientific selection to select the right person for right job.

3. Principle of free flow of communication to keep all possibilities of communication open and
encourage upward, downward, horizontal, formal and informal communication.

4. Principle of participation to associate employee representatives at every level of the decision-


5. Principle of fair remuneration to pay fair and equitable wages and salaries commensuration with

6. Principle of incentive to recognize and reward good performance.


7. Principle of dignity of labour to treat every job and every employee with dignity and respect.

8. Principle of labour management co-operation to promote cordial industrial relations.

9. Principle of team spirit to promote co-operation and team spirit among employees.

Principle of contribution to national prosperity to give a higher purpose of work to all

employees and to contribute to national prosperity

Aspects of Employee Engagement

Three basic aspects of employee engagement according to the global studies are:-

 The employees and their own unique psychological make up and experience
 The employers and their ability to create the conditions that promote employee engagement
 Interaction between employees at all levels.
Thus it is largely the organization’s responsibility to create an environment and culture conducive
to this partnership, and a win-win equation.

Categories of Employee Engagemen

According to the Gallup the Consulting organization there are there are different types of people:-

Engaged--"Engaged" employees are builders. They want to know the desired

Expectations for their role so they can meet and exceed them. They're naturally curious about their
company and their place in it. They perform at consistently high levels. They want to use their
talents and strengths at work every day. They work with passion and they drive innovation and
move their organization forward

Not Engaged---Not-engaged employees tend to concentrate on tasks rather than the goals and
outcomes they are expected to accomplish. They want to be told what to do just so they can do it
and say they have finished. They focus on accomplishing tasks vs. achieving an outcome.
Employees who are not-engaged tend to feel their contributions are being overlooked, and their
potential is not being tapped. They often feel this way because they don't have productive
relationships with their managers or with their coworkers.

Actively Disengaged--The "actively disengaged" employees are the "cave dwellers." They're
"Consistently against Virtually Everything." They're not just unhappy at work; they're busy acting
out their unhappiness .They sow seeds of negativity at every opportunity. Every day, actively
disengaged workers undermine what their engaged coworkers accomplish. As workers
increasingly rely on each other to generate products and services, the problems and tensions that
are fostered by actively disengaged workers can cause great damage to an organization's

Importance of Engagement

Engagement is important for managers to cultivate given that disengagement or

alienation is central to the problem of workers’ lack of commitment and motivation (Aktouf).
Meaningless work is often associated with apathy and detachment from ones works (Thomas and
Velthouse). In such conditions, individuals are thought to be estranged from their selves (Seeman,
1972) .Other Research using a different resource of engagement (involvement and enthusiasm)
has linked it to such variables as employee turnover, customer satisfaction – loyalty, safety and to
a lesser degree, productivity and

profitability criteria (Harter, Schmidt & Hayes, 2002).

An organization’s capacity to manage employee engagement is closely related to its ability to

achieve high performance levels and superior business results. Some of the advantages of Engaged
employees are

 Engaged employees will stay with the company, be an advocate of the company and its
products and services, and contribute to bottom line business success.

 They will normally perform better and are more motivated.

 There is a significant link between employee engagement and profitability.
 They form an emotional connection with the company. This impacts their attitude towards
the company’s clients, and thereby improves customer satisfaction and service levels
 It builds passion, commitment and alignment with the organization’s strategies and goals
 Increases employees’ trust in the organization
 Creates a sense of loyalty in a competitive environment
 Provides a high-energy working environment
 Boosts business growth
 Makes the employees effective brand ambassadors for the company
A highly engaged employee will consistently deliver beyond expectations. In the

workplace research on employee engagement (Harter, Schmidt & Hayes, 2002) have repeatedly
asked employees ‘whether they have the opportunity to do what they do best everyday’. While one
in five employees strongly agree with this statement. Those work units scoring higher on this
perception have substantially higher performance.

Thus employee engagement is critical to any organization that seeks to retain valued employees.
The Watson Wyatt consulting companies has been proved that there is an intrinsic link between
employee engagement, customer loyalty, and profitability. As organizations globalize and become
more dependent on technology in a virtual working environment, there is a greater need to connect
and engage with employees to provide them with an organizational ‘identity.’

Factors Leading to Employee Engagement-

Studies have shown that there are some critical factors which lead to Employee

engagement. Some of them identified are

Career Development- Opportunities for Personal Development

Organizations with high levels of engagement provide employees with opportunities to develop
their abilities, learn new skills, acquire new knowledge and realize their Potential. When
companies plan for the career paths of their employees and invest in them in this way their people
invest in them.

Career Development – Effective Management of Talent

Career development influences engagement for employees and retaining the most

talented employees and providing opportunities for personal development.

Feeling Valued & Involved

Career Development- Opportunities for personal development

Career Development – Effective Management of talent

Leadership- Clarity of company Values

Leadership – Respectful treatment of employees

Leadership – Company’s standards of ethical behavior

Empowerment Image

Equal opportunities & fair treatment

Performance Appraisal

Pay & benefits

Health & Safety

Job satisfaction


Family friendliness


Leadership- Clarity of Company Values

Employees need to feel that the core values for which their companies stand are

unambiguous and clear.

Leadership – Respectful Treatment of Employees

Successful organizations show respect for each employee’s qualities and contribution –regardless
of their job level.

Leadership – Company’s Standards of Ethical Behavior

A company’s ethical standards also lead to engagement of an individual


Employees want to be involved in decisions that affect their work. The leaders of high engagement
workplaces create a trustful and challenging environment, in which employees are encouraged to
dissent from the prevailing orthodoxy and to input and innovate to move the organization forward.


How much employees are prepared to endorse the products and services which their company
provides its customers depends largely on their perceptions of the quality of those goods and
services. High levels of employee engagement are inextricably linked with high levels of customer

Other factors

Equal Opportunities and Fair Treatment

The employee engagement levels would be high if their bosses (superiors) provide equal
opportunities for growth and advancement to all the employees

Performance appraisal

Fair evaluation of an employee’s performance is an important criterion for determining the level
of employee engagement. The company which follows an appropriate performance appraisal
technique (which is transparent and not biased) will have high levels of employee engagement.

Pay and Benefits


The company should have a proper pay system so that the employees are motivated to work in the
organization. In order to boost his engagement levels the employees should also be provided with
certain benefits and compensations.

Health and Safety

Research indicates that the engagement levels are low if the employee does not feel secure while
working. Therefore every organization should adopt appropriate methods and systems for the
health and safety of their employees.

Job Satisfaction

Only a satisfied employee can become an engaged employee. Therefore it is very

essential for an organization to see to it that the job given to the employee matches his career goals
which will make him enjoy his work and he would ultimately be satisfied with his job.


The company should follow the open door policy. There should be both upward and downward
communication with the use of appropriate communication channels in the organization. If the
employee is given a say in the decision making and has the right to be heard by his boss than the
engagement levels are likely to be high.

Family Friendliness

A person’s family life influences his wok life. When an employee realizes that the

organization is considering his family’s benefits also, he will have an emotional attachment with
the organization which leads to engagement


If the entire organization works together by helping each other i.e. all the employees as well as the
supervisors co-ordinate well than the employees will be engaged.

How to measure Employee Engagement?


Gallup research consistently confirms that engaged work places compared with least engaged are
much more likely to have lower employee turnover, higher than average customer loyalty, above
average productivity and earnings. These are all good things that prove that engaging and involving
employees make good business sense and building shareholder value. Negative workplace
relationships may be a big part of why so many employees are not engaged with their jobs.

Step I: Listen

The employer must listen to his employees and remember that this is a continuous process. The
information employee’s supply will provide direction. This is the only way to identify their specific
concerns. When leaders listen, employees respond by becoming more engaged. This results in
increased productivity and employee retention. Engaged employees are much more likely to be
satisfied in their positions, remain with the company, be promoted, and strive for higher levels of

Step II: Measure current level of employee engagement

Employee engagement needs to be measured at regular intervals in order to track its contribution
to the success of the organization.

But measuring the engagement (feedback through surveys) without planning how to handle the
result can lead employees to disengage. It is therefore not enough to feel the pulse—the action plan
is just as essential.


The concept of motivation:

The word inspiration has been gotten from intention which implies any thought, need or feeling
that advances a man without hesitation. Whatever might be the conduct of man, there is some
improvement behind it .Stimulus is reliant upon the intention of the individual concerned. Intention
can be known by concentrate his needs and wants.

There is no general hypothesis that can clarify the variables affecting thought processes which
control keeps an eye on conduct at a specific purpose of time. By and large, the diverse thought
processes work at various occasions among various individuals and impact their practices. The

procedure of inspiration thinks about the intentions of people which cause distinctive sort of

Meaning of motivation:

Inspiration has been differently characterized by researchers. Typically at least one of

these words are incorporated into the definition: wants, needs, points, objectives, drives, motion
pictures and motivating forces. Inspiration is gotten from the Latin word 'Proceed onward' which
signifies "to move".

Human intentions are disguised objectives inside people. A thought process is an inward express
that energies actuates, or moves and coordinates or channels conduct towards objectives.


1. Motivation is the unpredictable powers beginning and keeping a man at work in the
2. Motivation is the different drives inside or natural powers encompassing person that animate
or draw in them in a particular way.
3. Motivation is the specialty of understanding thought processes fulfilling them to coordinate
and manage conduct towards the achievement of association objectives.
4. Motivation is the way toward working hierarchical conditions which will affect representatives
of any feeling or want task one's will and inciting or driving at it to activity.

Inspiration comprises of the three communication and related components of necessities, drives
and objectives.


These are the deficient, and create whenever there is a physiological or psychological

Drive or motives:

These are set to alleviate needs. These are action oriented and provide an energizing thrust
toward goal accomplishment. They are the very heart of the motivation process.


Goals are anything which will alleviate a need and reduce a drive.

Nature of motivation:

Following are some of the characteristics of motivation derive from the definitions given
by various authors.

1. Based on motives: Motivation is base on individuals motive which are internal to individual.
These motives are in the form of feeling that the individual lacks something.

2. Goal directed behavior: Motivation Leads to goal directed behavior. A goal directed behavior
is one which satisfied the causes for which behavior takes place. Motivation has profound
influence on human behavior.

3. Related to satisfaction: Motivation is related to satisfaction. Satisfaction is refers to the

contentment experiences of an individual which we derives out of needs fulfillment.

4. Complex process: Motivation is a complex process; complexity emerges because of the nature
if needs a types of behavior that need attempted to satisfied those needs.

Significance of Motivation:

Inspiration includes getting the individuals from the gathering to pull weight viably, to give their
faithfulness to the gathering, to complete legitimately the motivation behind the association. The
accompanying outcomes might be normal if the representatives are appropriately spurred.

1. The workforce will be better fulfilled if the administration furnishes them with chances to
satisfy their physiological and mental needs. The laborers will coordinate intentionally with
the administration and will contribute their most extreme towards the objectives of the
2. Workers will in general be as effective as conceivable by enhancing their aptitudes and
information with the goal that they can add to the advancement of the association. This will
likewise result in expanded efficiency.
3. The rates of work's turnover and non-attendance among the specialists will be low.

4. There will be great human relations in the association as rubbing among the specialists
themselves and between the laborers and the administration will diminish.
5. The number of dissensions and complaints will descend. Mishap will likewise be low.
There will be increment in the amount and nature of items. Wastage and scrap will be less. Better
nature of items will likewise expand the general population picture of the business

Types of needs:

There are numerous necessities which an individual may have and there are different
manners by which might be arranged? Requirements might be characteristic, natural wonder in an
individual or these may create over the timeframe through learning. In this way, need might be
assembled into 3 classifications:

1. Primary need
2. Secondary need
3. General needs

1) Primary needs: These are also known as physiological, biological, basic, or unclear needs.
These needs are common in human beings through their intensity differs.

2) Secondary needs: As contrast to primary needs, these are not natural but are learned by the
individual through experience and interaction. Emergency of these needs depends in learning.

3) General needs: Through a separate classification for general needs is not always given, such a
category seems necessary because there are a number of needs which lie in the grey area between
the primary and secondary needs. In fact, there are certain needs such as need for competence,
curiosity, manipulation, affection, etc.

Theories of Motivation:

Understanding what propelled representatives and how they were roused was the focal
point of numerous scientists following the distribution of the Hawthorne think about outcomes
(Terpstra, 1979). Six noteworthy methodologies that have prompted our comprehension of
inspiration are McClelland's Achievement Need Theory, Behavior Modification hypothesis;

Abraham H Mallows require progressive system or Deficient hypothesis of inspiration. J.S.

Adam's Equity Theory, Vroom's Expectation Theory, Two factor Theory.

McClelland’s Achievement Need Theory:

According to McClelland there are three types of needs

Need for Achievement (n Ach):

This need is the most grounded and enduring propelling component. Especially if there
should arise an occurrence of people who fulfill alternate needs. They are always pre involved with
a longing for development and need for circumstance in which effective results are
straightforwardly associated with their endeavors. They set more troublesome yet achievable
objectives for themselves since progress with effectively achievable objectives barely gives a
feeling of accomplishment

Need for Power (n Pow):

It is the craving to control the conduct of the other individuals and to control the
environment. Power inspirations positive applications results in household administration style,
while it negative application tends absolutist style.

Need for affiliation (n Aff):

It is the related to social needs and creates friendship. This results in formation of informal
groups or social circle.

Behavioral Modification Theory:

As indicated by this hypothesis individuals conduct is the result of great and ominous past
conditions. This hypothesis depends on learning hypothesis. Skinner directed his examines
among rodents and school youngsters. He discovered that improvement for alluring conduct
could be fortified by remunerating it at the soonest. In the modern circumstance, this significance
of this hypothesis might be found in the establishment of budgetary and non monetary
motivating forces.

More quick is the reward and incitement or it persuades it. Withdrawal of remuneration
incase of low standard work may likewise deliver the coveted outcome. In any case, looks into

demonstrate that it is by and large more compelling to remunerate wanted conduct than to rebuff
undesired conduct. The water yet you can't drive it to drink; it will drink just if it's parched - so
with individuals. They will would what they like to do or something else.

Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of human needs :

This hypothesis is the most generally examined hypothesis of inspiration.

The hypothesis can be abridged as subsequently:

Human creatures have needs and wants which impact their conduct; just unsatisfied

necessities can impact conduct, fulfilled requirements can't.

Since needs are many, they are orchestrated arranged by significance, from the

essential to the complex.

The individual advances to the following level of requirements simply after the

lower Level need is at any rate insignificantly fulfilled.

The assist the advancement up the chain of importance, the greater singularity,

humanness and mental wellbeing a man will appear.

The needs, listed from basic (lowest, earliest) to most complex (highest, Latest) are as


 Self actualization

 Self esteem

 Social

 Safety & security

 Physiological

J.S Adams Equity Theory :

Worker thinks about her/his activity inputs result proportion with that of reference. In the event
that the representative sees disparity, she/he will act to remedy the imbalance: bring down
efficiency, lessened quality, expanded non-attendance, deliberate abdication.

Vroom’s Expectation Theory:

Vroom’s theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and
performance will lead to rewards (Vroom, 1964). Reward may be either positive or negative. The
more positive the reward the more likely the employee will be highly motivated. Conversely, the
more negative the reward the less likely the employee will be motivated.

Types of motivation:

There are 2 types of motivation. They are

1. Positive motivation.
2. Negative motivation.
Positive motivation is a process of attempting to influence others to do your will through the
possibility of gain or reward. Incentive motivation is the pull mechanism.

Negative motivation or fear motivation is based force or fear. Fear causes person to act in a
certain way because they are afraid of the consequences if they don’t Fear motivation is the push

The target of inspiration is to make condition in which individuals are readily to work with
energy, activity, intrigue and eagerness, with a high close to home and gathering.

Moral fulfillment with an awareness of other's expectations, unwaveringness and discipline and
with pride and trust in a most firm way so the objective of an association are accomplished


The activity of a director in the work environment is to complete things through representatives.
To do this the chief ought to have the capacity to intention workers. To comprehend inspiration
one must comprehend human instinct itself. Human instinct can be extremely straightforward,
yet exceptionally complex as well. A comprehension and valuation for this is an essential of
powerful representative inspiration in the working environment and in this manner compelling
administration and authority.

Inspiration is the way to execution enhancement:

Execution is viewed as a useful enhancement:

Occupation execution =f (capacity) (inspiration)

Capacity thusly relies upon instruction, experience and preparing and its enhancement is a
moderate and long process. Then again it very well may be enhanced rapidly. As a rule, there are
extensively 7 techniques for inspiration.

 Positive reinforcement
 Effective discipline and punishment
 Treating people fairly
 Satisfying employee needs
 Setting work related goals
 Restructuring job
 Based rewards on job performance
Basic principles to remember by manager for motivating employees:

1. Motivating workers begins with inspiring yourself

2. Always work to adjust objectives of the association to objectives of
3. Key to help the inspiration of your representatives comprehends what spurs every
one of them.
4. Recognize that supporting representatives inspiration is a procedure, not an

5. Support representative's arrangements by utilizing inspiration by association

Worker motivation must also be viewed from 2 perspectives:

1. Inner drive
2. Outer (external) motivators.
A man's internal drives push and impel him/her towards a business, a specific occupation,
profession, line of study, or other action. The external (outer) sparks are the identical
representation the business or outside world offers in light of the inward drives. With the end
goal to pull in the "cream of the product" of accessible specialists, same as in his/her dealings
with clients, the business not just attempts to fulfill these fundamental needs singular laborers

Most workers need to

1. Earn wages that will empower them to pay for essential necessities and extra
extravagances, for example, the buy of a home, or travel
2. Save for and appreciate seniority security benefits
3. Have medicinal and other protection inclusion
4. Acquire companions at work
5. Win acknowledgment
6. Be recognize and compensated for uncommon endeavors and commitments
7. Be ready to progress throughout everyday life and profession shrewd
8. Have open doors for self-improvement
9. Improve their aptitudes, learning, and know-how
10. Realize their ideal(s)
The employer responds to those needs by offering and providing:

1. Employment
2. Adequate pay
3. Assistance to workers for their special needs (such as child care arrangements,
transportation, flexible work schedule).

4. Job security
5. Clear company policies
6. Clear and organized work procedures
7. A safe work environment
8. Medical coverage and other benefits
9. An atmosphere of team work and cooperation
10. Social activities
11. Reward and recognition programs
12. Open lines of communication programs
13. Systematic feedback
14. Motivation programs
15. Opportunities for promotion
16. Company/business information
17. Information on customer feedback
18. Sharing of company goals and objectives
19. Information on the market situation and industry
Future expectations

It is critical that the business find other phenomenal requirements candidates have before enlisting
them and know previously whether she/he can fulfill those necessities or not. A worker may have:

• Family obligations and be not able work shifts, after some time, or ends of the week.

• Heavy money related duties which he/she can meet just by working at 2 employments, prompting
weariness, "debilitated leave", a lacking work execution

• An edgy budgetary requirement for extra additional time and end of the week compensation

• Premature desires for quick advancements.

In addition to needs and drives, workers have expectations from their employer-they expect:

 A knowledgeable, experienced, expert employer

 Clear and fair policies, procedures, and employment practices
 Business integrity

 Clear job description

 Two-way communication
 Effective management and supervision
 Positive discipline
 Good company repute
 Good customer relations
 Company survival
 Opportunity for personal growth
 Company growth
 A share in the company’s success.
The greater part of these requirements, desires and yearnings are unexpressed-it is up to the
business to build up a decent arrangement of organization interchanges, representative relations,
Motivation that will prompt a situation of transparency, collaboration, cooperation, and
inspiration that will profit every one of the gatherings included.

Motivational methods:

1. Building confidence:

Facing a challenge, meeting it and mastering it help build confidence.

2. Team building:

Team unite and work together when they identify a common purpose whether the aim is
the tallest tower made out of newspaper, or a game of rounder’s on the park. Competition in
teams or groups creates teams and ignites team effort

Coaching and Training:

Games and activities provide a perfect vehicle for explaining the Motivation process
(‘train the trainer’ for example) to managers, team leaders and trainers.

4. Personal motivation style and learning:


Everyone is different. Taking part in new games and activities outside of the work
situation illustrates people’s different strengths and working style preferences. Mutual respect
develops when people see skills and attributes in others that they didn’t know existed.

5. Continual development:

Introducing people, staff or employees to new experiences opens their minds to new
avenues of personal development, and emphasizes the opportunity for continuous learning that is
available to us all.

6. Improving empathy and communications for motivation

To communicate we must understanding the other person. Empathy and intuitive skills
are right-side brain of the brain, which we use when we communicate and understand others.
Team activities and games promote communications and better mutual understanding-essential
for good organizational performance.


Effective employee retention is a systematic effort by employers to create and foster an

environment that encourages current employees to remain employed, by having policies and
practices in place that address their diverse needs. A strong retention strategy, therefore, becomes
a powerful recruitment tool.

Retention of key employees is critical to the long-term health and success of any organization. It
is a known fact that retaining the best employees ensures customer satisfaction, increased product
sales, satisfied colleagues and reporting staff, effective succession planning, and deeply embedded
organizational knowledge and learning. Employee retention matters as organizational issues such
as training time and investment, lost knowledge, insecure employees, and a costly candidate search
are involved. Hence, failing to retain a key employee is a costly proposition for an organization.
Various estimates suggest that losing a middle manager in most organizations costs up to five
times his salary.

Intelligent employers always realize the importance of retaining the best talent. Retaining talent
has never been so important in the Indian scenario; however, things have changed in recent years.
In prominent Indian metros at least, there is no dearth of opportunities for the best in the business,
or even for the second or third best. Retention of key employees and treating attrition troubles has
never been so important to companies.

In an intensely competitive environment where HR managers are poaching from each other,
organizations can either hold on to their employees tight or lose them to competition. For gone are
the days when employees would stick to an employer for years for want of a better choice. Now,
opportunities are abound. In fact, some reports suggest that attrition levels in IT companies are as
high as 40 percent. Though BPO industry shoots ahead at 40 to 50 percent a year, it is now losing
35 to 40percent of its 350,000-odd employees as well.

In India, there are few sectors where the attrition level is much larger compared to other sectors,
for example, IT sector and BPO; whereas, there are organizations like Air India, HAL, DRDO,
BARC where the attrition is much lower nearly 5% or less than that. Clearly, the only way out is
to develop appropriate effective retention strategies.

Employee turnover is one of the largest though widely unknown costs an organization faces. While
companies routinely keep track of various costs such as supplies and payroll, few take into
consideration how much employee turnover will cost them: Ernst & Young estimates it costs
approximately $120,000 to replace 10 professionals. According to research done by Sibson &
Company, to recoup the cost of losing just one employee a fast food restaurant

must sell 7,613 combo meals at $2.50 each. Employee turnover costs companies 30 to 50% of the
annual salary of entry-level employees, 150% of middle-level employees, and up to 400% for
upper level, specialized employees. Now that so much is being done by organizations to retain its
employees. Why is retention so important? Is it just to reduce the turn over costs ?

Well, the answer is a definite no. It’s not only the cost incurred by a company that emphasizes the
need of retaining employees but also the need to retain talented employees from getting poached.

Retention involves five major things:

 Compensation

 Environment
 Growth
 Relationship
 Support

Compensation constitutes the largest part of the employee retention process. The employees
always have high expectations regarding their compensation packages. Compensation
packages vary from industry to industry. So an attractive compensation package plays a critical
role in retaining the employees. Compensation includes salary and wages, bonuses, benefits,
prerequisites, stock options, bonuses, vacations, etc. While setting up the packages, the
following components should be kept in mind:

 Salary and monthly wage: It is the biggest component of the compensation package.
It is also the most common factor of comparison among employees.
It includes:

· Basic wage
· House rent allowance
· Dearness allowance
· City compensatory allowance
Salary and wages represent the level of skill and experience an individual has. Time
to time increase in the salaries and wages of employees should be done. And this

increase should be based on the employee’s performance and his contribution to

the organization.

Bonus: Bonuses are usually given to the employees at the end of the year or on a
festival. Economic benefits: It includes paid holidays, leave travel concession, etc.

Long-term incentives: Long term incentives include stock options or stock grants.
These incentives help retain employees in the organization's start up stage.

Health insurance: Health insurance is a great benefit to the employees. It saves employees money

as well as gives them a peace of mind that they have somebody

 to take care of them in bad times. It also shows the employee that the organization cares
about the employee and its family.

 After retirement: It includes payments that an Employee gets after he retires like EPF
(Employee Provident Fund) etc.

 Miscellaneous compensation: It may include employee assistance programs (like

psychological counselling, legal assistance etc), discounts on company products, use
of a company cars, etc.


It is not about managing retention. It is about managing people. If an organization manages

people well, employee retention will take care of itself. Organizations should focus on

managing the work environment to make better use of the available human assets. People
want to work for an organization which provides

 Appreciation for the work done

 Ample opportunities to grow
 A friendly and cooperative environment
 A feeling that the organization is second home to the employee

Organization environment includes

 Culture
 Values
 Company reputation
 Quality of people in the organization
 Employee development and career growth
 Risk taking
 Leading technologies
 Trust

Types of environment the employee needs in an organization

 Learning environment
It includes continuous learning and improvement of the individual, certifications and
provision for higher studies, etc.

 Support environment
Organization can provide support in the form of work-life balance. Work life

balance includes:

 Flexible hours

 Telecommuting
 Dependent care
 Alternate work schedules
 Vacations
 Wellness

 Work environment
It includes efficient managers, supportive co-workers ,challenging work, involvement
in decision-making, clarity of work and responsibilities, and recognition. Lack or
absence of such environment pushes employees to look for new opportunities. The
environment should be such that the employee feels connected to the organization in
every respect.

Growth and Career Growth and development

are the integral part of every individual’s career. If an employee can not foresee his path of
career development in his current organization, there are chances that he’ll leave the
organization as soon as he gets an opportunity. The important factors in employee growth
that an employee looks for himself are:

 Work profile
The work profile on which the employee is working should be in sync with his
capabilities. The profile should not be too low or too high.

 Personal growth and dreams

Employees responsibilities in the organization should help him achieve his personal
goals also. Organizations can not keep aside the individual goals of employees and
foster organizations goals. Employees’ priority is to work for themselves and later on
comes the organization. If he’s not satisfied with his growth, he’ll not be able to
contribute in organization growth.

 Training and development

Employees should be trained and given chance to improve and enhance their skills.
Many employers fear that if the employees are well rained, they’ll leave the
organization for better jobs. Organization should not limit the resources on which
organization’s success depends.

These trainings can be given to improve many skills like:

Communications skills

 Technical skills
 In-house processes and procedures improvement related skills or customer
satisfaction related skills
 Special project related skills
 Need for such trainings can be recognized from individual performance reviews,
individual meetings, employee satisfaction surveys and by being in constant touch with
the employees.
 Importance of Relationship in Employee Retention Program Sometimes the
relationship with the management and the peers becomes the reason for an employee
to leave the organization. The management is sometimes not able to provide an
employee a supportive work culture and environment in terms of personal or
professional relationships. There are times when an employee starts feeling bitterness
towards the management or peers.
 This bitterness could be due to many reasons. This decreases employee’s interest and
he becomes demotivated. It leads to less satisfaction and eventually attrition. A

supportive work culture helps grow employee professionally and boosts employee


To enhance good professional relationships at work, the management should keep

the following points in mind.

Respect for the individual: Respect for the individual is the must in the organization.

 Relationship with the immediate manager

A manger plays the role of a mentor and a coach. He designs and plans work for
each employee. It is his duty to involve the employee in the processes of the
organization. So an organization should hire managers who can make and maintain
good relations with their subordinates.

 Relationship with colleagues

Promote team work, not only among teams but in different departments as well.
This will induce competition as well as improve the Relationship among

 Recruit whole heartedly

An employee should be recruited if there is a proper place and duties for him to
perform. Otherwise he’ll feel useless and will be dissatisfied. Employees should
know what the organization expects from them and what their expectation from the
organization is. Deliver what is promised. Promote an employee based culture: The

employee should know that the organization is there to support him at the time of
need. Show them that the organization cares and he’ll show the same for the
organization. An employee based culture may

include decision making authority, availability of resources, open door policy,


 Individual development
Taking proper care of employees includes acknowledgement to the employee’s
dreams and personal goals. Create opportunities for their career growth by
providing mentorship programs, certifications, educational courses, etc.

 Induce loyalty
Organizations should be loyal as well as they should promote loyalty in the
employees too. Try to make the current employees stay instead of recruiting new


Support Lack of support from management can sometimes serve as a reason for
employee retention. Supervisor should support his subordinates in a way so that
each one of them is a success. Management should try to focus on its employees
and support them not only in their difficult times at work but also through the times
of personal crisis. Management can support employees by providing them
recognition and appreciation. Employers can also provide valuable feedback to

employees and make them feel valued to the organization. The feedback from
supervisor helps the employee to feel more responsible, confident and empowered.
Top management can also support its employees in their personal crisis by
providing personal loans during emergencies, childcare services, employee
assistance Programs, counselling services, etc.

Employers can also support their employees by creating an environment of trust

and inculcating the organizational values into employees.

Thus employers can support their employees in a number of ways as follows:

 By providing feedback
 By giving recognition and rewards
 By counselling them
 By providing emotional support


The challenge of keeping employees, its changing face has stumped managers and business owners
alike. How do you manage this challenge? How do you build a workplace that employees want to
remain with and outsiders want to be hired into? Successful managers and business owners ask
themselves these and other questions because, simply put, employee retention matters.

High turnover often leaves customers and employees in the lurch; departing employees take a great
deal of knowledge with them. This lack of continuity makes it hard for the organizations to meet
their goals and serve customers well. Replacing employee costs money. The cost of replacing an
employee is estimated at up to twice the individual’s annual salary (higher for positions based on
their level within the inter-organizational hierarchy, such as middle management) and this does
not even include the cost of lost knowledge.

Recruiting employees consumes a great deal of time and effort, much of it futile. There is not just
one organization out there vying for qualified employees, and job searchers make decisions based
on more than the sum of salary and benefits.

Bringing employees up to speed takes even more time and when an organization is short-staffed,
they often need to put in extra time to get the work done.



To keep employees and keep their satisfaction levels high, any organization needs to implement
each of the three R’s of employee retention: respect, recognition, and rewards.

Respect is esteem, special regard, or particular consideration given to people. As the pyramid
shows, respect is the foundation of keeping your employees. Recognition and rewards will have
little effect if you do not respect employees.

Recognition is defined as “special notice or attention” and “the act of perceiving clearly.” Many
problems with retention and morale occur because management is not paying attention to people’s
needs and reactions.

Rewards are the extra perks you offer beyond the basics of respect and recognition that make it
worth people’s while to work hard, to care, to go beyond the call of duty. While rewards represent
the smallest portion of the retention equation, they are still an important one.

You determine the precise methods you choose to implement the three R's, but in general, respect
should be the largest component of your efforts.

Without it, recognition and rewards seem hollow and have little effect – or they have

negative effects. The magic truly is in the mix of the three. When implemented, the “3 R's”
approach yields reduced turnover and the following benefits:

 Increased productivity,
 Reduced absenteeism,
 A more pleasant work environment (for both employees and management/employer),
 Improved profits.
Furthermore, an employer who implements the three R's will create a hard-to-leave workplace,
one known as having more to offer employees than other employers. It becomes a hard-to-leave
workplace – one with a waiting list of applicants for any position that becomes available –
purposefully, one day at a time.

Meaning of Human Resource Management:

A business unit needs employees to look after different activities. This is called manpower
or human resource. Such human resource needs to be developed fully so that it will make

positive contribution for the progress and prosperity of a business unit. For this systematic
development and management of human resources is necessary. Human Resource
Management (HRM) deals with:

(a) Training

(b) Self-development

(c) Promotions

(d) Performance appraisal of manpower recruited in an organization.

HRM is an organized learning experience aimed at matching the organizational need for career
growth and development. It is a process involving series of learning activities designed to
acquire desired level of competence among employees. HRM is a continuous process and it
needs money. Such investment creates a team of efficient, skilled and trained manpower which
brings success and stability to a business unit. HRM programmes offer long term benefits to an

Characteristics of Human Resource Management:

Upgrading Manpower:

HRM is basically concerned with the upgrading of manpower working in an organization.

This leads to improvement in the individual performance of an employee and also
corresponding improvement in the organizational performance.

Stress on Training:

HRM includes various schemes arranged for providing education, guidance, training and
opportunities to learn and develop employees of all categories and working in different
departments. There is an integrated use of sub-systems (training, career developments,
organizational development) in the HRM programme.

Attention to learning and career development:

Learning, self-development, career developments are possible through HRM programmes.


These are the core areas of HRM. Career development is possible through joining training
courses, reading books and periodicals. Learning and career development raise the capacity
of employees to work at highest levels. They are given higher positions with monetary

Organizational Development:

HRM includes organizational development, which includes effective communication within

the organization, coordination of different activities elimination of conflicts of different
types and creation of orderly atmosphere in the whole organization.

Team Spirit

HRM is basically for developing team spirit in the whole organization. For this, departments
and levels of management are properly integrated. Team spirit facilitates orderly growth of
the organization in the right direction.

Huge spending by Management:

All companies invest huge money on HRM activities but such expenditure is absolutely
essential for survival in the present competitive business world. HRM programmes create
matured, skilled and efficient manpower, which is a valuable asset of a business unit.

Termination of Employment:

Termination is an unpleasant part of any manager‘s job. Employees occasionally must be

terminated for breaking rules of failing to perform adequately

Need and Importance of Human Resource Management

To create stable labor force:

HRM programmes are needed in order to create stable, efficient, skilled and matured manpower
required by an enterprise for the present and future period.

To update the quality of manpower:


HRM activities are needed for updating the quality of manpower as per the growing and
changing needs of an enterprise. This avoids managerial obsolescence. Even the vacancies
at higher levels can be filled in internally due to HRM programmes as they provide training
and opportunities of self-development to employees working at lower levels.

To develop strength for survival:

HRM programmes are necessary for survival in the present competitive marketing
environment. An enterprise can face market competition only by improving quality,
reducing costs and avoiding wastages. All this is possible through HRM.

To face challenges of technological changes:

Technological changes are taking place rapidly in every area of business. HRM programmes
are needed in order to absorb technological changes taking place with speed. In fact,
introduction of new technology, computers, automation, etc. will not be possible unless
training is provided to the manpower.

To satisfy the demand of self-development of employees:

HRM is needed to meet the needs of employees in regard to self-development and career
development aspirations. Employees demand, training facilities, refresher courses,
promotions and transfers, career guidance, etc. for their self-development. HRM
programmes are needed to fulfill self-development and career development of employees.

To meet future manpower needs:

HRM is needed to meet the future manpower needs of the organization. Executives,
managers, supervisors leave the job or retire due to age factor. Competent juniors must take
their positions. HRM is needed in order to keep ready a team of competent managers as a
second line of defence.

To facilitate expansion and diversification:

HRM activities are needed to meet the manpower requirements resulting from expansion

and diversification programmes undertaken at the enterprise level. Attention should be given
to HRM much before the introduction of expansion programme.

To utilize production capacity fully:

HRM is needed in order to use the available production capacity to the optimum level. It
provides skilled manpower for this purpose




Nissan Motor Co., Ltd is a Japanese multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered

in Nishi-ku, Yokohama. The company sells its cars under the Nissan, Infiniti, and Datsun brands
with in-house performance tuning products labelled Nismo. The company traces its name to the
Nissan zaibatsu, now called Nissan Group.

Since 1999, Nissan has been part of the Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance, a partnership
between Nissan of Japan, Mitsubishi Motors of Japan and Renault of France. As of 2013,
Renault holds a 43.4% voting stake in Nissan, while Nissan holds a 15% non-voting stake in
Renault. From 2009 to 2017 Carlos Ghosn served as CEO of both companies. In February 2017
Ghosn announced he would step down as CEO of Nissan on 1 April 2017, while remaining
chairman of the company.On 19 November 2018, Ghosn was fired as chairman following his
arrest for the alleged underreporting of his income to Japanese financial authorities.

In 2013, Nissan was the sixth largest automaker in the world, after Toyota, General
Motors, Volkswagen Group, Hyundai Motor Group, and Ford. Taken together, the Renault–
Nissan Alliance would be the world's fourth largest automaker. Nissan is the leading Japanese
brand in China, Russia and Mexico.

In 2014 Nissan was the largest car manufacturer in North America.

Nissan is the world's largest electric vehicle (EV) manufacturer, with global sales of more than
320,000 all-electric vehicles as of April 2018. The top-selling vehicle of the car-maker's fully
electric lineup is the Nissan LEAF, an all-electric car and the world's top-selling highway-
capable plug-in electric car in history.

In January 2018, Nissan CEO Hiroto Saikawa announced that all Infiniti vehicles launched from
2021 will be hybrid vehicles or all-electric vehicles


Beginnings of Datsun brand name from 1914

Masujiro Hashimoto founded the Kaishinsha Motor Car Works (Kaishinsha jidōsha kōjō A
Good Company Automobile Manufacturer) 1 July 1911; 107 years ago in Tokyo's Azabu-
Hiroo district, Japan's first automobile manufacturer. In 1914, the company produced its first car,
called DAT.

The new car's model name was an acronym of the company's investors' surnames:

 Kenjiro Den (Den Kenjirō)

 Rokuro Aoyama (Aoyama Rokurō)
 Meitaro Takeuchi (Takeuchi Meitarō)

It was renamed to Kaishinsha Motorcar Co., Ltd. in 1918, and again to DAT Jidosha & Co.,
Ltd. (DAT Motorcar Co.) in 1925. DAT Motors built trucks in addition to the DAT and Datsun
passenger cars. The vast majority of its output were trucks, due to an almost non- existent
consumer market for passenger cars at the time, and disaster recovery efforts as a result of
the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake. Beginning in 1918, the first DAT trucks were produced for the
military market. At the same time, Jitsuyo Jidosha Co., Ltd. (jitsuyo means practical use or
utility) produced small trucks using parts, and materials imported from the United States.

Commercial operations were placed on hold during Japan's participation in World War I, and the
company contributed to the war effort.

In 1926 the Tokyo-based DAT Motors merged with the Osaka-based Jitsuyo Jidosha Co.,
Ltd (Jitsuyō Jidōsha Seizō Kabushiki-Gaisha) a.k.a. Jitsuyo Jidosha Seizo(established 1919 as
a Kubota subsidiary) to become DAT Jidosha Seizo Co., Ltd Automobile Manufacturing Co.,
Ltd. (ダット自動車製造株式会社 DAT Jidōsha Seizō Kabushiki-Gaisha) in Osaka until 1932.
From 1923 to 1925, the company produced light cars and trucks under the name of Lila.

In 1931, DAT came out with a new smaller car, called the Datsun Type 11, the first "Datson",
meaning "Son of DAT". Later in 1933 after Nissan Group zaibatsu took control of DAT Motors,
the last syllable of Datson was changed to "sun", because "son" also means "loss" ) in Japanese,
hence the name "Datsun" (ダットサン Dattosan).

In 1933, the company name was Nipponized to Jidosha-Seizo Co., Ltd. (Jidōsha Seizō
Kabushiki-Gaisha, "Automobile Manufacturing Co., Ltd.") and was moved to Yokohama.

Nissan name first used in 1930s

In 1928, Yoshisuke Aikawa (nickname: Gisuke/Guisuke Ayukawa) founded the holding

company Nihon Sangyo (日本産業 Japan Industries or Nihon Industries). The name 'Nissan'
originated during the 1930s as an abbreviation used on the Tokyo Stock

Exchange for Nihon Sangyo. This company was Nissan "Zaibatsu" which included Tobata
Casting and Hitachi. At this time Nissan controlled foundries and auto parts businesses, but
Aikawa did not enter automobile manufacturing until 1933.

The zaibatsu eventually grew to include 74 firms, and became the fourth-largest in Japan
during World War II.

In 1931, DAT Jidosha Seizo became affiliated with Tobata Casting, and was merged into
Tobata Casting in 1933. As Tobata Casting was a Nissan company, this was the beginning of
Nissan's automobile manufacturing.

Nissan Motor organized in 1934

In 1934, Aikawa separated the expanded automobile parts division of Tobata Casting and
incorporated it as a new subsidiary, which he named Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (日産自動
車 Nissan Jidōsha). The shareholders of the new company however were not enthusiastic about
the prospects of the automobile in Japan, so Aikawa bought out all the Tobata Casting
shareholders (using capital from Nihon Industries) in June 1934. At this time, Nissan Motor
effectively became owned by Nihon Sangyo and Hitachi.

In 1935, construction of its Yokohama plant was completed. 44 Datsuns were shipped to Asia,
Central and South America. In 1935, the first car manufactured by an integrated assembly
system rolled off the line at the Yokohama plant. Nissan built trucks, airplanes, and engines for
the Imperial Japanese Army. November 1937 Nissan's headquarter was moved to Hsinking the
capital of Manchukuo then in December changed name to Manchuria Heavy Industries
Developing Co.

In 1940, first knockdown kits were shipped to Dowa Jidosha Kogyo (Dowa Automobile), one of
MHID's companies, for assembly. In 1944, the head office was moved to Nihonbashi, Tokyo,
and the company name was changed to Nissan Heavy Industries, Ltd., which the company kept
through 1949.

Nissan's early American connection[edit]

DAT had inherited Kubota's chief designer, American engineer William R. Gorham. This, along
with Aikawa's 1908 visit to Detroit, was to greatly affect Nissan's future. Although it had always
been Aikawa's intention to use cutting-edge auto making technology from America, it was

Gorham that carried out the plan. Most of the machinery and processes originally came from the
United States. When Nissan started to assemble larger vehicles under the "Nissan" brand in
1937, much of the design plans and plant facilities were supplied by the Graham-
Paige Company. Nissan also had a Graham license under which passenger cars, buses and trucks
were made.

In David Halberstam's 1986 book The Reckoning, Halberstam states "In terms of technology,
Gorham was the founder of the Nissan Motor Company" and that "young Nissan engineers who
had never met him spoke of him as a god and could describe in detail his years at the company
and his many inventions.

Austin Motor Company relations (1937–1960s)[edit]

1937 Datsun model 16

Austin Seven Ruby

From 1934 Datsun began to build Austin 7s under licence. This operation became the greatest
success of Austin's overseas licensing of its Seven and marked the beginning of Datsun's
international success.

In 1952, Nissan entered into a legal agreement with Austin, for Nissan to assemble 2,000 Austins
from imported partially assembled sets and sell them in Japan under the Austin trademark. The

agreement called for Nissan to make all Austin parts locally within three years, a goal Nissan
met. Nissan produced and marketed Austins for seven years. The agreement also gave Nissan
rights to use Austin patents, which Nissan used in developing its own engines for its Datsun line
of cars. In 1953, British-built Austins were assembled and sold, but by 1955, the Austin A50 –
completely built by Nissan and featuring a new 1489 cc engine—was on the market in Japan.
Nissan produced 20,855 Austins from 1953 to 1959.

Nissan leveraged the Austin patents to further develop their own modern engine designs past
what the Austin's A- and B-family designs offered. The apex of the Austin-derived engines was
the new design A series engine in 1966. In 1967, Nissan introduced its new highly advanced four
cylinder overhead cam (OHC) Nissan L engine, which while similar to Mercedes-Benz OHC
designs was a totally new engine designed by Nissan. This engine powered the new Datsun 510,
which gained Nissan respect in the worldwide sedanmarket. Then, in 1969 Nissan introduced
the Datsun 240Z sports car which used a six-cylinder variation of the L series engine, developed
under Nissan Machinery (Nissan Koki Co., Ltd. 日産工機) in 1964, a former remnant of another
auto manufacturer Kurogane. The 240Z was an immediate sensation and lifted Nissan to world-
class status in the automobile market.

100 Day Strike of 1953

1953 Nissan labor dispute

During the Korean War, Nissan was a major vehicle producer for the U.S. Army. After the
Korean War ended, significant levels of anti-communist sentiment existed in Japan. The union
that organized Nissan's workforce was strong and militant. Nissan was in financial difficulties,
and when wage negotiations came, the company took a hard line. Workers were locked out, and
several hundred were fired. The Japanese government and the U.S. occupation forces arrested
several union leaders. The union ran out of strike funds, and was defeated. A new labor union

was formed, with Shioji Ichiro one of its leaders. Ichiro had studied at Harvard University on a
U.S. government scholarship. He advanced an idea to trade wage cuts against saving 2,000
jobs Ichiro's idea was made part of a new union contract that prioritized productivity. Between
1955 and 1973, Nissan "expanded rapidly on the basis of technical advances supported – and
often suggested – by the union." Ichiro became president of the Confederation of Japan
Automobile Workers Unions and "the most influential figure in the right wing of the Japanese
labor movement.

Merger with Prince Motor Company

1966 Prince R380 racecar

In 1966, Nissan merged with the Prince Motor Company, bringing more upmarket cars,
including the Skyline and Gloria, into its selection. The Prince name was eventually abandoned,
and successive Skylines and Glorias bore the Nissan name. "Prince," was used at the Japanese
Nissan dealership "Nissan Prince Shop" until 1999, when "Nissan Red Stage" replaced it. Nissan
Red Stage itself has been replaced as of 2007. The Skyline lives on as the G Series of Infiniti.

Miss Fairlady[edit]

To capitalize the renewed investment during 1964 Summer Olympics, Nissan established the
gallery on the second and third floors of the San-ai building, located in Ginza, Tokyo. To attract
visitors, Nissan started using beautiful female showroom attendants where Nissan held a
competition to choose five candidates as the first class of Nissan Miss Fairladys, modeled after
"Datsun Demonstrators" from the 1930s who introduced cars. The Fairlady name was used as a
link to the popular Broadway play My Fair Lady of the era. Miss Fairladys became the marketers
of the Datsun Fairlady 1500.

In April 2008, 14 more Miss Fairlady candidates were added, for a total of 45 Nissan Miss
Fairlady pageants (22 in Ginza, 8 in Sapporo, 7 in Nagoya, 7 in Fukuoka).

In April 2012, 7 more Miss Fairlady candidates were added, for a total of 48 Nissan Miss
Fairlady pageants (26 in Ginza, 8 in Sapporo, 7 in Nagoya, 7 in Fukuoka).

In April 2013, 6 more Miss Fairlady candidates were added to Ginza showroom, for a total of 27
48th Ginza Nissan Miss Fairlady pageants.

Foreign expansion

1971 Datsun 240Z (U.S. model) in green metallic

In the 1950s, Nissan decided to expand into worldwide markets. Nissan management realized
their Datsun small car line would fill an unmet need in markets such as Australia and the world's
largest car market, the United States. They first showed the Datsun Bluebird at the 1958 Los
Angeles Auto Show. The company formed a U.S. subsidiary, Nissan Motor Corporation U.S.A.,
in Gardena, California in 1960, headed by Yutaka Katayama. Nissan continued to improve their
sedans with the latest technological advancements and chic Italianate styling in sporty cars such
as the Datsun Fairlady roadsters, the race-winning 411 series, the Datsun 510 and the world-
class Datsun 240Z. By 1970, Nissan had become one of the world's largest exporters of

2010 Nissan Maxima SV Sport

In the wake of the 1973 oil crisis, consumers worldwide (especially in the lucrative U.S. market)
began turning to high-quality small economy cars. To meet the growing demand for its

new Nissan Sunny, the company built new factories in Mexico (Nissan Mexicana was
established in the early 1960s and commenced manufacturing since 1966 at their Cuernavaca
assembly facility, making it their first North American assembly plant), Australia, New Zealand,
Taiwan, United States (Nissan Motor Manufacturing Corporation USA was established in 1980)
and South Africa. The "Chicken Tax" of 1964 placed a 25% tax on commercial vans imported to
the United States. In response, Nissan, Toyota Motor Corp. and Honda Motor Co. began
building plants in the U.S. in the early 1980s. Nissan's initial assembly plant Smyrna assembly
plant (which broke ground in 1980) at first built only trucks such as the 720and Hardbody, but
has since expanded to produce several car and SUV lines, including the Altima, Maxima, Rogue,
Pathfinder, Infiniti QX60 and LEAF all-electric car. The addition of mass-market automobiles
was in response to the 1981 Voluntary Export Restraints imposed by the U.S. Government. An
engine plant in Decherd, Tennessee followed, most recently a second assembly plant was
established in Canton, Mississippi. In 1970, Teocar was created, which was a Greek assembly
plant created in cooperation with Theoharakis. It was situated in Volos, Greece and its
geographical location was perfect as the city had a major port. The plant started production in
1980, assembling Datsun pick-up trucks and continued with the Nissan Cherry & Sunny
vehicles. Until May 1995 170,000 vehicles were made, mainly for Greece.

By the early 1980s, Nissan (Datsun) had long the best selling Japanese brand in Europe. In order
to overcome export tariffs and delivery costs to its European customers, Nissan contemplated
establishing a plant in Europe. Nissan tried to convert the Greek plant into one manufacturing
cars for all European countries however due to issues with the Greek government not only did
that not happen but the plant itself was closed. A joint venture with Italy's then state-owned Alfa
Romeo was also entered in 1980, leading to Italian production of the Nissan Cherry and an Alfa-
badged version, the Alfa Romeo Arna. After an extensive review, Nissan decided to go it alone
instead. The City of Sunderland in the north east of England was chosen for its skilled workforce
and its location near major ports. The plant was completed in 1986 as the subsidiary Nissan
Motor Manufacturing (UK) Ltd. By 2007, it was producing 400,000 vehicles per year, landing it
the title of the most productive plant in Europe.

2013 Nissan GT-R

In 2001, Nissan established a manufacturing plant in Brazil. In 2005, Nissan added operations in
India, through its subsidiary Nissan Motor India Pvt. Ltd. With its global alliance
partner, Renault, Nissan invested $990 million to set up a manufacturing facility in Chennai,
catering to the Indian market as well as a base for exports of small cars to Europe. Nissan entered
the Middle East market in 1957 when it sold its first car in Saudi Arabia. Nissan sold nearly
520,000 new vehicles in China in 2009 in a joint venture with Dongfeng Motor. To meet
increased production targets, Dongfeng-Nissan expanded its production base in Guangzhou,
which would become Nissan's largest factory around the globe in terms of production
capacity. Nissan also has moved and expanded its Nissan Americas Inc. headquarters, moving
from Los Angeles to Franklin, Tennessee in the Nashville area.

In 2014, Nissan cars will be produced by Renault-Samsung in South Korea. This production will
start with 80,000 Nissan Rogue/X-Trail produced by Renault-Samsung Busan factory in South
Korea, instead of being produced by Nissan in Japan.

In 2018, Nissan Kicks compact utility vehicle makes North American debut at the Los Angeles
Auto Show.

In the U.S., Nissan has been increasing its reliance on sales to daily-rental companies
like Enterprise Rent-A-Car or Hertz. In 2016, Nissan's rental sales jumped 37% and in 2017
Nissan became the only major auto maker to boost rental sales when the Detroit Three cut back
less profitable deliveries to daily-rental companies, which traditionally are the biggest customers
of domestic auto makers.

Relationships with other car companies


Luxgen and Nissan partner to assemble vehicles in the Philippines with its affiliate Nissan Motor
Philippines Inc. (NMPI).

Ford Motor Company

In Australia, between 1989 and 1992, Nissan Australia shared models with Ford Australia under
a government-backed rationalisation scheme known as the Button Plan, with a version of
the Nissan Pintara being sold as the Ford Corsair and a version of the Ford Falconas the Nissan
Ute.A variant of the Nissan Patrol was sold as the Ford Maverick during the 1988–94 model

In North America, Nissan partnered with Ford from 1993 to 2002 to market the Ohio
built Mercury Villager and the Nissan Quest. The two minivans were virtually identical aside
from cosmetic differences. In 2002, Nissan and Ford announced the discontinuation of the

In Europe, Nissan and Ford Europe partnered to produce the Nissan Terrano II and the badge
engineered Ford Maverick, a mid-size SUV produced at the Nissan Motor Ibérica S.A (NMISA)
plant in Barcelona, Spain. The Maverick/Terrano II was a popular vehicle sold throughout
Europe and Australasia. It was also sold in Japan as a captive import, with the Nissan model
marketed as the Nissan Mistral.


Nissan licensed the Volkswagen Santana. Production began in 1984, at Nissan's Zama,
Kanagawa, and ended in May 1990.

Alfa Romeo

From 1983 to 1987, Nissan cooperated with Alfa Romeo to build the Arna.The goal was for Alfa
to compete in the family hatchback market segment, and for Nissan to establish a foothold in the
European market.After Alfa Romeo's takeover by Fiat, both the car and cooperation were

General Motors

In Europe, GM and Nissan co-operated on the Light Commercial vehicle the Nissan Primastar.
The high roof version is built in the NMISA plant in Barcelona, Spain; while the low roof
version is built at Vauxhall Motors/Opel's Luton plant in Bedfordshire, UK

In 2013, GM announced its intentions to rebadge the Nissan NV200 commercial van as the 2015
model year Chevrolet City Express, to be introduced by end of 2014.Holden, GM's Australian
subsidiary, sold versions of the Nissan Pulsar as the Holden Astra between 1984 and 1989.


LDV Group sold a badge engineered light commercial vehicle version of the Nissan Serena as
the LDV Cub from 1996 to 2001. The Nissan equivalent was marketed as the Nissan Vannette

Alliance with Renault

Former CEO Carlos Ghosn has been credited with reviving Nissan

In 1999, facing severe financial difficulties, Nissan entered an alliance with Renault S.A. of

Signed on 27 March 1999, the Renault-Nissan Alliance was the first of its kind involving a
Japanese and French car manufacturer, each with its own distinct corporate culture and brand
identity. In the spring of 2000, Yanase, Japan's premier seller of imported automobiles, cancelled
its licensing contract with Renault, and Nissan took over as the sole licensee. In June
2001, Carlos Ghosn was named chief executive officer of Nissan. In May 2005, Ghosn was
named president of Renault. He was appointed president and CEO of Renault on 6 May
2009.Nissan's management is a trans-cultural, diverse team.

The Renault-Nissan Alliance has evolved over years to Renault holding 43.4% of Nissan shares,
while Nissan holds 15% of Renault shares. The alliance itself is incorporated as the Renault-
Nissan B.V., founded on 28 March 2002 under Dutch law. Renault-Nissan B.V. is equally owned
by Renault and Nissan.

Under CEO Ghosn's "Nissan Revival Plan" (NRP), the company has rebounded in what many
leading economists consider to be one of the most spectacular corporate turnarounds in
history,catapulting Nissan to record profits and a dramatic revitalization of both its Nissan
and Infiniti model line-ups. Ghosn has been recognized in Japan for the company's turnaround in
the midst of an ailing Japanese economy. Ghosn and the Nissan turnaround were featured in
Japanese manga and popular culture. His achievements in revitalizing Nissan were noted by the
Japanese Government, which awarded him the Japan Medal with Blue Ribbon in 2004.

On 7 April 2010, Daimler AG exchanged a 3.9% share of its holdings for 3.9% from both Nissan
and Renault. This triple alliance allows for the increased sharing of technology and development
costs, encouraging global cooperation and mutual development.

On 12 December 2012, the Renault–Nissan Alliance formed a joint venture with Russian
Technologies (Alliance Rostec Auto BV) with the aim of becoming the long-term controlling
shareholder of AvtoVAZ, Russia's largest car company and owner of the country's biggest
selling brand, LadabThe takeover was completed in June 2014, and the two companies of the
Renault-Nissan Alliance took a combined 67.1% stake of Alliance Rostec, which in turn
acquired a 74.5% of AvtoVAZ, thereby giving Renault and Nissan indirect control over the

Russian manufacturer. Ghosn was appointed chairman of the board of AvtoVAZ on 27 June

Taken together, the Renault–Nissan Alliance sells one in ten cars worldwide, and would be the
world's fourth largest automaker with 2013 sales of 8,266,098 units.

Other alliances and joint ventures

 In 2003, Nissan and Dongfeng Motor Group formed a 50:50 joint venture with the
name Dongfeng Motor Co., Ltd. (DFL). The company calls itself "China's first automotive
joint venture enterprise with a complete series of trucks, buses, light commercial vehicles
and passenger vehicles," and "the largest joint-venture project of its scale.
 On 7 April 2010, Daimler AG exchanged a 3.1% share of its holdings for 3.1% from both
Nissan and Renault. This triple alliance allows for the increased sharing of technology and
development costs, encouraging global cooperation and mutual development.
 On 12 December 2012, the Renault–Nissan Alliance formed a joint venture with Russian
Technologies (Alliance Rostec Auto BV) with the aim of becoming the long-term controlling
shareholder of AvtoVAZ, Russia's largest car company and owner of the country's biggest
selling brand, Lada Carlos Ghosn was appointed chairman of the board of AvtoVAZ on 27
June 2013.Nissan exited the AvtoVAZ venture in September 2017.
 Nissan is in an alliance with Ashok Leyland in India, producing light commercial vehicles.
 Together with Mitsubishi Motors, Nissan develops mini cars which are produced at
Mitsubishi's Mizushima plant in Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan. In May 2016 Nissan bought a
controlling stake in Mitsubishi Motors for an estimated US$2.3 billion.


Older style Nissan logo (1983–2002)

Older Nissan corporate wordmark


Current Nissan logo

Presidents and chief executive officers of Nissan:

 1933–1939: Yoshisuke Aikawa

 1939–1942: Masasuke Murakami
 1942–1944: Genshichi Asahara
 1944–1945: Haruto Kudo
 1945–1945: Takeshi Murayama
 1945–1947: Souji Yamamoto
 1947–1951: Taichi Minoura
 1951–1957: Genshichi Asahara
 1957–1973: Katsuji Kawamata
 1973–1977: Tadahiro Iwakoshi
 1977–1985: Takashi Ishihara
 1985–1992: Yutaka Kume
 1992–1996: Yoshifume Tsuji
 1996–2001: Yoshikazu Hanawa
 2001–2017: Carlos Ghosn - CEO until 1 April 2017. Remained chairman until removed from
role on 19 November 2018 after arrest.
 2017–present: Hiroto Saikawa

Branding and corporate identity

Carlos Ghosn in front of new CI at the 2013 earnings press conference in Yokohama.

Current Nissan "Corporation" logo 2013.


Nissan: Nissan's volume models are sold worldwide under the Nissan brand.

Datsun: Until 1983, Nissan automobiles in most export markets were sold under
the Datsun brand. In 1984 the Datsun brand was phased out and the Nissan brand was phased in.
All cars in 1984 had both the Datsun and Nissan branding on them and in 1985 the Datsun name
was completely dropped. In July 2013, Nissan announced the relaunch of Datsun as a brand
targeted at emerging markets.

Infiniti: Since 1989, Nissan has sold its luxury models under the Infiniti brand. In 2012, Infiniti
changed its headquarters to Hong Kong, where it is incorporated as Infiniti Global Limited. Its
president is former BMW executive Roland Krueger. From 2014, Infiniti cars are sold in Japan.

Nismo: Nissan's in-house tuning shop is Nismo, short for "Nissan Motorsport International
Limited." Nismo is being re-positioned as Nissan's performance brand.

Corporate identity

For many years, Nissan used a red wordmark for the company, and car "badges" for the "Nissan"
and "Infiniti" brands.

At Nissan's 2013 earnings press conference in Yokohama, Nissan unveiled "a new steel-blue
logo that spells out—literally—the distinction between Nissan the company and Nissan the
brand.Using a blue-gray color scheme, the new corporate logo did read NISSAN MOTOR
COMPANY. Underneath were the "badge" logos for the Nissan, Infiniti and Datsun brands.

Later in 2013, the Nissan "Company" logo changed to the Nissan "Corporation" logo. The latter
is the currently used logo of Nissan Motor Co., Ltd

Nissan strives to create workplaces where employees are motivated to rise to challenges and are
able to work safely and comfort ably, enjoying full mental and physical health. By respecting the
diversity of our employees, we promote the creation of an environment in which all individuals
can utilize their talents to the fullest while working in teams to achieve ambitious goals. By
sharing their knowledge, based on their individual experiences and different ways of thinking,
our employees are able to meet the increasingly diverse needs of our customers. This makes
them the driving force for Nissan’s sustained growth.

Work-Life Balance for Employees (Japan)

In Japan, Nissan has implemented a system offering flexible working arrangements to enable

employees to effectively balance work with family responsibilities, such as childcare and nursing

of elderly relatives. Arrangements to help employees of both genders strike an appropriate work-

life balance include “Family Support Leave,” which allows an employee to take time off for a

wedding, the birth of a child, child rearing or nursing care; reduced working hours and home-

based telecommuting for employees to provide childcare or nursing care; and the establishment

of “March Land” daycare centers. The first March Land, at our Technical Center in Atsugi,

Kanagawa Prefecture, was followed in fiscal 2012 by daycare facilities at the Nissan Global

Information System Center and at our Global Headquarters. Nissan has been recognized by the

Japanese government as a corporation actively promoting childcare support, successfully

implementing programs to achieve the goals set forth in the action plan of the Ministry of

Health, Labor and Welfare based on an April 2005 law outlining measures to support the

development of future generations.




This chapter provided methods that was used in data collection and they include; Research design,
Survey population, sampling design, Sampling size, Sources of data, Tools and methods of data
collections and probable problems to be encountered during data collection.
Research design
The research design used was cross sectional, explanatory and descriptive research design. Cross
sectional is a research design where data are gathered once perhaps over period of days, weeks and
months. Explanatory research design it seek to explain the variable by associating it, with the study
and this was used because the researcher was interested in explaining why and how the variable
behave the way they do. Descriptive research design was used to describe the variable which was
under study. Descriptive aspect of the study laid in identifying the relationship between employees
relation and organization performance
Accordingly, the methodology used in the project is as follows: -

 Defining the objectives of the study

 Framing of questionnaire keeping objectives in mind (considering the objectives)
 Feedback from the employees
 Analysis of feedback

Conclusion, findings and suggestions


This examination looks to draw out the different worker relations rehearses in Industry and the
different practices expected to build its efficiency and contribute its quantity in the financial
advancement of the networks which it works, and the nation on the loose. This examination will
in this way help edify the executives of different associations of the different impacts of
relationship rehearses among businesses and workers in an association. The investigation will
likewise bring out explicitly, the worker relations rehearses which different associations use.


 To understand the importance of employee relations of Nissan.

 To Study the factors related to employee relations Nissan.

 To analyze the impact of employee relations on employee performance.

 To identify various employee relations practices, and its effect on the productivity of an
 To identify the challenges faced by employees at work places.
 To identify ways of enhancing healthy relationship between employees and employers in
an organization


The aim of this study is to understand Employee Relation Management Role in enhancement of
employee performance in the Industry. It is essential to understand the effectiveness of Employee
Relations activities and practices which are contributing positively towards Employee


In order to take a reasonable sample size and not to disturb the functioning of the organizations, a
sample size of 50 employees from Nissan Company have been selected at random from all the
departments of the organizations and feedback forms (questionnaire) have been obtained.


The technique of Random Sampling has been used in the analysis of the data.

Random sampling from a finite population refers to that method of sample selection, which gives
each possible sample combination an equal probability of being picked up and each item in the
entire population to have an equal chance of being included in the sample. This sampling is without
replacement, i.e. once an item is selected for the sample, it cannot appear in the sample again.


To determine the appropriate data for research mainly two kinds of data was collected namely
primary & secondary data as explained below:


Primary data are those, which were collected afresh & for the first time and thus happen to be
original in character. However, there are many methods of collecting the primary data; all have
not been used for the purpose of this project. The ones that have been used are:

 Questionnaire

 Informal Interviews

 Observation


Secondary data is collected from previous researches and literature to fill in the respective project.
The secondary data was collected through:

 Text Books

 Articles

 Journals

 Websites


The data will be analyzed through statistical methods. Simplex percentage analysis will be used
for analyzing the collected data.

Simplex percentage analysis:

Percentage analysis will be the method to represent raw streams of data as a percentage (a part
in100‐ percent) for better understanding of collected data.


Graphical representations will be used to show the results in simple form. The graphs will be
prepared on the basis of data that will be received from the percentage analysis


As far as the LIMITATION of the project is concerned, I faced many a problem and adversities
in course of my project duration.

1. The employees hesitate to disclose the true facts in order to secure their job.
2. It is very time consuming process.
3. Samples are not true representative of the total workforce.
4. Difficulty in getting information from secondary sources.
5. Because of the size of the industry, the population of employee was large. Therefore it
was very tough on my part to conduct the survey by going to them personally.
6. It was also very disappointing for me at times when the feedback given by the employees
were below expectation.



1. Do you enjoy your work?

Responses Percentage No. of respondent

Highly satisfied 8% 4

Satisfied 40% 20

Neutral 30% 15

Dissatisfied 12% 6

Highly dissatisfied 10% 5

10% 8%

Highly satisfied
40% Disstisfied
Highly dissatisfied



Out of 50 respondents 4 were highly satisfied or enjoy their work, 20 were satisfied, 15 were neutral
regarding their response, 6 were dissatisfied whereas 5 were highly dissatisfied. Majority of respondents
were satisfied with the nature of work assigned to them.

2. Are you satisfied with the infrastructure provided by your company?

Responses Percentage No. of respondent

Highly satisfied 10% 5

Satisfied 30% 15

Neutral 50% 25

Dissatisfied 6% 3

Highly dissatisfied 4% 2

Total 100% 50

6% 10%

Highly satisfied
30% Netural
Highly dissatisfied


Out of 50 respondents 5 were highly satisfied with the infrastructure, 15 satisfied, 25 gave neutral
response, 3 were dissatisfied whereas 2 were highly dissatisfied. Majority of respondents were neither
satisfied nor dissatisfied.

3. Do you find your HOD/superiors as being helping and supportive?

Responses Percentage No. of respondent

Highly satisfied 4% 2

Satisfied 14% 7

Neutral 20% 10

Dissatisfied 58% 29

Highly dissatisfied 4% 2

Total 100% 50

4% 4%


Highly satisfied
20% Dissatisfied
Highly dissatisfied


Out of 50 respondents 2 were highly satisfied with the supportiveness of their HOD/superior, 7 were
satisfied, 10 were neutral regarding their response, and 29 were dissatisfied whereas 2 were highly
dissatisfied. Majority of respondents were neutral with HOD/superior supportiveness.

4. Do you get sufficient opportunities to improve your skills?

Responses Percentage No. of respondent

Highly satisfied 10% 5

Satisfied 20% 10

Neutral 40% 20

Dissatisfied 18% 9

Highly dissatisfied 12% 6

Total 100% 50

12% 10%

Highly satisfied
18% Satisfied
Highly dissatisfied



Out of 50 respondents 5 were highly satisfied by getting sufficient opportunities to improve their skills, 10
were satisfied, 20 were neutral regarding their response, 9 were dissatisfied whereas 6 were highly
dissatisfied. Majority of respondents were satisfied.

5. Do you get regular Feedback from your supervisor regarding your performance?

Responses Percentage No. of respondent

Highly satisfied 30% 15

Satisfied 20% 10

Neutral 32% 16

Dissatisfied 12% 6

Highly dissatisfied 6% 3

Total 100% 50


Highly satisfied
Highly dissatisfied


Out of 50 respondents 15 were highly satisfied by getting regular feedback from their superiors, 10
were satisfied, 16 were neutral regarding their response, 6 were dissatisfied whereas 3 were highly

6. Whether your organization takes your suggestion seriously?

Responses Percentage No. of respondent

Frequently 6% 3

Rarely 30% 15

Occasionally 64% 32

Total 100% 50


30% Frequently



Out of 50 respondents 32 confirmed that their organization takes your suggestion seriously, 15 responds
for rarely and 3 responds for frequently.

7. Does the mission and vision of the organization related to your individual mission and goal?

Responses Percentage No. of respondent

Always 6% 3

Mostly 24% 12

Sometimes 40% 20

Rarely 30% 15

Not at all 0% 0

Total 100% 50



24% Always
Not at all



Out of 50 respondents 3 said there mission & vision of organization is always related to their individual
mission and goal, 12 said mostly, 20 said sometimes, 15 said rarely.

8. Does your manager promote innovation at job?

Responses Percentage No. of respondent

Highly satisfied 10% 5

Satisfied 40% 20

Neutral 30% 15

Dissatisfied 16% 8

Highly dissatisfied 4% 2

Total 100% 50



Highly satisfied
Highly dissatisfied


Out of 50 respondents 5 were highly satisfied; they said their manager promote innovation at job, 20 were
satisfied, 15 were neutral regarding their response, 8 were dissatisfied whereas 2 were highly dissatisfied.

9. Do you agree the regular family programmes should be organized?

Responses Percentage No. of respondent

Highly agree 42% 21

Agree 34% 17

Neutral 12% 6

Disagree 16% 8

Highly disagree 8% 4

Total 100% 50


42% Highly agree
Highly disagree



Out of 50 respondents 9 were highly satisfied by the nature of work, 40 satisfied, 29 were neutral
regarding their response, 15 were dissatisfied whereas 7 were highly dissatisfied. Majority of respondents
were satisfied by the nature of work assigned to them.

10. Do you fatigue while performing your job?

Responses Percentage No. of respondent

Yes 42% 21

No 58% 29

Total 100% 50



Out of 50 respondents 9 said yes they get fatigue while performing their job & 29 said no they don’t get

11. Have you ever undertaken any training module?

Responses Percentage No. of respondent

Yes 100% 50

No 0% 0

Total 100% 50





Out of 50 respondents 50 said yes they have undertaken training module. It means company provides
training to everyone.

12. Rate the satisfaction level towards trainers of your organization?

Responses Percentage No. of respondent

Highly satisfied 8% 4

Satisfied 80% 40

Neutral 12% 6

Dissatisfied 0% 0

Highly dissatisfied 0% 0

Total 100% 50

0% 0%

12% 8%

Highly satisfied
Highly dissatisfied



Out of 50 respondents 4 were highly satisfied regarding trainers, 40 were satisfied, 6 were neutral
regarding their response, and no one is dissatisfied or highly dissatisfied.

13. Are you satisfied with the level of trust the manager shows towards the team?

Responses Percentage No. of respondent

Highly satisfied 10% 5

Satisfied 46% 23

Neutral 26% 13

Dissatisfied 16% 8

Highly dissatisfied 2% 1

Total 100% 50



Highly satisfied
26% Highly dissatisfied


Out of 50 respondents 5 were highly satisfied with the level of trust the manager shows towards the team,
23 were satisfied, 13 were neutral regarding their response, 8 were dissatisfied whereas 1 was highly

14. Are you satisfied with the resources provided by your manager to complete your work efficiently?

Responses Percentage No. of respondent

Highly satisfied 20% 10

Satisfied 40% 20

Neutral 20% 10

Dissatisfied 14% 7

Highly dissatisfied 6% 3

Total 100% 50

Highly satisfied
Highly dissatisfied



Out of 50 respondents 10 were highly satisfied with the resources provided by the manager to complete
their work, 20 were satisfied, 10 were neutral regarding their response, 7 respondents were dissatisfied
whereas 3 were highly dissatisfied.

15. In totality are you satisfied with your job?

Responses Percentage No. of respondent

Highly satisfied 22% 11

Satisfied 34% 17

Neutral 28% 14

Dissatisfied 16% 8

Highly dissatisfied 0% 0

Total 100% 50



Highly satisfied
Highly dissatisfied



Out of 50 respondents 11 were highly satisfied by the nature of job, 17 were satisfied, 14 were neutral
regarding their response, and 14 were dissatisfied whereas 0 were highly dissatisfied.




 40% of the respondents are fulfilled they make the most of their work.

 50% of the respondents are neither fulfilled nor disappointed in regards to framework of the

 58% of the respondents are disappointed with respect to strength of their HOD/bosses.

 40% workers gave unbiased reaction of motivating adequate chances to enhance their aptitudes.

 30% workers are very happy with getting standard input from their unrivaled and 32% gave
unbiased reaction.

 64% of the respondents said association takes their recommendation every so often.

 40% workers said that mission and vision of association is in some cases related individual mission
and objective.

 40% of the respondents they said there chief advance development at employment.

 42% of the respondents are profoundly concur of having ordinary family programs.

 Majority of the workers does not get exhaustion while playing out their activity.

 Company gives preparing to every one of the workers.

 Majority of the workers are happy with coaches.

 40%of the respondents are happy with the assets given by administrator to finish their work and
14 % are disappointed.

 No one is profoundly disappointed with their activity. 34% respondents are fulfilled.


 To spurs the workers for the most part recommendation ought to be taken from them.

 Innovation ought to be given by the administrator to enhance representative's aptitudes.

 To dodge the fatigueless of representatives the director should take some additional

 External preparing/course identified with specialized improvement ought to be acquainted

in association with increment viability of preparing program.

 HOD/bosses should support to representatives.

 Sufficient openings ought to be given to workers to enhance their abilities.



The examination uncovered that greater part representatives of IT Industry have concurred that
assets were given by the organization and has coordinate effect on their work effectiveness.
Accessibility of sufficient assets to representatives prompts culmination of work in time. It
upgraded their execution. What's more, it was additionally discovered that execution of workers
was identified with different factors separated from assets gave, for example,

Effective communication of work related information – makes representative mindful of the

business related duties and desires.

Motivation by work recognition – representative is urged to perform reliably and put their best
exertion in work.

Fair policies and practices exhibited by the management of organization- makes break even
with circumstances and give rise to treatment to representatives with no inclination which
advances uplifting disposition towards association and work among workers.

Employment fulfillment as far as compensation, development openings and workplace

given by the organization – fulfilled specialists are glad laborers and are more beneficial than
different specialists who need work fulfillment. Workplace not just includes the feel made by IT

Input and direction from bosses – keeps workers on track with respect to work targets they
have accomplished, regardless of whether they have accomplished in time or not, what the
associations anticipates from them and how they can achieve shared advantages.

Empowering articulation of worker feeling – gives a feeling of belongingness among

representatives and fortifies the worker business relationship. Workers feel they are an advantage
for the association, their voice and suppositions are heard and actualized.

From the examination we may infer that the representatives with more elevated amount of
employment fulfillment which incorporates pay, workplace and development openings were
progressively profitable at work, had the capacity to finish their work on time and furthermore

were persuaded to give conclusions for association's advancement and enhance their very own
execution. The association show to cultivate sound utilize connection by giving sufficient
development openings, business related preparing, customary compensation climb and solid


Please tick ( ) the relevant option:-

 Gender: 1) Male 2) Female
 Age: 1) 15-30 2) 30-50 3) 50 above
 Marital status: 1) Single 2) Married

1) Under Matriculation
2) Intermediate
3) Graduate
4) Post Graduate
5) Other________
 Experience:
1) Below 5 years
2) 5 to 10 years
3) Above 10 years


1. Do you enjoy your work?

a) Highly satisfied
b) Satisfied
c) Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
d) Dissatisfied
e) Highly Dissatisfied
2. Are you satisfied with the infrastructure provided by your company?

a) Highly satisfied
b) Satisfied
c) Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
d) Dissatisfied
e) Highly Dissatisfied

3. Do you find your HOD/superiors as being helping and supportive?

a) Highly satisfied
b) Satisfied
c) Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
d) Dissatisfied
e) Highly Dissatisfied

4. Do you get sufficient opportunities to improve your skills?

a) Highly satisfied
b) Satisfied
c) Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
d) Dissatisfied
e) Highly Dissatisfied

5. Do you get regular Feedback from your supervisor regarding your performance?

a. Highly satisfied
b. Satisfied
c. Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
d. Dissatisfied
e. Highly Dissatisfied

6. Whether your organization takes your suggestion seriously?

a. Frequently
b. Rarely
c. Occasionally

7. Does the mission and vision of the organization related to your individual mission and goal?

a. Always
b. Mostly
c. Sometimes
d. Rarely
e. Not at all

8. Does your manager promote innovation at job?

a. Highly satisfied
b. Satisfied
c. Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
d. Dissatisfied
e. Highly Dissatisfied

9. Do you agree the regular family programmers should be organized?

a. Highly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Highly Disagree

10. Do you fatigue while performing your job?

a. Yes
b. No

11. Have you ever undertaken any training module?

a. Yes
b. No

12. Rate the satisfaction level towards trainers of your organization?

a. Highly satisfied
b. Satisfied
c. Neutral
d. Dissatisfied
e. Highly Dissatisfied

13. Are you satisfied with the level of trust the manager shows towards the team?

a. Highly satisfied
b. Satisfied
c. Neutral
d. Dissatisfied
e. Highly Dissatisfied

14. Are you satisfied with the resources provided by your manager to complete your work efficiently?

a. Highly satisfied
b. Satisfied
c. Neutral
d. Dissatisfied
e. Highly dissatisfied

15. In totality are you satisfied with your job?

a. Highly satisfied
b. Satisfied
c. Neutral
d. Dissatisfied
e. Highly dissatisfied


 Aborisade F. Industrial Relations: Ideological perspectives. Theories of industrial relations, Paper

delivered at the conference organised by the World Federation of Trade Union (WFTU) in
collaboration with ASSBIFI, NUATE, ATSSAN, NACOISAN and NUHPSW of Nigeria at Lagos Airport
Hotel, 14-15th November, 2008.

 Armstrong M. A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, London, Kogan Page

Limited, 2008.

 Blyton P, Turnbull P. The Dynamics of Employee Relations. (3rd edn). Basingstoke: Macmillan,

 Cully M, O’Reilly A, Millward N, Forth J, Woodland S, Dix G, et al. The Workplace Employee
Relations Survey

 Mamoria C.B., “Personnel Management”21st revised and enlarged edition 2001.

 Kothari C.R. “Research Methodology”

 Flippo B Edwin, Personnel Management”

 Aswathappa K. , “ Human resource Management”

Internet Website

 Google.co.in

 Managementstudy.com

 citehr.com