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Faculty : Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Unit Code : UEME1233

Engineering and Science
Course : Bachelor of Engineering (Hons) Unit Title : Manufacturing Technology I
Mechanical/Materials &
Year/ : Year 1 Semester 1,2 Lecturer : Dr. Carine Ng
Session : Jan 2019

Tutorial No. ( 6 )
Answer concisely.

1. Describe the following welding processes:

a. Oxyfuel–gas Welding
b. Plasma-arc Welding
c. Shielded Metal-arc Welding

a. Oxyfuel–gas Welding - OFW a general term used to describe any welding process
that uses a fuel gas combined with oxygen to produce a flame. The flame is the source
of the heat that is used to melt the metals at joint. The most common gas -welding
process uses acetylene, the process is known as oxyacetylene -gas welding (OAW) and
is typically used for structural metal fabrication and repair work.

b. Plasma-arc Welding - A concentrated plasma arc is produced and directed towards

the weld area. A plasma is an ionized hot gas composed of nearly equal numbers of
electrons and ions. There are two methods of plasma-arc welding: Transferred-arc and
Non-transferred arc

c. Shielded Metal-arc Welding - (SMAW) is one of the oldest, simplest and most
versatile joining process. The electric arc is generated by touching the tip of a coated
electrode against the workpiece and withdrawing it quickly to a distance sufficient to
maintain the arc. The electrodes are in the shapes of thin, long rods, (hence, this
process also known as stick welding) that are held manually.

2. In your opinion, could you use oxyfuel–gas cutting for a stack of sheet metals?

A major problem in cutting a stack of sheet metal is that if the cutting is predominantly
through melting, the sheets may be welded together. To minimize this effect, the
cutting speed should be as high as possible and at as high a heat -input rate as
possible. Another problem with stack cutting is that the cut size of the top and bottom
sheets can be different (depending on how many layers there are and their thickness,
as well as how well the process parameters are controlled) because the heat source is
maintained after the top sheets have been cut.

3. Which of the processes described in this chapter are not portable? Can they be made
so? Explain.

While some welding processes are very portable, and this is extremely valuable for
field repairs, other processes are not portable. Examples are plasma arc welding,
submerged arc welding and laser-beam and electron-beam welding. These processes
are difficult to make into portable versions, mostly because of the bulkiness of the
power supplies required. However, since there are so many portable processes, there
is little need to adapt these approaches to make them portable.

4. In your opinion, why is diffusion bonding, when combined with the superplastic forming
of sheet metals, an attractive fabrication process? Does it have any limitations?

Diffusion bonding combined with superplastic forming can lead to lightweight, strong
aerospace structures and with high stiffness-to-weight ratios. The main drawback is the
long production time and the high costs involved, which may be justified for many
aerospace applications.

5. Give some of the reasons that spot welding is used commonl y in automotive bodies and
in large appliances.

The most obvious reasons are that spot welding is economically advantageous over
other processes, it is very suitable for assembly of sheet -metal components, and it is
fast and is easy to automate.

6. Provide the factors that affect the properties and microstructure of heat-affected zone

1. The rate of heat input and cooling

2. The temperature to which this zone is raised
3. Metallurgical factors (original grain size, grain orientation, degree prior cold work)
4. Physical properties (specific heat and thermal conductivity of the metals)

7. Explain the working principle of (i) chemical machining and (ii) electrochemical

(i) Chemical machining is based on the observation that chemical attack and etch most
materials, thereby removing small amounts of material from the surface. The che mical
machining process is performed by chemical dissolution using reagents or etchants, such
as acids and alkaline solutions.

(ii) In electrochemical machining, an electrolyte acts as the current carrier, and the high
flow rate of electrolyte in the tool-workpiece gap washes metal ions away from the work
piece (anode) before they have a chance tom plate onto the tool (cathode). The cavity
produced is the mating image of the tool shape.

8. Why has electrical-discharge machining become so widely used in industry?

With increasing strength and toughness and various other properties of advanced
engineering materials, there was a need to develop processes that were not sensitive
to these properties. Because EDM basically involves electrical properties and is
capable of removing material in a variety of configurations, it was one of the most
important developments and continues to do so. As in all other processes, it has its
advantages as well as limitations, regarding particularly the material-removal rate and
possible surface damage which could significantly reduce fatigue life.

9. Describe your thoughts regarding the laser-beam machining of nonmetallic materials.

Give several possible applications, including their advantages compared with other

Most nonmetallic materials, including polymers and ceramics, can be laser -beam
machined using different types of lasers. The presence of a major heat source and its
various adverse effects on a particular material and workpiece must of course be
considered. Some materials can have additional concerns; wood, for example, is
flammable and may require an oxygen-free environment.

10. Automation generally has a few primary goals, list out 5 of them.

 Integrate manufacturing operations – so as to improve product quality and uniformly,

minimize cycle times and effort, and reduce labor costs.
 Improve productivity – by reducing manufacturing costs through better control of
production. Parts are loaded, fed, and unloaded on machines more efficiently,
machines are used more effectively, and production is organized more efficiently
 Improve quality – by using more repeatable processes
 Reduce human involvement – boredom, and thus the possibilities of human error.
 Reduce workpiece damage – which is caused by the manual handling of parts.
 Raise the level of safety – for personnel, especially under hazardous working
 Economize on floor space – in the plant by arranging machines, material handling
and movement, and auxiliary equipment more efficiently.

11. Describe adaptive control and closed-loop system.

Adaptive control (AC) is basically a dynamic-feedback system in which the operating

parameters automatically adapt themselves to conform to new circumstances; it is thus a
logical extension of computer numerical control systems.

Closed-loop system is a type of NC control circuit. It is equipped with various transducers,

sensors, and counters that accurately measure the position of the worktable. Through
feedback control, the position of the worktable is compared against signal; the table
movements terminate when the proper coordinates are reached.

12. In your opinion, what are the factors that have led to the development of numerical

Numerical control is a method of controlling the movements of machine components by

directly inserting coded instructions, in the form of numbers and letters, into the
system. The system then interprets this data and converts it to output signals, which in
turn, control various machine components. The need for NC arose because with an
increasing reliance of society on manufactured goods, there was an ever present need
for the production of high-quality parts in moderate lot sizes. These parts could not be
fabricated in sufficient numbers on manual machines. Examples of parts produced
through NC are artificial implants, specialty car wheels and most forging dies.

13. Sensor technology is important in many applications. What is sensor? Briefly explain
tactile sensing and sensor fusion.
A sensor is a device that produces a signal in response to its detecting or measuring a
specific property, such as position, force, torque, pressure, chemistry, temperature,
humidity, speed acceleration, or vibration.

Tactile sensing involves the continuous sensing of variable contact forces, commonly
by an array of sensors. Such a system is capable of operating within an arbitrary 3 -D

Sensor fusion basically involves the integration of several sensors in such a manner
that individual data from each of the sensors (such as force, vibration, temperature,
and dimension data) are combined to provide a higher level information and r eliability.