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LESSON 2:

1. Definition of : truth, knowledge, fact, and claim

Truth – it lies at the heart of any inquiry. It is also


considered as a kind of quality or value.

Knowledge – it is the clear awareness and


understanding of something. It is the product of
questions that allow for clear answers provided by
facts. Our knowledge is comprised of ideas and beliefs
that we know to be true.
Fact – propositions or statements which are observed
to be real or truthful.

Claim – propositions or statements which cannot be


taken as true since it is simply not immediately evident,
and further examination is required to establish
whether it is true or false.

2. The following statements are true :


• The sun is the center of the solar system.
• Asia is the largest continent in the world.
• God made the world in seven days.
• Man has the right to life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness.
• China’s continued presence in Spratlys is a violation of
international law.
• Citizens have the right to take up arms and overthrow an
oppressive government.
• The President has done very little to uphold democracy and
look after the interest of the Filipino people.

3.

A belief or statement is TRUE if…


4. THINK
Apply systematic doubt in analyzing the following statements.
Describe how you will determine their truthfulness.

1. Our classroom is tidy.


• After applying systematic doubt and analyzing the statement, I
will examine the room through the use of my senses and by
doing so, I could now tell if the statement is true.
2. Our school is big.
• After applying systematic doubt and analyzing the statement, I
will use facts to guide me in my search for truth, for example, I
could search for a document that can tell the measure of the
school, and I can also use my senses to help me determine if
the school is really big.
3. I am a good student.
• After applying systematic doubt and analyzing the statement, I
will ask some people who actually know me, if I’m really a
good student because having people agree on a common belief
is one way of determining what is true.
4. We live in a safe community.
• After applying systematic doubt and analyzing the statement, I
will review my experiences in living on the particular
community, and also I would ask some people in the
community about their views because, like in statement 3,
having people agree on a common belief is one way of
determining what is true.


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