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See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313667380

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Technical Report · January 2017

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.18187.28966

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Department of Mechatronics Heliopolis University

2016/2017

Smart Parking

Mechatronics Heliopolis University 2016/2017 Smart Parking This is a student project activity that was done in

This is a student project activity that was done in Heliopolis University by:

Abdallah Agouz Ahmed el Haggar Essam Mohamed Mohamed Emad Mohamed Adel Mohamed El-Sherbiny Remon Wagdy

Under Supervision of:

Dr. Hatem Seoudy (lecturer of Actuators and Drives)

Eng. Ahmed Eslam Mohammed Solyman

Teaching Assistant at Atomic Energy Authority Teaching Assistant at Heliopolis University

1- Introduction:

1- Introduction: Drivers searching for parking are estimated to be responsible for about 30% of traffic

Drivers searching for parking are estimated to be responsible for about 30% of traffic congestion in cities. Historically, cities, businesses, and property developers have tried to match parking supply to growing demand for parking spaces. It has become clear, though, that simply creating more parking spaces is not sufficient to address the problem of congestion. New approaches using smart parking systems look to provide a more balanced view of parking that better manages the relationship between supply and demand.

Smart parking can be defined as the use of advanced technologies for the efficient operation, monitoring, and management of parking within an urban mobility strategy. The global market for smart parking systems reached $93.5 million, with the United States representing 46% market share, and offering a strong growth opportunity for companies offering services in the United States and overseas. A number of technologies provide the basis for smart parking solutions, including vehicle sensors, wireless communications, and data analytics. Smart parking is also made viable by innovation in areas such as smartphone apps for customer services, mobile payments, and in-car navigation systems. At the heart of the smart parking concept is the ability to access, collect, analyze, disseminate, and act on information on parking usage. Increasingly, this information is provided in real-time from intelligent devices that enable both parking managers and drivers to optimize the use of parking capacity.

2-

Motivation to use Smart parking:

1. Optimized parking Users find the best spot available, saving time, resources and effort. The parking lot fills up efficiently and space can be utilized properly by commercial and corporate entities.

2. Reduced traffic Traffic flow increases as fewer cars are required to drive around in search of an open parking space.

3. Reduced pollution Searching for parking burns around one million barrels of oil a day. An optimal parking solution will significantly decrease driving time, thus lowering the amount of daily vehicle emissions and ultimately reducing the global environmental footprint.

4. Enhanced User Experience A smart parking solution will integrate the entire user experience into a unified action. Driver’s payment, spot identification, location search and time notifications all seamlessly become part of the destination arrival process.

5. New Revenue Streams Many new revenue streams are possible with smart parking technology. For example, lot owners can enable tiered payment options dependent on parking space location. Also, reward programs can be integrated into existing models to encourage repeat users.

6. Integrated Payments and POS Returning users can replace daily, manual cash payments with account invoicing and application payments from their phone. This could also enable customer loyalty programs and valuable user feedback.

7. Increased Safety Parking lot employees and security guards contain real-time lot data that can help prevent parking violations and suspicious activity. License plate recognition cameras can gather pertinent footage. Also, decreased spot- searching traffic on the streets can reduce accidents caused by the distraction of searching for parking.

8. Real-Time Data and Trend Insight Over time, a smart parking solution can produce data that uncovers correlations and trends of users and lots. These trends can prove to be invaluable to lot owners as to how to make adjustments and improvements to drivers.

9. Decreased Management Costs More automation and less manual activity saves on labor cost and resource exhaustion.

3-

Mechanical Design:

These designs were built by Solid Works Software program.

Suggested designs:

3- Mechanical Design: These designs were built by Solid Works Software program. Suggested designs: Final Design:

Final Design:

3- Mechanical Design: These designs were built by Solid Works Software program. Suggested designs: Final Design:

4-

Electro-Mechanical System

In constructing the parking system as shown the previous Figure, one servo (Motor1) motor and two stepper motors including rotating system motor (Motor2, Motor3), and two Ultrasonic sensors for the distance measurements and signal processing for opening the first gate and to order the stepper motor to run and lift the car. The two stepper motors are at the top, to allow for prismatic movement of the care and lift and other to rotate the whole structure; there is one servo motor at the first gate waiting the cutting signal from the first Ultrasonic sensor.

1- Servo Motor

A servomotor is designed to move to a given angular position. A typical servo motor has three connections. Two of them are the positive and 0V supply lines. The third connection carries the control signal pulses from the control circuit (the Arduino in this case).Servo motors may be classified, according to the torque it can withstand, as mini, standard and giant servos. Usually mini and standard size servo motors can be controlled by Arduino directly with no need to external driver.

The rotor of the motor has limited ability to turn. Generally it can turn 60-90° on either side of its central position. The control signal is a series of pulses transmitted at intervals of about 18 ms, or 50 pulses per second.

The angle (of mechanical rotation) is determined by the width of an electrical pulse that is applied to the control wire. This is a form of pulse-width modulation, however servo position is not defined by the PWM duty cycle (i.e., ON vs. OFF time) but only by the width of the pulse. The width of the pulse will determine how far the motor turns. For example, a 1.5 ms pulse will make the motor turn to the 90 degree position (neutral position)as shown in. A1 ms turn as far as possible to the left. A2 ms turn as far as possible to the right. Intermediate pulse lengths give intermediate positions; this is very useful for controlling robot arms.

to the right. Intermediate pulse lengths give intermediate positions; this is very useful for controlling robot

2- Stepper motor

Stepper motors are used in precision applications where a high rotational speed is not required. A stepper motor has a large number of magnetic poles in the stator winding that enables the motor to achieve very small increments of rotational movement. Common stepper motors are able to provide 200 discrete increments per revolution. Stepper motors are generally driven with an open-loop control structure, meaning the controller assumes that the motor responds as expected to all control signals.

A typical stepper motor has four sets of coils, arranged so that the rotor is turned from one position to the next as the coils are energized in a fixed sequence. This is listed in Table 2-1. The sequence repeats and at any step, two coils are on and two are off. The sequence of pulses needed to drive the motor can be provided by a microcontroller.

Table 2-1 The sequence of pulses for running a stepper motor [58].

Step number

Coil 1

Coil 2

Coil 3

Coil 4

 

0 on

Off

On

Off

 

1 Off

On

On

Off

 

2 Off

On

Off

On

 

3 On

off

Off

On

To get from step to step, first coils 1 and 2 change state, then 3 and 4 change state, then 1 and 2, and so on. The result of this is to produce clockwise turning of the rotor. If the sequence is run in reverse, the rotor turns anticlockwise.

At any step, the rotor can be held in a fixed position by halting the sequence. If a stepper motor is used for driving something like an arm of a robot, the arm can be positioned exactly by programming the controller to produce the required number of pulses. There is no need for limit switches; the robot always knows where its limbs are. It can move precisely from one position to another simply by working out how

many pulses to generate. Once in the required position, the rotor is, in effect, locked there and cannot move.

Another advantage of the stepper motor is that its speed is precisely controllable. It is not affected by the load on the motor, except perhaps an excessive load, which might completely prevent the motor from turning. A stepper motor is less likely to stall, overheat, and possibly burn out its coils, than ordinary motor. Unlike servo motors, stepper motors can't be controlled by Arduino directly without need to external driver. It needs external driver, in this work "DM422 Fully Digital Stepping Driver" is used. This stepping driver needs external 24v power supply.

Figure 2-1 shows an example of the stepper outputs for step and direction mode. When step and direction mode is configured, each commanded step (or microstep) produces a pulse on the step output. The direction output signal level indicates the command direction of motion, either forward or reverse.

the command direction of motion, either forward or reverse. Fig. 2-1Stepper outputs for step and direction

Fig. 2-1Stepper outputs for step and direction mode.

Figure 2-2 shows an example of the stepper outputs for clockwise (CW)/counterclockwise (CCW) mode. CW and CCW mode produces pulses on the CW output for forward-commanded motion and pulses on the CCW output for reverse-commanded motion.

and pulses on the CCW output for reverse-commanded motion. Fig. 2-2 Stepper outputs for clockwise /counter

Fig. 2-2 Stepper outputs for clockwise /counter clock wise mode.

For both types of motor (servo motor and stepper motor), torque decreases as angular velocity increases, but a servo motor can reach higher rotational velocities and will generally provide a higher torque at a given rotational speed than a stepper motor, as illustrated in Fig. 2-3.

speed than a stepper motor, as illustrated in Fig. 2-3. Fig. 2-3 Torque curve of (260

Fig. 2-3 Torque curve of (260 oz.in) stepper and (240 oz.in) servo.

3- Microcontroller

Microcontroller is used to convert the position signal from the image processing done on the PC to control signals to move the motors using the IK of the robot. The proposed microcontroller used in the research is the commercial well- known Arduino board.

An Arduino is a single-board microcontroller and a software suite for programming see Fig. 3-1. It is designed for an Atmel AVR processor and features on-board I/O support. Arduino Mega microcontroller board is based on the ATmega1280. It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which 14 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal

oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It

contains everything needed to support the microcontrolle.

It contains everything needed to support the microcontrolle. Fig. 3-1 Arduino Mega microcontroller board . 5-

Fig. 3-1 Arduino Mega microcontroller board .

5- Motor selection

After calculating the payloads we find that we need the next items to

implement the proposed design:

A- Servo motor for the gate:-

L=20cm. m=0.05kg.

The Torque required =m.L

T=m.L=20*0.05=1kg.cm

After adding the safety factor (25%) of the torque

value it will be 1.25kg.cm.

factor (25%) of the torque • value it will be 1.25kg.cm. We select SG-90: ‘Specification’ •

We select SG-90:

‘Specification’

Operating voltage:- (4.8-6) V.

Operating speed:- 0.12sec/ 60degree(4.8V),

0.1sec/60degree(6V).

Stall torque:- 1.8 kgf.cm.

Dimensions:- 22.2*11.2*31mm.

Weight:- 9g.

Torque:- 1.6kg.cm.

• Stall torque:- 1.8 kgf.cm. • Dimensions:- 22.2*11.2*31mm. • Weight:- 9g. • Torque:- 1.6kg.cm.

B- Linear Bearing:

Select LM8UU:-

Specification:-

L = 24mm.

D out = 15mm.

D in = 8mm.

Dynamic load rating C=260N.

Static load rating Co=400N.

4ball races in side.

2 grooves with 14.5mm outer diameter.

Grooves very in width between (1:1.25)mm

diameter. • Grooves very in width between (1:1.25)mm C- Stepper Motor: Stepper Motor (NEMA 17 -
diameter. • Grooves very in width between (1:1.25)mm C- Stepper Motor: Stepper Motor (NEMA 17 -

C- Stepper Motor:

Stepper Motor (NEMA 17 - 4.2 Kg.cm)

Features:

Step Angle (degrees) : 1.8 2-Phase Voltage: 12V Rated Current: 1.3A/Phase 5mm Diameter Drive Shaft Holding Torque: 4.2 Kg.cm NEMA 17 form factor Wire Leads: 4 Wires

Torque: 4.2 Kg.cm NEMA 17 form factor Wire Leads: 4 Wires 6- The Control Algorithms The

6- The Control Algorithms

The controls Algorithms were done using MATLAB/SIMULINK program as will be shown.

A- Smart Parking SIMULINK Algorithm

A- Smart Parking SIMULINK Algorithm B- Smart Parking SIMULINK Algorithm [Gate system]

B- Smart Parking SIMULINK Algorithm [Gate system]

A- Smart Parking SIMULINK Algorithm B- Smart Parking SIMULINK Algorithm [Gate system]

C- Smart Parking SIMULINK Algorithm [Lift system]

C- Smart Parking SIMULINK Algorithm [Lift system] ViewView publicationpublication statsstats