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Math and Statistical Functions

Do not let the term statistics scare you. Every day, you rely on statistics to make routine decisions. When you purchase a car, you compare the average miles per gallon (MPG) among several vehicles. The automobile manufacturer conducted multiple test drives, recorded the MPG under various driving conditions, and then calculated the MPG sta- tistic based on average performance. Statistics involve analyzing a collection of data and making inferences to draw conclusions about a dataset. You have already learned to use the SUM, AVERAGE, MIN, MAX, MEDIAN, and COUNT statistical functions. However, sometimes you might want to calculate a statistic based on a particular condition. Excel’s math and statistical function categories contain functions that enable you to perform conditional calculations, such as calculating a total only when a particular circumstance or set of circumstances exists. In this section, you will use math and statistical functions—SUMIF, AVERAGEIF, COUNTIF, SUMIFS, AVERAGEIFS, and COUNTIFS—to perform conditional statisti- cal calculations. In addition, you will use relative-standing functions, such as RANK, PERCENTRANK, PERCENTILE, and QUARTILE.

Using Conditional Math and Statistical Functions

When you use SUM, AVERAGE, and COUNT functions, Excel calculates the respective total, the mathematical average, and the number of values for all values in the range specified in the function’s arguments. The math and statistical function categories con- tain related functions—SUMIF, AVERAGEIF, COUNTIF, SUMIFS, AVERAGEIFS, and COUNTIFS—that perform similar calculations but based on a condition. These functions are similar to the logical function IF. As you recall, the IF function evaluates a logical test to determine if it is true or false. If the logical test is true, Excel returns one result; if the logical test is false, it returns a different result. These conditional math and statistical functions are a hybrid of math/statistical and logical functionality. Basically, instead of delivering a value of true or false, these functions perform a specific calculation when specified conditions are met. Figure 8.2 shows a salary table for educators in the district and the results of these math and statistical functions.

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Functions with one condition
Functions with two conditions
Excel 2016, Windows 10, Microsoft Corporation

FIGURE 8.2 Math and Statistical Functions

Use the SUMIF,AVERAGEIF, and COUNTIF Functions

STEP 1 The SUMIF function is a statistical function similar to the SUM function except that it calculates the total of a range of values when a specified condition is met. For example, in Figure 8.2, if you want to calculate the total salaries for all high school teachers in the district, you cannot use the SUM function because it would calculate the total sala- ries for teachers in the district’s elementary and intermediate schools as well. However, you can complete the task using the SUMIF function. In Figure 8.2, cell D15 contains the results of the function =SUMIF(C2:C13,"high school",D2:D13) to sum the Salary column (D2:D13) if the Teaching Assignment column (C2:C13) contains the text high school. The total value of salaries for high school teachers is \$247,447.00. The SUMIF function contains three required arguments:

=SUMIF(range,criteria,sum_range)

Range. The range argument specifies the range of cells you want to evaluate to determine if the values meet a particular condition. In Figure 8.2, the SUMIF function’s range is C2:C13, the range containing the teaching assignments.

Criteria. The criteria argument specifies the condition that imposes limitations on what values Excel sums. The criteria can be a value, date, text, or another cell containing a value, date, or text. In Figure 8.2, the SUMIF function criterion is the text high school. Excel restricts the totaling to rows in which the range contains only high school. When you use text as a criterion, you must enclose it M09_GRAU9446_01_SE_E08.indd 513

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within quotation marks. When you use values as criteria, do not use quotation marks. You can also create an input range to specify the condition and then simply use a cell reference as the criteria argument in the SUMIF function.

Sum_range. The sum_range argument designates the cells containing values to add if the condition is met. In Figure 8.2, the SUMIF function’s sum_range is D2:D13, the range containing the salaries.

TIP: QuoTaTIon Marks When entering criteria that contain text, a date, or an operator such as <, you must surround the criteria with quotation marks. If you enter the criteria using the Function Argument box, Excel will automatically add quotation marks. If you type the function from scratch instead of using the insert function button, you must type the quotation marks manually.

The AVERAGEIF function calculates the average, or arithmetic mean, of all cells in a range that meet a specific condition. In Figure 8.2, cell D16 contains =AVERAGEIF(C2:C13,"high school",D2:D13) to calculate the average value in the Salary column (D2:D13) when the Teaching Assignment column (C2:C13) contains the text high school. The average high school teacher’s salary is \$49,489.40.

=AVERAGEIF(range,criteria,average_range)

The AVERAGEIF function contains three required arguments: range, criteria, and average_range. The range and criteria arguments have the same meanings as the same arguments in the SUMIF function. The average_range argument specifies the range con- taining values that you want to average if the condition is met. In the AVERAGEIF func- tion, the average_range is D2:D13.

TIP: referencIng The InPuT range When using the SUMIF, AVERAGEIF, and COUNTIF functions, you can create an input range to specify the condition and then simply use a cell reference as the criteria argument in the function. This allows the user the flexibility to change the criteria and receive instant calculation updates.

The COUNTIF function is a statistical function, similar to the COUNT function except that it counts the number of cells in a range when a specified condition is met. In Figure 8.2, cell D17 contains =COUNTIF(C2:C13,"high school") to count the number of high school teachers, which is five.

=COUNTIF(range,criteria)

The COUNTIF function contains only two arguments: range and criteria. Similar to the SUMIF and AVERAGEIF functions, the range argument for the COUNTIF function specifies the range of cells you want to evaluate to see if the values meet a particular condition. The criteria argument specifies the condition to be met in order to count cells in the designated range. sTeP 2

Use the SUMIFS,AVERAGEIFS, and COUNTIFS Functions

Whereas the previously described functions enable you to perform conditional calcula- tions, they can address only a single condition. Similar math and statistical functions enable you to specify more than one condition: SUMIFS, AVERAGEIFS, and COUNTIFS. The SUMIFS function calculates the total value of cells in a range that meet multiple criteria. In Figure 8.2, cell D19 contains =SUMIFS(D2:D13,C2:C13,"high school",B2:B13,"Jackson"). This function sums the Salary range if the teaching assign- ment range contains high school and if the township range contains Jackson. The total

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salary of high school teachers in Jackson Township is \$89,046.00. The SUMIFS function contains at least five arguments: sum_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, criteria_range2, and criteria2. Additional ranges and their criteria may be included. All conditions must be met in order to include values in the sum_range in the total.

=SUMIFS(sum_range,criteria_range1,criteria1,criteria_range2,criteria2…)

Sum_range. The sum_range argument designates the cells containing values to add if the condition is met. In the SUMIFS function, the sum_range argument is the first argument instead of the last argument as in the SUMIF function. In Figure 8.2, the SUMIFS function’s sum_range is D2:D13, the range containing the salaries.

Criteria_range1. The range argument specifies the first range of cells you want to evaluate to see if the values meet a particular condition. The range must contain values, range names, arrays, or references that contain numbers, dates, or text. In Figure 8.2, the criteria_range1 is C2:C13, the range containing the teaching assignments.

Criteria1. The criteria1 argument specifies the condition for the criteria_range1 argument that imposes limitations on what values are summed. In Figure 8.2, the SUMIFS function’s criteria1 argument is high school.

Criteria_range2. The range argument specifies the second range of cells you want to evaluate to see if the values meet a particular condition. The range must contain values, range names, arrays, or references that contain numbers, dates, or text. In Figure 8.2, the SUMIFS function’s criteria_range2 is B2:B13, the range containing the township.

Criteria2. The criteria2 argument specifies the condition that imposes limitations on what values are summed. In Figure 8.2, the SUMIFS function’s criteria2 is Jackson.

The AVERAGEIFS function calculates the average value of cells in a range that meet multiple criteria. In Figure 8.2, cell D20 contains =AVERAGEIFS(D2:D13,C2:C13,"high school",B2:B13,"Jackson"). This function calculates the average value in the Salary range if the teaching assignment is high school and if the township is Jackson. The average salary of high school teachers in Jackson Township is \$44,523. The AVERAGEIFS func- tion contains at least five arguments. The average_range argument specifies the range of cells containing values that will be averaged when multiple conditions specified by the criteria ranges and criteria are met.

=AVERAGEIFS(average_range,criteria_range1,criteria1,criteria_range2,criteria2…)

The COUNTIFS function counts the number of cells in a range that meet multiple criteria. In Figure 8.2, cell D21 contains =COUNTIFS(C2:C13,"high school",B2:B13,"Jackson"). This function counts the number of high school teachers in Jackson Township, which is two. The COUNTIFS function contains at least four argu- ments: two ranges and their respective criteria.

=COUNTIFS(criteria_range1,criteria1,criteria_range2,criteria2…)

TIP: ADDITIONAL CRITERIA Whereas the syntax shows only two criteria for SUMIFS, AVERAGEIFS, and COUNTIFS, you can continue adding criteria ranges and criteria. If you type the function in a cell, separate criteria ranges and criteria with commas. If you use the Function Arguments dialog box, it expands to display another Criteria box as you enter data in existing boxes, or you can press Tab within the dialog box to see additional criteria ranges and criteria boxes. M09_GRAU9446_01_SE_E08.indd 515

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Watch the Video
for this Hands On
Exercise!
HOE1 Training
Skills covered:
Use the
1 Math and Statistical Functions
SUMIF, AVERAGEIF, and COUNTIF
Functions • Use the SUMIFS,
AVERAGEIFS, and COUNTIFS
Functions • Enter Math and Statistical
Functions • Use the Rank and
PERCENTRANK Functions • Use
the QUARTILE and PERCENTILE
Functions
For the first step of your assessment, you calculate summary statistics of the teachers’ salaries. First,
you want to calculate statistics, such as average salary for teachers hired before 2005. You then will turn
your attention to the Acorn Township, the township with the fewest teachers, as you perform statistical
calculations. Finally, you want to rank each person’s salary compared to the other salaries and identify the
salary ranges for each quartile.
STEP 1
USE SUMIF, AVERAGEIF, AND COUNTIF FUNCTIONS
You want to calculate the number of high school teachers that were hired before 1/1/2005. You also want to calculate the average
salary and total payroll for all high school teachers hired before 1/1/2005. You will use SUMIF, COUNTIF, and AVERAGEIF to
complete the calculations. Refer to Figures 8.5 and 8.6 as you complete Step 1.
Step b: Click to select math function
Steps b-d: COUNTIF function
in the Formula Bar
Steps d: Quotes entered
automatically around text
FIGURE 8.5 COUNTIF Function
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function in cell H5
Steps e–f: SUMIF
function results
Steps g–h: AVERAGEIF
function results
FIGURE 8.6 SUMIF and AVERAGEIF Functions
a.
Open e08h1Assessment and save it as e08h1Assessment_LastFirst. Ensure the
Educator Assessment worksheet tab is displayed.
TROUBLESHOOTING: If you make any major mistakes in this exercise, you can close the file,
open e08h1Assessment again, and then start this exercise over.
b. Click cell H3, click the Formulas tab, click More Functions in the Function Library
group, point to Statistical, scroll through the list, and then select COUNTIF.
Cell H3 is the cell in which you want to calculate the total number of high school
teachers hired before 1/1/2005. The Function Arguments dialog box opens so that you
can enter the range and criteria arguments.
c. Select the range B3:B52 to enter it in the Range box.
The range B3:B52 contains the data array that contains the values to be counted.
d. Click in the Criteria box, type <1/1/2005, and then click OK.
The newly created function indicates there are 16 teachers that meet the criteria
requirements.
e. Click cell H4, click Math & Trig in the Function Library group, and then select SUMIF.
The Function Arguments dialog box displays so that you can enter the range, criteria,
and sum_range arguments.
f. Type B3:B52 in the Range box, type <1/1/2005 in the Criteria box, and then type
C3:C52 in the Sum_range box: Click OK to exit the Function Arguments box.
The total salaries paid to high school teachers hired before 1/1/2005 is \$790,922.00.
g. Ensure cell H5 is selected. Click More Functions in the Function Library group, point
to Statistical, and then select AVERAGEIF.
h. Type B3:B52 in the Range box, type <1/1/2005 in the Criteria box, and then type
C3:C52 in the Average_range box. Click OK to exit the Function Arguments box.
The average salary for high school teachers hired before 1/1/2005 is \$49,432.63.
hands-On Exercise 1
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ENTER SUMIFS, AVERAGEIFS, AND COUNTIFS FUNCTIONS
Now you want to focus on the summarizing data for high school teachers hired before 1/1/2005 in Acorn Township. Specifically,
you want to calculate the total number of educators, total salary payroll, and average salary. Because each of these calculations
requires two criteria, you will use the SUMIFS, AVERAGEIFS, and COUNTIFS functions. Refer to Figure 8.7 as you complete Step 2.
Steps a-c: COUNTIFS
function in cell H8
Step e: SUMIFS
function results
Step f: AV ERAGEIFS
function results
FIGURE 8.7 SUMIFS, AVERAGEIFS, and COUNTIFS Functions
a. Click cell H8, click More Functions and point to Statistical in the Function Library
group, scroll through the list, and then select COUNTIFS.
b. Type B3:B52 in the Criteria_range1 box, click in the Criteria1 box, and then type
<1/1/2005.
Similar to the COUNTIF function, COUNTIFS has the ability to count data points in a
range that match specified criteria. In this step the first criterion is <1/1/2005.
c. Click in the Criteria_range2 box and type D3:D52. Type Acorn in the Criteria 2 box and
click OK.
The function returns 6, the total number of high school teachers in Acorn Township
hired before 1/1/2005, by using the criteria <1/1/2005 and Acorn to filter the data
ranges B3:B52 and D3:D52.
d. Click cell H9, click Math & Trig in the Function Library group, and then select SUMIFS.
e. Type C3:C52 in the Sum_range box, type B3:B52 in the Criteria_range1 box, type
<1/1/2005 in the Criteria1 box, type D3:D52 in the Criteria_range2 box, type Acorn
in the Criteria2 box, and then click OK.
The total payroll for high school teachers in Acorn Township hired before 1/1/2005 is
\$289,587.00.
TROUBLESHOOTING: If you misspell criterion text, such as the township name, the results will
display 0. Always check the criterion text to make sure it matches text in the respective column.
f. Click cell H10,type =AVERAGEIFS(C3:C52,B3:B52,"<1/1/2005",D3:D52,
"Acorn"), and press Ctrl+Enter manually.
The average salary of high school teachers in Acorn Township hired before 1/1/2005 is
\$48,264.50.
g. Save the workbook.
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