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INTELLIGENT SYSTEM FOR RAILWAY PLATFORMS

SYNOPSIS

The purpose of the project work is to control the platform lights


automatically. Automation is achieved in two steps, in first step depending up
on the natural light few of the platform lights can be energized and de-
energized. In second step, the remaining lights can be energized automatically
by sensing the presence of train at platform. By implementing this kind of
automatic lighting control system everywhere in railway platforms, lot of energy
can be saved and electricity bills amount can be minimized. Generally, in
railway stations almost all the lights are energized through out the nights,
sometimes we find these lights are energized in day time also, in this regard lot
of electricity is wasted because of the negligence. To avoid wastage of energy
this project work is developed, which energizes the lights automatically, when
they required and de-energized when they are not essential.

The second step of automation creates more curiosity then first step. In
this, the hardware and software both are designed such that, the system
identifies a particular train, which is halted at station, and it regrets the running
train or goods rail. When the train is halted at station, at that time more lighting
is required. When the train stopped at station, automatically all the lights are
energized, and when the train leaves the station, automatically most of the
lights are de-energized. Sometimes only engines (Without Compartments) are
halting at stations, at that time also, the system will not allow to glow the lights.
To achieve this, the hardware part is designed with IR signal generator cum
detector circuits. Four similar circuits are constructed and they are arranged
parallel to the railway track for detecting the running trains, halted trains and
only engines. Generally, express trains and passenger trains carry more
compartments, when this kind of train halted at station, first 3 detector circuits
are interrupted which in turn generates high signals. Sometimes because of
the gaps between the compartments we may get only two high outputs. The
outputs of all the sensing circuits are fed to microcontroller, and whenever the
controller receives either two or three high outputs continuously, it can
understand that the train is halted at station, there by it energizes relay-2. This
relay contact is used to energize the remaining lights of platform for more light
intensity.

The fourth IR signal generator cum detector circuit is installed either side of
the railway station, it can be 100 meters away from the station, so that the
halted train cannot disturb this circuit. When the train leaves the station, this
fourth circuit is interrupted and high signal is generated, on receipt of high
signal from this circuit, the controller de-energizes relay-2 and supply is
disconnected to the lamps. When only engine approaches, out of four circuits
only one circuit is interrupted always, and the controller gets only one high
input. In this condition, the controller doesn’t respond.

The LDR interfaced with microcontroller, senses the natural light according
to the light intensity, this LDR generates variable voltage. Depending up on the
voltage produced by the LDR and register network, the controller energizes or
de-energizes relay-1. When the natural light disappears, this relay-1 is
energized and supply is provided for few lamps and again, when the natural
light appears in the morning, these lights are switched off automatically. The
remaining lights will be energized during the nights only. Because both the
relay contacts are connected in series and the first relay contact gets closed
during the night and under any conditions, these lights never glows in the
daytime.