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News analysis Health Business

40-year Moshi lessons Danger of eating Behind dfcu’s 52%

for younger Ugandans reused cooking oil decline in net profit

Issue No. 566 April. 05 - 11 2019 Ushs 5,000,Kshs 200, RwF 1,500, SDP 8

Why NRM doesn’t want
to talk about it

Independent Publications Limited, Plot 82/84, Kanjokya Street, P. O. Box 3304, Kampala, Uganda Tel: +256-312-637-391/ 2/ 3/ 4 Fax: +256-312-637-396
E-mail:,, Website:
April. 05 - 11 2019

Issue No. 566 April. 05 - 11 2019

News analysis Business Health Arts Motoring

Cover story
Museveni succession
Why NRM doesn’t want to talk about it

4 The Week
Nakalema’s unit
continues to bite
Bad news for women: Female
experts are outnumbered
9 The Last Word as sources by their male
counterparts in nearly every field
Uganda’s storm in a teacup:
How our MPs invented a scandal
around Uganda Airlines’ shares and
32 Health
our chattering elites joined the chorus
Danger of eating reused
14 Analysis cooking oil: New research
links it to breast cancer
40-year Moshi lessons
for younger Ugandans

35 Arts & Culture

27 Business
Latest art movers and
Umeme’s surprise profit growth: shakers: How they impact
Company expects more revenue from the Kampala art scene
government’s free connection policy

STRATEGY & EDITORIAL DIRECTOR: Andrew M. Mwenda WRITERS:Ronald Musoke, Flavia Nassaka, Ian Katusiime,
MANAGING EDITOR: Joseph Were Agnes Nantaba, Julius Businge.

PUBLISHER: Independent Publications Limited, Plot 82/84, Kanjokya Street, P. O. Box 3304, Kampala, Uganda
Tel: +256-312-637-391/ 2/ 3/ 4 | Fax: +256-312-637-396 E-mail: | | Website:

2 April. 05 - 11 2019

“Sometimes you wonder whether we

have a government people with people
who think. It is unfortunate that I am
not president, I would have sacked a few
people.”Jacob Oulanyah, Deputy Speaker on
Uganda Airlines mess

Cheptegei and
Jacob Kiplimo
destroyed the
field Saturday “It is true the deceased was removed
for a 1-2
finish in the from the police pick up and instantly
blue ribbon shot dead by our officer; he was not
event of the armed. We can certainly say what
IAAF World
Cross Country was first reported as a typical police
Championships shooting story is now a straight
– the men’s
senior race forward murder case.”Fred Enanga,
Police Spokesperson, on the killing of Ronald
Facebook chief Mark
Zuckerberg’s call for
“globally harmonized”
online regulation raises
questions about how
internet platforms can
deal with concerns about
misinformation and
abusive content while
remaining open to free “Of late, some people have started
quarrelling with us and yet we looked
after them, we gave them opportunities,
In the United States, education and good accommodation.
David Hogg is a leading
campaigner for gun
All of a sudden, they have become our
control, while in Europe, enemies over nothing. We only ask God
Greta Thunberg fights to to deal with them because we have done
defend the climate. nothing.” Hilary Onek, Minister for Disaster
Preparedness on Uganda-Rwanda standoff

Ugandans who die in lakes South Sudanese refugees Tonnes amount of

5000 140,000 3.4

and rivers annually per who returned home gold seized by police
the Lake Victoria Basin recently after the on raid at Africa Gold
Commission September 2018 peace deal Refinery

April. 05 - 11 2019 3
EC visits The Independent offices in 2021 election roadmap Madhvani Foundation
General Manager, Human
Resource Manager David offers Shs700m for
Hamya and Peter Kusiima, sales
executive also attended.
University students
Byabakama said the EC In the quest for Uganda
intends to organise trainings for to empower its youth
journalists on various aspects of through education, the
election handling and manage- Muljibhai Madhvani Foun-
ment. “We are also liaising with dation has announced a
security agencies to find mecha- scholarship fund of Shs700
nism on preventing election vio- million that will be used
lence where journalists. Safety to support brilliant but
of people should not become an underprivileged university
issue simply because elections students in Uganda. Speak-
The team from EC in a group photo with staff of The Independent are being held,” he said. ing at a press briefing held
Meanwhile Rwakoojo clari- at the Madhvani Head
A team from the Electoral staff of The Independent in fied on the issue of the delay
Commission (EC) led by its a meeting that the EC was office in the Industrial area,
of ballot boxes in some parts Hon. Gerald Ssendaula,
Chairman, Justice Simon Bya- determined to engage all stake- of Kampala in the 2016 general
bakama paid a visit to The Inde- holders particularly the media, the Chairman of the Mad-
election. “It was an issue of not hvani Foundation board
pendent on March 26 as part of address some of the issues that having enough cars to transfer
its ongoing efforts to engage the surround election management said, “Madhvani Founda-
ballot boxes to the respective tion is proud to be part of
media on the 2021 election road and build strong partnership areas. It was never intentional.”
map. Accompanying Chairman with media houses. Uganda’s education dream
Mwenda advised the EC to and today we launch the
Byabakama were EC Deputy The meeting was attended by establish a Research and Data
Chairperson Hajjat Aisha Lube- Independent Publications Lim- Madhvani Foundation
Unit to aggregate various forms scholarship fund for the
ga, Secretary to the EC, Sam ited (IPL) Managing Director of data on elections ranging
Rwakoojo, EC Public Relations Andrew Mwenda, Managing academic year 2019/2020.
from 1996 to 2016. “Statistics The Foundation has contin-
Officer Jotham Taremwa, Com- Editor Joseph Were, Reporters; will help you in making your
missioner Sebaggala Kigozi, Haggai, Matsiko, Ian Katusiime, uously supported brilliant
case whenever you are chal- but underprivileged Ugan-
and three other fellow Com- Julius Businge, and Ronald lenged on election numbers.”
missioners. Byabakama assured Musoke. Charles Kankya IPL dan students from different

Nakalema’s unit continues to bite

Ssebulime family living in fear
and arrested Nicholas
Kamukama, the deputy The family of account of events
RDC of Kiruhura district, the late Ronald that happened
and Kangume Kosea, a Ssebulime on the fateful day
district councilor, following (Pictured) has remains vague but
complaints from district cried out for police Ssebulime was on
residents. The unit reported protection citing his way to visit his
that the two were caught fear of unknown two daughters at the
red handed soliciting a bribe people who roam nearby St Andrew’s
to aid the illegal operation around their house SS Kabimbiri in
of an unlicensed money in Kayunga at Kayunga when the
lending company. The night. Sisters and incident happened.
The suspects two charged with bribery other relatives of Police have
and extortion according to Ssebulime told arrested its officers
A State House Anti- Police. A few days before journalists who responsible who are
Corruption Unit launched the Kiruhura raid, the
in December last year has visited their home act of recklessness Edward Ssali the car
unit arrested Ruth Etibot on March 31 that by the police on commander, Ronald
continued to instill panic Achimo, Soroti University
among public officials these people knock Mukono Kayunga Opira, Ronald
secretary, amid accusations
who swindle government on their door and Road a few weeks Baganza and is on
of misappropriating
money. URA officials, make suspicious back. Police the hunt for Robert
Shs1.6billion meant for
town clerks, district movements around shot 42-year-old Cherotich who
payment of employee
administrators and others the house causing Ssebulime who fled. The officers
allowances, rent, retainer
have all fallen prey. In the the family fear and was already are being held for
fees and inland travel
last week, the unit made disbursement. Achimo was anxiety. The family handcuffed after murder, conspiracy
a string of arrests. On arraigned before the Anti- is now appealing he was arrested by and professional
March 30, the unit led by Corruption Court on March to the state for police who judged misconduct.
Lt. Col. Edith Nakalema, a 29 on charges of corruption, security. Ssebulime him to be trailing Meanwhile Nantaba
former personal assistant diversion of public resources was shot dead by State Minister has been slammed
to President Museveni, and false accounting. police officers in for ICT Aidah by the public for a
conducted an operation an unprecedented Nantaba. The true total lack of empathy

4 April. 05 - 11 2019

Museveni, Fenix International discuss energy access

A team from Fenix International, held a affordability of solar home systems, acces-
discussion with President Museveni at State sories and appliances. The President was also
House Nakasero. Fenix International, is a updated on the expanding contributions that
next-generation energy company and subsid- Fenix International is making in the lives of
iary of ENGIE which operates in 5 countries millions of Ugandans through its life chang-
across Africa. Fenix relocated global head- ing products and contributions to Uganda’s
quarters from San Francisco, U.S. to Kampala economy. Morrison Rwakakamba, Global
in September 2018 to invest in and help grow Senior Director of Policy at Fenix, added “We
the entrepreneurial ecosystem in Uganda, look forward to working with the President,
More glory for Joshua to center their operations as close to their energy ministry and sector agencies to create
rural, off-grid customers as possible, and to a set of policies and actions that will allow
Cheptegei, Kiplimo catalyze an ambitious pan-African expansion Uganda to become the worldwide leader in
plan. The team engaged the President on clean, renewable energy for millions off-grid
Long distance runner Joshua renewable energy sector opportunities and households. This will indeed accelerate trans-
Cheptegei has fully banished the measures necessary to expand access and formation”.
memories of the 2017 World Cross
Country championships in Kampala
when he collapsed in the middle of his
race and gave up a comfortable lead.
At the 2019 event held in Aarhus, Den-
mark, Cheptegei won gold after sprint-
ing past teammate Jacob Kiplimo and
defending champion Geoffrey Kam-
woror to take the world title in 31:40
minutes over the 10,240m course. Kip-
limo won silver after he came second
and their country mates Thomas Ayeko
and James Ayeko finished seventh and
tenth respectively. Team Uganda also
scooped the Senior Men’s gold for hav-
ing four finishers in the Top Ten. At the
2018 Commonwealth Games in Aus-
tralia, Cheptegei wrapped himself in
glory when he won double gold in the
5,000 and 10,000 metre categories. President Museveni with officials of Fenix International

Attorney General, Police clash over gold refinery

A letter from Attorney General premises of AGR have been a scene of AGR. He added that URA cleared
William Byaruhanga, advising the Police of tension with the police raiding the AGR on two of the consignments in
Minerals Protection Unit to withdraw company several times over suspected line with the exemption the company
from the premises of the African Gold smuggled gold. The Police reportedly got on import duty. The letter from the
Refinery (AGR) in Entebbe was not seized 3.6 tonnes of gold suspected to be government’s principal legal advisor
enough to deter the police. The army smuggled from Venezuela. In his letter directs AGR, established by a Belgian,
later joined in the deployment at the dated March 26, Byaruhanga directed the Alan Goetz, to desist from importing
country’s only gold refinery. The Police to withdraw from the premises gold into the country till further notice.

AfricellUG @AfricellUG

Dial *133*2# *terms and conditions apply |

Regulated by Uganda Communications Commission

for more bundles

April. 05 - 11 2019 5
Controversy surrounds
Uganda Airlines
Uganda Airlines is yet to be opera-
tional as a national carrier but it is already
shrouded in enough controversy. A storm
erupted in parliament when some docu-
ments presented by Monica Ntege, the
Minister of Works, indicated that the air-
line is to be owned by two individuals; her
and the Minister of Finance Matia Kasaija.
After an uproar, she came out to reveal
the national carrier will have two million
shares, with the Ministries of Finance and
Works taking one million each.“We have
Uganda welcomes Kenya land deal in Naivasha the return of allotment of shares; the num-
ber of shares allotted is two million, nomi-
Traders in Uganda were excited by the the visit, Uganda signed other deals with nal amount of shares is Ush200 million
offer of land from President Uhuru Kenyat- Kenya on defence and social affairs. One of [$53,830] and amount due on each share is
ta to Uganda to build a dry port for its cargo the pacts is for Kenya to increase the quota Ush100 million [$26,900],” Ntege said. MPs
in Naivasha, Kenya. Kenyatta made the of its sugar import from Uganda from Winfred Kiiza and Joy Atim Ongom, in
pledge during a three day state visit hosted 36000 tonnes to 90,000 tonnes. Uganda will their minority report, appealed to parlia-
for his Ugandan counterpart Yoweri Musev- also import beef from Kenya after Uganda ment not to approve the supplementary
eni in Mombasa. The offer is part of the agreed to lift its ban on the country’s prod- budget until government explains the
Standard Gauge Railway (SGR) project that ucts. In turn, Kenya also agreed to lift a ban full ownership of Uganda Airlines.
East Africa countries agreed to years ago. on Uganda’s poultry products. However Earlier, the Budget Committee recom-
“I have confirmed to President Museveni away from the grandiose ceremonies of mended the approval of Shs280 billion
that with that development in Naivasha and state summits, these deals are rarely imple- supplementary budget being sought by
then moving the SGR to Malaba, goods will mented when it comes to doing business government to purchase the first two
be able to move from Mombasa to Malaba due to bureaucracy and other factors. Bombardier planes from Canada.
in just two days,” Kenyatta remarked. In

6 April. 05 - 11 2019
Humour Did you know?
Gmail’s now allows you
to customise your swipe

You you customise what

happens when you swipe
Finance has defended government’s decision to borrow Shs1.4 your emails. All you need is
billion for a specialized hospital in Lubowa, Wakiso district.
Gmail’s latest iOS update.
Five different actions
are supported, including
archiving or deleting
emails, marking them as
read or unread, snoozing,
archiving, or moving them
to a different folder. You can
also assign different actions
to left or right swipes.
The update brings the
functionality of Gmail’s iOS
app into line with its Android
equivalent. Until recently,
the iOS app only let you
archive or delete emails
KCCA has started cracking down on entertainment places and by swiping, and swiping in
churches that are fueling noise pollution in a city.
either direction would do
the same thing. The update
comes as part of a broader
redesign announced by
Google back in January.
The functionality is available
in the latest version of the
Gmail app, which began
its rollout on March 28,
yesterday, but could take
longer to be available to
everyone, according to
Google. Once downloaded,
you can change what
swiping does by heading
into the Settings menu and
Football administrators are under fire following Uganda selecting Swipe actions.
Crane’s humiliating defeat to Tanzania Taifa Stars.

April. 05 - 11 2019 7
News analysis Health Business
Lubowa Hospital Drug-resistant TB: MTN Uganda revenue
controversy New study offers hope rises to Shs1.38trillion

Issue No. 565 March. 29 - April. 04 2019

Ushs 5,000,Kshs 200, RwF 1,500, SDP 8

Museveni doubles
military spending
Rwanda tension cited but why

does govt want Shs1.2 trillion?

Follow us on Twitter @!/ugandatalks

Follow us on Facebook @

Letters are East African unity is a joke Flying Taxis coming

welcome ! Refer to: “New NGO steps not an Afropessimist, just Refer to: “Forget flying car-
The Editor welcomes short and into Rwanda, Uganda con- a realist. The East African pets, flying taxis are coming
concise letters from our esteemed flict” (The Independent March Community is a joke that your way” (The Independent
readers on topical issues. Please 22). What if we spent our stopped being funny long March 17). Wow, this is a step
send them to:
The Editor, The Independent precious time and resources time ago (same with useless ahead and good innovation.
Publications Ltd, on more worthy things than African Union). Maybe it’s Hope I will live to see it happen.
P.O Box 3304, pretending that us Africans time to let it go.
Plot 82/84 Kanjokya St, might one day be willing and Medrad Muhumuza
Kamwokya. able to unite in any way? I’m Anonymous

Nantaba: Extra-judicial killings with impunity
Minister Nantaba The Minister of State for ICT
and National Guidance, Aida
witness, is standard police
procedure. Social media is not
torture and imprisonment of
innocent citizens on trumped
was vigilant, let’s not Nantaba, surrender herself to
a thorough and professional
police headquarters. She bears
responsibility for the actions of
up charges. Last time they also
murdered Yassin Kawuma in
judge her wrongly police investigation into the
mysterious broad daylight
her bodyguards. Just like was
the case of Matayo Kyaligonza.
Arua with total impunity.

It is regrettable and painful to killing of motorcycle enthusi- Public attention should not be Hussein Amin
lose a life. On Sunday March 24, ast; the late Ronald Sebulime. diverted from the Museveni
Ronald Sebulime’s breathed his Quizzing Nantaba, as an eye regime’s extra-judicial killings,
last at the hands of the Uganda
Police. The blame and politi-
cal punches are being thrown
at Aida Nantaba, the Kayuma
Uganda’s strategic dilemma Women celebrations
Woman Member of Parliament
and the State Minister of ICT &
and intellectual dishonesty at Kololo
National Guidance. She was the Refer to: “Uganda’s strategic dilemma Part2”
one who accused Sebulime of (The Independent March 22). Most of the time I The government’s celebration of
trailing her with evil intentions hear the word ideology my mind races to those women and what they go through is a
and caused the police to chase, tattered copies of the ‘ Juche Idea’ and’ the Green huge step to women empowerment. This
capture, and execute him. book’ which as youths we religiously read in the year it is on April 10 at Kololo Ceremonial
To be sincere, those blam- 1986 and 87 in order to comprehend the liberation Grounds in Kampala to celebrate women
ing and criticising Nantaba that would propel our state to the much admired who have achieved success in life. Those
are unfair. Nantaba, as a high First world status. Sadly, as it is clear to all, we facing hardships will be encouraged and
profile person, saw Sebulime as have maintained our position among the poorest shown how to achieve success.
a threat to her life and she made nations on earth as it was in the beginning. The fel- Many women today engage in work
a responsible and a reasonable las at the Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC) previously reserved for men. Many are in
move by reporting him to police at Makerere University Kampala; with a few professional jobs. But many do ordinary
for it to intervene and investigate exceptions like Dr. Fred Muhumuza, will teach the jobs, like stone crushing, brickmaking,
the matter. It should be remem- best economic theory until they are rewarded with lorry driving, and motor rallying. This
bered that a number of people those juicy perks in government offices. Then all clearly shows that women can now do
have been assassinated by indi- semblance of logic goes south. Sadly what we are any kind of job that a man can do. The
viduals using motorbikes. facing is not what you would term as a dilemma. government has empowered women
We have been encouraging It is intellectual dishonesty. In the political arena, into personal survival and eradication of
people to be vigilant everywhere. we will always get our scapegoats ever ready. Ide- women dependence on men.
If security authorities had suc- ology is not Ugandan and nothing will ever make I encourage women to take part in this
ceeded in arresting Sebulime , it so. Everything revolves about who is eating celebration because there several activities
how did he die? That is the major what. The cronies of Idi Amin, the praise singers that are going to be carried out. There will
question from the public which of Milton Obote and the sycophants of Yoweri be free screening for hepatitis B, cancer,
the police should answer. Museveni are all well educated men and women. and many other diseases.

David Serumaga Godfrey Kambere Kevin Seguya


8 April. 05 - 11 2019
The Last Word Opinion

Uganda’s storm in a teacup

By Andrew M. Mwenda
How our MPs invented a scandal around Uganda Airlines’
shares and our chattering elites joined the chorus

hose who can make you believe normal. The real allotment was filed on July not a fatal one, that cannot be rectified by
absurdities can make you commit 11, 2018. Here the form provides for name the registrar. But even here, that person
atrocities,” Voltaire of shareholder, address and particulars of would not “steal” the shares (by claiming
Last week, our parliamentar- allotment. On name, it says Matia Kasaija them) because he would have to explain
ians alleged that some unscrupulous and Monica Aruba; address, it gives min- how he got them! You cannot own some-
ministers had stolen government shares istry of finance and the ministry of works thing you did not buy and have no sale
in Uganda National Airlines Company and on shares one million shares for each. agreement for.
Limited (UNACL) by registering them in Ideally, on name of shareholder, it should The other issue was Gad Gasatura who
their private names on the shares allotment have said “minister of finance, Matia was appointed chairman of the board but
form. A “vigilant” committee of parliament Kasaija, and minister of works, Monica the company did not notify the registrar
“unearthed” this fraud. Parliament went Azuba.” The clerk omitted the title of min- of companies. So the issue was: in which
hysterical with the deputy speaker, Jacob isters. But this was not fatal because the capacity was he signing company docu-
Oulanyah, saying he would have fired the memorandum of incorporation and articles ments? This was later rectified. But delaying
ministers if he were president. On tradi- of association describe the objectives of the to inform the registrar does not nullify
tional and social media, pundits outdid one company, the share capital, the owners, the appointments; it only causes the registrar
another denouncing this blatant theft. shareholding and the value of the shares. to impose penalties for the delay. The MPs
Yet for all the hysteria, there was actually These documents state clearly that the sub- reached the height of absurdity when they
only a minor clerical error on the forms scriber is government of Uganda through asked why a company registered last July
that did not affect the substance of owner- the ministries of works and finance; and 2019 could have its documents certified in
ship of UNACL. MPs and other Ugandan were signed by both Kasaija and Azuba in March 2019. Really? I will not honour this
elites exhibited a degree of ignorance that their official capacities as line ministers. stupidity even with a comment.
makes one worry about democracy in our Therefore legally there was no risk to Ugandans are angry and frustrated at
country. Socrates described 5th century government losing the shares because the their government – often for the wrong rea-
Athenian democracy as “empowered ministers whose names appeared on the sons. This has led a large section of the pun-
envy.” The democratic assembly sentenced registration documents are the same per- ditry to always look for an opportunity to
him to death by drinking hemlock because sons who appear on the allotment form. vent their spleen at those holding power. It
he always questioned the self-righteous If the ministers later, after leaving their has gotten worse because in the event of no
claims of Athenian elites. Increasingly, I find current jobs claimed ownership, the claim scandals, they are beginning to invent them
myself in the same position. would not stand because the articles of asso- – like this alleged theft of UNACL shares.
I wrote in this column last year that the ciation and memorandum of incorporation Yet this mistrust in government is most
revival of Uganda Airlines is a good idea clearly show the subscribers; and they also likely going to cause more failure rather
that has been introduced into a wrong clearly show that they signed in their official than promote success.
country. Ugandan elites are not interested capacities. Even a third grade lawyer in a The failure of a nation is sometimes (in
in the good of their country, but in proving third world country would see this. Africa, most of the time) attributed to cor-
their biases. So mistakes in the airline will If Kasaija and Azuba tried to sell shares to ruption and ineptness of leaders. Yet all too
not be an opportunity to reflect and reform anyone, the buyer would have to go to the often nations fail because of the collective
the way it is run but a chance to grandstand registry to transfer the shares. The registry delusions of their societies. Uganda is in
and score political points in order to win would tell him/her that they bought air crisis because its elites, suffering from acute
cheap popularity. because UNACL is registered as a public, psychological insecurity and guilt, seek
Last week, our MPs and pundits sunk not private, company. So when the minister meaning through exaggerated hostility to
to their lowest level. They claimed that said there was a clerical error and amended state action, even though backed only by
because the share allotment form reflected the documents by adding the title of “min- ignorance and emotions.
the names of the ministers rather than the ister” to the names of Kasaija and Azuba, Uganda airlines will fail not because the
ministries as owners, the airline shares it was not meant to change anything of government is corrupt and incompetent but
had been stolen. They ignored the fact that substance but to satisfy the emotions of MPs because Ugandan elites are suspicious of
UNACL is registered as a public company. and our chattering elites. the state. Our democratic institutions like
Therefore there is no chance in hell that a The MPs and the cacophony of shrill parliament and the press, which are meant
private person can own its shares.  alarms they raised ignored the fact that to give citizens opportunities to check gov-
A background: at incorporation of under the Company’s Act, the registrar of ernment, actually make us hold the state
UNACL on January 30, 2018, the company companies has powers to rectify errors on hostage to our emotions and delusions.
was given 2m shares and only two shares documents. What if the share allotment
were proposed pending allotment of all forms had indicated any other name other
the shares at a later date: one share by each than that of a person who has a relationship
of the two shareholders – the ministry with the ministries of finance and works?
of finance and ministry of works. This is That would have been a big error, though

April. 05 - 11 2019 9
cover story

Why NRM doesn’t want
to talk about it

Current age : 75
2021 age: 77
2026 age: 82
Muhoozi Kainerugaba
Salim Saleh Current age : 44
Current age : 59 2021 age: 46
2021 age: 61 2026 age: 51
2026 age: 66

Janet Museveni
Current age : 70
2021 age: 72
2026 age: 77

10 April. 05 - 11 2019
cover story

By Haggai Matsiko presidential elections and instead have land.
the party with the majority in parliament The oldest person to ever head an African
n 2021 when Uganda goes to the next select the president. The idea is to save an state, the late President Hastings Kamuzu
polls, President Yoweri Museveni ageing Museveni from a grueling election Banda, before he was removed in 1994 at
will be 77 years. At the next polls in campaign. the age of 97 had left the country in the
2026, he will be 82 years and possibly With a near-70 percent majority, the hands of his companion Cecilia Tamanda
one of the oldest state leaders in Af- ruling NRM and its chairman Museveni Kadzamira.
rica and the world. would be the immediate beneficiaries. The Museveni is comparatively young. But
Despite such clear indicators, the Presi- ruling party would easily retain power and the cross country electoral campaign, which
dent’s ruling National Resistance Move- Museveni who by that time will be too old is already underway – two years before the
ment (NRM) party appears determined to campaign would just stay in office. election in 2021 – can be draining.
not to talk about succession or life without But when opposition politicians publicly As a result, even though President
Museveni at the helm of the party and spoke about such plans in January this year, Museveni still appears stronger than his
country. the NRM dismissed the same as mere spec- challengers, observers say that more than
“There are no discussions in the party ulation. Of course such NRM denials do not ever a conversation about his successor
on who should succeed President Yoweri mean it will not happen. The plot to remove –meaning someone clearly designated
Museveni,” said the NRM Secretary Gen- the constitutional 75-year age-limit to allow from within his circle succeeding him or a
eral Kasule Lumumba recently when cor- President Museveni to run again started as transition – meaning a switch to any leader
nered by journalists. a rumour, was dismissed by NRM, but was other than him - is unavoidable and must be
“The NRM Central Executive Commit- eventually pushed through parliament by planned for.
tee-CEC; the top party organ has never Museveni. In 2017, Workers MP Sam Lyomoki even
discussed succession,” she added. The ques- It is not unusual for ageing leaders to came up with “The Museveni Succession,
tion is why? adopt coping strategies that ensure they Transition and Immunities Bill, 2017” say-
According to politicians from opposition stay in power. ing he wanted to ensure smooth transition
parties, it could be that the NRM is planning The 93-year old Queen Elizabeth II of of power.
to spring a surprise constitutional amend- Great Britain in April 2018 allowed her son This planning is critical because Uganda
ment as early as this April. and heir apparent, Prince Charles, to take does not appear to even have a proper
While Museveni does not appear to have over the grueling role of leader of the Com- succession plan in case of an emergency.
serious challengers ahead of 2021 and 2026 monwealth. The constitutional provisions have never
appears far off, insiders say he is already Africa’s oldest leader, 87-year old been tested and the only precedents are too
planning ahead. President Paul Biya of Cameroon has been diabolical to think about – another military
The plan, according to those knowledge- dubbed an “absentee president” because takeover.
able about the inner workings of the NRM, he rules through the prime minister and
Museveni’s handlers intend to eliminate spends most of his time in Geneva, Switzer-

April. 05 - 11 2019 11
cover story
But aware of how entrenched Museveni
is, the three—Muntu, Mao, and Bobi Wine—
appear to be planning to be testing out the
possibility of fielding one candidate. The
challenge they face is that they all see this
as their turn.
Mao has said that the north is tired of
endlessly voting for the south. Muntu’s exit
of FDC was a clear indicator he was tired of
waiting in Besigye’s shadow—his support- Kadaga
ers say he is the best candidate; that he can
unite both the opposition and moderates
2026 age: 69
within the NRM, and are banking on
this. Bobi Wine says it time for his gen-
Signs that Bobi Wine could face stiff Rugunda
resistance from the establishment can be Ssekandi 2026 age: 78
found in the comments of senior officials 2026 age: 84
Saleh Muhoozi in Museveni’s government.
“If you surrender government to small
Between Muhoozi and Salim Saleh boys like Bobi Wine, you would declare the
In the past, whenever talk of succession entire country a national emergency in a
or transition has arisen, political punditry period of six months,” Justice Minister Gen.
has focused on four areas; members of Kahinda Otafiire recently said.
Museveni’s family, top members of the Former coordinator of Intelligence Ser-
NRM party, top generals in the army, and vices, Gen. David Sejusa also jumped in.
finally an opposition politician. “The Military formation of Uganda I
Currently, however, talk of succession know currently would not allow the civilian
or transition is easily dismissed because likes of Bobi Wine as their Commander-In-
Museveni either appears too strong or the Chief,” Sejusa reportedly said, “Museveni
would-be successors appear too weak. positioned their mind in a way they can Mbabazi Bukenya
Within President Museveni’s family, only accommodate a president with a
possible successors have been seen as his strong military background or a known
wife, Janet Museveni, son Lt.Gen. Muhoozi political veteran.” Weak leaders in NRM
Kainerugaba, and brother Gen. Caleb To make a point about the stake the
Akandwanaho aka Salim Saleh. military has in Uganda’s politics, while Looking and finding a Museveni
By 2026, however, Janet and Saleh will campaigning for the 2016 elections, Musev- successor within the ruling NRM
be 77 and 66 years respectively. While they eni said that with the army, there is no way party is more complex. Gone are the
are all popular amongst supporters of the he would leave Uganda in the hands of days when one could point at a raft of
ruling party; a combination of the Museve- “wolves”. He was referring to his challeng- pretenders to the throne; from then-
ni brand fatigue (he will have spent over 40 ers in the opposition. powerful `super minister’ Amama
years in power) and their age could make Mbabazi, former Vice President Gilbert
either Janet Museveni or Salim Saleh hard Bukenya, and even former VP Speciosa
to sell as successors. Kazibwe. Today, VP Edward Ssekandi
Gen. Kainerugaba, who will be 51-years and Prime Minister Ruhakana Rugunda
old, is a different proposition. He could cut an indifferent figure. That could be
also face the challenge of the Museveni a survival strategy but none has a clear
fatigue but he would offer youthful hope. political base. Speaker Rebecca Kadaga
He could also have the backing of the army is an ambitious possibility. Significantly,
however, Ssekandi is older than
Museveni and will be 84, Rugunda 78,
and Kadaga 69.
The Bobi Wine factor Kadaga has been mentioned as a
favourite among voters—in a 2014
Within the opposition, potential contend- opinion poll, 25 per cent said they
ers, Kizza Besigye, will in 2026 be 69, Nor- would vote her if she stood against
bert Mao 59, Mugisha Muntu 67 and Kya- Muntu Besigye Museveni. In that poll, Kadaga
dondo East legislator Kyagulanyi Sentamu performed better than opposition
aka Bobi Wine 44. leaders Kizza Besigye, Gen Mugisha
In this group, Besigye has challenged Muntu, Bukenya, Mbabazi and former
Museveni the most times —the next election UPC leader Olara Otunnu.
will be his fifth if he contests. Muntu and While Kadaga managed 25 per cent
Mao, however, feel that this is their chance. in a contest with Museveni, Besigye
They also have to contend with Bobi only managed 22%, Muntu only 19%,
Wine, who despite only recently arriving on Bukenya the same, Mbabazi 18%, Mao
the political scene, appears the most popular Bobi Wine 19%, and Otunnu 18%.
opposition politicians going by both interna- Mao But Kadaga’s popularity had largely
tional and local attention. soared because of how she had steered

12 April. 05 - 11 2019
cover story
the ninth parliament in the two opposed to his quest to lift the constitutional 1962 have been over-thrown in a military
years to the poll. age limit, and has made the intelligence arm coup. This has made Uganda the most coup-
In 2011, she acted firmly when of the military—the Chieftaincy of Military prone country in the region; with an average
she led parliament to lock out Intelligence (CMI)—the most dominant of a coup for every six years, before Musev-
some of Museveni’s nominees security agency. eni came to power in a coup in 1986.
for ministerial positions. She Apart from this, the army has in the past Currently, Museveni does not see the
presided over parliament during sprung some of the biggest challengers of army as threat. A few years ago while
the oil debate in which some Museveni. addressing a judges’ conference in Entebbe,
of Museveni’s ministers almost Retired Col. Kizza Besigye was a Musev- Museveni scoffed at “idiots” who say that
got censured. The climax of her eni confidant for 19 years until he rebelled the NRM government can be overthrown
popularity came in 2013 when she in 1999. At the time he rebelled, Besigye was by arms.
lashed out at a Canadian Foreign a Senior Military Adviser to the Ministry “Some of these people are just idiots…”
Minister about homosexuality. of Defence. He has since, as the flag-bearer the president said, “They just go around that
Then Prime Minister Mbabazi of the biggest opposition party, challenged they want to overthrow the Uganda govern-
in 2012 told a high level NRM Museveni at the polls thrice. ment, Uganda government to overthrow
meeting that Kadaga, an NRM vice Col. Besigye’s successor as president it? You don’t know what you are talking
chairperson was building a power of the opposition Forum for Democratic about…the NRM government to overthrow
base for her presidential ambitions. Change (FDC) party, Maj. Gen. Mugisha it with arms, but that is our speciality.”
Indeed, in March 2012, Muntu, was an army commander under While Museveni appears in charge now,
outspoken Kabale priest Fr. Museveni for nine years. by the time he is in his 80s the situation
Gaetano Batanyenda publicly Another soldier, Gen. David Sejusa aka might be different. It is not impossible to see
endorsed her to become Uganda’s Tinyefuza sparked excitement with his 2012 how that could force the army to intervene.
first woman President. letters and particularly the last one warn- In Zimbabwe, with Robert Mugabe seen
But since she got a new term as ing of a plan to eliminate those against the as seen as a senile at 93, his once-trusted
Speaker of Parliament in 2016, she Muhoozi project. At the time he fled into army commander, Gen. Constatino Chi-
has focused on her parliamentary exile in London, he was a member of the wenga, turned against him.
work and not showed any army High Command, the army’s top gov- In Algeria, chief of staff General Ahmed
enthusiasm for the highest office. erning body, a Senior Presidential advisor Gaid Salah, has joined the opposition called
on defence, and the coordinator of Military for the aged and ailing 82-year old Presi-
Intelligence. Capt. Ruhinda Maguru, a for- dent Abdelaziz Bouteflika to step down.
mer Aide-de-Camp to Museveni has twice For now, however, Museveni and his
challenged him for leadership within the handlers do not appear bothered about
An army of surprises ruling NRM party.   The other high ranking such events.
retired army officer, Maj.Gen. Benon Biraaro
The current highest level of leadership in challenged Museveni in the 2016 elections.
the Uganda People’s Defence Forces (UPDF) Interestingly, all eight governments in Nalweyiso
is in the mid-50 and will be in their early 60’s
Uganda, except two, since independence in
by 2026.
It is also difficult to look into the crys-
tal ball of the military because President
Museveni routinely promotes, shuffles,
and retires them. The UPDF strategic force
today appears to be in the Gen. Muhoozi
cohort, most of who are between the ranks Nabaasa
of Brigadier and Colonel. Following normal
career paths, these will be the major generals,
and lieutenant generals of 2026. Prominent
names of today such Lt. Generals Charles
Lutaaya, Joseph Musanyufu, Peter Elwelu,
Lakara Nakibus, Prossy Nalweyiso, John
Mugume and Pecos Kutesa could either
have retired or slowed down. Their position
will be have taken over by the likes of cur-
rent major generals; Sabiiti Muzeyi, Leopold Kyanda
Kyanda, Don Nabasa, Joram Tumwine and
more. This list is big. Saleh
While many of them have tended not to
make political statements, they have acted.
Indeed, the military today has permanent
representation in parliament, heads the
police, deploys heavily during elections,
protects all the key strategic installations,
and has `attaches’ or spies in key ministries,
among others.
Museveni has also deployed military Muhoozi
doctors to replace striking doctors, has Muhoozi
commanded military operatives to raid Sabitii
parliament and forcefully ejected legislators

April. 05 - 11 2019 13
news analysis

How `unity’ died in Uganda

Remembering the Moshi Spirit of the 1979 liberation war
By Independent Team calculated to push Amin into a war with the Buganda Kingdom.

Tanzania. Many generals in Amin’s army According to Mutibwa; at least four
his week marked 40 years since a allegedly wanted the war but Amin had re- senior army officers confronted Amin in the
combined force of armed groups of fused to attack Tanzania although he spoke middle of 1978 and told him point-blank
Ugandan exiles under the Uganda often of annexing the Kagera region. to step down and handover to a civilian
National Liberation Front/Army The environment was tense. Tanzanian government. Amin reportedly told them
(UNLF/A) and the Tanzania Peoples De- President Julius Nyerere had never recog- he would think about. But knowing him,
fence Forces (TPDF) toppled the govern- nised Amin as president and kept many the soldiers fled and joined a mutinous bat-
ment of then-president of Uganda, Field Ugandan dissidents, including former talion of Amin soldiers based at the Simba
Marshal Gen. Idi Amin Dada. president Milton Obote in Dar es Salaam. Battalion in Mbarara. To quell down the
Amin’s forces were routed from the The exiles occasionally launched attacks on mutiny, Amin reportedly moved the Chiu
capital Kampala on April 11 after a quick Uganda. Battalion from Gulu to Mbarara. But the
six-month war that begun on October However, by October 18789, Amin’s Chui battalion instead joined the mutineers.
30, 1978. The specific trigger of the war warmongering soldiers had become restless To quell down the insurrection, Amin
remains unclear to this day. But the events – just like the rest of the country. According reportedly called in his special forces; the
are not disputed. to renowned Ugandan historian, Phares Marine Brigade backed by some fresh train-
According to many accounts, on the Mukasa Mutibwa, in his book `Uganda ees. But these were badly beaten in battle.
auspicious Independence Day of October Since Independence: A story of Unfulfilled It was, therefore, within this volatile situa-
09, 1978, there was a minor cross-border Hopes’, Amin was also beginning to lose tion that the lone soldier reportedly caused
clash between a lone Ugandan soldier, his control of the army and the country around the skirmish across the Tanzanian border on
Tanzanian lover, and a fight with Tanzani- this time. October 09, 1978.
ans men in a bar. Mutibwa writes that in April 1978, a
Following the lone incident, the Uganda major rift within the inner core of Amin’s Conspiracies and attacks
army invaded Tanzania on the orders of Lt. government was revealed when he publicly All these conspiracies and events are
Gen. Juma Oka Mafali aka Butabika (the denounced his Vice President and Minister often interpreted differently by different
mad one) . This is significant because, ac- of Defence, Gen. Mustafa Adrisi together analysts to serve different agendas.
cording to some accounts, Butabika did not with Brig. Moses Ali; the Minister of Just a few days before the October 09,
consult or get authorisation from Amin to Finance, and Maj. Gen. Isaac Lumago; the 1978 border incident, for example, un-
invade Tanzania and appeared to be react- Army Chief of Staff. Others similarly con- known attackers had ambushed Amin at
ing to the lone soldier incident because he demned by Amin were Kassim Obura; the the Presidential Lodge in Kampala (the cur-
was a relative. Chief of Police and Lt. Col. Nasur; the Com- rent Nakasero State House). They intended
However, according to some versions, mander of the dreaded Malire Mechanised to kill him but Amin escaped by helicopter.
Gen. Butabika’s move was carefully Regiment based in the current Lubiri, seat of Such attempts on Amin’s life were nothing

14 April. 05 - 11 2019
news analysis
unusual. But soon after this, Amin’s Vice 1979. In total, 22 groups of Ugandans from were just 15km out of Kampala. For the
President, Gen. Mustafa Adrisi was injured the entire globe converged on Moshi. So onslaught on Kampala, this axis was
in a car accident and Amin was reportedly as the battle raged in Masaka, Mpigi, and backed by forces that had earlier captured
suspected to have attempted to kill him. Kampala, Ugandans in exile formed the Entebbe International Airport.
However, Adrisi who died in 2013 never Uganda National Liberation Front/Army
accused Amin of this. (UNLF/A). Death of Moshi spirit
Therefore, whatever triggered what came The Libyans were defeated and killed af- When small arms gunfire intensified, it
to be called the “Liberation war of 1979” is ter some fierce fighting. This was a big blow became clear that Bulange; the palace of
not clear. But the war moved swiftly. because Amin appears to have designated the Baganda kingdom which was then
After pushing back Amin’s men and Lukaaya as a red line. The attackers now called Malire Regiment and one of the few
launching a hot pursuit, the invading force adopted a broad pincer attack on Kampala bastions of defense, was under attack.
advanced faster than anticipated. Mbarara, city. Kampala city fell to the liberating forces
which is about 130km away and was home One arm moved via Mityana along the on April 10. On April 11, as the invading
to the dreaded Simba Mechanised Infantry Kampala-Mubende highway. This was forces were conducting mop up opera-
Regiment, easily fell in late February. the fastest moving. By March 28, it had tions around Kampala. It is said that it
Then the invading forces; called the lib- encircled Uganda’s capital city Kampala is in one of these operations that Lt Col
eration army pushed on to Masaka. There and occupied all strategic positions and Juma Butabika, aka Juma Oka Mafali, the
were fierce battles here and the Tiger Bat- mounting heavy artillery on the hills, man who started the war was killed in the
talion in Masaka was captured much later including their saba-saba (Russian made Bwaise-Kawempe area.
on April 6. But the invaders had already BM Katyusha rocket launchers) that Amin’s Many Amin soldiers were captured
moved past Masaka for Kampala. fighters dreaded. Only Kampala-Jinja Road after the Tanzanian army tricked them
When they started leaving Masaka for was left open for anyone wishing to flee the into reporting for deployment. They were
Kampala, a few Libyan soldiers tried to stop city; including diplomats who scurried to bundled on buses and trucks as if they
them as the rest of the Amin’s army appears neighbouring Kenya. Shooting was com- were going to their new postings only
to have mutinied or fled. These small for them to end up in Luzira
bands of lost and hungry Libya Military prison.
souls, mercenaries whom Muam- Three days after the fall of
mar Gadhafi had sent in to aid Amin Kampala, on the afternoon of
appeared to be fighting for their sur- April 13, a new government
vival not Amin. They had nowhere headed by Prof Yusuf Kironde
to run to as they did not know the Lule was sworn-in on the steps
area or speak and, as Arabs, were of parliament. Current Presi-
conspicuous in appearance. dent Yoweri Museveni was
Gadhafi appears to have sent his minister of state for defence.
men half-heartedly; believing that He was the youngest minister,
under the non-interventionist treaty aged 35.
of OAU member states, President Ju- Lule was described as a
lius K. Nyerere of Tanzania would be reserved academic with no
prevailed upon to end the invasion known enemies who described
and not capture Kampala or topple himself as apolitical. He was
Amin. Gadhafi was aiding Amin as a given the title of chairman of
fellow Muslim. the front’s Executive Com-
Nyerere also appears to have Yusuf Lule Julius Nyerere mittee and was asked to
been of the view that taking Kampala form a shadow cabinet subject to
was not the objective of the war. However, mon in the city. Radio Uganda said it was the approval of a 30-member National
five months into the war, Nyerere pos- “aimless” shooting by “a few runaway Consultative Council (NCC). This was in
sibly realised that any withdrawal that left soldiers who are cowards”. the so-called “Moshi Spirit” – the spirit
Amin in power would have irreparable By March 28, in one of several bizarre of unity (including in executive decision
consequences. It was clear that Amin would reports, Radio Uganda reported that making). It was a fallacy.
exact revenge on the residents of especially President Amin “had visited the front When Lule was pressed on the issue he
Mbarara and Masaka. The ensuing chaos line in a sports car to “enjoy an hour-long made it clear that he, and not the NCC, was
could create a flood of refugees into Tanza- battle with the enemy”. in charge of executive authority. He said he
nia. Nyerere was keen to avoid that. By end of March 1979, Radio Uganda was bound by the constitution and not the
At the same time, Tanzania was under – the only radio and source of official demands of the ruling body, the Uganda
international condemnation for invading government information and misinforma- National Liberation Front (UNLF).
Uganda. Nyerere had to devise an accept- tion at the time – was reporting that the “The constitution of a state is different
able camouflage for the invasion. Tanzanian forces had captured Mityana, from that of a party which is in government
Nyerere decided to create a united front 35km from the Kampala city. Effectively, and clearly the front [UNLF] is quite analo-
for all Ugandan political dissidents to be western Uganda was cut-off and became a gous to a party in this regard,” he explained,
the ones to remove Amin with Tanzania “liberated zone”. “Failure to understand this basic distinction
as their backer. That was acceptable to the Meanwhile, the other arm of the invad- is faulty and could lead to confusion and
international community which was tired ing force came in from Masaka. Soon unsatisfactory results.” He was right. There
of Amin’s brutality and antics and had been Mpigi, which was closer to the city, was were indeed unsatisfactory results – for
waiting for diplomatic wiggle room. He also captured. This meant the invading him. He was kicked out after only 68 days
facilitated a meeting of dissidents in the force could now fire long‐range artillery in office. The Moshi spirit was dead.
Tanzanian town of Moshi that came to be – the Saba-Saba could hit Kampala city
called “The Moshi Unity Conference”. It and Entebbe Airport. Soon Radio Uganda
was a four day affair, from March 23 -26, was announcing that the invading forces

April. 05 - 11 2019 15

40-year Moshi lessons

for younger Ugandans
Moshi teaches us that anybody with a simple gun must never be allowed
to take over power when they have no idea on how to use it - Kabwegyere
Prof. Tarsis Kabwegyere was the convener of the Moshi conference held in March 1979
in Moshi, Tanzania . Its agenda was to remove then-Ugandan President Idi Amin from
power. Kabwegyere spoke to Ian Katusiime about the 40th anniversary of the conference.

We are marking 40 years since the Moshi Uganda. We had people like Semei As the convener of this historic
conference. What does this mean for Nyanzi, Martin Aliker, Akena p’Ojok; it conference, what was the process like?
did not matter because each had a role to

Uganda politically? Whom did you call, and how did you
believe that the removal of Amin play. The intervention of Tanzania shows become convener?
was very significant at that time and even today that Mwalimu Nyerere was The damage by Amin was so much
more than a leader for Tanzania; he was that so many had left Uganda. I recall
even today because Amin really
a leader that had the whole continent at that we had been sent out by Makerere
did so much damage to Uganda
heart. He hosted a liberation committee, University, we were as many as 27, to do
he played roles in Zambia, Angola, a PhD programme in universities across
That is when you compare him with the
Guinea Bissau, South Africa. the world.
British in colonial times and with Milton
The removal of Amin lifted a huge
Obote just before him. There is no part of And we had come back having
burden lying on Uganda’s neck.
Uganda that was not affected by Amin’s finished but nearly all of us fled because
Possibilities were opened up. No
rule, or I should say there is no part in of Amin. Everywhere in Uganda where
wonder challenges were undertaken and
Uganda which did not lose a person to Ugandans were, they were all organising
transformation of politics and
his murderous agents. So I believe our on how to come back. Bishop of Church
the understanding of where
coming together in Moshi was such a of Uganda Festo Kivengere who was
we were going took
beginning of a review of our history. praying for us at the conference said, he
place. Those efforts
I recall that after we had put was praying to God that Amin makes a
that were being made
together the commissions it turns mistake. So by attacking Tanzania that
now had a context
out that there were so many was a Godsend. We gathered from all
because they were
Acholi in the committees. We corners and we had all been in touch, if
home. That is why
were not concerned with ethnic you travelled abroad you met Ugandans.
we have had 33
identity of the person but their In East Africa, Kenya was a big centre
years of continuity
possible role in reorganising for us and so was Tanzania. There
which is not
anywhere in our past was a wedding of Steven Tindyebwa,
history. a businessman who had fled Uganda,
which took place in Nairobi in December
1978 after Tanzania had been attacked
and we all gathered there. That is when
this idea of a meeting in Dar-es-Salaam
and eventually Moshi was conceived.
I was assigned the chairmanship of
the organising committee. We tried
to be as representative as possible
on the committee. Members
included Edward Rurangaranga,
Okot Nyoromoi, Dr. Peter
Sinabulya, a dentist based
in Nairobi who was
the secretary of our
We had

16 April. 05 - 11 2019
long established contact with Tanzanian How influential was Mwalimu Nyerere produced that situation of Amin. The
authorities because Save Uganda in facilitating this conference? alliance between UPC and KY producing
Movement was already based there. So it By the time we met in Moshi, Mwalimu 21 MPs without being elected, but
was not difficult after the committee was had already made up his mind that Amin dominated by Mengo undermined the
formed. The Tanzanian internal security must go. His involvement is inestimable. beginning of democracy. This was a major
knew us. I used to be an external examiner For him to commit his army and support fault in the foundation of the new politics
at University of Dar-es-Salaam, where Uganda the way he did even after the of Uganda. When the Kabaka of Buganda
I would meet people like the current removal of Amin says a lot. He supported became president of Uganda; this was an
president (Yoweri Museveni), Prof. Dan the liberation struggle that followed even incompatible role.
Nabudeere, and a few others so it was not under NRA. This is someone who went
as difficult as it appears. The contacts were beyond the boundary of his country. Do you think a Moshi-like conference
there. Messages went and I recall spending He never recognised Amin as a leader can happen today and successfully
about Kshs6000- 8000 on calls. So we were of Uganda. That is why he kept Obote in agitate for political change?
enabled. Tanzania. Also, to him the end of Amin But you see the conditions and reasons
did not mean an automatic return of for this conference don’t obtain. If you are
Who were the other key players from Obote. Obote tried to fill Moshi with his talking about democracy, the British had
Uganda? people but Mwalimu was very clear about been here effectively from 1900 and in
We had people like Prof. George Uganda being more than Obote. 1962, they had not any significant general
Kanyeihamba leading the group from That is the mark of a statesman and election. We did not have significant
London, Kawanga Semogerere with a historical figure. It is why those of us voters in Uganda. So democracy was not
Democratic Party (DP) although he was there at the time feel Mwalimu deserves a here. And if independence meant that
living in the U.S., Andrew Kayiira with you are starting democracy, then that was
Uganda Freedom Movement (UFM) who an abortion.
was also living in the U.S. The Front for A constitution that was established in
National Salvation (FRONASA) team had Britain is amended in 1967. After elections
been operating from Tanzania already. in 1962, they do not happen again until
Museveni, its leader, was organising It was actually one 1980. That is 18 years of independence
a western wing against Amin based
in Mbarara. We faced pressure from day but we took without elections. Then we had an Amin
who disorganises Uganda. You can’t say
Museveni and Paulo Muwanga saying time to sort out you have a similar situation in Uganda
we were delaying the process of Amin’s
removal with the conference. Tanzania credentials. We today.
The Ugandan diaspora are among
even wanted us to form a government were as many as 88 those who contribute to Uganda’s
in exile. There was Kikosi Malum, Save
Uganda Movement which had people like
groups and some development. That time we were all
looking to get rid of the one keeping us
Eteker Ejalu. There were efforts to make were jostling to outside. The Ugandans outside are not
sure we build strength so that we had a
Ugandan face with Tanzanian support.
enter from outside anxious to come and see a new situation
by organising a meeting outside. Second,
the compound and the attack on Tanzania is not replicable.
Tell me something memorable from this
conference. Who made what argument,
we ended up with When Uganda has now gone out to help,
it has been accepted and recognised be it
who gave an impassioned speech? only 22 for Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan etc.
It was actually one day but we took
time to sort out credentials. We were as Looking back after 40 years, what
many as 88 groups and some were jostling lessons can young Ugandans learn from
to enter from outside the compound and this historic meeting?
we ended up with only 22. We took time greater recognition than he has had. To me, things that led to Amin taking
to decide who will qualify to get in lest it over must be objected to. That history
becomes a rally. I gave a speech and used This event led to the formation of the must be understood. Those weaknesses
a Runyankore proverb saying it is better to Uganda National Liberation Front must be obviated. I am satisfied that
feed someone with a running stomach than (UNLF). However, immediately after Ugandans are autonomous where
to feed the ungrateful. As Ugandans we the overthrow of Amin, there were development, national integrity, unity
were seemingly ungrateful by taking a long two short-lived regimes. Was this a and social progress are all on our menu.
time to form a united front. shortcoming of the conference? There is a lot of people who need
Then also how we got Yusuf Lule to No, it served its purpose of getting to be appraised on what we he have
become chairman of the National Executive Ugandan to give a backing to Mwalimu gone through. They should know the
Committee (NEC). Nyerere knew him, they for removal of Amin. It became a mistakes that led to that confusion
had studied together at Makerere and he beginning of the reorganising of Uganda. must not be made. They should know
was an academic and he was also from the Efforts had been made previously like in democracy must be thorough; where we
central province. He also had no record of 1972 to remove Amin but none succeeded. are all involved and where the roots of
being a UPC figure. He was the right person Ugandans were enabled to get back democracy are deep in our body politic.
to lead but as it turned out, we removed home. Those who were inside could People should know why we have army
him after 68 days because he betrayed the organise and overcome the damage done. representatives in parliament. When you
whole trust Nyerere had put in him. He When you look back, you are looking hear of the Military Commission; the idea
wanted to bring in British and Kenyan at a kind of termination of a history was that we never allow anybody with a
troops and betray the Tanzanians. that had recorded failures. Colonialism simple gun to take over power when they
had yielded to forces of change but the have no idea on how to use it.
way Independence was managed had

April. 05 - 11 2019 17
news analysis

Students’ test scores

Why they tell us more about the community
the students live in than what they know
By Christopher Tienken Predicting scores proficient or above on standardised test

It’s already well-established that out- scores for grades three through 12. These
very year, policymakers around of-school, community demographic and predictions are made without looking at
the world make life-changing deci- family-level variables strongly influence school district data factors such as school
sions based on the results of stan- student achievement on large-scale stan- size, teacher experience or per pupil
dardised tests in schools. dardised tests. spending.
These high-stakes decisions include, but For example, median family income is Our models can identify how much a
are not limited to, student promotion to a strong predictor of SAT results. Other particular variable affects students’ scores.
the next grade level, student eligibility to factors strongly linked to achievement on That allows us to identify the most impor-
participate in advanced coursework, and state standardised tests include parental tant demographic characteristics as they
eligibility to graduate. However, research education levels, percentage of lone par- relate to the test results. For example, by
shows that the outcomes of standardised ents in the school community and per- looking at just one characteristic – the per-
tests of students don’t reflect the quality centage of families living in poverty in the centage of families in a given community
of instruction, as they’re intended to. This community. living in poverty – we can explain almost
raises the possibility that there are serious In 40 states in the USA, teachers are 58 percent of the test’s score in eighth
flaws built into education accountability evaluated in part based on the results grade English language arts.
systems and the decisions about educa- from student standardised tests, as are Our most recent study explored three
tors and students made within those school administrators in almost 30 states. years of test scores from grades six
systems. Colleagues and I have conducted stud- through eight in more than 300 New Jer-
Colleagues and I have conducted stud- ies in New Jersey, Connecticut, Massachu- sey schools. We looked at the percentage
ies whose results show that it’s possible to setts, Iowa and Michigan. of families in the community with income
predict the percentages of students who We decided to see if we could predict over US$200,000 a year, the percentage of
will score proficient or above on some standardised test scores based on demo- people in a community in poverty and the
standardised tests. We can do this just by graphic factors related to the community percentage of people in a community with
looking at some of the important char- where a student lived. By looking at three bachelor’s degrees. We found that we
acteristics of the community, rather than to five community and family demo- could predict the percent of students who
factors related to the schools themselves, graphic variables from U.S. Census data, scored proficient or above in 75 percent of
like student-teacher ratios or teacher qual- we have been able to accurately predict the schools we sampled.
ity. the percentages of students who score An earlier study that focused on fifth

18 April. 05 - 11 2019
news analysis

grade test scores in New Jersey predicted Smarter assessments research on a national level to determine
the results accurately for 84 percent of To be clear, the results of our study do just how much test scores are influenced
schools over a three-year period. not mean that money determines how by out-of-school factors.
much students can learn. That couldn’t be If these standardised test results can be
Standardised tests further from the truth. In fact, our results predicted with a high level of accuracy by
Students’ scores on mandated stan- demonstrate that standardised tests don’t community and family factors, it would
dardized tests have been used to evaluate really measure how much students learn, have major policy implications. In my
U.S. educators, students and schools since or how well teachers teach, or how effec- opinion, it suggests we should jettison the
President George W. Bush signed the No tive school leaders lead their schools. Such entire policy foundation that uses such
Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) in 2002. tests are blunt instruments that are highly test results to make important decisions
Although more than 20 states had pre- susceptible to measuring out-of-school about school personnel and students.
viously instituted state testing in some factors. After all, these factors are outside the con-
grade levels by the late 1990s, NCLB man- Though some proponents of stan- trol of students and school personnel.
dated annual standardised testing in all dardised assessment claim that scores can Although there are ideological disputes
50 states. It required standardised math- be used to measure improvement, we’ve about the merits of standardised tests
ematics and English language arts tests found that there’s simply too much noise. results, the science has become clearer.
in grades three through eight and once in Changes in test scores from year to year The results suggest standardised test
high school. State education officials also can be attributed to normal growth over results tell more about the community in
had to administer a standardised science the school year, whether the student had which a student lives than the amount
test in fourth grade, eighth grade and a bad day or feels sick or tired, computer the student has learned or the academic,
once in high school. malfunctions, or other unrelated factors. social and emotional growth of the stu-
The Obama administration expanded According to the technical manuals dent during a school year.
standardised testing through require- published by the creators of standardised Although some might not want to
ments in the Race to the Top grant pro- assessments, none of the tests currently in accept it, over time, assessments made by
gram and by funding the development of use to judge teacher or school administra- teachers are better indicators of student
two national standardised tests related to tor effectiveness or student achievement achievement than standardised tests. For
Common Core State Standards: Smarter have been validated for those uses. For example, high school GPA, which is based
Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) example, none of the PARCC research, on classroom assessments, is a better pre-
and the Partnership for Assessment as provided by PARCC, addresses these dictor of student success in the first year
of Readiness of College and Careers issues directly. The tests are simply not of college than the SAT.
(PARCC). designed to diagnose learning. They are This change would go a long way to pro-
Forty-five states initially adopted the simply monitoring devices, as evidenced viding important information about effec-
Common Core in some form. Approxi- by their technical reports. tive teaching, compared with a test score
mately 20 are currently part of the PARCC The bottom line is this: Whether you’re that has little to do with the teacher.
or SBAC consortia. Key portions of Race trying to measure proficiency or growth,
to the Top applications required states use standardized tests are not the answer. Christopher Tienken is Associate Professor
student test results to evaluate teachers Though our results in several states of Education Leadership Management and
and principals. have been compelling, we need more Policy, Seton Hall University

April. 05 - 11 2019 19


How Umeme has As a company, Uganda’s

biggest power distributor
directly employs a team
created thousands 
indirectly, the company
of jobs has created thousands of
jobs in Uganda.

58 UMEME POWER: Transforming Uganda

UMEME Power Book.indd 58 12/8/18 10:19 AM

meme has between 2,000 to 4,000 Apart from SMEs, there is an estimated
contractors, who also employ hundreds 3,000 industries in Uganda. All of these rely on
of thousands more. For instance, one power supplied by Umeme.
of these contractors, Haso Engineers              
Company, employs over 400 people. largest steel producer in East Africa, employ
Assuming that on average all of    

Umeme’s contractors had 100 Namanve Industrial Park to the
workers and they were just 2,000 east of Kampala, and another
that is a total of 200,000 jobs. 1,000 on its plant on the Lubowa
Away from the contractors, Estate to the south of Kampala.
Umeme has over 1.2 million Another manufacturer, Alam
customers, who range from Group, who consumes 120MW
small, rural customers to large of Umeme electricity per month,
industrial producers of steel and employs over 1,000 people;
beverages. Regardless of the size
of business, almost all of them 200,000+ Mukwano Groupis in excess
of 7,000; and even Musa Body,
have created jobs.
For instance, Umeme JOBS an indigenous metal fabricator
in Katwe employs up to 113
provides electricity to 500 SMEs
in Uganda. SMEs employ 2.5
Umeme has people both on permanent and
contractual basis.
million people. They account for between 2,000 to
Umeme also powers schools,
approximately 90% of the entire 4,000 contractors, banks, telecoms, hospitals, local
private sector, generating over who also employ government administration
80% of manufactured output
that contributes 20% of the gross
hundreds of centres, amongst others, all
domestic product (GDP). thousands more of which employ hundreds of
thousands of people.

Cabling works

UMEME POWER: Transforming Uganda 59

MEME Power Book.indd 59 12/8/18 10:19 AM

Behind dfcu’s 52%
decline in net profit
Top managers are optimistic tion,” Katamba said, adding “we managed
to achieve that even in a hostile environ-
the future of the business is bright ment.”
The bank recorded a jump in bad debts
written off from Shs27bn in 2017 to Shs82bn

By Julius Businge in 2018. Katamba said that some of these
loans were acquired from Crane Bank.
hareholders of dfcu would be “We didn’t take over the best performing
happier if the bank’s financial institution,” he said, “These are costs that
accounts showed a decline in come with mergers and takeovers.”
costs and increase in revenue. William Sekabembe, the bank’s chief of
This is not the case for the fi- business and executive director was equally
nancial year 2018. positive about the results.
However, dfcu’s top management are “You don’t have to worry,” he said, “the
optimistic that the lender will make profits bank’s capital levels are way above…and it
in the year ahead. [bank] is extremely liquid.”
Financial results released on March Going forward, Sekabembe said that
27, indicate that the bank recorded a 52% they will be implementing a more cost cut-
decline in net profit from Shs127bn in 2017 Mathias Katamba ting strategy so as to increase revenue by
to Shs61.7bn in 2018. deploying more new skilled staff at various
Mathias Katamba, the bank’s managing securities declined from Shs98.8bn in 2017 branches to attend to the bank’s clients.
director and chief executive officer told to Shs65.5bn in 2018. Non-funded income On the other hand, Katamba, said they
journalists and sector analysts at the bank’s in terms of fees and commission increased are working towards reducing the cost to
headquarters on March 27 that they were by 29% from Shs39.3bn to Shs51bn as the income ratio currently at 79.5% [registered
not worried about the sharp decline in rev- bank continued to harness the benefits of in 2018] to below 60%.
enue for 2018 because the year before was the investments in technology and growth He said this will be done through
unique and had been boosted by ‘a one-off in customer base. strengthening agent banking where they
income’ resulting from the acquisition of Total expenditure reduced from Shs- already have 700 agents manning 10% of
Crane Bank assets. 350billion in 2017 to Shs326bn in 2018. But the total bank’s transactions. The bank aims
In 2018, the bank posted Shs61bn as total total assets reduced by 5% from Shs3.1tn to have 30% of its total transactions man-
comprehensive income, far higher than the to Shs2.9tn due to repayment of borrowed aged by agents in the next 12 months.
Shs127bn recorded in the previous year, funds and subordinated debt. “We will continue to be prudent while
which had Shs119bn one-off income accru- This resulted in a 39% reduction in the doing the right things,” Katamba said. The
ing from the purchase of Crane Bank. bank’s interest expense from Shs44bn to Bank’s Board of Directors has recommend-
Meanwhile, the bank’s core business of Shs27bn.The bank paid out Shs22.6bn as ed a cash dividend of Shs33.01 per share as
loans and advances registered a 5%increase, tax, lower than Shs41.4bn remitted in 2017. opposed to Shs68.24 paid out a year before.
from Shs242bn in 2017 to Shs260bn in 2018. Katamba said 2018 was not a normal year This has to be approved by the Annual Gen-
The annual average growth in private for the bank but the figures have taken back eral Meeting planned for June 13.
sector credit in the quarter to Dec. 2018 for the bank to its normalperformance trend While commenting on the entire financial
the entire industry was 11.3%, according to which gives them momentum to normalize position of the bank, an accountant with
Bank of Uganda data. the post-merger operations. over 10 years of experience working at a
Katamba said in 2018, the bank focused “Last year was not an ordinary year but private company told The Independent that
on ensuring asset quality of their consoli- it showed resilience of the institution,” he the bank’s position is not bad going by its
dated book, which reduced impairment said. total assets in comparison with liabilities.
expenses by 61% from Shs49bn in 2017 to He said that if it was not for good man- He said the bank must work towards cut-
Shs19bn in 2018. agement, the negative publicity that hit tingunnecessary operational expenditure by
Customer deposits remained flat at the bank following the acquisition of some embracing new technology, agent banking
Shs1.9tn for the period under review as the assets and liabilities of Crane Bank, the per- and reducing on borrowings.
bank focused on a strategy of growing the formance would even have been worse. Listed on the Uganda Securities
current and savings deposits that area more He said that the stable customer deposits Exchange, dfcu bank is owned by Arise
cost effective source of funding. recorded during the year is a justification (Norfund, NorFinance, Rabobank &FMO
The strategy resulted into 11% reduction that its customers are loyal and confident (58.70%), Commonwealth Development
in the interest expense from Shs88bn to that they are getting value from the bank. Corporation (9.97%), NSSF (7.46%), Kimber-
Shs78bn. Interest on government and other “This is an extremely well run institu- lite (7.35%) and others 16.52%.

22 April. 05 - 11 2019

Stanbic raises dividend payout

as profit surges to Shs 215bn
The lender’s cost cutting strategy delivered good returns
By Isaac Kh\isa

ganda’s largest commercial
bank, Stanbic Bank, seem to
have surprised its investors with
a 7% growth in net profit to Shs
215bn in 2018, closing out the year that
the banking industry generated some
Shs 700bn in net profit amidst worries of
eased monetary policy.
The bank had in February last year
anticipated ‘worse performance’ for the
year owed to the central bank’s decision
to lower the Central Bank Rate to 9% and
10% - the lowest since 2011 when Inflation
Targeting Lite (ITL) was introduced to
tame inflation, a move that saw banks Patrick Mweheire
lower interest rates from as high as 25% to
as low as 18% per annum. structure to deliver good returns. previous year. The dividend payout
“2018 is going to be a tough year; He said the bank also heavily invested increased by 8% to Shs 97.5billion.
there is no doubt. If you look at the yield in a customer centric model of operation
curve…it is in the unchartered territory,” that enabled it to create innovative Going forward
Stanbic Bank’s Chief Executive Officer, solutions and channels that helped Mwheire said the bank has
Patrick Mweheire, told journalists then as improve convenience for the customer transitioned into Stanbic Bank Holding
he announced the bank’s financial results. while bringing down transaction costs. Uganda Ltd, a step that would enable
“Banks in this country have never “Digital channels have enabled us to it access funding more easily but
had a Central Bank Rate of 9% (as it is at see overall transaction growth of over also tighten capital requirements and
the moment). It is a good thing for the 25% year on year basis with transactions regulatory oversight.
economy (as interest rates will drop) but it on these alternate channels growing by He said this development will enable
is very hard for banks to make money.” over 40%,” Mweheire said. the bank to set up a number of non-core
Faced with such circumstances, Stanbic, “As at end of 2018, approximately 80% banking businesses including Stanbic
seem to have done something magical to of our transactions were being done on securities, Stanbic Digital and Stanbic
make money for the shareholders. our alternative digital channels.” real estate.
For instance, the lender increased Commenting on the bank’s key He said, for instance, that the Bank
its market share in extending letters of performance indicators, Sam Mwogeza, plans to transfer its real estate assets it
credit, government guarantees, bonds the bank’s chief financial officer, revealed acquired from the Uganda Commercial
and funding the ongoing construction of that the bank also reported improvement Bank to the new company and simply
power and infrastructure facilities from across all key financial metrics. rent the facility to enable the bank earn
38.9% to 44.6%. “We recorded a double digit growth in some income.
The bank also recorded increase in our loan book which recorded an annual He said the new business model will
revenue from diversified revenue streams growth of 18% in 2018 growing to Shs2.5 ensure that the bank sustain its market
with the ratio of net interest to non- trillion from Shs2.1 trillion in 2017. This leadership position and attain business
interest income standing at 44% to 56%. resulted in a market share gain for the growth.
Similarly, the private sector credit bank of 20% from 19% at the start of the Mweheire said the bank also plans to
across the banking industry –recorded year,” he said. set up upcountry business incubation
11% growth to Shs 1.4trillion during the “We were very particular with the centres in Mbarara, Mbale, Gulu and
years – driven by manufacturing and sectors that we lent money to and we Hoima to train entrepreneurs eyeing the
agriculture sectors, trade and personal availed more credit to those sectors oil and gas sector.
and household finance also boosted the that we saw having a higher growth So far, more than 192 small and
bank’s profitability. rate rebounding…that enabled us to be medium enterprises trading different
Mweheire, who announced the bank’s more proactive in seeing the switch in goods and services have been trained
financial results at the Kampala Serena borrowing appetite and requirements under the bank’s Business Incubator
Hotel on March 28, revealed that since from clients.” initiative housed in Kololo, a leafy suburb
the bank anticipated pressure on their As a result of the superb performance, of Kampala.
revenues as a result of a decline in lending the bank earnings per share also went
rates, they had to optimize on cost up to Shs4.2 in 2018 up from Shs3.9 the

April. 05 - 11 2019 23

70% growth
in net profit
Company expects
more revenue from
government’s free
connection policy

By Julius Businge Total assets increased from business operations.

Shs2.3billion in 2017 to Shs2.4billion in Babungi said the company remained
ower distributor, Umeme 2018. Shareholder equity increased from resilient in 2018 and focused on the path
Limited recorded a 70% jump Shs618billion in 2017 to Shs722 billion in forward to deliver and to satisfy cus-
in profit after tax for the year 2018. The increase is attributed to profits tomers’ needs, meet the expectations of
ended December 2018 compared for the year. stakeholders, while achieving sustain-
to the previous year. The company also reported that net able returns to shareholders.
This came after the company settling a cash flows generated from operating The directors recommended a final
conflict regarding a specific clause in its activities increased by 31% to Shs395bil- dividend of Shs 28.2 per ordinary share
contract that suppressed revenue in the lion. The funds were used to fund to be paid for the year ended December
year 2017. investments in the network and financ- 2018, up from Shs7.6 paid in 2017.
Based on the original contract, ing commitments of the business. Cus- Meanwhile, during the year, electric-
Umeme had been allowed to earn some tomers connected to the grid, within the ity sales increased by 9.1% to 3,011 GWh
extra revenue accruing from extra pow- Umeme footprint, increased by 14.8% to from the 2017 out-turn of 2,760 GWh.
er sold beyond the target set by the reg- 1.3 million. The industrial segment recorded an
ulator, a clause that show the company “We acknowledge the need to acceler- average growth of 12% in 2018.
record Shs115bn as revenue by close of ate the connections rate under the gov- Going forward, Babungi expects an
financial year 2016. ernment’s electricity connections policy upward trend in demand for electricity
However, in the period before to achieve the national development that should translate into more sales by
2016, Electricity Regulatory Authority plans,” officials said in the financial Umeme and its growth.
amended the license and in the process statement. “Umeme continues to focus on
Umeme had to forego Shs115bn which The energy losses for 2018 were 16.6% improving efficiencies that benefit our
it recorded as expenses in its financial compared to 17.2% for 2017. Over this customers in the form of reducing ener-
books for the year 2017 – leading to a regulatory cycle, energy losses have gy losses, increasing revenue collections
decline in profits. reduced by 10.7%. and reducing operating costs,” he said.
However, in 2018, the company Selestino Babungi, the company’s He said Umeme’s investment in
bounced back to its normal perfor- managing director told journalists at the network is in line with Uganda’s
mance, recording a Shs132bn as net Protea Hotel on March 25 that through increase in installed generation capac-
profit, up from Shs35.4bn in 2017. The the introduction of prepaid metering, ity projected at 1,167 MW once Karuma
cost of sales reduced from Shs960bn to improvements in quality of service and HPP Dam (600 MW) is commissioned at
Shs912bn. open platforms for electricity bills pay- the end of this year.
But repair and maintenance costs ments, the company achieved an aver- In addition, he said that investments
increased from Shs37bn to Shs45bn. age revenue collection rate of 99% over will support efforts by government to
Administrative expenses grew from the seven year cycle. implement the 2018 electricity connec-
Shs161 to Shs179bn, leading to an This development comes as the com- tions policy, aimed at accelerating grid
increase in general operating costs of pany is still in negotiation with the gov- connections, through subsidisation of
the business from Shs199bn to Shs226 ernment to extend its concession that the last mile capital costs. The govern-
billion during the same period under expires in 2025. ment aims to add at least 300,000 con-
review. On a positive note, the operating sumers to the grid every year through
Officials said prolonged rainy season cost per customer in the year 2018 was this policy.
in the year increased expenditure on Shs174, 665 compared to Shs177, 092 in The company also invested Shs231
network repairs and maintenance to 2017 due to the use of technology, roll- billion in the distribution network
ensure public safety and supply reli- out of pre-paid metering, increase in relating to load growth and grid
ability. customer connections and efficiency in expansion projects.

24 April. 05 - 11 2019
Executive Style

Remaking Africa’s tax system

What were the key with digital skills but
highlights of the slim on employment
session on recent opportunities, how does
economic and social this theme address youth

trends in Africa? unemployment, and
he key what solutions do you
highlights envisage for proposal
from today’s and discussion at this
discussion conference?
relate to recent We count a lot on
economic and social digitalisation, which offers
developments in a lot of opportunities
Africa. We looked at for African countries
how Africa performed to modernize their tax
in 2018, in terms of systems and mobilise more
growth. The continent government revenue for
grew at 3.2% in 2018 tax, sources and better
down from 3.4% in manage government
2017, but growth is expenditure to build
expected to increase infrastructure and an
again to 3.4 in 2019 environment that is
and 3.8 in 2020. conducive to private
investment. And all that is
What are the main important for job creation
growth drivers in the is important for job
region? creation for African youth.
The main growth So what we are saying is
drivers are recent
A digital overhaul of Africa’s tax system is that finance is the main
increases in investment needed to boost revenue collection, regional constraint to investment
and development in Africa. 
and commodity
prices, especially oil
coordination and financing, Adam Elhiraika, If you address the
prices, and continued Director of Macroeconomic Policy at the financial constraints
we’ll be able to analogue
improvement in
Economic Commission for Africa says opportunities in many
management and in conversation with Shoshana Kedem other areas and be able to
address issues of social
increase exports in during the recently Conference of African development, employment
particular. And the
continent benefited Ministers of Finance, Planning and Economic and so on.
from relatively Development in Marrakech, Morocco How will Brexit affect
strong global growth. trade with African
The conversation countries and what
highlighted the need opportunities does it
for Africa to treble leapfrogging and building First we need legislations present?
its growth rate to grow infrastructure will help and institutional changes, We already adjusted to
at 9-10%, at a minimum countries eventually address and second we need soft Brexit when it was first
of 6% in order to make the issue of budget deficit. systems, not new hard discussed three years ago,
considerable progress in We are saying African infrastructure. so I don’t see an immediate
achieving their sustainable countries have the potential It shouldn’t cost African effect on Africa in the short-
development goals. to at least double their countries much to digitalise run. Maybe in the long-run
Can all African countries current tax GDP ratio of their tax and fiscal systems. countries might engage with
15.4%. For some countries it the UK and European Union
leapfrog into the digital age
Ten years ago, African tax [digitalisation] is jumping under new agreements
when they are grappling
GDP ratio was about half the gun, but for others its that will affect how they
with domestic realities such
of what we have today, and not. Some countries like cooperate with the UK
as budget deficits sand poor
the potential is still there to South Africa, Rwanda, vis-a-vis the EU. New data
infrastructure? double it to 30% over the Kenya and Morocco already
 The problem of budget will tell which sectors and
next 5-7 years. have very modernized fiscal countries will present the
deficit has to do with So there are two forms of systems.
outdated fiscal systems in best opportunities.
interventions governments
many African countries, need to put in place to As the youngest continent Adapted from African Business
and so digitalisation and make use of digitalisation: in the world, saturated Magazine

April. 05 - 11 2019 25

Vivo energy introduces discounts on Shell V-power fuel Sheraton, Marriot

with journalists held at the com- announces new
pany’s fuel station in Lugogo on
March 29, Emmanuel Ssebunya,

the brand manager for fuels
said that the promotion, dubbed n March 28, Shera-
‘Power Weekend’ will be avail- ton and Marriott
able at all 80 Shell stations coun- brand hotel brands
trywide that sell V-Power on unveiled the Mar-
every last weekend of a month riot Bonvoy, a new travel
until December 2019. “We en- program which is built on
courage our customers to get a the belief that travel enriches
all its members.
full tank so they can experience
According to Stephanie
the benefits of this fuel,” Ssebu-
Linnartz, the global chief

nya said. The company’s new
commercial officer for Marri-
uel distributor, Vivo have more of its clients spend fuels contain exclusive dynaflex
ot International, the new ser-
Energy Uganda has less. A litre of Shell V-Power technology which helps clean
vice would enable members
introduced discounts costs about Shs300 higher than and protect key components in to access the world’s leading
on fuel prices for its the price of other fuels that the vehicle engine innovations and hotel portfolio at the best
Shell V-power fuel in a bid to company sells. In an interview customer needs. prices in addition to other
benefits as well as a collec-
tion of experiences that bring
Digitisation key HP fight fraudulent manufacturers in EA exploration and discovery of

the world to the forefront.
to development P’s Anti-Counterfeit- Maputo (Mozambique) and The Sheraton General

ing and Fraud team, Kampala (Uganda) areas. In Manager, Philippe Bitten-
frica must digitise its alongside local African total, these anti-counterfeiting court and his Assistant
economies, broaden its authorities, have con- successes resulted an impressive Director (sales and market-
tax base, prevent further ducted two highly successful total of 33,000 illicit items seized. ing) said the guests who will
deterioration of fiscal and operations to stop the trade of Secondly, in January 2019, enroll for the service will
debt positions, and aim for double- counterfeit cartridges for HP Ugandan authorities dis- achieve elite membership
digit growth to achieve the UN 2030 printers across Uganda and mantled a criminal ring that status and will be awarded
global goals (SDGs), and the AU Mozambique. Firstly, In Sep- had distributed counterfeit car- annual points. “The more
Agenda 2063, according to the 2019 tember and October 2018, HP’s tridges for HP printers destined members stay and spend, the
Economic Report on Africa. This ACF team and local authorities for sale in several East African greater the reward and rec-
year’s Economic Report on Africa, raided several premises in the countries. ognition,” officials said.
a flagship publication of the United
Nations Economic Commission for CSR
Africa (ECA) focuses on fiscal policy.
Government revenues account for
21.4%, insufficient to meet countries’
Centenary Bank to equip Girl Child with financial skills
development financing needs. position to start businesses.
“The Report identifies several quick The project lead Anatalia
wins in Africa’s pursuit of additional Nambooze, said the girl child
fiscal space to finance its accelerated needs to be encouraged to
development,” Vera Songwe, the engage in some activities that
ECA’s Executive Secretary stated at can in turn earn them some
the launch in Morocco on March 24. money to realise financial
“[It also] focuses on the instrumen- empowerment.
tal role of fiscal policy in crowding-in Beatrice Lugalambi, the
investment and creating adequate fis- General Manager Corporate
cal space for social policy, including Communications and
supporting women and youth-led Marketing at Centenary Bank
small and medium enterprises.”  said “the girl child needs to
This comes as economic growth in be empowered because soon
Lugalambi handing over a dummy cheque worth
Africa remains moderate at 3.2 per Shs50m to beneficiaries.  COURTESY PHOTO they will be influencers of
cent in 2018 – due to “solid global

household financial decisions
growth, a moderate increase in com- he girl child aged 13 impact the lives over 25,000 and it is key that they know
modity prices and favourable domes- to 18 years have been girls across 50 schools in the what to do by then.”
tic conditions.” challenged to embrace country. She said Centenary
Report emphasises African states
the savings culture. It is expected that at Bank will be opening up
to do more, and work towards
This was during the launch the end of this 16-week Centevolution accounts for
achieving a fine balance between rais-
of the campaign #365Saving campaign, the over 25,000 the girls as a platform to
ing revenue and incentivizing invest-
organized by y Women4Her targeted students, will be encourage savings.
ments, in order to boost growth.
dubbed whose goal is to better savers and be in

26 April. 05 - 11 2019

UEGCL names new supervisor

for Karuma dam
This new development fol-
By Julius Businge lows the failure by the current

OE, EIPL, to hire competent
n a bid to deliver a fit- staff and strictly adhereto con-
for-purpose hydropower tract specifications in addition
dam, the Uganda Electric- to allegations of fraud.
ity Generation Company Mutikanga said the prob-
Limited has named a new lems that were experienced
Owner’s Engineer to super- at Isimba dam were similar
vise works for the 600MW to those at Karuma dam that
Isimba Hydropower dam. EIPL was supposed to man-
Eng. Harrison Mutikanga, age.
the chief executive officer at He said the dam construc-
UEGCL told reporters at the tion is at a critical stage and
company’s headquarters in they cannot continue using
MTN Uganda Chief Technology Officer and Acting CEO, Gordian Kyomukama (L) Kampala on March 27 that AF services of EIPL which could
chat with Ali Monzer, Acting General Manager, Mobile Financial Services, during Consult, based in Switzerland, easily compromise the quality
the prize handover ceremony to the winners of the recently concluded MTN was chosen after a competitive of the entire project.
Open API Challenge held at the Innovation Village on March 28. The telecom bidding process and emerged “You cannot expect better
firm handed over cash prizes worth Shs 66m to winners in the competition. the winner. results when you continue
The new OE will start doing things the same way,”
official work on May 06 after Mutikanga said.
the expiry of the contract of The US$1.398bn dam on the
Energy Infratech Pvt. Limited River Nile in Kiryandongo
(EIPL). The new OE has been District is 93% ready and
hired for 12 months at a cost is expected to be commis-
of US$4.9million. sioned in December this year.
Mutikanga said the new Some of the critical works
OE has rich experience in remaining include installa-
supervising design and tion of dam equipment and
construction works for large diversion of the river. The
hydropower developments. dam is being constructed by
AF Consult was formerly the Sinohydro Corporation Lim-
Karuma HPP Project Manage- ited from China that is closely
ment Consultant. supervised by UEGCL and
other players.
UBL Marketing and Innovations Director, Juliana Kaggwa (R) and
Robert Nsibirwa, Deputy Buganda Premier hands over running kit to
participants of the Airtel Kabaka Birthday Run on April 01, 2019.

Weekly share price movement (March. 29)

Security March 29 March 05 Movement
BATU 30,000 30000 00
BOBU 130 134 2.9
CENT 1,182 1,190 0.6
QCL 190 292 0.6
DFCU 670 670 00
EABL 7,610 7,181 5.9
EBL 1,487 1,515 1.8
JHL 15,202 15,585 2.5
KA 185 224 17.4
KCB 1,619 1,541 24.5
NIC 13 14 7.1
NMG 2,214 2,221 0.3
NVL 334 336 1.2
Minister for Trade, Industry and Cooperatives, Amelia Kyambadde (4th L) SBU 30 29 3.3
hands over an award to Roofings Group staff members led by Business UCHM 22 22 00
Development Manager Stuart Jason Mwesigwa at the Presidents Export UCL 16 17 5.8
Awards recently. Roofings Group received the top award under the UMEME 298 292 2.0
category of Manufacturing -Construction Materials.   COURTESY PHOTO ALSI -- -- --

April. 05 - 11 2019 27
Wishing others well and after the experiments. The researchers
compared all three groups with the control
The study found that of all three tech-

boosts your health

niques, people who practiced loving-kind-
ness had overall higher levels of empathy
and happiness, as well as lower levels of
anxiety. Wishing others well also improved

Kind people are happier and less anxious the participants’ sense of care and connect-
edness. By contrast, the downward social
comparison did not benefit mood at all
By Ana Sandoiu mood-boosting potential of three such strat- and made the students feel less caring and

egies: loving-kindness, interconnectedness, empathetic. The researchers explain their
hether it is escaping the city, and downward social comparison. results. Sweet, the study’s co-author, says,
going for a walk, or hanging Douglas Gentile is a professor of psychol- “At its core, downward social comparison is
out with our friends, we all ogy at Iowa State University in Ames. a competitive strategy.” “That’s not to say
have our strategies for reducing The effects of 12 minutes of ‘loving- it can’t have some benefit, but competitive
anxiety, coping with the stresses of modern kindness’ mindsets have been linked to stress, anxiety,
life, or just lifting our mood. Prof. Gentile and colleagues asked col- and depression.”
But what role does helping others play in lege students to walk around the university By comparison, “Walking around and
our well-being? building and try out one of the three strate- offering kindness to others in the world
Many people say that helping others gies for 12 minutes. The loving kindness reduces anxiety and increases happiness
through acts of charity or volunteer work strategy involved them looking at people and feelings of social connection,” says Prof.
makes them feel better and happier. New and thinking: “I wish for this person to be Gentile. “It’s a simple strategy that doesn’t
research goes further and finds that simply happy.” The psychologists encouraged take a lot of time that you can incorporate
wishing someone well may have a similarly the study participants to really mean this into your daily activities,” he suggests. Co-
positive effect on our moods. thought and say it to themselves with con- author He concurs, saying “This simple
Simply thinking of others in a kind and viction. In the interconnectedness strategy, practice is valuable regardless of your per-
loving way could make you happier, sug- the researchers asked the participants to sonality type.”
gests the new study. look at people and wonder about what “Extending loving-kindness to others
Past research has confirmed that being hopes, aspirations, or feelings they might worked equally well to reduce anxiety,
generous makes people happier. Some share with them. Finally, the downward increase happiness, empathy, and feelings
studies have even pointed to specific brain social comparison strategy had the students of social connection,” said Lanmiao He.
areas linked to acts of generosity affect, sug- think about how they might have a better The study’s lead author also mentions the
gesting that giving to others can help reduce life than the people they encountered. implications that the findings may have in
anxiety and stress. Prof. Gentile and his colleagues also our digital age.
New research, appearing in the `Journal included a group of control students who “It is almost impossible not to make
of Happiness Studies’, investigates deeper were asked to look at people but simply comparisons on social media,” says Prof.
into several strategies for lowering anxiety focus on their physical appearance, clothing Gentile.
and boosting well-being and finds that style, and so on. “Our study didn’t test this, but we often
merely wishing a person well may do won- Finally, the participants filled out sur- feel envy, jealousy, anger or disappoint-
ders for our mood. veys that measured their anxiety, stress, ment in response to what we see on social
Researchers Douglas A. Gentile, Dawn empathy, and happiness levels both before media, and those emotions disrupt our
M. Sweet, and Lanmiao He compared the sense of well-being.”

28 April. 05 - 11 2019

By Agencies

ore Ugan-
dans are
than in
the past.
According to a study titled
`Determinants of fast food con-
sumption in Kampala’ by Sarah
Ayo, Jackline Bonabana-Wabbi,
and D. Sserunkuuma, Chips,
deep fried chicken, fish, and
meat, sausages, chaps, pizza,
and kebabs are among the most

Danger of eating
consumed fast foods.
Almost all are cooked by
deep frying in cooking oil
which, according to new

reused cooking oil

research, can cause cancer if not
done properly. Apart from the
other health concerns linked
to consumption of fatty meats
which are associated with fast
food, researchers are increasing- New research links it to breast cancer
ly pointing at danger thought
to be resulting in the tendency
to reuse cooking oil in fast food static breast cancer growth. Helferich, a professor of food Unfortunately, there is no set
preparation. The team reported these science and human nutrition, number to how many times one
According to the research, findings in the journal `Cancer noted that there were twice as can reuse the oil. This depends
reusing oil creates free radicals, Prevention Research’. many lung tumors, which were on many factors; including type
a type of molecule, that attach The scientists fed all of the also more aggressive and inva- of oil used, how long the oil
themselves to healthy cells and lab mice a low-fat diet for a sive than those in the fresh-oil remains heated, and what was
may cause diseases, including week. Then, they gave some of group. deep fried.
cancer. the mice unheated fresh soy- “I just assumed these nodules Anyone routinely cooking
Consuming food prepared bean oil for 16 weeks while the in the lungs were little clones with reused oil could try to
using reused oil over long peri- rest ingested thermally abused — but they weren’t,” says reduce its negative effect by:
ods also has a risk of causing oil instead. Helferich. “They’d undergone  Ensuring that leftover oil
acidity, heart disease, Alzheim- They chose to use soybean oil transformation to become more from cooking or frying is
er’s and Parkinson’s disease, because the restaurant industry aggressive. The metastases in cooled and properly sieved
and irritable throat. commonly uses it for deep fry- the fresh-oil group were there, to remove food particles
Specifically, a recent study ing. but they weren’t as invasive or before being store; prefer-
has shown that thermally- To simulate breast cancer, aggressive, and the prolifera- ably in an airtight container.
abused or reheated cooking oil they injected 4T1 breast cancer tion wasn’t as extensive.” Food particles in used oil
possibly triggers cell changes cells into a tibia of each mouse. spoil it.
that can promote late-stage These breast cancer cells are Here’s what needs to be done  Avoid using oil that is dark-
breast cancer growth. very aggressive and have a high Fast-food is popular because er and greasier or thicker
The study is interesting rate of metastasis to multiple it is seen as an easy solution to than usual.
because the incidence of breast distant sites. As a result, they consumers’ busy schedules and  Avoid oil that emits a lot of
cancer in Uganda has nearly often appear in the lymph limited meal preparation time. smoke when heated. This
tripled in three decades and nodes, liver, and lungs. The research shows that shows the oil has accu-
the cause of this is not wholly as the population grows and mulated HNE which is a
understood. The effects of reused oil feeding tastes continue chang- toxic substance suspected
According to 2014 statistics At 20 days after the injection ing coupled with the need for to cause diseases including
from the Kampala Cancer Reg- of the tumor cells, there was a convenience, consumption of Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s,
istry the prevalence of breast notable difference in the rate fast-food is expected to rise stroke, and liver disease.
cancer in women stands at 3.7% of metastatic growth between even higher; especially in urban  Use oils that have a high
or four women out if every 100 the two groups of mice. In areas. smoke point i.e. they do
having the disease. the mice who had eaten ther- The trouble is that although not break down at high
Researchers from the Univer- mally abused oil, the metastatic the danger of cooking with re- temperatures. These
sity of Illinois at Urbana-Cham- growth of the tibia tumors was used cooking oil is known, it include oil from sunflower,
paign tested “thermally abused four times greater than that of is not practical in the fast food soybean, sim sim and so
frying oil,” which is cooking oil the tumors in the mice who industry to use new oil every on. Oils with a low smoke
that has undergone reheating consumed the fresh oil. time. The practical approach is point such as olive oil
to high temperatures multiple There were also more lung to reuse oil but limit the dura- should never be used for
times, in laboratory mice and metastases in the former group. tion of its use and hopefully deep frying
found that it increased meta- Lead researcher William G. reduce its negative effects.

April. 05 - 11 2019 29
By Kavuma-Kaggwa
Buganda and EAC political federation
Katikkiro Mayiga should summon the Lukiiko
come out with a clear Buganda position

resident Yoweri Museveni has been and completely dismantle the Buganda chaired by Godfrey Muriuki; a professor
selected to oversee and provide po- Kingdom and abolish the Luganda of history at Nairobi University in Kenya.
litical guidance to the legal experts language and impose Kiswahili on the When it visited Uganda, I told the com-
tasked with the drafting of the East Baganda. mittee the Buganda cannot accept political
African Community (EAC) constitution on I call upon the Leadership in the Buganda federation because it would abolish the
political confederation. Kingdom to resist by all means any mea- Buganda Kingdom.
The decision was made by the EAC Heads sures or approach that may require them to At Mengo; the seat of the Kabaka Gov-
of States at the 20th Ordinary Summit in accept federation. Katikkiro Peter Mayiga ernment, the committee met then-Katikiro
Arusha, Tanzania on February 1, 2019. should summon the Buganda Lukiiko to Dan Muliika. He told them clearly that the
On May 20, 2017 the EAC heads of state debate the East African Federation and Baganda rejected and they will never accept
adopted the political confederation as a come out with the clear Buganda position. the federation of East Africa. He told them
transitional model of the East African polit- The removal in 1994 of Margaret Zziwa that anybody who will try to impose it on
ical federation. from the position of the Speaker of the East the Baganda will be trying to organise a
The thorniest issue is regional integration; African Legislative Assembly, when all the wedding in a den of lions.
which means creating an East African polit- members, except Fred Mukasa Mbidde, Muliika was told that the people of Tan-
ical federation. Besides the high degree of ganged up and passed a motion of no con- zania and Kenya had rejected the East
political ineptitude among some people in fidence which removed her from the post of African Federation. In Tanzania the people
East Africa, the people in Uganda say that Speaker, added to the Baganda have of East said “Hatutaki Waganda kuingia Tanzania
they will never surrender their sovereignty African political federation. kugitawala” meaning that “we do not want
to any other country. The Baganda saw that as confirmation that the people of Uganda to come to Tanzania
Ugandans strongly believe that they should Uganda make a mistake of entering to rule us”.
fought for the Independence of Uganda the political federation of East Africa, then In Kenya the people said “the sons and
to remain independent all the time and anti-Buganda elements will get together daughters and grandsons/daughters of the
cooperate with other African countries on and move a motion “that the kingdoms in MAU MAU freedom fighters will be the
common services. Uganda will continue to Uganda should be abolished so as to make presidents of Kenya but not people from
fly its own flag and Uganda will continue to the federation function smoothly”. All other Uganda”.
have its own government, parliament, and countries in the EAC do not have kings. One of Kenya’s leading politicians, Ste-
a president elected by the people of Uganda I know that in this modern life, politics phen Kalonzo Mushoka, while esided
every after five years. means sharing power and money. So over a graduation ceremony of Uganda
What Uganda will accept is to share the money will be poured by the “anti-Buganda Technology and Management University
common services with other African coun- elements” to enable the vote for the motion (UTAMU) in Kampala in 2017 proposed
tries. The common services are: airways, to abolish the kingdoms in Uganda. that President Museveni be elected first
railways, harbours, research; including on Instead of pursuing the political federation President of East Africa. But this cannot
veterinary and agriculture, trade and some of East Africa, President Museveni should work and will never materialise.
sectors of communication. Oil production be contented with the power and wealth The people of East Africa live under dif-
and export too requires cooperation; espe- which the Baganda have rewarded him ferent political systems and trying to put
cially on building the pipeline from Uganda with for restoring the Buganda kingdom them under one political system is like
to the Indian Ocean. and maintaining peace in the country. This organising a dancing party for lions, leop-
Buganda rejected the Political Federa- has resulted in “thirty years of political ards, and zebras and antelopes.
tion of East Africa right from the time of stability” that has caused people to prosper We still have a long way to go before
Kabaka Sir. Daudi Chwa II in 1921. Again in economically and to build themselves in all people of the other five partner states can
1948, the British tried to establish it and the sectors of life. elect a Ugandan freely and fairly without
Buganda Lukiiko passed a strong resolution President Museveni, between now and any problem under a political federation.
rejecting it. the year 2021 or for that matter 2026, At the moment I don’t see it happening
In 1953, the- British Governor Sir Andrew should concentrate on working out plans because in some areas of East Africa you
Cohen brought the proposal again and with the ordinary Ugandans on how to will find people having a lot of xenophobia
Sekabaka Mutesa II refused to sign the eradicate poverty, create employment for in their heads.
papers and referred it to the Lukiiko. He young Ugandans, and looking for overseas
demanded Independence for Uganda and markets for our products. He should build Kavuma-Kaggwa is an elder from Kyaggwe,
told the Governor that it was time that the an economy controlled by the indigenous Mukono District.
Protection Agreements made with Britain people of Uganda.
ended. The British Governor exiled him to In August 2011, there was the Fast
UK for two years. But he returned in great Tracking Committee setup by the three
triumph to Uganda on October 17, 1955. EAC governments to get the views of the
The Baganda rejected the Political Fed- people on the proposal for the East African
eration because it was intended to abolish Political Federation. The committee was

30 April. 05 - 11 2019
By David Keith
Let’s talk about geoengineering
Deadlock at UN Environment Assembly in Nairobi
shows it’s a complex problem without a single solution

egotiations on geoengineering sions restrictions. and based in Europe or America. Group-
technologies ended in deadlock But that risk is not a sufficient reason think is a distinct possibility. We may
at the United Nations Environ- to abandon or suppress research on solar simply be wrong. It would be reckless to
ment Assembly in Nairobi, geoengineering. Environmentalists have deploy solar geoengineering based only on
Kenya, recently, when a Swiss-backed pro- spent decades fighting Big Fossil’s opposi- hope and early research.
posal to commission an expert UN panel tion to climate protection. And although Instead, an international, open-access
on the subject was withdrawn amid dis- progress to date has been insufficient, research program could, within a decade,
agreements over language. This is a shame, there have been some successes. The world dramatically improve understanding of the
because the world needs open debate now spends over $300 billion per year on risks and efficacy of solar geoengineering.
about novel ways to reduce climate risks. low-carbon energy, and young people are Such a program would cost a small share
Specifics aside, the impasse stemmed bringing new political energy to the fight of the sum currently spent on climate sci-
from a dispute within the environmental for a safer climate. ence, and far less than 0.1% of outlays to
community about growing scientific Open discussion of solar geoengineering cut emissions. A wise program would
interest in solar geoengineering – the pos- would not weaken the commitment of reduce groupthink by increasing the diver-
sibility of deliberately reflecting a small environmental advocates, because they sity of researchers, and by establishing a
amount of sunlight back into space to help know emissions must be cut to zero to deliberate tension between research teams
combat climate change. Some environ- achieve a stable climate. At worst, such a developing specific scenarios for deploy-
mental and civil-society groups, convinced debate could make some in the broad, dis- ment and others tasked with critically
that solar geoengineering will be harmful engaged middle of the climate battle less examining how these scenarios could go
or misused, oppose further research, interested in near-term emissions cuts. But wrong.
policy analysis, and debate about the issue. even this is not certain; there is empirical Governance is the toughest challenge for
Others, including some large environ- evidence that public awareness of geo- geoengineering. A global research program
mental groups, support cautious research. engineering increases interest in cutting should therefore be coupled with greatly
By reflecting sunlight away from the emissions. expanded international discussion about
Earth – perhaps by injecting aerosols into It is sensible to focus on cutting emis- these technologies and their governance.
the stratosphere – solar geoengineering sions, and reasonable to worry that dis- Such a debate was unfortunately cut short
could partly offset the energy imbalance cussing solar geoengineering could distract in Nairobi last week.
caused by accumulating greenhouse gases. from that fight. But it’s wrong to indulge Although my generation will not use
Research using most major climate models a monomania whereby emissions cuts solar geoengineering, it seems plausible
suggests that solar geoengineering might become the sole objective of climate policy. that before the middle of this century, a
reduce important climate risks such as Vital as it is, eliminating emissions simply dramatic climate catastrophe will prompt
changes in water availability, extreme pre- stops adding to the burden of carbon some governments to consider doing so.
cipitation, sea level, and temperature. But dioxide in the atmosphere. The CO2 from By foregoing debate and research on geo-
any version of this technology carries risks the fossil-fuel era, and the resulting climate engineering now, political leaders may be
of its own, including air pollution, damage changes, will persist. We need adaptation hoping to eliminate the risks of its future
to the ozone layer, and unanticipated cli- that increases resilience to climate threats. misuse. But their stance may actually
mate changes. But adaptation by itself is no solution. increase this danger.
Yet research on solar geoengineering Neither is solar geoengineering. And nor Humans rarely make good decisions
is highly controversial. This has limited is removing CO2 from the atmosphere – by choosing ignorance over knowledge,
research funding to a few tiny programs another emerging set of technologies that or by preferring closed-door politics
around the world, although a larger were considered in the Swiss-backed pro- to open debate. Rather than keeping
number of climate scientists are beginning posal in Nairobi. future generations in the dark on solar
to work on this topic using existing funds As the American writer H.L. Mencken geoengineering, we should shed as much
for climate research. put it, “there is always a well-known light on it as we can.
Why the controversy? Many fear, with solution to every human problem – neat,
good reason, that fossil-fuel interests will plausible, and wrong.” Complex problems
exploit solar geoengineering to oppose like climate change rarely have a single David Keith, a professor of applied physics
emissions cuts. But most researchers are solution. at Harvard’s School of Engineering and
not driven by such interests. The vast My hope is that emissions cuts, solar geo- Applied Sciences (SEAS) and a professor of
majority of those researching solar geoen- engineering, and carbon removal can work public policy at Harvard’s Kennedy School
gineering or advocating for its inclusion together to reduce the human and environ- of Government, is the founder of Carbon
in climate-policy debates also support mental effects of climate change beyond Engineering.
much stronger action to reduce emissions. what is possible with emissions cuts alone.
Still, it’s very likely that Big Fossil – from Are these hopes justified? The geoengi-
multinational energy companies to coal- neering research community is small and Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.
dependent regions – will eventually use dominated by a narrow group of members,
discussion of geoengineering to fight emis- most of whom are (like me) white, male,

April. 05 - 11 2019 31
By Johnstone Oltetia
A new shape for the mortgage industry
Ensuring affordable housing for citizens requires
a radical overhaul involving mortgage refinancing

here are two essential parts to average of eight years. The Kenya Mortgage Refinance
achieving affordable housing: But repaying at such high rates, Company (KMRC) will provide secure
building decent, low-cost so rapidly, puts borrowers under funding to mortgage lenders so that
homes, and developing housing considerable pressure and leads to they can offer more mortgages at lower
finance market that enables low-income defaults, which today stand at some prices. With such long-term funding,
earners to buy those homes. For, 12 per cent of Kenyan mortgages. It is primary mortgage lenders will also be
without finance, almost no home price additionally a model that offers very able to lengthen repayment periods to
is low enough to be affordable on an few opportunities for low and middle- 15 to 25 years, and offer a fixed interest
average salary. income Kenyans to own homes. rate, making mortgages both safe and
For this reason, the mortgage market We, thus, need a radical overhaul of affordable for low income earners.
has been growing. Housing loans mortgage financing if we are to achieve The new financing will mainly be
have risen more than ten-fold since widespread home ownership, which is available for lower cost housing, valued
2006, from 1,278 loans valued at Shs19 where mortgage refinancing comes in. at less than Shs4 million in Nairobi
million 12 years ago to 24,458 loans Providing a source of secure, long- metropolitan area (Nairobi, Machakos,
valued at Shs203.3 billion by 2015, term funding for mortgages has a Kiambu and Kajiado) and Shs3 million
according to the Central Bank of Kenya direct impact on the affordability of elsewhere. Likewise, to qualify for the
(CBK). home loans for home buyers and is a housing loan, Kenyans must be earning
But the market still remains tiny vital pillar to achieving a developed less than Shs150,000 a month.
when compared with other nations. In mortgage system. Such funding was Refinancing the financial institutions
Tanzania and Uganda, the mortgage critical, for instance, in Malaysia and will also enable them to expand their
loan value is under 2.5 per cent of GDP Singapore, where about 80 per cent of lending scope to finance developers
while in Kenya stands at 3.15 per cent houses are now mortgage-owned. as well. A strategy that can also
of GDP by 2015. In South Africa, it For this reason, the Kenyan National be borrowed by other East African
contributed some 32 per cent of GDP. Treasury is contributing to the countries in meeting there affordable
Yet in countries where mortgages Affordable Housing Pillar of the BIG 4 housing agendas.
drive a large flow of home buying, Agenda by supporting the creation of The Government Affordable Housing
home owners prime the pumps of the a lending facility (the Kenya Mortgage project seeks to develop 500,000
economy with additional spending Refinance Company) to provide longer- houses in five years, which presents
power in an inflow that makes for term funds for banks and SACCOs for the largest real estate opportunity
faster economic growth. residential mortgages in Kenya. for a long time. But with the country
However, our own mortgage market having only managed to produce about
is held back by multiple constraints; 50,000 units over the last two to three
including bureaucracy. Normally, the years, achieving the targeted 100,000
purchase of a property takes around houses a year will require considerable
three months to complete. For instance, The Government investment in construction.
mortgage finance in Kenya typically
takes six months to arrange, mired in
Affordable The financing structures necessary
to achieve this will be outlined in
nine separate, manual, administrative Housing project forums at the April 10th -11th East
processes. seeks to develop African Property Investment Summit,
These span land rent and rates which aims to support the Government
clearance certificates, transfer filing 500,000 houses Affordable Housing Project. But as
and consent, the search, the valuation in five years, government and industry leaders
and its endorsement, and the stamp convene to discuss the delivery of the
duty and lodging of documents. This which presents targeted affordable housing, mortgage
process, which the government is now the largest refinancing will be taking center stage
working to simplify, adds cumbersome as a crucial enabler.
work, as well as risk, thus increasing real estate
the cost of mortgages. opportunity for a Johnstone Oltetia is the Interim CEO
Most primary mortgage lenders in Kenya Mortgage Refinance Company
the region thus set higher mortgage long time (KMRC)
rates and focus on high net worth
individuals and high earners who
can afford higher rates. They also run
shorter repayment periods, ranging
from as low as three years to an

32 April. 05 - 11 2019

Housing; all covering85,000squaremetersof 23rd Hospital in Bergamo (Papa Giovanni

built-up area. the 23rd Hospital, Bergamo)
ii. The cost also includes medicines for 1 11. Why has Government chosen this
year; and training costs for Ugandan health model for Hospital development?
professional FINASI International Group has experi-
5. What is the additional cost that increases ence in developing Hospitals at Internation-
the amount to US$ 379.71 million? al Standards to enable Joint Commission
The additional US$ 129.81 million repre- International (JCI) accreditation which Gov-
sents the ‘Time Value of Money’ or interest ernment requires in order to stop outflow
cost of payment that Government has to of foreign exchange used to send persons
incur as a result of repaying FINASI_ROKO abroad for advance medical care.
Construction over 6 years. The US$ 129.71 12. How will the Hospital affect the Health
million represents an effective interest of Sector budget?
Mr. Keith Muhakanizi, 6.49%. The Promissory Notes amounts will be
Permanent Secretary/ Secretary to the Treasury 6. How will FINASI-ROKO Construction funded from additional allocations made to
Ltd be repaid? the Health sector
Following several public and media com- FINASI-ROKO Construction Ltd will be 13. What are the benefits of the Hospital?
ments about the proposed International repaid over 6 years after the 2 year period The Hospital Project will benefit Uganda
Specialized Hospital of Uganda, I wish to for the development for the Hospital in the following ways:-
make the following clarifications in light of 7. What assurances/security does FINASI i. Stop the outflow of foreign resources
the various mis-understandings that have –ROKO Construction Ltd require from not only medical treatment abroad (US$ 73
been made. Government that it will be re-paid? mn in 2014), but also the costs of travel and
1. Who is the Project Owner? FINASI-ROKO Construction requires upkeep (US$ 113 million in 2014). Informa-
The Project is fully owned by the Govern- that Government issues Irrevocable and tion from the High Commission of India in
ment of Uganda. The responsibility for the Unconditional Promissory Notes for only Uganda indicates that 8,200 persons applied
Hospital development has been given to completed and certified Project activities for medical visas in 2016, 5,000 of whom
FINASI-ROKO Construction Ltd. and works clearly showing how much is are Government-sponsored. At an average
2. Who owns the Project Land? due to FINASI- ROKO Construction, and spending of US$ 15,000 per patient, this
i. The Project land was legally acquired when the amount will be paid by Govern- totals approximately US$ 123 million.
by Government and given to the Joint Clini- ment of Uganda ii. Use the current Government expendi-
cal Research Center (JCRC), a portion of 8. Will Government lose money on the ture on treatment abroad to establish a Gov-
which has been transferred to the Ministry Project? ernment- owned, world-class healthcare
of Health. Government will only issue Promissory capacity to treat complicated medical ail-
ii. The ownership of the Project Land Notes for Project activities and works that ments for both national and African region.
has been and will remain Government of have been completed and certified by Gov- iii. The presence of a world-class health
Uganda represented by the Uganda Land ernment’s Owner’s Engineer. facility locally, will allow many more
Commission – Ministry of Health. No Land patients to be treated with the same Gov-
9. Is Government issuing a guarantee for ernment resources.
has been given to FINASI-ROKO Construc- a loan that the FINASI-ROKO Construc-
tion Ltd. iv. Increase foreign exchange inflows
tion may be getting to finance the Project as persons from the region will also have
3. What is the role of FINASI – ROKO Development? access and also increase medical tourism.
Construction Ltd? Government is not issuing any guarantee v. Develop skills and expertise of Uganda
FINASI-ROKO Construction Ltd is the for a loan. It is only giving assurances (a health professionals to provide advanced
Project Developer responsible for raising firm Promise though irrevocable Promisso- medical care, given that ISHU will use
the financing for the design, construction, ry Notes) that what is due to FINASI-ROKO 1,100 Ugandan medical personnel at ISHU,
equipping, and the training of medical per- Construction will be paid at a future date. supervised by 30- 40 medical expatriates.
sonnel over a 2 years. 10. Who will manage the Hospital after vi.Provide advanced diagnostics for early
4. What is the cost of the Hospital? construction? detection of major complicated ailments,
i. The total Project Cost is US$ 249.9 mil- The Hospital will be managed for 8 years as many cases of Government sponsored
lion inclusive of a 264-bed Hospital, an after construction by the International Spe- persons are sent abroad when ailments are
82–room budget Hotel, a 500-seater Confer- cialized Hospital of Uganda Ltd., which advanced and more difficult or impossible
ence Hall, Health Training School and Staff is owned by FINASI International Group, to successfully treat.
which is partnering with the Pope John the


By Hannah Storm
Bad news for women
Female experts are outnumbered as sources
by their male counterparts in nearly every field

ancy Pelosi is the highest-ranking According to the Global Media Monitoring
elected female politician in the his- Project, which produces a quinquennial
tory of the United States. Theresa report on gender in the news, the represen-
May is only the second female tation of women in the media has changed
British prime minister. Amal Clooney is
a world-renowned human-rights lawyer. Amal Clooney, little in the past two decades. Women still
rarely occupy positions of power in news-
Serena Williams is arguably the greatest
female athlete of all time. actor’s wife, rooms, and female journalists tend to cover
less serious topics than their male counter-
All four are succeeding in environments
where high-achieving women are the excep-
representing Al- parts. Furthermore, women are the subjects
of fewer news stories, and female experts
tion rather than the rule. Yet parts of the
media have portrayed them in a way that
Jazeera journalist are outnumbered as sources by their male
counterparts in nearly every field.
suggests their achievements and abilities
are secondary to their appearance, age, or
accused in But it’s not all doom and gloom. Over the
past few years, some high-profile media
association with other people, particularly Egypt of ties to outlets have acknowledged their failings

the men in their lives. and sought to fix systemic imbalances.
Consider Pelosi, the Speaker of the US Bloomberg and The Wall Street Journal,
House of Representatives. On the day she among others, are committed to increasing
was elected to serve another term in the the number of women in leadership roles,
post, The New York Times published a tweet as well as improving the conditions of
accompanying an image of her: “Nancy female staff and editorial coverage of
Pelosi, wearing a hot pink dress, ascended women.
to the marble dais in the center of the House Elsewhere, the Women’s Media Center
chamber to accept the wooden gavel.” The runs SheSource, an online database of
tweet was later deleted, with the Times female experts for journalists. Poland-
calling it “poorly framed.” But it spoke dominated tennis world. A media storm based NewsMavens produces a weekly
volumes about the sexism, whether implied erupted last September after Williams lost round-up of news chosen by women to
or overt, that still exists at the heart of the the final of the US Open and accused tennis counterbalance the media’s prevailing
media industry. officials of treating her more harshly than male-dominated perspective, while France
Theresa May has been one of Europe’s men. The umpire had earlier penalised 24’s The 51% is a weekly show that almost
leading female politicians for most of the her for getting coaching signals from the entirely features women and how they are
past decade. Yet the British media have stands, breaking her racket, and calling him reshaping the world.
long been fascinated by her love of fashion, a “thief.” But for every news outlet working to
devoting many a column inch and image to Some of the subsequent media coverage change the gender narrative, there are
her sartorial choices and penchant for shoes, reduced Williams to the trope of the angry others that remain woefully sexist. We still
instead of focusing on her policy decisions. black woman, and a cartoon of her outburst have a long way to go until the media cover
The subconscious effect of the messaging in the Herald Sun newspaper in Melbourne, women in a balanced way and finally put
is to diminish May’s role as a woman in a Australia, sparked a furious backlash from hoary stereotypes to rest.
male-dominated world. critics who deemed it racist and offensive. The media have a responsibility to reflect
Clooney knows exactly what it feels like The newspaper defended the cartoon as society not only as it is, but also as it should
to be judged by association. In August 2015, satire and said its critics were being politi- be. This means more reporting about
the Associated Press published a tweet cally correct. women – particularly in male-dominated
that read: “Amal Clooney, actor’s wife, Billie Jean King, who helped pioneer the industries – and portraying them in the
representing Al-Jazeera journalist accused women’s tennis tour, later thanked Williams same light as the men they cover. Other-
in Egypt of ties to extremists.” The tweet via Twitter “for calling out this double stan- wise, these successful women will not be
drew widespread criticism, and the AP later dard,” whereby women are often described perceived as role models to emulate. After
referred to her as a human-rights lawyer. as “hysterical” while men behaving the all, we can’t be what we don’t see.
But the episode underscored the media’s same way are “outspoken.” By continuing
obsession with “clickbait” and the need for to use such terms, the media reinforce the
more outlets to pause before publishing message that women and girls should not Hannah Storm is outgoing Director of the
pictures or words that reinforce outdated strive for leadership positions, and must still International News Safety Institute and will
gender stereotypes. overcome many barriers to achieve their soon be taking up the position of CEO of the
Williams has won a record 23 Grand Slam potential in a man’s world. Ethical Journalism Network.
singles titles, but some media outlets have Although depressing, the media’s por-
perpetuated the sexism and racism she has trayal of women is not surprising, given
faced from inside the old-fashioned, male- the gender imbalance in the industry. Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.

34 April. 05 - 11 2019

Latest art movers

and shakers
How they impact the Kampala art scene

By Dominic Muwanguzi Ronex Ahimbisimbwe Abruzzi, Italy) expedition of the

Rwenzori Mountains. She is a hands-
on- curator with no formal training
Afriart Gallery

in discipline that is still new. She
he first private art gallery has embraced it with passion and
established by a Ugandan energy. Her dynamism is already a
artist, Daudi Karungi to exhibit motivation to young curators like
contemporary art from Uganda. Martha Kazungu who want to walk in
It has inspired many artists to work her footsteps.
more creatively in order to exhibit here. Bruno Ruganzu
Through such display and engagements,
it has been able to launch and promote
art careers of individual artists on the
local and global scene. The gallery has
exhibited and promoted artists like Eria
Sane Nsubuga, Stacey Abe Gillian, Fred
Mutebi, and Xenson Ssenkaaba. His experimenting with different
techniques and media in his craft is
inspirational. He works with different
art forms like installations, photography,
digital art and painting. All his artworks
are functional with intent to attract the
public to art. In 2008, he established a
Facebook digital archive, Art Uganda,
that records, preserves and showcases
art events and exhibitions around
Kampala. He’s also the brainchild of the
Makerere Alumni annual exhibition that
brings together former art students of
MSTIFA who are actively involved in art A co-founder of Eco-Art Uganda,
production to showcase their creativity Ruganzu is a young lecturer at
32º East in one space and network. Kyambogo University where he
Robinah Nansubuga graduated in 2010. He is a community
The art space offers an artist residency artist who has built installations like
program to encourage creativity and Nansubuga children playgrounds in slums of
innovation through research. The is an Bwaise and Banda- Kireka. He uses
research process of working is made independent plastics (plastic bottles) and glass
easier through access to a resource curator who bottles to construct his installations
centre installed with free-internet has done a and, therefore, engages with the
and literature on contemporary number of art public on the critical topic of recycling
art from Africa and globally. shows around and innovation. The artist has inspired
Additionally, the KLA ART festivals Kampala; several artists, several of these his
like KLA ART 012 and 014 organised including an former students, into the production
and presented by the institution has archival photo of functional art using plastics. He
encouraged more art awareness and exhibition is the curator of TedX Kampala and
understanding among members of of Luigi founder of Ubuntu Talks.
the public. They stage installations in Amedeo’s
the public spaces around Kampala. (Duke of Images courtesy of the Web

April. 05 - 11 2019 35
Where students must get 1,667 friends on social media to get an A+
A Chinese university professor has sparked a heated online debate after giving his students an unusual assignment that required them to
add 1,667 friends on WeChat, China’s most popular social network, in order to get an A+. The controversial assignment required students tak-
ing the Online and New Media course at the Henan University of Economics and Law to add at least 1,001 new friends on WeChat in order
to earn a score of 60 out of 100. The more friends they would add above that threshold would increase their score, with those getting at least
1,667 new friends guaranteeing themselves an A+. Although some of the students – especially the most introverted ones – complained that the
task was too difficult, faculty at the university defended their colleague, explaining that the assignment prepares the youths for real life.

Ethiopian love Pope Francis doesn’t want ring kissed

raw meat Footage according to
of Pope experts and
In most places around the Francis senior members
world, people are taught pulling his of the Catholic
that eating raw meat is bad hand away Church; Francis’s
for them due to the high risk from being gesture indicates
of contracting parasites and kissed by an uneasiness
harmful bacteria, but in Ethiopia a long line with an element
raw meat is a popular delicacy. of people of traditional
Walking through the streets of went viral protocol that has
Addis Ababa, the capital city of recently; lost its original
Ethiopia, it’s not uncommon to with meaning. They
see groups of people gathered conservative say the pope
around restaurant tables feasting critics retracts his hand
on chunks of raw beef or goat condemning to communicate
meat. It’s popular on weddings. what that he and
They say raw meat is a hearty they said traditionally kiss the ring the faithful are
meal that energises them and was Francis’s “graceless of bishops, cardinals, and made of flesh and bone like
refreshes their bodies. As for disrespect for the tradition”. the pope. But a Vatican everyone else. “He’s not
the risks; including exposure The incident was in a church spokesman said that Pope a Roman emperor” said
to tapeworms and dangerous in Loreto, in the Marche Francis was worried about Monsignor Calogero Peri,
bacteria like salmonella and region, in Italy. Catholics spreading germs. However, the bishop of Caltagirone.
E-coli, most just choose to
ignore them. Dr. Mesafint
Abebe, who runs a private For women, drinking a bottle of wine is like smoking 10 cigarettes
clinic in Addis Ababa, says
many people are diagnosed When you don’t smoke, it’s for women, and five for men. between drinking and breast
with health issues caused by easy to feel a little smug about According to researchers cancer, and cancer of
consuming uncooked meat. your health. Who cares if you from the University the bowl, liver, and
had McDonald’s for dinner Hospital Southampton NHS oesophagus. It is
three times this week – at Foundation Trust, Bangor well established
least you’re not puffing on University, and the University that heavy
death sticks, right? But there’s of Southampton, drinking drinking is linked
another vice you really do one bottle of wine per week to cancer of the
need to watch out for: booze. increases the lifetime risk of mouth, throat,
New research has compared cancer to the same extent as voice box, gullet,
drinking a bottle of wine per smoking up to 10 cigarettes, bowel, liver
week to smoking 10 cigarettes mostly due to the link and breast.

Rare gene makes woman not feel pain, anxiety, stress

Jo Cameron, 71-year-old woman University College London and Oxford her children, and only realised she
from Scotland, is one of only two University showed she had a mutation had burnt her hand on the stove while
people in the world known to have in a previously unknown gene, which cooking when she smelled it. She also
a rare genetic mutation that makes scientists now believe plays a major scored zero on stress and depression, is
them virtually immune to pain. role in pain signaling, mood, and always upbeat and never panics. When
Doctors discovered this when she memory. An X-ray showed her hip was another car ran into and flipped her car
underwent a serious operation but she broken she never reported any pain, on its roof, Jo simply climbed out. She
didn’t feel any pain at all. Tests at the didn’t feel pain when giving birth to didn’t even notice her own bruises.

36 April. 05 - 11 2019
Range Rover Evoque 2019
Brit car-maker’s second Range Rover Evoque builds on old model’s
success with similar looks, more advanced tech and hybrid power

By Agencies clever mid-life facelift rather than an all-new charged 2.0-litre Ingenium petrol and diesel
car. In the metal, it’s another story and fans powertrains.
and Rover has revealed its re- of the baby Range Rover will be relieved to The 48-volt mild-hybrid system uses an
placement for its fastest-selling see the changes are far more noticeable. And 11kW engine belt integrated starter genera-
model of all time, the 2019 they should be, since Land Rover claims tor and an underfloor battery.
Range Rover Evoque. 99.9 per cent of the 2019 Evoque’s body is Making off-roading easier, the Evoque
Revealed at a converted all-new, with only a set of door hinges car- sequel gets Ground View tech that effective-
brewery in east London’s ultra- rying over from before. ly allows you -- with the help of on-board
cool Brick Lane, the second-generation It’s up close that you begin to appreci- cameras -- to peer ‘through’ the bonnet to
Range Rover Evoque is set to arrive Down ate design details like the smoother Velar- the front wheels when traversing narrow
Under around the second quarter of next inspired integrated grille, the hidden flush gaps or treacherous rocky landscape.
year. The original Range Rover Evoque door pulls, slimmer headlights, cleaner lines A similar camera mounted in the
invented the premium compact SUV seg- and precise panel gaps. Evoque’s trademark shark-fin antenna also
ment, or that’s what Land Rover likes to In other words, the Evoque looks and projects a widescreen image, improving
claim. Keen to hold onto its best-seller spot, feels more grown up and sophisticated. visibility both on and off the road.
the British SUV-maker has little intention For the second-generation Evoque,Land It’s the changes in the cabin that will
of messing with an exceptionally success- Rover has ditched the three-door and delight both existing owners and new buy-
ful formula that has, so far, led to almost focused on the more family-friendly five- ers to the brand. Adopting its dual-screen
800,000 sales over eight years. door. Engineers behind the new Evoque Touch Pro Duo infotainment system, the
That’s why, instead of “ripping it up and promise class-leading comfort from the new look and feel of the cheapest Range Rover
starting afresh”, Land Rover design boss adaptive (optional) dampers and unbeat- is nothing short of trespassing into Velar
Gerry McGovern took a more conservative able refinement. This includes lowering the territory.
approach, tasking his team of stylists to engine mounts to reduce lateral rotation of Better yet, thanks to over-the-air-updates,
carefully preserve the Evoque’s “distinctive the engine under acceleration -- a move that Land Rover claims the Evoque’s infotain-
DNA”. “How can we make it better without is attributed with substantially reducing ment system will remain cutting-edge and,
losing that DNA” -- was the creative man- vibration from entering the cabin. with embedded AI learning your habits and
tra driving the development of the second Speaking of engines, Land Rover says behaviour, the combination of a clean cool
installment of the shrunken Rangie. that from launch 90 per cent of all Evoques design, decent functionality and plentiful
In pictures you might argue McGovern sold will feature some level of electrification. on-board tech is likely to give rivals like the
may have gone too far with the preserva- This includes introducing a mild-hybrid Audi Q5 a run for its money.
tion, with the new car looking more like a (MHEV) version of the car-maker’s turbo-

April. 05 - 11 2019 37
Robert Katende on changing
lives through chess
`I’m happy knowing there are people who
celebrate me for making their lives better’
By Agnes E Nantaba chain of leadership.” but failed to attend because they did not

And he has won many local and inter- have money to cover the travel expenses.
obert Katende is best known for national awards for creating social impact Eventually children from well-to-do could
taking the game of chess to the through chess. The World Chess Federation take up the slots.
slums and attracting street kids to has awarded Katende for his use of chess But by 2009, Katende’s prodigies had
it. He has since expanded the game as a vehicle to create positive social impact dominated the game of chess previously
to disabled youngsters at the Kampala for less privileged children in the slums. He linked to the elite class. So the Uganda
School of the Handicapped. He uses chess was also appointed the General Secretary Chess Federation was convinced that the
as a tool to nurture, mentor and disciple for the Social Action Commission of the only team to return glorious in the African
young people; especially vulnerable chil- World Chess Federation. Chess championships was Katwe slums.
dren. His best known breakthrough has been The story of Robert Katende and his
“My programme is not just bringing as the mentor of Phiona Mutesi; the real life persistence to help young people living in
chess players but leaders who can take inspiration for the 2016 biographical Holly- slums is inspired by his own life. He was
other people’s lives to the next level,” says wood blockbuster movie, `Queen of Katwe’. born to teenage mother, Nawaguma, who
Katende, “Each child is accountable to The Walt Disney Pictures movie depicts was only 14 years old in Kiboga town.
another child and the life of Phiona Mutesi and her rise from His father showed him no affection and
through that I the slums to become a chess champion. he grew up with his grandmother and
create a Directed by Mira Nair and written by Wil- assumed she was his mother. Until his
liam Wheeler, it starred top names David mother showed up one day. He was six
Oyelowo, Lupita Nyong’o, and little- years old.
known Madina Nalwanga. Katende At seven years, Katende joined his moth-
and over 2,000 street children worked er in the Nakulabye suburb of Kampala to
on the movie. Katende was a consul- start school. It was tough life as they lived in
tant, helping in particular with the a very low income area. But more tragedy
chess scenes. struck when his mother passed on. At the
In real life, at only nine years, time of her death, Katende’s mother had
Mutesi accompanied her brother saved up to Shs200, 000. This kept him in
to play chess in the slums where school for the next two years. Then Katende
they lived. It was her introduction was tossed from the care of one kind rela-
to chess. Two years later, Mutesi tive to another. Often it was in search of
was among the three winners of school fees. Somehow he completed prima-
the first Uganda Junior Girls’ Chess ry education at St Elizabeth Primary School
Championships and by age fifteen with good grades. He was admitted to
won the African National Junior nearby Lubiri Secondary School. His hard
Chess Open Championship title. work pleased both relatives and teachers at
Mutesi represented Uganda at the school. He was nicknamed “engineer” for
World Chess Olympiad in Turkey. his academic excellence. And that is how his
Katende is the Director of Sports Out- career choice was determined. He started
reach in Uganda; an organisation whose working to be an engineer. At Lubiri SS, he
headquarters are in Lynchburg Virginia. was also introduced to chess.
He works through this organisation to He made it to Kyambogo University
reach out to these young people. where he pursued a diploma in civil engi-
Katende’s journey to get the slum and neering. He also mastered chess here. And
street dwellers involved in chess dates as far also took up football. He was later to play
as 2003. He was pursuing volunteer oppor- professionally for Miracle Football Club,
tunities at Sports Outreach Ambassadors, Top TV FC and Sports Outreach Ambas-
an NGO. Although he had just graduated sadors under Coach Aloysius Kyazze. He
from Kyambogo University with a bach- realised he could help young people with
elor’s degree in Civil engineering he had their soccer and chess and started volun-
failed to get a job. Two years later, Katende teering with Sports Outreach. He mainly
managed to field a team in the national was inspired to help young people living in
chess competition at the elite Kings College slums. He wanted them to have a better life.
Budo. He said they had been nominated to Today, Katende is married to Sarah Ntongo
play in international competitions earlier with whom they have three children.

38 April. 05 - 11 2019

Robert Katende’s Liteside

Any three things that for my survival. What do you most feel I am called to serve
we don’t know about dislike about your fellow Ugandans. Home

you? What is your greatest appearance? is Uganda.
esilience defines extravagance? Nothing.
me. I am a I care so much about What is your most
pathfinder and other people and Which living person do treasured possession?
independent. that has many times you most despise? Living consciously.
I believe it is my challenged me. I guess My heart is free.
background that has it’s a natural thing What do you regard
shaped me into what I within me. What is the quality you as the lowest depth of
am. I believe in fate. most like in a woman? misery?
What is the greatest Ability to see and take Being falsely convicted
What is your idea of thing you have ever others as fellow human is too harsh.
perfect happiness? done? beings.
Being a family person. The chess programme What is your favorite
From my background, wasn’t embraced; What is the quality you occupation?
I always wondered especially having been most like in a man? Being a life coach.
the type of father I commissioned to teach Empathy.
would make and was football and my leaders What do you most value
encouraged to read a didn’t embrace it What or who is the in your friends?
lot about being a good initially. I had to switch greatest love of your Friendship shouldn’t
father. I am also happy to football in the official life? be only on the receiving
knowing that there are time and while other My wife; Sarah end.
people who celebrate me coaches retired, I stayed Ntongo Katende.
for making their lives back in the slums to Who are your favourite
better. teach the children chess. When and where were writers?
I am happy about how you happiest? Ricky Warren the
What is the trait far the journey of chess In 2010 when I author of ‘Purpose
you most deplore in has gone. wed with my wife; driven life’ teaches me
yourself? it is something that I a lot.
Sometimes I get too What is your current had never thought of
pushy because I always state of mind? achieving because I dint Which historical figure
want everyone to give in I am challenged to see see a future in me. I was do you most identify
their best. how best to inspire and also happy qualifying with?
lead those that God has for government Mahatma Ghandi and
What is the trait you brought into my life. sponsorship in 2000 at Nelson Mandela looked
most deplore in others? Kyambogo University at other people as human
Having negative What do you consider because it was my only beings irrespective of the
energy and referring the most overrated rescue. I appreciate divisions. They wished
the past to present. As virtue? being on the different well for others.
a people developing Very many people live auditoriums where I
person, I find so much an imagined life and yet have met some of the What is your greatest
challenge with people when you don’t live in world’s great people that regret?
who never follow the reality, you tend to I had never thought of I am convinced that
instructions. Sometimes hype. I prefer to be seen meeting. my life was a divine
people fail for being by others as though I arrangement.
complacent. am nothing but when I If you could change one
know my worth. thing about yourself, How would you like to
Which living person do what would it be? die?
you most admire? What does being I grew up thinking When he chooses to. I
My grandmother powerful mean to you? that I would do only desire to see a lasting
Namusisi Ireda; she is The ability to make everything if given the system of people willing
an uneducated woman use of a situation to lift opportunity but felt to live for others and hope
but her perseverance others up. like I didn’t have the that some of the youths I
to make us survive necessary resources. have mentored will live it.
through trying times is On what occasion do
unmatched. If it wasn’t you lie? Where would you most What is your motto?
for her perseverance, I I am an open and like to live? Be a blessing to others.
wouldn’t have survived. honest person I have had invitations
She laid the foundation to stay elsewhere but I

April. 05 - 11 2019 39
Global comment
By Lee Jong-Wha
Investing in inclusive growth
The first step is to expand access to quality education
and vocational training across social groups

nequality has skyrocketed in recent has worsened significantly. financial assistance, including subsi-
decades, and those who have not Then there’s Venezuela. For two dised loans or scholarships to children
shared in the fruits of economic decades, left-wing populist govern- from low-income households. Public
growth and development are be- ments – led by the late Hugo Chávez support for vocational training must
coming increasingly frustrated. Some and now by his protégé, President target low-skill and other disadvan-
political leaders have responded to Nicolás Maduro – have pursued exces- taged workers, especially those in small
rising public discontent with massive sive social-welfare policies, funded by firms or the informal sector.
social-welfare programs or beggar-thy- large oil revenues. Yet, because the gov- Sustaining such policies will require
neighbour protectionism. That is the ernment failed to diversify the economy, considerable financial resources. That
wrong prescription. Venezuela was quickly consumed by is why governments must not only
Populists on the right and the left a dire economic crisis when crude oil place a high priority on education in
have led the charge in implementing prices plummeted. their budgets, but also attract additional
such counterproductive policies. The Over the last three years, Venezuela’s resources from the private sector and
former often embrace protectionism, real GDP has contracted more than 15% the international community. Moreover,
and the latter advocate unproductive annually. Last year, the annual inflation they must strengthen the efficiency and
social-welfare spending. Even if they rate exceeded 1,300,000%, with prices accountability of school systems and
provide short-term benefits to some doubling every 19 days. As food and vocational-training programs. Encour-
groups, these policies will fail to bring other basic necessities became unafford- aging competition among institutions
about inclusive growth – and they may able, the average Venezuelan reportedly and strengthening monitoring and
do serious harm to the economy in the lost 11 kilograms (24 pounds). More evaluation mechanisms would support
long run. than three million people, about 10% of the efficient use of resources.
The most prominent proponent of the population, have fled the country. In an environment of rapid technolog-
protectionism today is U.S. President By weakening incentives to work and ical change, education and vocational
Donald Trump, who has aggressively invest, protectionism and excessive training must evolve to equip people
pursued his “America first” agenda social-welfare policies undermine job with the skills, knowledge, and attitudes
since his inauguration in 2017. Trump creation, impede technological progress, they need to prosper now and in the
blames free trade for job losses and real- and drive down economic growth. In future. In particular, lifelong learning
wage depression in the United States’ other words, far from boosting inclusive opportunities should be improved and
manufacturing sector, and argues that growth, these strategies discourage it. expanded, so that workers can con-
measures like higher import tariffs will A far more effective approach would tinue to secure quality employment
bring back manufacturing jobs, raising emphasise human-capital development, throughout their lives.
many American workers’ wages and achieved through greater investment in If governments are to fulfill their
improving their welfare. education and skills training. The World responsibility to support people’s ability
But most economists agree that Bank, among other international organ- to reach their potential, they must not
protecting less productive industries isations, recognises this, advocating succumb to the siren song of protec-
and unskilled workers against global human-capital investment – together tionism or excessive social-welfare
competition will not lead to long-term with improved infrastructure, pro- spending. Establishing an inclusive
economic gains. Even in the short term, competition regulatory reform, anti-cor- labour market is a prerequisite for
there is no evidence that Trump’s pro- ruption measures, and adequate social inclusive growth. To achieve that goal,
tectionist policies have had the intended security systems – as key components of policymakers must make education
effects. any successful strategy to secure inclu- and skills development for all workers
The other favoured approach to sive growth. – together with pro-growth polices to
reducing inequality – excessive redis- In order to remain competitive, an expand economic opportunities – a top
tributive policies – is similarly prob- economy must pursue open trade poli- priority.
lematic. In South Korea, President cies, promote technological develop-
Moon Jae-in’s administration has raised ment, and encourage higher-value
the minimum wage by 29% over two production – all while building a Lee Jong-Wha is Professor of Economics
years, while expanding social-welfare workforce with the skills to match. That and Director of the Asiatic Research
spending. This was supposed to boost is precisely the strategy that enabled Institute at Korea University. His
the wellbeing – and consumption – of East Asian economies to create quality most recent book, co-authored with
low-wage workers and low-income jobs, raise incomes, and achieve strong Harvard’s Robert J. Barro, is `Education
households, thereby strengthening “growth with equity.” Matters: Global Gains from the 19th to
inclusivity, a key pillar of sustainable The first step is to expand access the 21st Century’.
growth. But the change hit small busi- to quality education and vocational
nesses hard, and job creation remains training across regions and social Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.
weak. The country’s income distribution groups. Governments must provide

40 April. 05 - 11 2019
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