Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

1.

BLOOD DOPING
2.
o Blood doping is the procedure of increasing the
amount of red blood cells in the human body to create better
all round performance, By increasing the number of red blood
cells in the body there is more oxygen taken into the lungs
and also muscles increasing an athletes aerobic capacity and
endurance.

WHAT IS BLOOD DOPING

3.
o Blood doping creates better performance by the number of red blood
cells increasing, through carrying more oxygen to the muscles. This change in the
blood cells has an affect on helping the performance greatly towards endurance
events. By more blood cells being in the body there is an increase in muscle size.

HOW DOES IT AFFECT THE HUMAN BODY

4.
o Blood doping is used mainly to increase the performance of an
individual in a sporting event. The use of the drug increases muscle build up in the
body creating stronger and more powerful people, the use of blood doping can be
different for different individuals, it can be used to decrease the amount of lactic
acid build up letting the individual be able to continue working when they
shouldn’t be able to.

WHY IS BLOOD DOPING USED

5.
o Blood doping is used in all types of long distance events such as long
distance running, cross country skiing, long swimming events and so on, this is as
the by using this drug people are highly enhancing there ability to keep
going,when blood doping is used it helps to keep the lactic acids from building up
and slowing athletes performance down.
6. Risk of Blood Doping
o
o
o The effects in which blood doping have on the body can turn bad,
these drugs are used to help people to gain more endurance and help build
muscles up, but by using blood doping the chemicals inside can cause kidney
damage, blood infections, heart problems, blood clots and jaundice ( being where
the skin,body and eye fluids turn yellow).

WHAT ARE BLOOD GROUPS?


Most of us are aware of our blood groups, which we inherit from our
parents. We also know that blood transfusion is possible between two
people if their blood groups are similar. But what determines our blood
groups ? This is done by a protein complex called antigens on the
surface of the red blood cells. These antigens are complex chemical
substances found on the surface of red blood cells are different for
each blood group. The two most important blood group systems in
transfusion work are the ABO and Rhesus (Rh) systems.

Within the ABO system people can be one of four types - 0, A, B or AB,
whilst in the Rh system they can be either Rh positive or Rh negative.
Each system is inherited independently of the other. Thus, there are
eight main blood groups.

How are blood groups determined in the laboratory?

ABO blood grouping depends on the fact that there are two main
antigens on the red cells (A and B) and two main antibodies in plasma
(anti-A and anti-B). For example, a person with group A cells will
possess an antibody (anti-B) which will cause group B cells to clump. Of
course a group A person cannot possess anti-A or his own cells would
clump in the bloodstream with dire consequences.

ABO blood groups are determined by using anti-A and anti-B


antibodies. A drop of anti-A is placed on one side of a clean glass slide
and a drop of anti-B next to it. Then one drop of blood is mixed with
each of the drops of antibodies. If the cells possess antigens which
match antibodies on the slide (e.g. group A and anti-A or group B and
anti-B) the cells will stick together in clumps - a positive (+) reaction. If
the cells do not have the corresponding antigens there is no clumping -
a negative (-) reaction. The blood group is therefore apparent.

Who discovered blood groups

In 1900, Dr. Karl Landsteiner discovered the A, B and 0 groups, and in


1902 the fourth main type, AB was found by Decastrello and Sturli.

Prior to 1900 attempts at blood transfusion had often resulted in the


death of a patient. The discovery of blood groups made blood
transfusion much safer, as blood of the same ABO group could be
chosen for each patient. However, there were still many cases of
unexplained blood transfusion reactions.

In 1939 Levine and Stetson, and in 1940 Landsteiner and Weiner


made observations which laid the foundations of our knowledge about
the remaining major blood group - the Rhesus system. Once reliable
tests for Rhesus grouping had been established, transfusion reactions
became rare.

How are blood groups inherited?

Blood groups for each individual are determined by genes (small


packets of information in cells) which are inherited from both parents.
Genes for the Rh negative and 0 groups from one parent are masked
by the presence of Rh positive and A or B genes from the other parent.
That is, 0 and Rh negative genes only produce an effect when there is
a "double dose" of such genes, i.e. one from each parent.

Thus, people who are apparently A or B Rh positive may also carry


genes for the 0 and Rh negative blood groups which can be inherited
by their children.

Are there any other blood groups?

Many other blood group systems, each with several sub-types, have
been found. Altogether there are well over 300 known blood group
factors. However, the ABO and Rhesus systems are still the most
important as far as blood transfusion is concerned.

How are blood groups used in detective work?

A person's blood group never changes. Thus, it can be important in


identifying blood stains or determining parentage, although this
evidence is useful only in a negative sense. For example, if a murder
suspect had their clothing stained with group A blood, and the victim
was group 0, this is evidence that the suspect was not stained by the
victim's blood. Even if the stains proved to be group 0, it would not be
conclusive evidence, for the suspect may have had their clothing
stained with the blood of any person who was a group 0. The
determination of paternity in disputed cases is very complicated, but
the same type of reasoning is used.

Blood Groups,
Blood Typing
and Blood
Transfusions
The discovery of blood groups
Experiments with blood transfusions, the transfer of blood
or blood components into a person's blood stream, have
been carried out for hundreds of years. Many patients
have died and it was not until 1901, when the Austrian
Karl Landsteiner discovered human blood groups, that
blood transfusions became safer.

Mixing blood from two individuals can lead to blood


clumping or agglutination. The clumped red cells can
crack and cause toxic reactions. This can have fatal
consequences. Karl Landsteiner discovered that blood
clumping was an immunological reaction which occurs
when the receiver of a blood transfusion has antibodies
against the donor blood cells.

Karl Landsteiner's work made it possible to determine


blood groups and thus paved the way for blood
transfusions to be carried out safely. For this discovery he
was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
in 1930.

What is blood made up of?


An adult human has about 4–6 liters of blood circulating
in the body. Among other things, blood transports oxygen
to various parts of the body.

Blood consists of several types of cells floating around in


a fluid called plasma.

The red blood cells contain hemoglobin, a protein that


binds oxygen. Red blood cells transport oxygen to, and
remove carbon dioxide from, the body tissues.

The white blood cells fight infection.

The platelets help the blood to clot, if you get a wound


for example.

The plasma contains salts and various kinds of proteins.


What are the different blood groups?
The differences in human blood are due to the presence or
absence of certain protein molecules called antigens and
antibodies. The antigens are located on the surface of the
red blood cells and the antibodies are in the blood plasma.
Individuals have different types and combinations of these
molecules. The blood group you belong to depends on
what you have inherited from your parents.

There are more than 20 genetically determined blood


group systems known today, but the AB0 and Rh systems
are the most important ones used for blood transfusions.
Not all blood groups are compatible with each other.
Mixing incompatible blood groups leads to blood
clumping or agglutination, which is dangerous for
individuals.

Nobel Laureate Karl Landsteiner was involved in the


discovery of both the AB0 and Rh blood groups.

AB0 blood grouping system


According to the AB0 blood group system there are four
different kinds of blood groups: A, B, AB or 0 (null).

Blood group A
If you belong to the blood group A, you have A antigens
on the surface of your red blood cells and B antibodies in
your blood plasma.

Blood group B
If you belong to the blood group B, you have B antigens
on the surface of your red blood cells and A antibodies in
your blood plasma.

Blood group AB
If you belong to the blood group AB, you have both A and
B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and no A
or B antibodies at all in your blood plasma.

Blood group 0
If you belong to the blood group 0 (null), you have neither
A or B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells but
you have both A and B antibodies in your blood plasma.

Rh factor blood grouping system


Many people also have a so called Rh factor on the red
blood cell's surface. This is also an antigen and those who
have it are called Rh+. Those who haven't are called Rh-. A
person with Rh- blood does not have Rh antibodies
naturally in the blood plasma (as one can have A or B
antibodies, for instance). But a person with Rh- blood can
develop Rh antibodies in the blood plasma if he or she
receives blood from a person with Rh+ blood, whose Rh
antigens can trigger the production of Rh antibodies. A
person with Rh+ blood can receive blood from a person
with Rh- blood without any problems.
Blood group notation
According to above blood grouping systems, you can
belong to either of following 8 blood groups:

A Rh+ B Rh+ AB Rh+ 0 Rh+


A Rh- B Rh- AB Rh- 0 Rh-

Do you know which blood group you belong to?

Blood typing – how do you find out to which


blood group someone belongs?
1.
You mix the blood with three different reagents including
either of the three different antibodies, A, B or Rh
antibodies.

2.
Then you take a look at what has happened. In which
mixtures has agglutination occurred? The agglutination
indicates that the blood has reacted with a certain
antibody and therefore is not compatible with blood
containing that kind of antibody. If the blood does not
agglutinate, it indicates that the blood does not have the
antigens binding the special antibody in the reagent.

A person with A+ blood 3.


receives B+ blood. The B If you know which antigens are in the person's blood, it's
antibodies (yellow) in the A+ easy to figure out which blood group he or she belongs to!
blood attack the foreign red
blood cells by binding to
them. The B antibodies in the
A+ blood bind the antigens in
the B+ blood and
agglutination occurs. This is
dangerous because the What happens when blood clumps or
agglutinated red blood cells agglutinates?
For a blood transfusion to be successful, AB0 and Rh
break after a while and their blood groups must be compatible between the donor
contents leak out and become blood and the patient blood. If they are not, the red blood
toxic. cells from the donated blood will clump or agglutinate.
The agglutinated red cells can clog blood vessels and stop
the circulation of the blood to various parts of the body.
The agglutinated red blood cells also crack and its
contents leak out in the body. The red blood cells contain
hemoglobin which becomes toxic when outside the cell.
This can have fatal consequences for the patient.

The A antigen and the A antibodies can bind to each other


in the same way that the B antigens can bind to the B
antibodies. This is what would happen if, for instance, a B
blood person receives blood from an A blood person. The
red blood cells will be linked together, like bunches of
grapes, by the antibodies. As mentioned earlier, this
clumping could lead to death.

Blood transfusions – who can receive blood from


whom?
Of course you can always give A blood to persons with
blood group A, B blood to a person with blood group B
and so on. But in some cases you can receive blood with
another type of blood group, or donate blood to a person
with another kind of blood group.

People with blood The transfusion will work if a person who is going to
group 0 Rh - are receive blood has a blood group that doesn't have any
called "universal antibodies against the donor blood's antigens. But if a
donors" and people person who is going to receive blood has antibodies
with blood group AB matching the donor blood's antigens, the red blood cells in
Rh+ are called the donated blood will clump.
"universal receivers."
Can
Rh+ blood can never Blood Can give receive
Antigens Antibodies
be given to someone Group blood to blood
with Rh - blood, but from
the other way around
AB Rh+ A, B and None AB Rh+ AB Rh+
works. For example,
Rh AB Rh -
0 Rh+ blood can not
A Rh+
be given to someone
A Rh -
with the blood type B Rh+
AB Rh -. B Rh -
0 Rh+
0 Rh -
AB Rh - A and B None AB Rh - AB Rh -
(Can AB Rh+
develop Rh
antibodies)
A Rh+ A and Rh B A Rh+ A Rh+
AB Rh+ A Rh -
0 Rh+
0 Rh -
A Rh - A B A Rh - A Rh -
+
(Can A Rh 0 Rh -
develop Rh AB Rh -
antibodies) AB Rh+
B Rh+ B and Rh A B Rh+ B Rh+
AB Rh+ B Rh -
0 Rh+
0 Rh-
B Rh - B A B Rh- B Rh -
(Can B Rh+ 0 Rh -
develop Rh AB Rh-
antibodies) AB Rh+
0 Rh+ Rh A and B 0 Rh+ 0 Rh+
A Rh+ 0 Rh -
B Rh+
AB Rh+

0 Rh - None A and B AB Rh+ 0 Rh -


(Can AB Rh -
develop Rh A Rh+
antibodies) A Rh -
B Rh+
B Rh -
0 Rh+
0 Rh -