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Sr. Details ASME B31.1 ASME B31.3 ASME B31.4 ASME B31.

1 Application Piping typically found Piping typically found Piping transporting Piping transporting
in Electric Power in Petroleum Liquids e.g. gas between
Generating Stations, Refineries, Chemical, Hydrocarbons,LPG, sources and terminals
geothermal heating Pharmaceutical, Anhydrous ammonia, including compressor,
systems, central and Textile, Paper, Alcohols and Corbon regulating & metering
district heating and Cryogenic plants and dioxide stations and gas
cooling systems related Process Plant gathering pipelines
& Terminals (Co2, LNG not
2 Piping Carbon steel, Low and Carbon steel, Low and Carbon Steel & Low Carbon Steel & Low Note :
Materials Intermediate Alloy Intermediate Alloy temperature Alloy temperature Alloy ASTM A
covered Steel Austenitic Steel, Austenitic Steel (Note) Steel 420 Gr
(Metallic) Stainless Steel, Ni & Ni Stainless Steel, Ni & Ni WPL9 is
Alloys, Cu & Cu Alloys, Alloys, Cu & Cu Alloys, unsuitabl
Al & Al Alloys, Ti & Ti Al & Al Alloys, Ti & Ti e for
Alloys, Cast Iron Alloys, Cast Iron, anhydrou
Zirconium and s
Zirconium Alloys ammonia
due to
3 Non- Only non-metallic Usage accepted and Usage not addressed Use of plastic piping
metallic & piping covered under covered under limited in mains &
Lined Clause 105.3 & non- Chapter VII service lines in typical
Piping mandatory Appendix distribution system
III operating upto 100
psi or less (Clause
4 Allowable UTS/4 or 2/3 YS UTS/3 or 2/3 YS 0.72 x E x SMYS SMYSX Temp.
Stress whichever is low Whichever is low Derating factor x
Sr. Details ASME B31.1 ASME B31.3 ASME B31.4 ASME B31.8
Design factor (max

Tabulated Stress Tabulated Stress Weld quality factor E & Basic design factor is
Values in App. A are S, Values in App. A are SMYS are tabulated in tabulated in Table
SE or SF only S. To be Table 402.3.1 (a) 842.114 A/B and
multiplied by quality Temperature derating
factor given in Table factor in Table
A1A / A1B 841.116 A
Allowable stress in Allowable stress in Allowable stress in Not specified
shear 80% of shear 80% of shear 45% SMYS
allowable stress in allowable stress in
tension tension
Allowable stress value Allowable stress value Only one Allowable
for CS from from Minimum to 1000 stress value from – 20
–20 to 6500 F is F is same to 250 F is tabulated
considered same
System temperature System temperature
upto 2500 F (1200 C) is upto 4500 F is only
only covered covered
5 Recommen -200 F to 7750 F -200 F to 8000 F -200F to 2500F (-300 C -200 F to 4500 F(00 C Note :
ded (-300 C to 4150 C) (-300 C to 4270 C) (ref. to 1200 C) Stress value to 2320 C) (ref. Based on
Temperatur (ref. Cl. 124.2) Cl. F323.4) given upto 2500F only Clause 802.12) Thermal
e for (Table 402.3.1(a) expansion
Carbon data
Steel given in
6 Categorizati Not Applicable Considering the Not Applicable Not Applicable
on combination of fluid
Of Fluid properties, operating
Sr. Details ASME B31.1 ASME B31.3 ASME B31.4 ASME B31.8
conditions and other
factors which
establishes the basis
of the system (D,M,
HP & N)
7 Limitation Minimum wall No specific limitation Do not address SW No specific limitation
of Piping thickness for Toxic (Clause 310) Joints
Joints fluid given in Table
7.1 Socket For toxic fluid in For severe cyclic Socket weld fittings to Socket weld fittings
Weld service not larger than condition and ASME B 16.11 are not to ASME B 16.11 are
2 ½” (65) NB (Clause category M fluid addressed accepted
122.8.2C) services not larger
than 2” (50) NB
(Clause 311.2.4)
7.2 Threaded Not to be used where To be avoided where Treaded fittings to No condition set forth
crevice corrosion, crevice corrosion, ASME B 16.11 are not for threaded joints.
shock or vibration is severe erosion or addressed. Threaded
expected. Limitation cyclic loading may joints to be as per
tabulated in Table occur. (Clause 314.1) Cl.414.1
7.3 Flanged Socket weld flanges Flanges used under Welding neck, Slip on, Cl/Ductile Iron
allowed for Boiler severe cyclic condition threaded, lapped, flanges & Valve shell
External. Piping in 3” shall be welding neck integrally cast or components are not
NB & lower for class type (Clause 308.2.4) forged to B 16.5/ MSS- acceptable for
600 and 2 ½” NB in SP-44 are permitted offshore piping & Cl
class 1500 (Clause (Clause 408.1.1) valves not accepted
122.1.1 H) for compressor
station Piping.
7.4 Flange Requirements laid out No specific No specific Requirements laid out
Facing for in Table 112 requirement listed. requirement listed. in Clause 831.2
mating (Clause 308.3) (Clause 408.3)
Sr. Details ASME B31.1 ASME B31.3 ASME B31.4 ASME B31.8
8 Acceptance Tabulated in Table Tabulated in Table Covered in Clause Covered in Clause
criteria for 136.4 341.3.2 434.8.5 826.2 Acceptability as
weld joints Acceptability as per per APL 1104
APL 1104
9 Post Weld Clause 132. Non- Clause 331. Based on Covered in Clause Covered in Clause
Heat mandatory thickness base metal grouping 434.8.9 Weld to be 825. CS with nominal
Treatment based on P numbers and thickness stress relieved if weld thickness above 1 ¼”
tabulated in Table 132 tabulated in Table throat exceeds 1 ¼”
10 Hydrostatic 1.5 times of Design 1.5 times the Design 1.25 times the Design 1.1 – 1.4 times the
Test Pressure (Clause Pressure corrected to Pressure (Clause Design Pressure
Pressure 137.4.5) test temperature 437.4.1) (Clause 841.322
(Clause 345.4.2) Table 841.322(f))
11 Pneumatic 1.2 to 1.5 times the 1.1 times the Design 1.25 times the Design 1.1 times the
Test Design Pressure Pressure (Clause Pressure Not maximum operating
Pressure (Clause 137.5) 345.5) recommended for pressure Clause
offshore Piping (Clause 841.322 (2)
12 Allowance 1. 15% for no more 1. 20% for no more Pressure rise due to Not Addressed
for than 8 hr at any than 50 hr at any surges not to exceed
variation one time and no one time and no 10% (Clause 402.2.4)
from more than 800 hr / more than 500
normal year. hrs/year
operation in
the value of 2. 20% for no more 2. 33% for no more
Max. than 1 hr at any than 10 hrs at any
Allowable time and no more time and no more
Stress than 80 hr / year than 100 hrs/year
(Clause 102.2.4) (Clause 302.2.4)
13 Support Recommended in No specific Recommendation from No specific
Span Table 121.5 based on recommendation MSS-SP-58/MSS-SP-69 recommendation
Sr. Details ASME B31.1 ASME B31.3 ASME B31.4 ASME B31.8
max. bending stress of (Clause 321) accepted (Clause 421) (Clause 834 & 835)
2300 psi at maximum
operating temperature
of 7500 F and sag of
0.1” (2.5mm) between
14 Variation in 25% for the total Not specified Not addressed (Clause Not addressed
supporting travel resulting from categorically (Clause 421) (Clause 834.2)
effort of thermal movement 321.2.3)
spring (Clause 121.7.3 (D))
15 Co-efficient Given in App. B, Base Given in App.C, Base For CS & A.S Given in Table 832.2,
of Thermal –700F(210C) 700 F(210 C) expansion is 6.5 x 10-6 Base –320F
Expansion in/in/0F for
temperature upto
16 Validation a. Stress due to a. Stress due to a. Stress due to a. Stress due to
of Design sustained loads sustained loads SL sustained loads sustained loads SL =
SL = PD0 + 0.75 MA = SL= Pdi2/(do2-di2) + Sb
4t Z Fax + [(I1 M1)2 + Pdi2/(do2-di2)+ < 0.75 x SMYS x F
< Sh Am Z Sb < 0.75 x xT
(Clause 104.8.1) (I0 M0)2]1/2 0.72 x SMYS x F x
+ PD0 < Sh T
(Clause 302.3.5)

b. Stress due to b. Stress due to b. Stress due to b. Stress due to

occasional loads occasional load occasional load occasional load
Socc = Socc < 1.33 Sh Socc =
PD0 + 0.75 MA + Equation is Pdi2/(do2 – di2) + Not addressed
4t z undefined (Clause Sb < 0.8 x SMYS
0.75 MB 302.3.6) (Clause 402.3.3)
Sr. Details ASME B31.1 ASME B31.3 ASME B31.4 ASME B31.8
< Ksh ,
K = 1.15/1.2
(Clause 104.8.2) c. Stress due to
Thermal Expansion c. Stress due to
c. Stress due to SE = Thermal Expansion c. Stress due to
Thermal Expn. [(I1M1)2 + (i0M0)0 SE = Thermal Expansion
Z [(I1M1)2 + (i0M0)0
SE = iMc + 4Mrr]1/2 Z SE =
Z + 4Mrr]1/2 (Sb2 + 4St2) ½
< SA + f(Sh-SL) < SA
SA = f(1.25 Sc + < 0.72 x SMYS < 0.72 x SMYS
SA = f(1.25 Sc+0.25 1.25 Sh-SL)
Sh) (Clause 419.6.4) (Clause 833)
(Clause 302.3.5 &
In determining Sc & 319.4.4)
Sh joint efficiencies
need not be applied
(Clause 104.8.3)

Flexibility & Given in Appendix D Given in Appendix D Given in Fig. 419.6.4 Given in Appendix E
Stress (No separate values (c ) i0 values for miter
Intensificati for in plane /out plane bend different from
on Factor stress intensification 31.3)
Content 6 Chapters and 9 Chapters and 9 Chapters and 9 Chapters and
Mandatory Appendices Appendices A-Z Appendices A-B Appendices A-Q
A-J + Non Mandatory
Appendices II-VII