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Project Report

On

Product
And
Services
Of
BHEL Pvt. Ltd.

Submitted in partial fulfilment for BBA, C.C.S University, Meerut

Institute of Management Studies, Noida


Submitted to:- Submitted By:-
MS. Tanupriya Kohli Anuj Grover
(Project Guide) (169199056)

1
DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the project entitled “______________________


_______________________” submitted for the BBA Degree is my
Original work and the project has not formed the basis for the award of
Any degree, associate ship, fellowship or any other similar titles.

Signature of the Student

Place:
Date:

2
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled “______________________


________________________________________________________” is the
Original work carried out by _____________________________ Student of
BBA C.C.S University, Meerut, during the year___________, in partial
Fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of BBA and that
Project has not formed the basis for the award previously of any degree,
Diploma, associateship, fellowship or any other similar title.

Signature of the Guide:


Place:
Date:

3
TABLE OF CONTENTS

S. No. Topic Page No.


1. Executive 05
Summary
2. Introduction 09

>Statement of 11

Problem

>objective of Study 12

>Limitation of Study 13

3. Research 15
Methodology

>Research Design 15
>Tools for Data 19
Collection
4. Company Profile 21

>Product Profile 27

5. Review of 36
Literature

6. Analysis & 48
Interpretation

7. Findings 85
Suggestions &
Conclusion

>Bibliography 89

>Questionnaires 90

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BHEL Pvt. Ltd.

Executive Summary
BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED (BHEL) happens to be the largest
engineering and manufacturing company of its kind in India. The establishment of
BHEL in 1964 was the genesis of heavy electrical equipment industry in India. The
company is performing very well in this highly competitive era, earning profits
consistently and paying dividends uninterruptedly. With its top-notch performance
BHEL attained the coveted ‘Maharatna’ status in 2013. Being the largest manufacturing
company operating in energy sector in India and having its presence worldwide,
inventory and its management become most essential part of the company. Inventory
management is considered and recognized as the central process of any manufacturing
unit, this inventory is a matter of concern for all the departments in the company for its
smooth operations. In this highly challenging global market the need for cost control
and cost-cutting is of paramount. This is why inventory management as a tool for
eliminating wastage and controlling inventory cost, is now considered as an integral
part of industrial management. Thus, creating the need for the study. The report titled
“inventory management process or methods of the company. Following report is
divided into two groups: first part, aims at the understanding of the process and methods
of inventory control in the company. Second part, aims at analysing the efficiency of
the inventory control in the company and providing valuable recommendations
accordingly.

5
HISTORY of the COMPANY

1964 Established Heavy Electricals (India) Limited


1972 In July the operation of all four plants where integrated
1974 In January Heavy Electricals (India) Ltd. Merged with BHEL for the
Manufacturer of a wide variety of products, the company has
Developed technological infrastructure, skills and quality to meet
The stringent requirements of the power plants, transportation,
Petro chemicals etc. BHEL entered into collaboration which are
Technical in nature, under these agreements the collaborators have
Transferred, furnished the information, documentation including
Know-how related to design, engineering, manufacturing assembly
Etc.
1982 BHEL also entered into power equipment, to reduce its dependence
On the power sector. So it developed the capability to produce a variety of
Electrical, electronic and mechanical equipment for all sectors including
Transmission, transportation, oil and gas and other allied industries.
1991 On 24th December converted into public Limited company. As per resolution
Passed on 23rd December 1991, existing share of ₹1000 each was subdivided into
Equity share of ₹10 each 2447, 60,000 No. of equity share of ₹10 each allotted
For Consideration other than cash.
1992 Between January to February the company disinvested 489, 52,000 equity share
Of ₹10 each. During the year 10 thermal sets, 2 gas sets and 11 hydro sets were
Commissioned. During the year first Commercial HUDC transmission line in the
Country between Delhi and Rihand rated for transmission power at 500KW at
1500 MW was respectively completed. As the company completed prestigious
Contracts in Malta and Cyprus through supply and election of 2 sets of 60MW
Thermal sets each.
1994 The company commissioned two sets of 250 MW at Maharashtra and one 500MW
Once-through tower type boiler at Orissa. During the year company established
Asia's largest fuel evaluation test facility at Tiruchi.
During the year company under took Indira Sugar project of Narmada valley

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Development authority in M.P.
3950KW 18 pole synchronous motors and 6nos. 3950 K.W. 6 Pole squirrel cage
Induction motors of ONGC's Santhal Project.
1997 In May joint venture Company named Bhe-Ge Gas turbine service Pvt Ltd.
The Public sector private Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL) has won the
National best exporter award for1995-1996 instituted by the engineering Export
Promotion council of the 8th consecutive year from Madurai.
The company undertook supply of 36MW STG for RIL Sancoale-Goa2×4MW &
2 & 4.5 MW Genertaor for Hemavati and Harangi HEP in karnatka etc.

1998 BHEL has sucessfully commisioned the 5th unit 210MW of Gandhinagar Thermal
power station the first project undertaken by Gujrat State Electricity Corporation
Ltd. In KARNATKA BHEL has recently supplied and commisioned hydro
Generting Equipment for chunchunakatte HEP (2*9MW) and Bhadra HEP
(1*6MW).

1999 Bharat Heavy Electrical have achieved yet another milestones by synchronising
The fifth unit of 210 MW capacity at the Raichur Thermal Power Station in
Karnataka, much ahead of schedule, in just 29 months. With this, BHEL has set
A New benchmark in the commissioning of future generating sets in the country,
In the shortest possible time.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (BHEL) has commissioned a desalination plant


On turnkey basis in the Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu.

2000 Signed a memorandum of understanding with Bhakra Beas Management Board


to renovate Management board to renovate, modernise and upgrade its old
Hydro-electric power station.
First 150MW hydro generating unit at ranjit Sagar Hydro-electric Project in
Punjab, Karnataka Power Corporation has awarded BHEL a ₹365 crore contact
to set up Another 210MW unit at Raichur Thermal Power Station.

2001 Set up a 5th 250MW unit at suratgarh thermal power station in western state of
Rajasthan.
Commissioned the 1st four hydro-power generating unit at kurichu Hydro electric
Project in Bhutan.

2002 Awarded the exporters award by Engineering Export Promotion council for the
year 1999-2000.
BHEL and PFC tie up for joint bids of projects.
Receives Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (CPCL) contact worth Rs. 174
Crore.
for a 40 MW gas based co-generation power plant for its refinery project at
Chennai.
BHEL in association with IIT Madras launches IT school in Tiruchi.
BHEL unit power sector Northern Region Bags OHSAS-18001 &
ISO-14001 certification.
Gets 63 crore order from NTPC, 41 cr order from NPC, 16-cr from Tisco and 2700

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cr from NTPC again.
Gets Rs 35 cr grid submission project from Rajasthan Electric Board.
Launches
4th Solar Power Plant in Lakshadweep.
Announces completion of 1000 MW Simhadri thermal power station.
Develops automated storage and Retrieval System

2004 Gets compressor and drive turbine package contact worth Rs. 20-cr Bags Rs 599
cr order to set up 250 MW power project in Maharashtra. Gets Rs 197 cr order
From Gujrat Electricity Board, 36 cr from Bhutan steel and from the
Hydroelectric project in Chhattisgarh.

2005 BHEL and TCS jointly working on marketing initiative ‘Power Pack’ Appoints
Dr V Gopalakrishanan as Chief of the BHEL at Tiruchi.

2006 Agreement with IIT Madras for new courses. Bechtel signs Dabhol
Agreement with BHEL. BHEL target $1.7 bn contract in B’desh.

2007 BHEL and French company Alstom will together produce 1, 50,000 MW of power
over the next 10 years. Appointed Shri N. Gokulram as Part-time official director
on the board of the company w.e.f. January 25, 2007.

2008 BHEL, Trichy has secured order worth Rs. 15,000 crore, all time high. BHEL
Has appointed Shri O.P. Bhutani as Director (Engineering, Research &
Development) on the Board of BHEL w.e.f. December 24, 2009.

2010 BHEL has bagged a Rs 2,665 crore order for supply and installation of the main
Plant package for Dainik Bhaskar Power Ltd. 2X600MW coal-based thermal
Power project at Baradarha, in Chhattisgarh.

2011 BHEL bags Rs 37,289 Million mega Contract for installing 2X600MW
Supercritical Thermal sets.

2012 BHEL receives Rs. 9,500 Million mega contact for 1,020 MW Hydroelectric
Project in Bhutan. The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Pranab Mukherjee,
presenting the National Energy Conservation Award 2012 to Mr B. Prasad Rao,
Chief & Managing Director (CMD), BHEL.

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2013 BHEL wins India pride award 2013 for Excellence in Heavy Industries- BHEL
wins Rs. 10,230 Million Turbine Generator Package order.

2014 BHEL bags India Today Best Maharatna PSU Award for Global Presence &
Innovation & R&D- BHEL achieves major breakthrough.

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CHAPTER-1
Introduction to BHEL

BHEL is the largest engineering manufacturing enterprises in India in the energy related
infrastructure sector, today BHEL was established more than 50 years ago, ushering in the
indigenous Heavy Electricals Equipment in India- a dream that has been more than realized
with a well- recognized track record of performance. The company has been earning profit
continuously since 1971-1972 and paying dividends since 1976-77.

BHEL manufactures over 180 product under 30 major products groups and caters to care
Sector of the economy viz. Power generation and transmission, industry,
transportation telecommunication, Renewable Energy etc.
Strategic plan 2017 for ensuring a sustainable profitable growth for the company has been
drawn up to enable the company’s turnover to grow from RS. 1,585 from Rs.628 by 2017-18.

The Vision of BHEL is:

ǀ “A global Engineering Enterprise providing solutions for a better tomorrow.”


The company is striving to give shape to its aspiration and fulfilled the expectations of the
country to become global player.
The greatest strength of BHEL is its highly skilled and committed 47,525 employees. BHEL
has installed equipment for over 90,000MW of power generation for utilities, captive and
Industrial users. Supplied over 2, 25,000 MVA transformer capacity and other equipment
operating in Transmission & distribution network up to 400kv (AC&DC).
Supplied over 25,000 motors with drive control system to power projects, petrochemicals,
Refineries, Steel, Aluminium, Fertilizer, Cement Plants etc.
Supplied traction electric and ac/Dc locos to power over 12000KM Railway network. Supplied
over one million valves to power plants and other industries.
The mission of BHEL is:

ǀ “providing Sustainable Business Solutions in the Fields of Energy, Industry &


infrastructure.”

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The project work consists of the study of job satisfaction of employees. The study was
conducted among the employees of BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LTD.,Lodhi Road.
The information was gathered from the employees by means of questionnaire and the data
collected tabulated and analysed by using statistical tool. Demand for low horse- power factors
in the international market has cheered the tractors manufacture. Who are facing a tough
situation on the domestic markets?

According to industry data, the export market has been seen a substantial growth of 66%, with
export volumes growing 10 13,511 units in 2002-2009 from 8,144 units in 200-02.

Points out Mr R. C. Jain, president. Tractor manufactures’ association (TMA),

Currently, export of Indian tractors contributes to8% of the total tractors industry. This is
expected to cross the digit mark in the current year”.

Additionally, some Indian companies such as Mahindra & Mahindra (M & M) are setting up
assembly units in high – growth markets. M & M incidentally, already operates two assembling
plants in the U.S and is learnt to be driving its exports to newer markets including Europe and
China.

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At presents, exports from India are mainly us and SAARC nations .the us alone contributes to
over 60% of the total exports in volume terms, 35% exports go to the SAARC countries with
the balance going to South East Asia and Africa.

12
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The need for study has been recognized for more than one reason. This is an increase in the
number of employees in an organization. We need a direct contract to get their opinion on
above titled project. This has given significance to conduct the study. The study has its own
significance. Since job satisfaction plays an important and vital role in the company’s growth.

There is necessity for this study to identify various factors that constitute job satisfaction.
Knowing and highlighting various methods to indicate job satisfaction has necessitated the
study. Awareness of job satisfaction and its related an advantage of an employee’s has given
significance to this study.

Maintaining good relationship with employee and employer in the organization it has necessary
for the study. Welfare schemes are implementing in the organization it has necessary for the
study. This study helps employees to improve and increase the satisfactory level. This study
more importance given to the employees.

13
OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

 The study about employees job satisfaction in the organization


 To analyses the various factors that affected the job satisfaction.
 To study the types of welfare benefits available to the workers in the organization.
 To identify the level of satisfaction of workers on the various facilities provided
by the company.
 To suggest ways and means to enhances job satisfaction.

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LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

 The results of the study depends upon the status of the employees regarding level of
management

 The result of the study depends upon the information furnished by the employees.
Hence the information provided by them is subjected to personal bias.

 Only a sample of 50 employees were surveyed

 The study was confined to just one branch. So only one branch of company employees
were surveyed

 The entire employee under the study where only lower level employee and middle level
employees.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research design : descriptive type

Sample size : 50 employees

Sampling procedure : non-probability purpose sampling

DATA SOURCE:

Primary data : source of the primary data is the questionnaire

Used by the researcher

Secondary data : company introduction. Few magazines.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The purpose of the research methodology is to describe the research procedure. This includes
the overall design, the sampling procedure, the data collection method and analysis procedures.
This section is important because it is hard to discuss methodology without using technical
terms. Yet, most of the reader for the report will not understand the technical language.

RESEARCH DESIGN

A research design is the specification of methods and procedures for acquiring the information
needed to structure or to solve problem. it is the overall operational pattern of frame work of
the project that stipulates procedures.

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A research design is therefore defined as “a plan, structure and strategy of investigation
conceived so as to obtain answers to research question and control variances”.

There are four types of research design they are:

1. Explorative research design

2. Descriptive research design

3. Diagnostic research design

4. Experimental research design

1. Explorative research design:

The design of exploratory studies is characterized by a great amount of flexibility and adhoc
versatility. By definition, the research is involved in investigation an area or subject in
which he is not sufficient knowledgeable to have formulated detailed research question. No
clear hypotheses have been developed about the problem. He is seeking information that
will enable him to formulate specific research question or to state hypothesis about the
problem.

2. Descriptive research design:

Descriptive research is contract to explorative research is marked by the prior formulation


of specific research question. The problem, perhaps as a result of an exploratory study,
before the project is initiated. He should be able to define clearly what he wants to
measures and to setup appropriate and specific means for measuring it.

3. Diagnostic research design:

Diagnostic studies determine the frequency with which something occurs or its association
with something else. Hence such studies seek to establish relationship between any two or
more variable.

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4. Experimental research design:
In an experimental study, the researcher is expected to create an artificial situation with a
view to obtain the relevant data to measure them effectively and accurately. The research
design used for the study was descriptive research design. This type of research design is
concerned with describing the characteristics of the particular individual or group of a
situation. They are concerned with specific prediction with narration of facts and
characteristics are of the unit studies.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

A sample, as the name implies is a smaller representation of a large whole, instead of


studying every case which might logically be included in an investigation. Only a small
portion is selected.
A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. It
therefore refers to the techniques or procedure. The researcher would adopt is selecting
items for the sample.
Sampling design are basically of two types
 Probability sampling

 Non- Probability sampling

Probability sampling:

The probability sampling design offers every item of the population equal chance of
inclusion in the sample.

Procedures of drawing probability sampling are

1. Simple random sampling

2. Systematic random sampling

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3. Stratified random sampling

4. Cluster random sampling

5. Multi-stage random sampling

Non – probability sampling:

The Non – probability sampling design refers to the sampling procedure that does not afford
any basis estimating the probability that each item in the population was given equal chances
to be included in the sampling.

Non – probability sampling can be drawn by

1. Representative sampling

2. Judgement sampling

3. Purposive sampling

4. Accidental sampling

5. Quote sampling

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Selection of a sample

A sample is a miniature picture or a cross section of an entire group or an aggregate from which
a sample from a given population. It refers to the techniques or procedure the research would
abopt in selecting item for the sample.

Because the population is divided into a number of districts and a district was selected when we
represented all the districts. Considering the purpose of the study, information is however collected
from some units if the district.

TOOL FOR DATA COLLECTION

The following tools were used for data collection

 Questionnaire

 Personal interview

Questionnaire:

Structured Questionnaire was selected as the tool for data collection which included a set of various
types of questions concerning different aspects of the subjects for the study. Several types of question
were included in the questionnaire such as open end questions, dichotomous questions, and multiple
choice questions.

Personal interview

This method was also used to collect data. This had helped to collect valuable information from the
company employees.

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Collection of data

All the customers were approached on individually by the research question were asked to the
employees and information was collected questions were explained so as to avoid ambiguity. The
employees were found to be co-operative.

SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION

The data used for this study are both primary and secondary data. The source of primary data is the field
where researcher had collected a fresh first-hand information or data from the employees of BHARAT
HEAVY ELECTRICALS LTD., Lodhi Road

Secondary data is also known as documentary data. Secondary sources are those which already been
passed through statistical process.

SELECTION OF SAMPLE

A sample is miniature picture or a cross section of entire group of an aggregate from which is taken. It
is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. It refers to the techniques or procedure
the researcher would adopt in selecting item from the sample.

The researcher for the study adopted purposive sample procedure, a noon-probability sample design

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CHAPTER-II

Company
Profile

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The study was conducted in BHEL Lodhi. Road

Established in 1964, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) is the largest engineering and
manufacturing enterprise in India in the energy and infrastructure sector with the capability to
manufacture the entire range of power plant equipment. BHEL caters to the core sectors like
Power Generation, Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Renewable Energy, Oil & Gas,
Water, Defence & Aerospace, and e- Mobility & Energy Storage Solutions, and has references
in 82 countries across the globe. BHEL's mammoth size of operations is evident from its
widespread network of 17 Manufacturing Units, 2 Repair Units, 4 Regional Offices, 8 Service
Centres, 1 Subsidiary, 3 Overseas Offices, 5 Joint Ventures, 1 5 Regional Marketing Centres
and more than 150 project sites across India and abroad. Through its strategic partnerships with
global technology leaders, BHEL has been acquiring technologies for the past five decades,
which are adopted and indigenised at its in-house Corporate R&D Division and Research and
Product Development (RPD) centres at manufacturing units that work together to evolve
optimal solutions to suit customer-specific needs. While all the manufacturing units and other
entities of the company have been accredited to Quality Management Systems (1509001 j,
major manufacturing units have also been accredited to Environmental Management Systems
(ISO 14001) and Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems (OHSAS 18001).

ABOUT BHEL Lodhi Road.

As an organisation contributing greatly to the growth of the economy, BHEL is a people-strong


company with an objective of ensuring employee growth and development
With a sturdy foundation of more than fifty years of engineering excellence, BHEL is a people-
centric PSU that has contributed greatly to the growth of the country as a whole. An integrated
power plant equipment manufacturer that is counted among the largest engineering and
manufacturing companies working in the field of design, engineering, manufacturing,
construction, testing, commissioning and servicing of products, systems and services for a
number of core sectors of the economy, BHEL has been a pioneer in initiating employee
engagement practices. Through these practices, the organisation aims at delivering well on its
employee expectations in the short and long run.
While the organisation has been busy working towards achieving many more accolades for
itself, it surely does not leave its people behind, as, at the core of all its achievements, are its
people. It is remarkable that the organisation's satisfaction index among its employees has been
at 7 on a scale of 10, which is commendable in contemporary circumstances.

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Skill development

As a dependable name in the engineering sector, BHEL provides a lot of importance to skill
development of its employees as is evident from the various training programmes that are
organised in house regularly. The total number of training man-days per employee every
fiscal, are in the range of 4 to 6, showcasing that the organisation is committed towards
providing the best of training for skill development to its employees. Workshops and training
programmes are organised at regular intervals to develop management skills, functional skills
and also technical skills of the workforce that is an integral part of this employee-oriented
company.
Adhering to its primary objective of keeping the employees motivated at all times, BHEL has
come up with a scheme named 'Executive Coaching Scheme' besides other mentoring
schemes. Training and coaching programmes have been developed here keeping in mind the
fact that these programmes would ultimately benefit the organisation in terms of higher work
performance and more committed workforce. The organisation reckons the fact that these
schemes go a long way in developing new talents and also engaging the workforce. These
schemes at BHEL focus on enhancing individual effectiveness on the job, developing
business related competencies, and sharing best practices.
BHEL, being a leading PSU of the country, has an inherent culture with a timeline of more
than five decades. The parameter on culture and values has been rated the highest in various
internal as well as external surveys. The amount of trust the society has placed in this
organisation is visible from the fact that there are several instances of three generations of the
same family working here. A number of surveys have highlighted the fact that BHEL has,
over the years, remained a preferred employer with the attrition rate being less than 1%.

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Key HR practices

In line with its commitment towards its human resource, HR policies in BHEL are user-friendly
for its employees. While adopting all contemporary workplace practices, the organisation has
ensured transparency in all HR practices that have instilled two-way trust. Multiple
mechanisms have been adopted for getting employee feedback to ensure that the employees
are content. BHEL introduced an online transparent performance management system way
back in 2001-02. It was a milestone as, at that time, this was not even a norm in the PSUs. Bell-
curve system is utilised for employee appraisals. Plans are evaluated and individual scores are
assigned, which are then converted into ratings through a scientific system-driven process of
normalisation.
With a stable organisation like BHEL, issues like career instability do not crop up for the
employees. Job security, high potential employees' scheme, job rotation, specific growth
processes and succession planning systems are in place since several years.
The entire process of recruitment in BHEL is e-enabled and transparent. Being a central PSU,
all government guidelines on recruitment and selection are adhered to. The vacancies for which
the candidates are invited from all over the country are widely advertised in the prescribed
manner. Besides, notification is also given to recognised SC/ST associations and employment
exchange, wherever required. The selection committee is constituted in the manner prescribed
in government directives and the best suitable candidates are hired. Besides, the reservation
guidelines on recruitment are complied with.
Employees' opinions and perceptions are consolidated and acted upon while framing
organisation's strategies and policies. Career growth-oriented promotion policy provides the
platform for growth and development to all individuals. HR systems are regularly reviewed
and benchmarked with the best-in-class, whether they are HR policies regarding recruitment,
employee benefits or HR systems like online information and claims systems, and employee
centric welfare schemes like medical, housing and insurance.

25
Key HR practices

In line with its commitment towards its human resource, HR policies in BHEL are user-friendly
for its employees. While adopting all contemporary workplace practices, the organisation has
ensured transparency in all HR practices that have instilled two-way trust. Multiple
mechanisms have been adopted for getting employee feedback to ensure that the employees
are content. BHEL introduced an online transparent performance management system way
back in 2001-02. It was a milestone as, at that time, this was not even a norm in the PSUs. Bell-
curve system is utilised for employee appraisals. Plans are evaluated and individual scores are
assigned, which are then converted into ratings through a scientific system-driven process of
normalisation.
With a stable organisation like BHEL, issues like career instability do not crop up for the
employees. Job security, high potential employees' scheme, job rotation, specific growth
processes and succession planning systems are in place since several years.
The entire process of recruitment in BHEL is e-enabled and transparent. Being a central PSU,
all government guidelines on recruitment and selection are adhered to. The vacancies for which
the candidates are invited from all over the country are widely advertised in the prescribed
manner. Besides, notification is also given to recognised SC/ST associations and employment
exchange, wherever required. The selection committee is constituted in the manner prescribed
in government directives and the best suitable candidates are hired. Besides, the reservation
guidelines on recruitment are complied with.
Employees' opinions and perceptions are consolidated and acted upon while framing
organisation's strategies and policies. Career growth-oriented promotion policy provides the
platform for growth and development to all individuals. HR systems are regularly reviewed
and benchmarked with the best-in-class, whether they are HR policies regarding recruitment,
employee benefits or HR systems like online information and claims systems, and employee
centric welfare schemes like medical, housing and insurance.

26
Attractive employee benefits

Besides the statutory provision of social security, BHEL continues to extend


comprehensive post-retirement benefits to all its employees and their families,
both in terms of financial as well as medical benefits. Opportunities are made
available for learning and professional development in a wide range of technical
and functional areas for employees. Employee engagement practices here are not
restricted to excellent training and development benefits. On the contrar y, the
organisation believes in engaging its employees by way of quarterly feedback on
behavioural aspects, cultural events, sports events, town halls, shop councils, plant
councils and various management committees for employees. The organisation has
launched a social networking portal that will further the communication between
the employees and the management. A well laid -down mechanism is in place
through which employees can voice their grievances and have them redressed in a
time-bound manner.

BHEL fosters a culture of recognising and incentivising the best work done at all
levels. Therefore, to reward its employees, in addition to the best employee of the
quarter, the company has started the Excel Awards scheme, besides a number of
other recognitions.

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Product
Profile

THERMAL POWER PLANTS

Steam Generators, Steam Turbines, Turbo Generators along with regenerative feed cycle up to
1000 MW capacities for fossil-fuel and combined-cycle applications. Capability to design and
manufacture Steam Generators, Steam Turbines with supercritical steam cycle parameters and
matching Turbo Generators of up to 1000 MW unit size. • Condensers, Condensate Extraction
Pumps, Boiler Feed Pumps, Valves and Heat Exchangers meeting above requirement of TG
Sets up to 1000 MW.

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

BHEL can engineer, manufacture and supply Reactor side Components like Steam generator,
Reactor header, End Shield, special purpose Heat Exchangers, Pressure Vessels, Motors etc.
for PHWR based Nuclear Power plants up to 700 MWe capacity. BHEL also provides complete
solution to Secondary Side of Nuclear Power Projects and has capability to supply Turbines,
Turbo Generators and Condensers etc. for Nuclear Power plants up to 700 MWe capacity. •
BHEL has the capability to design, manufacture and supply various components of both
Reactor side and Secondary side for Nuclear Power Plant Projects up to 500 MWe rating based
Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR)

GAS-BASED POWER PLANTS

Gas turbines and matching generators ranging up to 299 MW (ISO) rating tailored to meet specific
needs with regard to plant layout, type of fuels, emission and noise requirements. The features of
these machines include:
 Capability to burn a variety of fuels, both gaseous and liquids.
 Mixed firing of many of these combinations of gases and liquids.
 Low exhaust emission levels up to 15ppm of NOx with DLN combustors.
 Gas turbine-based co-generation and combined cycle systems for industry and utility
applications.

HYDRO POWER PLANTS


 Custom-built conventional hydro turbines of Kaplan, Francis and Pelton types with
matching generators, pump turbines with matching motor generators up to 300 MW,
Bulb turbine with matching generators up to 10 MW
 High capacity pumps along with matching motors for Lift Irrigation Schemes (up to
150 MW) Small hydro power plants 10- 25 MW unit rating capacity
 Electro Hydraulic Microprocessor based Digital Governor for conventional turbines
 Microprocessor based Digital Controller for lift irrigation schemes
 Static excitation systems for Hydro generators & motors
 Brushless exciter for Hydro generators & motors
 Special purpose Motor Generator sets
 Spherical (rotary) valves, butterfly valves and auxiliaries for hydro stations

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SOLAR POWER PLANTS

EPC solutions from Concept to Commissioning of Solar PV Power plants:


 Grid interactive Systems
 Standalone Systems
 Roof Top Systems
 Hybrid Systems

DG POWER PLANTS

HSD, LDO, FO, LSHS, natural gas based diesel generator power plants, unit rating of up to 20
MW and voltage up to 11 kV, for emergency, peaking as well as base load operations on
turnkey basis

WATER MANAGEMENT

Complete Water Treatment Solutions for Power Plants, Industrial applications and other
utilities with different treatment technologies which include:-
 Pre Treatment plants (PT)
 Sea Water Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) plants
 Demineralization (DM) Plants
 Membrane based treatment for industrial applications
 Effluent Treatment Plants (ETP)
 Sewage Treatment plants (STP)
 Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System

DEFENCE
 Super Rapid Gun Mount (SRGM) 76/62 gun for naval ships
 Integrated Platform Management system (IPMS) for naval ships
 Integrated Bridge System (IBS)
 Training Simulator for Vehicles, platforms, radars, weapons, missiles and CBT for all
defence and para-military forces
 Turret Casting for T72 Tanks
 Casting for ships
 Castings and Forgings for Defence application
 Strategic equipment, etc.

29
SYSTEMS AND SERVICES
Power Generation Systems
 Turnkey power stations/ EPC contracts.
 Combined-cycle power plants.
 Cogeneration systems.
 Captive power plants.
 Concept to Commissioning solutions for Solar Photovoltaic systems
 Modernization and renovation of power stations and RLA studies.
 Software packages including simulators for utilities.
 Erection, commissioning, support services, spares management and consultancy
services for all the above systems.

Transmission Systems
 EHV & UHV Sub-stations/switchyards both AIS & GIS type ranging from 33 kV to 765 kV.
 HVDC transmission systems.
 Flexible AC Transmission system (FACTS) solutions
 Fixed Series Compensation (FSC)
 Static VAR Compensation (SVC)
 STATCOM
 Controlled Shunt Reactor (CSR)
 Phase Shifting Transformer (PST)

 Power system studies, Feasibility studies & Insulation Coordination

BOILERS

 Steam generators for utilities, ranging from 30 to 800 MW capacity, using coal, lignite,
oil, natural gas or a combination of these fuels; capability to manufacture boilers with
supercritical parameters up to 1000 MW unit size.
 Fuel Flexible boilers capable of all combination of blending / co-firing diverse qualities
of imported/ indigenised coals, blending of lignite, petcoke, etc.
 Steam generators for industrial applications of the following types ranging from 40 to
450 T/Hour capacity, using coal, natural gas, industrial gases, biomass, lignite, oil,
Bagasse or a combination thereof.
 Pulverized coal / lignite fired boilers
 Stoker fired boilers
 Bubbling fluidized bed combustion (BFBC) boilers.
 Circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boilers up to 250 MW.
 Heat-recovery steam generators (HRSG).
 Chemical recovery boilers for paper industry, ranging from capacity of 100 to
1000 T/Day of dry solids.

30
BOILERS AND AUXILIARIES
Fans
 Axial reaction fans of single stage and double stage for clean air application and dust laden hot
gases applications up to 200°C, with capacity ranging from 40 to 1300m3 /s and pressure
ranging from 400 to 1,500 mmwc.
 Axial impulse fans for both clean air and flue gas applications up to 200°C, with capacity
ranging from 25 to 600m3 /s and pressure up 300 to 700 mmwc
 Single and double-suction radial fans (plate aerofoil bladed) for clean air and dust-laden hot
gases applications up to 400°C, with capacity ranging from 4 to 660m3 /s and pressure ranging
from 200 to 3000 mmwc

Air-preheaters
 Tubular Air Preheaters for industrial and utility boilers
 Rotary regenerative Air-Preheaters for boilers and process furnaces.
 Large rotary regenerative Air-Preheaters for utilities of capacity up to 800 MW.

Pulverisers
 Bowl mills of slow and medium speed for coal fired thermal stations with capacity from
10 T/Hour to 120 T/Hour catering to 60 MW to 1000 MW thermal power stations
 Ball Tube mills for pulverizing low-grade coal with high ash content from 30 T/ Hour
to 110 T/ Hour catering to 110 MW to 500 MW thermal power stations
 Apart from strong presence in the Indian market for utility thermal power stations,
BHEL also caters to the requirement of:

 Steel Plants for Pulverised Coal Injection to Blast furnace


 Cement Plants for coal pulverising
 Fertilizers Plants for their captive power generation

Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP)


 Electrostatic precipitators of any capacity with outlet emission as low as 17 mg/Nm3
(efficiency up to 99.97%) for coal fired utility and industrial applications including Bio
mass fired boilers, cement plants, steel plants, soda recovery boilers etc.
 Bag Filters for Utility and Industrial applications.

31
Other systems
 Guillotine gates with electric / pneumatic actuator. Sizes up to 6m height & 7m
width (with split) 100% leak proof with seal air.
 Bi-plane dampers with electric actuator. Sizes up to 7m height & 5m width. 100%
leak proof with seal air.
 Louver dampers (Open close / Regulating) with electric / pneumatic actuator.
Sizes up to 7m height & 5m width.
 Control dampers (Regulating) with pneumatic actuator. Sizes up to 11m height
(split construction) & 4.5m width.
 Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) systems with sea water/ limestone slurry scrubber.

 Steel Chimneys for Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG), Industrial Boilers, auxiliary
boilers and other flue gas exhaust applications.

SOOT BLOWERS

 Long retractable soot blowers (LRSB) for travel up to 12.2m


 Furnace temperature probe (FTP) for travel length 6.9m and 8.3m
 Long Retractable Non-rotating (LRNR) soot blowers with forward
blowing for Air heaters
 Ash discharge valve for CFBC boiler application
 Soot blowers with integral starters
 Soot blower Sequential PLC control panel
 Rack type Long Retractable Soot blowers
 Wall blowers
 Rotary Soot blowers

VALVES

 High and Low-pressure Turbines Bypass Valves & hydraulic system for utilities
 And industrial application
 High and medium-pressure Valves, Cast and Forged Steel Valves of Gate,
Globe, Non-Return (Swing-Check and Piston Lift-Check) types for steam, oil
and gas duties up to 950 mm diameter, maximum pressure class 4500 (791
kg/cm2 ) and 650°C temperature.
 Hot reheat and cold reheat Isolating Devices up to 900 mm pipe size class 1500
and steam of 650°C temperature.
 High capacity Spring Loaded Safety Valves for set pressure up to 372 kg/cm2
and temperature up to 630°C, and automatic electrically operated pressure relief
valves for set pressure up to 210 kg/cm2 and temperature up to 593° C

32
 Safety relief valves for applications in power, process and other industries for
set pressure up to 421 kg/cm2 and temperature up to 537° C.
 Reactive cum absorptive type vent Silencers maximum diameter of 2700 mm.
 Direct Water Level Gauges
 Angle Drain Valves - Single & Multi Stage for Turbine Drain Application
 Severe Service Control Valves for RH & SH Spray Lines
 Quick Closing Non return Valves for Extraction
 lines and Cold Reheat Non Return valves, up to 800mm diameter, 158 kg/cm2
pressure and 540°C temperature.
 Butterfly Valves( Fabricated/ cast body & door)

PIPING SYSTEMS

 Power cycle piping, Constant load Hangers, Variable spring Hangers,


Hanger components, Low Pressure piping including Circulating Water
Piping for power stations up to 1000 MW capacity including Super
Critical sets
 Piping systems for Nuclear Power Stations, Combined Cycle Power Plants
& Industrial boilers and for power plants in Process Industries

SEAMLESS STEEL TUBES

Hot-finished and cold-drawn seamless steel tubes with a range varying from outer
diameter of 19 to 133 mm and wall thickness of 2 to 14 mm, in carbon steel and low-alloy
steels to suit ASTM/API and other international specifications including Rifled tubes and
Spiral finned tubes.

STEAM TURBINES
 Steam Turbines of higher ratings upto 1000 MW for thermal Sets
conforming to international Specifications.
 Steam turbines for 500 MW Nuclear Power Plants.

TURBOGENERATORS
 Turbo generators of higher rating upto 1000 MW supercritical parameters.
 Turbo generators for 270MW, 540 MW and 700 MW Nuclear Power Plants.

33
INDUSTRIAL SETS
 Industrial turbo-sets of rating from 1 to 200 MW.
 Industrial steam turbines and gas turbines for drive applications and co-
generation applications.
 Reheat steam turbines and matching generators ranging from 120 to 200 MW
captive, utility and combined cycle power plants

CASTINGS AND FORGINGS

Sophisticated heavy castings and forgings of creep resistant alloy steels, stainless steel
and other grades of alloy steels meeting stringent international specifications for
components of sub critical, supercritical and ultra-super critical technology.

CONDENSERS AND HEAT EXCHANGERS

Surface Condenser:
• 236 MW, 500 MW & 700 MW for Nuclear power plants
• 12.5 MW Marine applications
• Industrial Condensers
• Feed Water Heaters (HP Heaters, LP Heaters, Drain Coolers, Duplex Heater, etc.)
• Thermal: 7 to 500 MW (sub-critical) & 300- 800 MW (super critical with single stream)
• Nuclear 236 MW, 500 MW and 700 MW rating
• Moisture Separator & Preheater (MSR):
• 236 MW, 500 MW & 700 MW Nuclear sets
• Live Steam preheater (LSR):
• 500 MW FBR Nuclear sets
• Auxiliary Heat Exchangers for Turbo and Hydro Generators:
• Air Coolers (Frame & Tube Type)
• Oil Coolers (Shell & Tube Type and Plug in Type)
• Hydrogen Coolers (Frame & Tube Type)
• Auxiliary Heat Exchangers for Transformers:

34
• Oil Coolers (Shell & Tube Type Single Tube or Concentric Double Tube Type) (Frame
& Tube Type)
• Auxiliary Heat Exchangers for General Application
• Water - Water Coolers (Shell & Tube Type)
• Industrial Heat Exchangers for Refineries, Petrochemicals & Fertilizers industries.
• Flash Tanks for thermal & nuclear sets
• Service Tanks, Storage Tanks & Pressure vessels for Thermal, Nuclear sets of all ratings
& industrial applications
• CS/SS/Non-ferrous shell and tube heat exchangers and pressure vessels (For all
applications irrespective of rating)
• Air-cooled heat exchangers for GTG up to Fr-9E, and Compressor applications • Steam
jet air ejectors for all condensers up to 150 MW
• Desecrators from 7 MW to 800 MW
• Gland steam condensers 7 MW to 150 MW
• Gas coolers for compressor applications
• Oil coolers- STG up to 150 MW, GTG up to Fr-9E,

PUMPS
 Pumps for various utility power plant applications up to a capacity of 1000 MW:
 Boiler feed pumps (motor or steam turbine driven) and Boiler feed booster pumps.
 Condensate extraction pumps.
 Circulating water pumps (also known as Cooling water Pumps)

COMPRESSORS
Multi stage Centrifugal compressors along with auxiliary system for various applications are
manufactured and supplied with following configuration & parameters o Model – o Horizontally
split type up to 40 bar design pressure o Vertically split type up to 350 bar design pressure o
Capacity – up to 300000 m3 /hr o Gas – Air, CO2, N2, H2, NH3 , Natural Gas, Wet Gas,
Propylene etc., o Sealing system – Dry Gas Seal o Industry–Refineries, Fertilizers, Oil & Gas,
Steel, Power and Natural Gas Transportation. International standard – API 617 o Testing
capability – MRT, Performance test, Full load, full pressure full speed test, Complete Unit Test o
Driver – Steam Turbine, Gas Turbine, Motor

35
SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS

 Mono/ Multi Crystalline Solar Cells (156 mm)


 Mono/Multi Crystalline PV Modules (80 to 320 Wp)
 Power Conditioning Unit (500/630 kVA)
 SCADA System
 HT switchgear
 Space grade Solar Panels
 Space grade Batteries

AUTOMOTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS

 Steam Generator/ Boiler Controls including Boiler Protection


 Steam Turbine Controls
 Boiler Feed Pump (BFP) Drive Turbine Control
 Station Control and Instrumentation/ DCS
 Offsite/Off base controls/ Balance of Plant Controls o Ash Handling Plant
(AHP)
 Coal Handling Plant (CHP)
 Water System for power plant
 Mill Reject System (MRS)
 Condensate On-Load Tube Cleaning system
(COLTCS)
 Gas Booster Compressor (GBC)
 Condensate Polishing Unit (CPU)
 Heating, Ventilation & Air conditioning (HVAC)
 Fuel Oil Unloading System (FOUS)
 Hydro Power Plant Control System
 Gas Turbine Control System
 Nuclear Power Plant Turbine & Secondary Cycle control system
 Nuclear Power Plant Primary Cycle Control Centre Instrumentation
Package (CCIP)
 Power block of solar thermal power plant
 Industrial Automation
 Sub-Station Automation (SAS) and Supervisory Control & data
Acquisition System (SCADA) for Substation & Solar PV Plants
 Non-FST HVDC control panels
 Electrical Control System (ECS) for Refineries
 Energy Management System (EMS) for Power Plant
 Electrical Interface System for MV/LV Switchgear

36
CHAPTER-III

REVIEW OF
LITERATURE

37
INTRODUCTION OF JOB SATISFACTION

“Job satisfaction does seem to reduce absence, turnover and perhaps accident rates”.

Job satisfaction is a pleasure or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s
job experience. A number of factors influence job satisfaction some of the major one’s are the
work itself, pay promotion supervision, the work group and working condition. There are a
number of outcomes of job satisfaction. For e.g.: Although the relationship with productivity
is not clear job satisfaction tends to lead to both turn over and absenteeism while high job
satisfaction often results in fewer on-the-job accidents and workers have been found to exhibit
desirable prosaically “ Citizenship” behaviour and activities considering all the facts. I went to
BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LTD, RANIPET to test the level of job satisfaction
among the employees.

38
DEFINITION:

1. Du Brins has defined job satisfaction in terms of pleasure and contentment when he says
that:

“Job satisfaction is the amount of pleasure or contentment associated with a job. If


you like your job intensely, you will experience high job satisfaction. If you dislike your job
intensely, you will experience job dissatisfaction

2. The term “Job satisfaction” was brought to limelight by Hop pock. He reviewed 32 studies
on job satisfaction. Conducted prior to 1933.

According to hop pock. “Job satisfaction is the combination of psychological,


physiological and environmental circumstances that cause a person to truthfully say “I am
satisfied with my job”. This definition points to the factors affecting job satisfaction but does
not indicate the nature of job satisfaction.

3. Job satisfaction is in regard to one’s feeling or state- of-mind regarding the nature of their
work. Job satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors. E.g. The quality of one’s
relationship with their supervisions, the quality of the physical environment in which they work
degree of fulfilment in their work.

4. Job satisfaction is a function of or is positively related to the degree to which one’s personal
needs are fulfilled in job satisfaction

5. Job satisfaction is a function of or is positively relate to the degree to which the


characteristics of the job meet approval and the desires of the group to which the individual
looks for guidance in evaluation the world and defining social reality.

39
CONCEPT OF JOB SATISFACTION

Job satisfaction is the end feeling of a person after performing a task job satisfaction
is plays vital in the organization for achieving their goals. Job satisfaction of employees is helps
to increase the productivity level and making more profit. To the extent that a person’s job
fulfils his dominant needs and is consistent with his expectations and values. The job will be
satisfying. The feeling would be positive or negative depending upon whether need is satisfied
or not.

Not only satisfied in his job and also satisfied in their needs and values. Employees
are motivated by superiors. Job satisfaction is different from motivation and morale.
Motivation refers to general attitude towards work by an individual worker. A given individual
may be satisfied with a variety of factors like salary, healthcare, canteen facility, co-worker his
own contribution.

Satisfaction on the other hand implies a partie's emotional state, morale implies a
general attitude towards works and work environment. It is a group phenomenon whereas job
satisfaction is an individual feeling. Job satisfaction may be considered a dimension of moral
and a moral could also be a source of satisfaction, Attitudes are predict – positions that make
the individual behave in a particular way. Job satisfaction on the contrary is the end feeling
which may influence subsequent behaviour, thus, job satisfaction is an employee’s general
attitude towards the job.

According to an example given by Mirza is a foreman working assigned the task to


complete a special order? It is appositive job satisfaction to him because he been chosen to
complete the task it gives in a special status and feeling that he had been trusted and given a
special task. He may also feel happy because he may get extra wages & over time make keep
him away from his domestic problems. The same could be the source of his dissatisfaction, if
he does not require extra wages and does not mind domestic problems. Each of these variables
led to an end state of feeling we call satisfaction. The term attitude, motivation and morale
must be clearly defined to understand the job satisfaction.

40
NEED FOR JOB SATISFACTION:

 To increase productivity

 For involvement and participation in decision making


 To build employee growth and development
 For personal growth and development
 For effective to various corporate programmer(training)
 To avoid absenteeism, employee turnover

MEANING:-

Job satisfaction is one of the important factors that have drawn attention of managers in the
organization as well as academicians. Various studies have been conducted to find out the
factors which determine job satisfaction and the way it influences productivity of the
organization. Through there is no conclusive evidence that job satisfaction effects productivity
directly because productivity depends on so many variables, it is still a prime concern foe
managers.

Job satisfaction is a set of favourable or unfavourable feelings with which employees


view their jobs more specifically the nature of jobs they do, quality of supervision they receive,
co-workers pay and perks and promotional arrears. Job satisfaction affects job performance
employee turnover and absenteeism. High job satisfaction results into high work performance,
less employee turnover and less absenteeism.

41
MEASURE THE JOB SATISFACTION

According to Mirza generally questionnaires are used to measure satisfaction with various
aspects of work and the resultant behaviours aspects of work and the resultant behaviour of
score is called job satisfaction. The intelligence can be measured by job satisfaction
questionnaire.

Most studies of job satisfaction have been concerned with operationalizing it rather
than defining it. According to Locke (1969) such an approach describes that a certain works
but tells nothing as to why it works.

This seems to be the case with job satisfaction. Researchers have been found to be
interested in choosing the unit of measurement from the several available but little way a define
of job satisfaction has been attempted. One would assume that acceptance of a definition of job
satisfaction as a precursor for the choice of the unit of measurement.

“HOPPOCK (1935) measuring the job satisfaction”. He developed essentially 4 items,


each one with seven alternatives; he gets a score of 100, and 700 if he chooses “most satisfied”
alternative each item. HOPPOCK jakes the average of the four items for developing the
satisfaction index

 Nature of job
 Type of management
 Social environment
 Personal attributes

IMPORTANCE OF JOB SATISFACTION

 Job satisfaction results in happy living


 Job satisfaction improves the longevity of life
 Job satisfaction improves the image of the organization
 individuals become affectionate with the organization

42
 Job satisfaction improves the productivity and reduces the absenteeism and labour
turnover

WHAT SATISFIES INDIAN EMPLOYEES:-

In his study on America “Hop pock” 1935) identified six factors that contributed to job
satisfaction among them, these are as follows.

1. The way individual reacts to unpleasant situations.

2. The facility with which he adjusts himself to others persons.


3. His relatives’ status in the social and economic group with which he identified himself.
4. The nature of the work in relation to the abilities interest and preparation of the workers.
5. Security
6. Loyalty

EFFECTS OF JOB SATISFACTION & IMPROVING JOB SATISFACTION

Job satisfaction has a variety of effects. These effects may be seen in the context of
an individual’s be seen in the context of a physical and mental health Productivity, absenteeism
and turnover.

Physical and mental health:

The degree of job satisfaction affects an individual physical and mental health. Since
job satisfaction is a type of mental feeling, its favourableness or unfavourableness affects the
individuals psychological which ultimately affects his physical health.

Productivity:

There are two views about the relationship between job satisfaction and
productivity.

1. A happy worker is a productive worker

2. A happy worker is not necessarily a productive worker

43
The first view establishes a direct cause-effect relationship between job satisfaction
and productivity; when job satisfaction increase, productivity increase; when job satisfaction
decreases, productivity decrease. The basic logic behind this is that a happy worker will put
more effects for job satisfaction.

However, this may not be true in all cases, for example, a worker having low expectations
from his jobs feel satisfied but he may not put his efforts more vigorously because of his low
expectation from the job. Therefore, the view does not explain fully the complex relationship
between job satisfaction and productivity.

The other view, that is, a satisfied worker is not necessarily a productive worker
explain the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. Various research studies also
support this view. This relationship may be explained in terms of the operation of two factors:
effect of job performance on satisfaction and organizational expectations from individuals for
job performance,

1. Job performance leads to job satisfaction and not the other way round. The basic factor for
this phenomenon is the rewards attached with performance. These are two types of rewards-
intrinsic and extrinsic. The intrinsic reward steams from the job itself which may be in the form
of growth potential, challenging job, etc., the satisfaction on such a type of reward may help to
increase productivity. The extrinsic reward is subject to control by management such as salary,
bonus, etc. any increase in these factors does not help to increase productivity though these
factors increase the job satisfaction.

2. A happy worker does not necessarily contribute to higher productivity because he has to
operate under certain technological constraints and, therefore, he cannot go beyond certain
output. Further, this constraint affects the management’s expectations from the individual in
the form of lower output. Thus, the work situation is pegged to minimally acceptable level of
performance.

It does not mean the job satisfaction has no impact on productivity. A satisfied worker may not
necessarily lead to increased productivity but a dissatisfied worker leads to lower productivity.

44
Absenteeism

Absenteeism refers to the frequency of absence of a job holder form the workplace either
unexcused absence due to some avoidable reasons or long absence due to some unavoidable
reasons. If it is the former type of absence which is a matter of concern. This absence is due to
lack of situation from the produces a “lack of will to work” and alienates a worker from work
as far as possible. Thus, job satisfaction is related to absenteeism.

Employee turnover:

Turnover of employees is the rate at which employees leave the organization with in a given
period of time. When an individual feels dissatisfaction in the organization, he tries to
overcome this through various ways of defence mechanism. If he is not able to do so, he adopts
to leave the organization. Thus, in general case, employee turnover is related to job satisfaction.
However, job satisfaction is not the only cause of employee turnover is related to job
satisfaction. However, job satisfaction is not the only cause of employee turnover, the other
cause being better opportunity elsewhere.

Improving job satisfaction

Job satisfaction plays significant role in the organization. Therefore, mangers should take
concentrate steps to improve the level of satisfaction. These steps may be in the form of job
redesigning to make the job more interesting and challenging, improving quality of work life,
linking rewards with performance, and improving overall organizational climate.

45
TYPE OF JOB SATISFACTION SURVEY

MEASURE THE JOB SATISFACTION

Job satisfaction data are collected through surveys these surveys may be conducted
by questionnaire or by interview techniques and can classified in three categories according to
the forms of question asked,

 Objectives surveys

 Descriptive surveys
 Projective surveys

Objectives surveys:

In an objective type surveys a questionnaire is prepared with questionnaire is


prepared with question and their multiple choice answers. The respondent’s lead all the answer
and their multiple choice answers. The respondent’s lead all the answers may be either marked
tick or ‘TRUE and FALSE’ or written numerical value of the answer given in the space
provided. The multiple answers are suggestion by the management or surveyor.

Descriptive surveys:

Just contrary to objectives surveys, employees are given the opportunity to express
their opinion in detail about the questions set the management in descriptive surveys. The
questions may pertain to their job or the organization. The question may be directed or
undirected. The descriptive survey may be a combination of the two techniques.

Projective survey:

It is one of the survey techniques for interpreting job satisfaction. These devices are
personality probes developed by psychiatrists and psychologists for studying mental health.

46
The projective techniques present and abstraction that is incomplete and meaningless. The
employee’s projects and abstraction that is incomplete.

ADVANTAGES OF JOB SATISFACTION:

1. Indication of general level of satisfaction:

A study of job satisfaction gives the management an indication of general level of


satisfaction among the workers of the company. The study can be made with reference to a
particular subject and a particular or group of employees. In other words, the study tells how
employees feel about their job and about the organization what part of their feelings need
attention and whose feelings are involved etc.,

2. Communication:

The various communications is brought on by satisfaction survey. The flow of communication


is in all directions that is upwards, downwards, and lateral because such surveys are planned,
taken up and discussed. When we encourage the works to explain what their minds, upwards
communication may be fruitful.

3. Improved attitudes

The attitudes of works are improved through job satisfaction study it acts as a safety value
release one’s emotions by expressing their emotions during the course of survey on the and it
show an expression of management interest in employees welfare which gives employees a
better feeling towards management.

4. Determining training needs:

It determines the training needs of the employees and the supervisors during the course of
survey. It can be well established in what areas, the employees are dissatisfied or not satisfied.

5. Benefits of unions:

Generally, executive and union office bears discuss about the various wants of the
employees but surveys verify such arguments union rarely oppose the survey results and in
most of the cases support them, especially when they know that they will share the results.

47
CHAPTER-IV

ANALYSIS
&INTERPRETATION

48
Table no.1

YEAR OF EXPERIENCE

Attributes No. of Percentage


Respondent
Below 1 year 17 34
1-3 year 13 26
4 year and above 20 40
Total 50 100

YEAR OF EXPERIENCE

Below 1 year 1-3 year 4th year and above

Interpretation:

From the above table 1, it was inferred that 40% of the employee falls under 4
years and above category, 34% of the employee falls under below 1 year.26%
of employee are from 1-3 year of experience.
Maximum number of employee falls under 4 years and above experience
Minimum number of employee falls under 1-3 year experience

49
Table no 2:-

NATURE OF WORK AFFECTS SATISFACTION LEVEL

Attributes Point A Point B


Strongly agree 15 30
Agree 25 50
Disagree 10 20
Total 50 100

NATURE OF WORK AFFECTS SATISFACTION


LEVEL

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree

Interpretation:

From the above table 2, it was inferred that 50% of the employee strongly agree, 30% of the
employee disagree.20% of employee are disagree to nature of work affects satisfaction level.
.
Maximum numbers of employee agree
Minimum numbers of employee disagree

50
Table no. 3: -

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRODUCTIVITY & JOB SATISFACTION

Attributes Number of Percentage


Respondant
Strongly agree 20 40
Agree 28 56
Disagree 2 4
Total 50 100

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRODUCTIVITY AND


JOB SATISFACTION

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree

Interpretation:

From the above table NO.3, it was inferred that 56% of the employee agree,
40% of the employee strongly agree.4% of employee are disagree with
relationship between productivity & job satisfaction.
Maximum numbers of employee agree.
Minimum numbers of employee strongly agree

51
Table no 4:-

GOOD RELATIONSHIP WITH CO-WORKER


Attributes Number of Percentage
respondents
Yes 41 82
No 9 18
Total 50 100

GOOD RELATIONSHIP WITH CO-WORKER

Yes No

Interpretation:

From the above table no.4, it was inferred that 82 % Maximum numbers of
employee have good relationship with co- workers and about 18% minimum
of the employee don’t have good relationship with their co- workers.

52
Table no 5:-

GOOD RELATIONSHIP WITH MANAGEMENT

Attributes Number of Percentage


respondents
Yes 46 92
No 4 8
Total 50 100

GOOD RELATIONSHIP WITH MANAGEMENT

Yes No

Interpretation:

From the above Table no.5, it was inferred that 92 % Maximum numbers of
employee have good relationship with management and about 8% minimum of
the employee don’t have good relationship with their management.

53
Table no 6:-

ENTERTAINMENT PROGRAM

Attributes Number of Percentage


respondents
Yes 46 92
No 4 8
Total 50 100

Entertainment Program

Yes NO

Interpretation:

From the above Table no.6, it was inferred that 100 % Maximum numbers of
employee agree that they have entertainment program.

54
Table no. 7:-
JOB SATISFACTION REDUCE LADOUR TURNOVER &
ABSENTEEISM

Attributes Number of Percentage


respondents
Yes 37 74
No 13 26
Total 50 100

Job satisfaction Reduce Labour turnover


&absentism

Yes No

Interpretation:

From the above Table no.7, it was inferred that 74 % Maximum numbers of
employee agree that job satisfaction reduce labour turnover & absenteeism and
minimum numbers of employee disagree.

55
Table no 8:-
DEGREE OF INDIVIDUAL PHYSICAL & MENTAL HEALTH
Attributes Number of Percentage
respondents
Yes 45 90
No 5 10
Total 50 100

Degree of Individual Physical &Mental


Health

Yes No

Interpretation:

From the above Table no 8, it was inferred that 90 % Maximum numbers of


employee agree that the degree of job satisfaction affects an individual physical
& mental health.10% Minimum number employee disagree.

56
Table no 9: -
SATISFACTION OF RULES & REGULATION

Attributes Number of Percentage


respondents
Yes 25 50
No 25 50
Total 50 100

SATISFACTION OF RULES & REGULATION

Yes No

Interpretation:

From the above Table no 9, it was inferred that 50 % Maximum numbers of


employee are satisfied and 50% of them are not satisfied with the rules regulation.

57
Table no 10: -

FACTORS THAT DISSATISFIES A PERSON IN HIS WORK TIME

Attributes Number of Percentage


respondents
Routine work 22 34
Tiredness 13 20
Less Productivity 30 46
Total 50 100

Factors that pleased a Person in his


worktime

Routine work Tiredness Less Productivity

Interpretation:

From the above Table no.10, it was inferred that 46% of the employee are less
productive, 34% of the employee are routine work, and 20% of the employee
are tiredness which make them dissatisfied.
Maximum numbers of employee are dissatisfied by routine work.
Minimum numbers of employee are dissatisfied by tiredness.

58
Table no 11: -

LEVEL OF JOB SECURITY

Attributes Number of Percentage


respondents
Highly Satisfied 23 46
Less Satisfied 27 54

LEVEL OF JOB SECURITY

Highly Satisfied Less satisfied

Interpretation:

From the above Table no.4.11, it was inferred that 54% of the employee are less satisfied and
46% of the employee are highly satisfied with the level of job security.
Maximum numbers of employee are dissatisfied
Minimum numbers of employee are satisfied

59
Table no.12:

SATISFIED WITH MEDICAL FACILITY

Attributes Number of Percentage


respondents
Yes 45 90
Less Satisfied 5 10

SATISFIED WITH MEDICAL FACILITY

Yes No

Interpretation:

From the above Table no.4.12, it was inferred that 90 % Maximum numbers of employee are
satisfied and 10% of them are not satisfied with medical facility.

60
Table no.13:-

SATISFIED WITH TRANSPORT FACILITY

Attributes Number of Percentage


respondents
Yes 45 90
No 5 10

SATISFIED WITH TRANSPORT FACILITY

Yes No

Interpretation:

From the above Tableno.4.13, it was inferred that 100 % Maximum numbers of employee are
satisfied with the transport facility.

61
Table no 4. 14:-

CLEANLINESS OF REST ROOM


Attributes Number of Percentage
respondents
Yes 0 0
No 50 100

CLEANLINESS OF REST ROOM

Yes No

Interpretation:

From the above Table no 4. 14, it was inferred that 100 % Maximum numbers of employee
are not satisfied with the availability of rest room facility.

62
Table no 15:-

SATISFACTION LEVEL COUNTED BY THE COMPANY

Attributes Number of Percentage


respondents
Feedback 20 40
Official report 4 8
Performance appraisal 14 28
Individual attention 8 16
Nothing special 4 8
Total 50 100

SATISFACTION LEVEL COUNTED BY THE


COMPANY

Feedback Offical report performance appraisal individual attendance nothing special

Interpretation:

From the above Table no.4.15, it was inferred that 40 % Maximum numbers employees are
Feedback, 28% of employees are Performance Appraisal, 16% of the employees are
Individual attention, 8% Nothing special,8% Official report.

63
Table no.16:-

FEEL ABOUT JOB SATISFACTION

Attributes Number of Percentage


respondents
Regular attendance 6 12
Good relationship 19 38
Production of quality work 25 50
Total 50 100

FEEL ABOUT JOB SATISFACTION

regular attendance good relationship productivity of quality work

Interpretation:

From the above Table no 4.16, it was inferred that 50 % Maximum numbers employees of them
are production of quality work,38% of the employees are feel good relationship,12% of the
employees are feel regular attendance
Maximum numbers of employees are satisfied with Production of quality work
Minimum numbers of employees are satisfied with regular Attendance.

64
Table no. 4. 17:-

SATISFACTION LEVEL
Attributes Number of Percentage
respondents
Healthy interaction 20 40
Entertainment 10 20
Training 20 40
Total 50 100

SATISFACTION LEVEL

healthy interaction Entertainment Training

Interpretation:

From the above Table no 17, it was inferred that 40 % of the employees are healthy
interaction,40% of the employee are training,20% of the employees are entertainment steps
that adds job satisfaction.
Maximum numbers of employees are satisfied with healthy interaction & training
Minimum numbers of employees are satisfied with entertainment

65
Table no. 18:-

VARIOUS FACTORS OF JOB SATISFACTION

Attributes Number of Percentage


respondents
Salary 35 70
Freedom of participation 7 14
Motivation 3 6
Welfare of scheme - 0
Good work condition 5 10
total 50 100

SATISFACTION LEVEL

salary freedom of participation motivation welfare scheme good work condition

Interpretation:
From the above Table no. 4.18, it was inferred that 70 % of the employees are consider
salary,14% employee consider freedom of participation,10% of the employees consider good
work condition healthy interaction,6% of the employee are motivation.
Maximum numbers of employees are considering salary is important.
Minimum numbers of employees are considering motivation.

66
CHAPTER-IV

FINDING, SUGGESTIONS
AND CONCLUSION

67
FINDINGS:
1. 40% of the employees are from 4 years and above category, 34% of the are from below 1
year.26% of employee are from 1-3 year of experience.
2. 50% of the employees feel that nature of work affects job
3. 56% of the employees agree with relationship between productivity & job satisfaction.
4. 82% of employees have good relationship with co- workers
5. 92 % of employees have good relationship with management
6. 100 % of employee agrees that they have entertainment program
7. 74 % of employee agree that job satisfaction reduce labour turnover & absenteeism
8. 90 % of employees agree that the degree of job satisfaction affects an individual physical
& mental health.
9. 50 % of employees are satisfied and 50% of them are not satisfied with the rules regulation.
10. 46% of employees are less productive, 34% of them are routine work, and 20% of them are
tiredness which makes them dissatisfied during work time.
11. Most of the employees are less satisfied with level of job security
12. 90 % of employees are satisfied with medical facility.
13. 13 .100 % of employees are satisfied with the transport facility.
14. Most of the employees are not satisfied with the availability of rest room facility.
15. 40 % of employees said Feedback should be counter by the company to know the
satisfaction level.
16. 50 % of employees are production of quality work which makes them satisfied
17. 40 % of the employees are healthy interaction to be added to their job satisfaction.
18. 70 % of the employees are considering salary as factor for job satisfaction.

68
SUGGESTIONS:

 The various factors of job satisfaction could be studied in depth to increase productivity
and efficiency.

 Maintaining good relationship between employees and management is essential for job
satisfaction.

 Rules & regulation of the company can be changed in order to satisfy employees

 The company should provide job security for employees to increase the rate of
satisfaction

 Rest room facility can be provided to employees

 Performance appraisal and individual attention should be measured to improve job


satisfaction.

 Monetary benefits should be improved

69
CONCLUSION

I had enjoyed the opportunities given to me for taken up a job satisfaction of employees.
BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LTD., is a large company and it has many (division) in
Italy, Germany and Poland) BHEL is a government undertaking company and has number of
major subsystem on improvement towards satisfaction of employees. I strongly feel and hope
that suggestion given as outcome of the study may be used for further improving the level of
job satisfaction of employees. There is a no end for reviews and improvement this study has
its specific limitation and hence the results. In BHEL they follow the systematic planning and
review process to evaluate the performance of employee. From analysis it was also observed
that there is a scope for the improvement of working conditions in BHEL. Finally I would like
to conclude that employees of BHEL are satisfied with their work and Organization. Number
of employees accepted that at times there is a considerable flexibility in coordinating with work
and they are satisfied with the existing inter personal communication.

70
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books:-

1. Human resources management

-By Mr.Arpit Agrawal

2. Personnel management 7 industrial relation

-By Mrs Mansi Pandey

3. Personal management

-By Mr. C. B. Mamoria

4. Principles and practice of management

-By Mr. L. M. Prasad

5. Research methodology, methods & techniques

-By Mr. M. R. Kothari

Published by Wishwa Prakashan.

71
Questionnaires

1. Name:

2. Designation:

1) How many years of experience you have in this company?

a. below 1 year

b. 1-3 year

c. 4 year and above

2) Do you agree nature of work affect your satisfaction level?

a. Strongly agree

b. Agree

d. Disagree

72
3) Do you agree that there is relationship between productivity and job satisfaction?

a. Strongly agree

b. Agree

c. Disagree

4) Do you have good relationship with your co-worker?

a. Yes

b. No

5) Do you have good relationship with your management?

a. Yes

b. No

6) Do you have any entertainment program in your company?

a. Yes

b. No

73
7) Do you think job satisfaction reduce labour turnover & absenteeism in your company?

a. Yes

b. No

8) Do you feel that the degree of job satisfaction affects an individual physical and mental
health?

a. Yes

b. No

9) Are you satisfied with rules and regulation of your company?

a. Yes

b. No

10) When do you feel person is not satisfied during his work time?

a. Routine work

b. Tiredness

c. Less productivity

74
11) The level of job security in your company?

a. Highly satisfied

b. Less satisfied

12) Do you satisfied with the medical facilities provided by the company?

a. Yes

b. No

13) Are you satisfied with the transport facilities provided by the company?

a. Yes

b. No

14) Do you have rest room facility in your company?

a. Yes

b. No

75
15) Through which way your satisfaction level counter parted by your company?

a. Feedback

b. Official report

c. Performance appraisal

d. Individual attention

e. Nothing special

16) What makes you to feel that you have job satisfaction?

a. Regular attendance

b. Good relationship

c. Production of quality work

17) What steps do you think it would add to your satisfaction level?

a. Healthy interaction

b. Entertainment

c. Training

76
18) What are the various factors you consider for job satisfaction?

a. Salary

b. Freedom of participation

c. Motivation

d. Welfare schemes

e. Good work condition

77
78