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JET Manual 18

Cement Pump Skid,

Version 1.0
JET Manual 18 Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361
InTouch Content ID# 4221752
Version: 1.0
Release Date: January 31, 2007
Owner: Well Services Training & Development, IPC

Schlumberger private

Document Control

Revision History
Rev Effective Date Description Prepared by

Copyright © 2007 Schlumberger, Unpublished Work. All rights reserved.

This work contains the confidential and proprietary trade secrets of Schlumberger and may not
be copied or stored in an information retrieval system, transferred, used, distributed, translated or
retransmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, in whole or in part, without
the express written permission of the copyright owner.

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“Schlumberger,” the Schlumberger logotype, and other words or symbols used to identify the
products and services described herein are either trademarks, trade names, or service marks of
Schlumberger and its licensors, or are the property of their respective owners. These marks may
not be copied, imitated or used, in whole or in part, without the express prior written permission
of Schlumberger. In addition, covers, page headers, custom graphics, icons, and other design
elements may be service marks, trademarks, and/or trade dress of Schlumberger, and may not
be copied, imitated, or used, in whole or in part, without the express prior written permission of
Schlumberger. A complete list of Schlumberger marks may be viewed at the Schlumberger Oilfield
Services Marks page: http://www.hub.slb.com/index.cfm?id=id32083

An asterisk (*) is used throughout this document to designate a mark of Schlumberger.

Other company, product, and service names are the properties of their respective owners.
Table of Contents

1.0  Introduction 7
1.1 Learning objectives 7
2.0  Safety Warnings 9
2.1 Personnel safety 9
2.2 Engine safety 10
2.3 Equipment safety 10
2.4 Environmental safety 10
2.5 General unit considerations 11
2.6 Suction and discharge components 11
2.7 Fire and explosion prevention 12
2.8 Crushing and cutting prevention 13
3.0  CPS-361 Overview 13
3.1 Applications 13
3.2 Unit specifications 14
3.3 Main components 15
3.3.1 Engines 15
3.3.2 Transmissions 15
3.3.3 C-pump 16
3.3.4 Centrifugal 5x6 pressurizer pumps 16
3.3.5 High-pressure triplex pumps 16
3.3.6 Fluid ends 16
3.3.7 Displacement tanks 16
3.3.8 Surge can 17
3.3.9 Mixing bowl 17
3.3.10 Mixing tank 17
3.3.11 Nonradioactive densitometer (NRD) 18
3.3.12 Mix water line (jet line) 18
3.3.13 Thin-up line 19
3.3.14 Slurry recirculation line 19
3.3.15 Downhole line 19
3.3.16 Control console 19
3.4 Equipment changes from CPS-361 19
4.0  Prejob Inspection  23

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  iii

4.1.1 Eye wash and fire extinguisher 23
4.1.2 Batteries 23
4.1.3 Diesel tanks 24
4.1.4 Radiators 24
4.1.5 Engine oil (SAE 40) 24
4.1.6 Fans 24
4.1.7 Air filter 24
4.1.8 Air tank 25
4.1.9 Transmission oil 25
4.1.10 Power end oil 25
4.1.11 Chain case oil 25
4.1.12 Hydraulic oil 26
4.1.13 Air system 26
4.1.14 Packing oil (air-over-oiler) 26
4.1.15 Emergency kill 26
5.0  Control Console  29
5.1 Control console: top 30
5.1.1 Front and rear pump Martin Decker digital gauge 31
5.2 Control console: upper middle 32
5.2.1 Power switch 32
5.2.2 Overpressure shutdown system 33
5.2.3 Proximity switches 33
5.2.4 Front and rear engine air-start pushbutton 33
5.2.5 Triplex pump discharge pressure gauge 33
5.2.6 Lamp test switch 34
5.2.7 Unit indication LEDs–rear power system 34
5.3 Control console: lower middle 34
5.3.1 Front and rear transmission shifter 36
5.3.2 Rear and front engine run/kill switch 36
5.3.3 Rear and front engine throttle 36
5.3.4 Density display 36
5.3.5 Control suction button 36
5.3.6 Triplex pump actuators 36
5.4 Control console: bottom 38
5.4.1 Cement meter wheel 39
5.4.2 Emergency kill switch 39
5.4.3 Pressurizing pump actuator 40
5.4.4 Quick water shutoff–rear and front transmission 41

iv  |  Table of Contents

5.4.5 Quick cement shutoff–rear and front transmission 41
5.4.6 Slurry recirculation valve 42
5.4.7 Injection pump PTO engage/disengage 42
5.4.8 Rear engine–pressurizer pump PTO engage/disengage 42
6.0  Starting Unit Up  35
6.1 Checking overpressure shutdowns (Martin Decker digital gauges) 35
7.0  Priming  37
7.1 Priming 5x6 C-pump 39
7.2 Rear triplex priming procedures 42
7.3 Priming front triplex pump 44
7.4 Priming mixing system 44
8.0  Pressure Testing Equipment and Lines  43
8.1 Set up high-pressure manifold 44
8.2 Flush high-pressure lines 45
8.3 Pressure test 46
8.4 Pressure bleedoff 46
8.5 Treating line pressure test 47
9.0  Mixing and Pumping Cement  47
10.0  Completing Displacement  49
11.0  Washing Up and Shutting Down  51
11.1 Cleaning up the mixing system 51
11.2 Washing up the triplex suctions 51
11.3 Washing up the high-pressure manifold) 51
11.4 Shutting down 52
11.5 Draining up the CPS 52
12.0  Postjob Inspection  55
13.0  Maintenance and Troubleshooting  57
13.1 Mark III mixer jet nozzle  57
13.2 Maintenance summary 58
13.3 Density-related troubleshooting 58
14.0  References  69
15.0  Check Your Understanding 71

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vi  |  Table of Contents

1.0  Introduction

This job execution training manual (JET)

introduces you to the CPS-361 cement
pump skid. It describes the unit’s function
and components and provides procedures
for inspections and operations.

1.1 Learning objectives

Upon completion of this training manual,
you will be able to do the following:

• Describe the main features and principles

of operation of the CPS-361.
• Explain the steps of the pretrip inspection.
• Describe the setup and operation of the
control console.
• Explain the steps involved with pump
priming and operation.

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  

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  |  Introduction
2.0  Safety Warnings

Operations involving the CPS-361 must be correctly. Any item omitted is an opportunity for
performed in accordance with all applicable an equipment failure.
OFS and Well Services safety standards. The
Well Services Field Safety Handbook, InTouch Ensure that all relevant procedures and safety
Content ID# 3038407, is the current safety standards are followed at all times, and make
standards document, which includes all OFS certain that appropriate PPE is worn around the
and Well Services Safety Standards. Refer to unit.
the appropriate sections, as needed.
Before starting the engine, make sure that
all personnel are clear of the engine area. If
working on the engine while it is shut down,
place a lockout tag on the Start switch to
Anyone who feels an operation is
ensure that no one can start the engine without
unsafe has the right and the duty to
your knowledge.
stop the operation.
Additional general guidelines for safe operation
It is important to be familiar with the safety follow:
standards before operating the CPS-361.
Of particular importance are the standards • Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that
listed in this chapter. These standards cover can catch on controls.
all applicable aspects of driving to location, • Use steps and handrails when mounting
rigging-up, pumping, inspecting equipment, and dismounting the skid unit.
and repairing equipment. A complete list
• Know hand signals and who gives them.
of all applicable OFS and Well Services
safety standards can be found in Section 16, • Clear personnel from the machine area
References. before starting.
• Be sure all tools and electrical cords have
2.1 Personnel safety been removed from the unit before starting.

Proper supervision is required during • Start engine only in well-ventilated areas.

hands-on training. Request assistance • Check function of safety devices.
from your supervisor if you are unfamiliar or
• Observe engine gauges frequently. Be alert
uncomfortable with the operation.
for unusual noises.
Ensure that all safety devices are in place and • Utilize LOTO (lock-out/tag-out) whenever
operational before performing any activities performing maintenance to any equipment,
associated with this training. as detailed in Well Services Safety
Standard 15: Lockout/Tagout, InTouch
Always allow sufficient time to ensure the Content ID# 3313691.
prejob and postjob checks can be done

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  

2.2 Engine safety any of these fluids leak onto hot surfaces or
electrical components.
It is important to remember the dangers of heat
generated by some components of this unit.
The exhaust lines, hydraulic lines, and some 2.3 Equipment safety
parts of the engine become extremely hot
during operation, and can cause severe burns. Equipment should be maintained according to
the regular standard equipment maintenance
Be aware of all moving parts on the unit while (STEM) system. In addition, complete the
it is running. All nonessential personnel should following Schlumberger preventive maintenance
stay away from the unit during operation. If it checks, such as the one detailed on Auxiliary
is necessary to climb up on the unit, exercise Equipment Check Sheet DS‑587‑E.
extreme caution.
2.4 Environmental safety
Warning: Contain all chemical spills and clean them up
Do not climb on the engine while it according to local procedures. Report any spill
is running. according to local procedures. Please refer to
these standards for further information.

A flash fire may result if the crank case covers • Well Services Safety Standard 17: Storage
are removed after an emergency shutdown and Handling of Oxidizers, InTouch Content
before 15 minutes have passed. ID# 3313693.
• Well Services Safety Standard 18:
The electronic unit injector system uses 90 to Chemical Hazard Communication
110 V. (HAZCOM) and Material Handling, InTouch
Content ID# 3313694.
When disposing of oils, filters, and batteries,
Warning: ensure that these items are disposed of in
Touching the harness connector for an environmentally acceptable way and in
the fuel injector while the engine is accordance with local regulations.
operating can result in an electrical
shock. Be careful when touching Before performing a STEM 1 on the unit,
any part of an engine during the correct protective clothing is required.
operation, as some parts can be At a minimum, wear this personal protective
extremely hot. equipment (PPE):

• NOMEX coveralls
The coolants are very hot during and
• hard-toed boots
immediately after the engines are run. The
coolant will also be under pressure. Exercise • hard hat
extreme caution if the caps need to be removed
• safety glasses
while the engine is still warm.
• ear protection.
Leaking fuel, most lubricants, and some coolant
mixtures are flammable. A fire can result if

10  |  Safety Warnings

If needed, also wear these items: 2.6 Suction and discharge components
• gloves Follow the Well Services Safety Standard
5: Pressure Pumping and Location Safety,
• goggles InTouch Content ID# 3313681, hook-up and
• dust masks. operating guidelines for all pumping operations.

Be aware of all other unsafe situations when

performing routine maintenance. Safety is
basically common sense and training, but Note:
each situation has its own peculiarities, which This unit is not equipped with
are not always covered by rules. Your training CO2 certified suction piping, and
and experience will be helpful guides to safe cannot be used for CO2 services,
work habits. Watch out for unsafe hazards and according to Well Services Safety
correct them promptly. Standard 9: Pumping Carbon
Dioxide, InTouch Content ID#
2.5 General unit considerations
Heavy equipment, including pumps, pump
package units, and components should only Check suction and discharge hoses for
be moved or lifted by trained, experienced damage or wear. When the pump is operating,
operators who are physically and mentally continually monitor suction and discharge hose
prepared to devote full attention and alertness assemblies for leakage, kinking, abrasion,
to the moving and lifting operations. An corrosion, or any other signs of wear or
operator should be fully aware of the use, damage.
capabilities, and condition of both the
Worn or damaged hose assemblies should
equipment being moved and the equipment
be replaced immediately. Examine the hose
being used to move it.
assemblies internally at least every six months
Warning: • cut or bulged tube
Failure to follow safe and proper
lifting or moving procedures can • obstructions
lead to personal injury, death, and • cleanliness
equipment damage from shifting,
falling, or other unexpected or • security and tightness of end connections
uncontrolled equipment movement. and clamps.
Refer to OFS QHSE Standard
S013: Mechanical Lifting, InTouch Note:
Content ID# 3260276. Discharge hoses require tow
clamps oriented at 90 degrees.
Check the high-pressure manifold
on unit, and all high-pressure loose
equipment (pipe, swivels, valves)
for erosion and wear.

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  11

• Store all fuels and lubricants in properly
Note: marked containers, and store the
containers in a safe place.
High-pressure treating
connections must be inspected • Do not smoke in battery-charging areas.
and maintenance procedures Batteries give off flammable fumes that can
must be followed, according to explode.
Well Services Safety Standard 23:
• Do not smoke in areas that contain
Testing and Inspection of Treating
flammable material.
Equipment, InTouch Content ID#
3313701. It is the responsibility of • Store oily rags and other flammable
the location manager to establish material in protective containers.
intervals for the checks based on • Do not weld pipes or tubes that contain
the level of activity and job type. flammable fluids. Do not flame cut pipes or
tubes that contain flammable fluids. Before
pipes or tubes are welded or flame cut,
clean the inside and outside of the pipes
2.7 Fire and explosion prevention or tubes thoroughly with nonflammable
Warning: • Do not allow flammable materials to
A flash fire may result in personal accumulate on the engine.
injury if the crankcase covers are • Do not expose the engine to flames.
opened within 15 min following an
emergency shutdown. • Exhaust shields (if provided) protect hot
exhaust components from oil or fuel spray
in case of a line, tube, or seal failure.
Exhaust shields must be installed correctly.
Fire may result from lubricating oil or fuel
sprayed on hot surfaces. Fire may cause • Dispose of oil according to local
personal injury and property damage. Inspect regulations. Oil filters and fuel filters must
all lines and tubes for wear and deterioration. be properly installed. The housing covers
The lines must be properly routed and have must be tightened to the proper torque
adequate support and secure clamps. Tighten when they are reinstalled.
all connections to the recommended torque.
Leaks can cause fires.

• Leaking fuel or fuel spilled onto hot

surfaces or electrical components can
cause a fire.
• Alternative fuels, most lubricants, and some
coolant mixtures are flammable.
• Diesel fuel and gasoline are flammable,
and the mixture of diesel fumes and
gasoline fumes is extremely explosive.

12  |  Safety Warnings

2.8 Crushing and cutting prevention
Support the component properly when work is
performed underneath the component. Unless
other maintenance instructions are provided,
never attempt adjustments while the engine is

Stay clear of all rotating parts and moving parts.

Leave the guards in place until maintenance
is required; reinstall the guards when the
maintenance is complete. Keep objects away
from moving fan blades (if provided). Fan
blades can throw objects and cut objects.

When objects are struck, wear protective

glasses to avoid injury to the eyes. Chips or
other debris may fly off objects when they are
struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that
flying debris will injure no one.

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14  |  Safety Warnings

3.0  CPS-361 Overview

3.1 Applications The CPS-361 double-pump cementer skid

performs the following functions (Fig. 3-2):
The components of the CPS system (Fig. 3‑1)
operate together to mix cement slurry. The • provides high-pressure pumping services
surge can holds dry cement. The displacement (eg. BOP testing)
tanks on the skid hold the water. The water
and the cement are combined in the mixing • meters mixing fluids and dry cement
bowl and piped to the mixing tank. • can work with gravity feeding of dry cement
during mixing.
To mix the slurry, a C-pump circulates the
slurry from the mixing bowl and back again • provides high pressure fluid movement
to the mixing tank. As the slurry recirculates, using one or both triplex pumps
more water and/or dry cement are added • can pump a variety of fluids from remote
until the slurry achieves the desired density. sources.



Triplex pump

Centrifugal pump

Figure 3-1. CPS-361

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  13



Mixing Bowl

High Pressure
Triplex Pumps Centrifugal
Pump Mixing Tank


Figure 3-2. Basic CPS-361 Operation

This unit is equipped with Caterpillar The unit's C-pumps—two RA45 injection

3176C electronically controlled engines pumps (mixing water pumps) and two

that can produce up to 570 hhp. The pumps—function as a slurry and

pumper can be used with Well Services recirculation pump. They also
cement mixing systems such as the
• mix the cement slurry
• recirculating jet mixer • pressurize the triplex pumps
• SLURRY CHIEF* mixer. • supply water to the dry cement.
The CPS-361 is equipped with The CPS-361 is supplied with a totally
integrated, PC-compatible Azonix Amdec 100
• two PG triplex pumps operator interface panel. The Amdec 100 is
• two 10 bbl-compartment, stainless steel equipped with
displacement tanks to measure volumes of
nonflammable fluids • Martin Decker gauges

• four centrifugal pumps (C-pumps) • density control system (DCS)

• a stainless steel, sound-reduced enclosure • JAB II.

and aluminum drip pans around the engine
and transmission section. 3.2 Unit specifications
The unit has the following specifications:

• length: 256.0 in (6,502.4 mm)

• width: 101.5 in (2,578.1 mm)

14  |  CPS-361 Overview

• height: 120.0 in (3,048.0 mm) 3.3.1 Engines
• weight: 40,300 lbm (18,280 kg) Two engines—front and rear (see Fig. 3-3)—
drive the centrifugal and high-pressure triplex
3.3 Main components pumps that move fluids through the system.
The unit has the following main components

• engines: Caterpillar 3176C ATAAC Rear engine

(325 bhp)
• transmission: Allison HT750
• two triplex pumps
• power ends: Dowell PG03 series (steel)
Figure 3-3. Rear Engine
• fluid ends: TG06 3 ¾-inch (standard front
pump) max pressure=10,000 psi
3.3.2 Transmissions
• TH06 5-inch (standard rear pump) max
pressure=5,500 psi There are two transmissions, one for each
engine. The front engine transmission is
• TL06 4 ½-inch (optional) max pressure located as shown in the picture. Both are
= 7,000 psi Allison 5-speed automatic transmissions.
• TR08 3-inch (optional) max pressure
= 15,000 psi Front engine transmission

• slurry pressurizing pump: Dowell 5x6

centrifugal pump (RA5x6)
• recirculation pump: Dowell 5x6 centrifugal
pump (RA5x6)
• mixing water pumps or injection pumps:
Dowell 4x5 centrifugal pumps (RA4x5) Figure 3-4. Front Engine Transmission
• stainless steel displacement tanks (10 bbl
• Azonix Amdec 100
If the pump stalls out, do not
• mixer: SLURRY CHIEF recirculating jet operate the engine for more than
mixer 30 seconds at full throttle with the
• densitometer: Micro Motion DS300 transmission in gear. Prolonged
nonradioactive densitometer (NRD) operation in this way will cause
excessively high transmission
• enclosure: sound-reduced stainless steel temperatures that will damage the
engine/transmission enclosure transmission.
• tool kits: optional marine tool kit.
In cold weather, it is important to take time to
warm up the transmission oil before engaging
the transmission. Oil temperatures need
to conform to the following guidelines:

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  15

• Only at >20 degF can the transmission be 3.3.5 High-pressure triplex pumps
used in all gears.
There are two high-pressure triplex pumps
• If –9<T<20 degF, only run the transmission (Fig. 3-7). These are positive displacement
in neutral or 1st gear. pumps used to pump fluid (water, spacer, wash,
• If T<-10 degF, run in neutral only. and slurry) to the downhole line and into the
well. The unit shown here has G&H model
pumps. These triplex pumps are available in
3.3.3 C-pump different plunger sizes. The pressure limit for
The C-pump (Fig. 3-5) feeds water from the the triplex pumps shown here is 10,000 psi
displacement tanks into the mixing bowl. The and 5,500 psi. For additional information
pump is located above the transmission behind on the triplex pumps, please refer to JET 2:
the smaller door. For additional information Triplex Pumps, InTouch Content ID# 4127825.
on C-pumps, refer to JET 3: Centrifugal
Pumps, InTouch Content ID# 4127826.

Centrifugal injection pump

Figure 3-5. C-Pump
Figure 3-7. Triplex Pump

3.3.4 Centrifugal 5x6 pressurizer pumps

There are two 5x6 C-pumps. One of them is a 3.3.6 Fluid ends
backup. The 5x6 pressurizer pump (Fig. 3- 6) The fluid-end lubrication system consists of
recirculates slurry from the mixing tank to a pressurized oil tank. The air pressure is
the mixing bowl and back to the tank again. bled off whenever the pump brake is ON.
It also pressurizes the triplex pump suction.
For additional information on centrifugal
pumps (C-pumps), refer to JET 3: Centrifugal Warning:
Pumps, InTouch Content ID# 4127826. Never strike the pressurized oil
tank. Always be sure that there
is no pressure in the tank before
opening the top cap.

3.3.7 Displacement tanks

Two displacement tanks are on the skid. They
Mixing tank
5x6 C-pump are both 10-bbl metering tanks. These tanks
measure the water volume injected into the
Figure 3-6. Centrifugal Pressurizer Pump

16  |  CPS-361 Overview

mixing bowl for mixing slurry. The tanks can 3.3.9 Mixing bowl
also measure other fluid volumes to be pumped
downhole, such as spacer, wash or drilling mud. The mixing bowl is located below the surge
can. This is where dry cement and water
first come into contact to mix slurry.
3.3.8 Surge can
Figure 3-9 shows the top view of the mixing
The surge can is a nonpressurized metered bowl with the surge can removed. The opening
silo for storing and feeding dry cement into to the mixing bowl is covered by the knife
the mixing bowl, (Figs. 3-9 and 3-8). In some gate, which is a device that opens and closes
units you might find pressurized surge cans. over the mixing bowl. When the knife gate
is opened, dry cement drops from the surge
can above through the opening down into the
mixing bowl. The knife gate controls the volume
dropped. A high-velocity water stream below
the bowl creates a vacuum that draws dry
cement into the bowl. The cement mixes with
Top view of mix bowl
water entering below the bowl. The opening
and closing of the knife gate is controlled by a
hydraulically operated meter wheel that controls
the opening and closing of the knife gate.

The CPS-361 pumper uses a power-

Surge can
Mixing bowl Knife gate steering type of hydraulic control system to
Figure 3-8. Surge Can, Mix Bowl, and Knife Gate provide metering valve action for the various
mixers. The system consists of an engine-
driven vane-type pump on the front engine,
with a remote-mounted reserve oil and a
Displacement tanks
(top view) hand wheel control valve (cement-metering
wheel) located on the control console.

3.3.10 Mixing tank

Slurry flows from the mixing bowl to the mixing
tank (see Fig. 3-10) through a line called the
gooseneck. Then, the slurry is recirculated by
the 5x6 C-pump from the mixing tank through
the densitometer to the mixing bowl and back
to the mix tank. Recirculation continues until the
slurry achieves the desired density. The mixing
tank also provides temporary storage for the
slurry in preparation for pumping downhole.

Figure 3-9. Location of Surge Can, Mix Bowl, and Knife Gate

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  17

Mixing tank


Figure 3-10. Mixing Tank

3.3.11 Nonradioactive densitometer (NRD) Figure 3-11. Densitometer

The CPS-361 comes equipped with the
following densitometers (Fig. 3-11):
3.3.12 Mix water line (jet line)
• Micro Motion DS300 sensor mounted on Water is pumped by the injection pump from the
the 6-bbl mix tub displacement tanks to the mixing bowl through
• RFT-9739 transmitter mounted to the right the mix water line. This line is sometimes
of the Azonix Amdec 100. referred to as the injection or jet line.

The transmitter power supply is 12 to The mix water line is attached to the skid at
30 VDC, and the outputs used are two the connection shown below. A hose runs
4 to 20 mA analog signals for the density. from this connection to the mixing bowl.

• The first analog signal, PV (primary

variable), goes to the Amdec 100. Mixing water and
line connection
• The second analog signal, SV (secondary
variable), goes to the Micro-Motion PI420
remote density display located on the
control console.
The transmitter is powered with 24 VDC from
the Amdec 100 AC to DC power supply.

Figure 3-12. Mix Water Line

18  |  CPS-361 Overview

3.3.13 Thin-up line incoming dry cement. The SLURRY CHIEF
mixer may be gravity-fed from a surge tank or
The thin-up line is used to add water to the pneumatically fed from a pressurized tank.
slurry to thin it up as required. A hose is
attached to the skid.
3.3.15 Downhole line
Thin-up line
Slurry is pumped by the triplex pump from the
mixing tank to the downhole line (Fig. 3-15). The
downhole line connects to the cement head.

Downhole line

Figure 3-13. Thin-Up Line

Figure 3-15. Downhole Line

3.3.16 Control console
The CPS operator controls the system
Knife gate components using the control console on the
Mix Tub skid. The console includes controls for the
engines, transmissions, automatic valves,
Slurry Recirculation gauges, and warning lights. There is also
an overpressure shutdown and a switch to
Mix water line (Jet line)
kill the engines in case of an emergency.
Figure 3-14. Recirculation Line

3.4 Equipment changes from CPS-361

3.3.14 Slurry recirculation line
The CPS-361 Caterpillar skid incorporates a
The slurry is recirculated by the 5x6 C-pump number of changes from the previous CPS‑361
from the mixing tank back to the mixing bowl skid. The following components are new:
for mixing with more dry cement and water.
• engine: Caterpillar 3176C (electronically
The SLURRY CHIEF mixer jets slurry into a controlled)
mix tub connected to an RA56 C-pump. This
pump pressurizes the suction of the triplex and • injection pump: Dowell RA45
also recirculates slurry back to the SLURRY • pressurizer pump: PTO: Chelsea 880 PTO
CHIEF mix bowl for additional mixing of the 122 percent

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  19

• injection pump: PTO: Chelsea 221 PTO 116
percent enclosure: sound‑reduced stainless
• enclosure covering the engine and
transmission section.
• control console: The console has changed
to accommodate electronic engines, Martin
Decker digital gauges, and an engraved
schematic of the process piping. To see
more in-detail information on the new
model, refer to CPS-361 Cementer, Double
Pump, Skid-Mounted Operator Manual,
InTouch Content ID# 3015881.

20  |  CPS-361 Overview

4.0  Prejob Inspection

The standard equipment maintenance (STEM)

is the preventive maintenance equipment
program of Schlumberger. STEM I is a
checklist of equipment inspections that must
be conducted before and after every job. You
can find the STEM 1 for the CPS-361 in the
Forms Procedure and Training for WS STEM
Inspections, InTouch Content ID# 4248056.

The prejob inspection for the CPS-361

cementing unit is conducted according to the
STEM I procedure for this equipment. The
purpose of the prejob inspection is to ensure
that the equipment is totally functional for
the operation and to identify any component Figure 4-1. Fire Extinguisher and Eyewash Station
needing corrective action before operation.
4.1.2 Batteries
Always remember to keep the unit in Check batteries (see Fig. 4-2) for terminal
clean, excellent condition. A unit in good condition and cable condition. Ensure that
condition is a representation of your work. the battery and cover are properly secured.

4.1 Prejob inspection

During this inspection, you will be checking
the general condition of equipment and
the fluid levels of various components.

Read the most recent two or three STEM

I reports and make sure that all the items Batteries
noted in those reports have been corrected.

4.1.1 Eye wash and fire extinguisher

Check that the eyewash bottle (see Fig. 4- 1) Figure 4-2. Batteries
is full. Check that the fire extinguisher is in
working condition with the seat unbroken
and that it has a valid inspection tag.

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  23

4.1.3 Diesel tanks
Check the diesel fuel tanks (Fig. 4-3).
Make sure that the tanks are 90% full.

Figure 4-5. Engine Oil

4.1.6 Fans
Figure 4-3. Diesel Tanks Check the fan belt tension on the fans (Fig. 4-6)
of both engines. Belts should yield 3/4 in under
thumb pressure. Check the belts for cracks.
4.1.4 Radiators
Check the level and condition of the water
in the radiators (Fig. 4-4). The correct water
level is 2 in below the radiator caps.

Belts tension in
engine fan

Figure 4-6. Fans

4.1.7 Air filter

Figure 4-4. Radiators A yellow plate indicator demonstrates the
condition of the air filter (Fig. 4-7). When the
4.1.5 Engine oil (SAE 40) yellow plate is in the green zone, the filter is
in good condition. When the yellow plate is in
Check the level and condition of the
the red zone, the filter needs to be replaced.
oil in both engines (Fig. 4-5). If the oil
is contaminated, advise the mechanic
to change the oil and filters.

24  |  Prejob Inspection

4.1.10 Power end oil
The oil used for the power end is SAE 90 gear
oil (Fig. 4-9). Check the level and condition
of the oil in the power ends of both triplex
pumps. The correct level is 1/2 in below
the bottom of the main bearing caps.

Figure 4-7. Air Filter

4.1.8 Air tank

To drain condensed moisture from the air
tank, open the knob below the tank.

4.1.9 Transmission oil Figure 4-9. Power End Oil

Before starting the engines, check the
level and condition of the transmission 4.1.11 Chain case oil
oil in both transmissions (Fig. 4- 8).
After starting the engines, check the The chain case oil is SAE 40. Check
oil level at cold-run and hot-run. the level and condition of the oil in
the chain case (Fig. 4-10).

Figure 4-10. Chain Case Oil

Figure 4-8. Transmission Oil

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  25

4.1.12 Hydraulic oil 4.1.14 Packing oil (air-over-oiler)
Check the level and condition of the oil in Check the oil levels on the tank
the hydraulic tank (SAE 10). The correct (Fig. 4‑13). If the oil level is low, fill the
oil level is 2 in from the top (Fig. 4-11). tank with rock drill oil or engine oil.

Glass level indicator

Figure 4-11. Hydraulic Oil

Figure 4-13. Packing Oil

4.1.13 Air system
Check the oil level in the air system (Fig 4-12)
and drain the moisture from the moisture trap. 4.1.15 Emergency kill
Check that emergency kill (Fig. 4-14) is
operational and reset the emergency kill switch.

Emergency kill

Figure 4-14. Emergency Kill

Figure 4-12. Air System

26  |  Prejob Inspection

5.0  Control Console

The cementing operator uses the control injection pump. The control on the right side is
located on or around the control console for the front engine, which powers the front
(Fig.  5 -1 through Fig. 5-3) to operate the high-pressure triplex pump, the 5x6 front
cementing unit. The left side includes controls pressurizing pump and the injection pump.
that are actually physically located on other
parts of the unit

If you were to divide the gray console down the

middle, the left and right sides are similar to
each other. The controls on the left side are for
the rear engine, which powers the rear high-
pressure triplex pump, the 5x6

Figure 5-1. Control Console

back-up pressurizing pump, and the backup

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  29

5.1 Control console: top
The top of the control console contains the
controls for engine tachometers, the digital
gauges, and the switch gauges. The digital
tachometer/hourmeter (Fig. 5-2) displays
front engine speed and total engine hours.
The tachometer system is self-powered and
consists of the display and a magnetic pickup,
which are designed to work together to provide
a speed rpm display when the engine speed is
above 600 rpm.

To view the engine hours, momentarily press

and release the pushbutton located on the face
of the meter. After 20 sec, the meter returns to
rpm display.

Engine tachometer/hourmeter (display and switch for:

engine rpm or engine accumulated hours

Front and rear pump Martin Decker gauge (display and switch for:
bbl/min (pump tank) or total bbl (total volume pumped), and push
button reset)

Front and rear power system switch gauges check the following
• engine oil pressure
• engine coolant temperature
• transmission oil temperature
• oil pressure
• lockup pressure
• triplex pump lube temperature and pressure.
Figure 6-2. Top Panel Components

30  |  Control Console

Figure 5-3. Control Console: Top

The push buttons in the middle of the top part

5.1.1 Front and rear pump Martin Decker of console reset the total volume pumped to
digital gauge zero.
The digital gauge system provides a digital
readout of the following: 5.1.2 Switch gauges – front and rear
power system
• front and rear pump discharge pressure
(see the upper middle section) The switch gauges monitor vital system
• triplex pump rate (bbl/min) parameters. They not only provide a
mechanical reading of temperature or pressure,
• total barrels (bbl) pumped. but also have an internal switch that is activated
This gauge has an overpressure shutdown that by either low pressure or high temperature.
can be set for various pressures.
Parameters checked are
The setting of the overpressure condition
to reduce the front engine to idle is also • engine oil pressure
programmed from the digital gauges. • engine coolant temperature

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  31

• transmission oil temperature • lamp test
• oil pressure • unit indicator LEDs
• lockup pressure
5.2.1 Power switch
• triplex pump lube temperature
The power switch controls the electrical power
• triplex pump lube pressure. of the system.

5.2 Control console: upper middle

The upper middle of the control console (see
Fig. 5-4 and 5-5) contain the controls for the

• power switch
• proximity switches
• air-start push buttons
• triplex pump discharge pressure

Figure 5-4. Control Console: Middle

32  |  Control Console

Front and rear overpressure switch and digital setting

Front and rear proximity switches

Triplex pump discharge pressure gauge
Electrical power switch
Button for testing the warning lights
Front and rear engine air-start button
Alerts for oil pressure, high temperature conditions at the engine, lubrication pumps, transmission and converters.

Figure 5-5. Control Console: Upper Middle

5.2.2 Overpressure shutdown system 5.2.4 Front and rear engine air-start
The hydraulic overpressure switch is air
operated. The operator sets the switch to the This pneumatic switch activates the engine
maximum treating pressure desired. The digital air-start pilot valve. The air-start push button
setting displays the pressure setting. should be pushed down to start the engine.

Whenever the maximum pressure is reached,

the switch trips and brings engine throttle back 5.2.5 Triplex pump discharge pressure
to idle. gauge
The triplex pump discharge pressure gauge
gives readings of the discharge pressure.
5.2.3 Proximity switches These readings must be constantly monitored
The proximity switches control the pump rate throughout any cement pumping job.
signal for counting the volume pumped for each
triplex pump.

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  33

5.2.6 Lamp test switch 5.3 Control console: lower middle
The lamp test switch verifies the operation The lower middle of the control console (see
of the unit indication LEDs. This momentary Figs. 5-6 and 5-7) contains the controls for the
switch, when up, illuminates all six LEDs. If an following:
LED is not working, check the termination at the
base of the lamp and its corresponding terminal • transmission shifter
block inside the operations console.
• engine run/kill
• engine throttles
5.2.7 Unit indication LEDs–rear power
• density display
• suction control
The unit indication LEDs give the operator a
visual indication of the CPS‑361 Cementer • triplex pump actuators
Skid status. The LEDs indicate the following

• converter lockup–appears amber when

transmission lockup is achieved. This
normally occurs at engine speeds in
excess of 1,450 rpm. Gear selection and
throttle position should always ensure
lockup condition.
• check unit–lights up when a skid parameter
is out of range or the engine ADEM
controller experiences a fault. The operator
should check the gauges for an out-of-
range parameter. A trained technician can
use additional ECAP or ET Caterpillar
engine controller software to correct faults.
• engine diagnostic codes–displays engine
flash codes. The flash codes are two-
digit representations of a fault diagnostic
code. The LED will blink for the first digit
of the flash code, pause 5 seconds, and
then blink for the second digit. Flash
codes should only be interpreted as a
general idea of a problem and not used
for troubleshooting. Refer to Caterpillar
engine documentation SENR1073 for
troubleshooting procedures.

34  |  Control Console

Figure 5-6. Control Console: Lower Middle

Rear and front transmission shifter

Rear and front engine throttle
Density display
Rear and front engine normal run/kill engine switch
Front and rear proximity switches
Suction button

Figure 5-7. Control Console: Lower Middle

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  35

5.3.1 Front and rear transmission shifter 5.3.5 Control suction button
This pneumatic valve shifts the front and rear This pushbutton opens the line coming from
transmission into the different gear ratios during the injection pump to the 5X6 pressurizer pump
the pumping operation. The five-speed shifter suction for flushing the suction with water.
(1 through 5) controls a pneumatic positioner
located on the transmission. They run the
triplex pumps at different speeds. 5.3.6 Triplex pump actuators
The air operated triplex pump actuators have
two interconnected valves that allow the pumps
5.3.2 Rear and front engine run/kill to receive fluid from either the displacement
switch tanks or the mixing tank. When one valve is
The engine run/kill switch enables the engine to opened, the other is automatically closed. In
run and perform a normal stop. For the engine the example shown here, the actuators have
to start, the engine run/kill switch needs to be in been set to the displacement tank, which opens
the run position. The switch in the KILL position the valves on the displacement tank side and
shuts off fuel to the engine and performs a closes them on the mixing tank side. Figure 5-8
normal stop. shows the actuator in relation to the valves.

5.3.3 Rear and front engine throttle

The engine throttle can be either air-operated
valve or control knob form.

The rear engine throttle controls the speed

of the engine (rpm). The throttle control is
connected to a potentiometer that varies
resistance and alters the voltage signal to the
pulse-width modulated (PWM) converter. The
converter provides the engine with a PWM
throttle signal.

In the event of an overpressure condition, the

throttle signal is interrupted and the engine
drops to idle. The throttle control becomes
inactive until the overpressure condition is

5.3.4 Density display

The Micro Motion PI420 meter displays the
actual density reading of the cement slurry from
the Micro-Motion sensor.

36  |  Control Console

Figure 5-8. Triplex Pump Actuators in Relation to Valves

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  37

5.4 Control console: bottom
The bottom control console (Fig. 5- 9) has the
controls and gauges for the following:

• cement meter wheel

• emergency kill switch
• pressurizer pump actuator
• quick water shutoff – rear and front
• quick cement shutoff – rear and front
• slurry recirculation valve
• injection pump PTO engage/disengage
• rear engine-pressurizer pump PTO engage/

Figure 5-9. Control Console: Bottom

38  |  Control Console

Cement meter wheel
Pressurizing pump valve
Quick water shutt-off valve
Emergency kill switch
Cement quick shut-off valve
Slurry recirculation valve

Figure 5-10. Components in Bottom Control Console

In addition, a pressure switch located inside

5.4.1 Cement meter wheel the operations panel senses the loss of air
This hand-operated, hydraulically assisted pressure when the emergency kill switch is
wheel opens or closes the cement-metering activated, and also sends an electrical signal to
valve. the engines to shut off the fuel.

• Turn the valve counterclockwise to open

the valve, allowing more dry cement into
the mixer.
• Turn the valve clockwise to close the valve,
reducing the amount of dry cement fed to
the mixer and reducing slurry density.
The front engine must be running to provide
power to the hand wheel.

5.4.2 Emergency kill switch

The emergency kill switch immediately shuts
off the fuel and air supply to the deck engine,
resulting in system shutdown. The switch
is located on the operator’s remote-control
console. Two manual emergency shutdown
switches are located on the top of each side
of the engine. The red knob must be pressed
in on both sides to completely shut down the

To activate this switch, open the red protective

cover and move the switch to the UP position.

This pneumatic switch closes the air intake

valve for both engines.

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  39

5.4.3 Pressurizing pump actuator
The pressurizing pump actuator has two
interconnected butterfly valves that allow
the 5X6 C-pump to receive fluid from the
displacement tanks or the mixing tank. When
one valve is open, the other is automatically

In Fig. 5-11, the actuator has been set to

displacement tank, which opens the valve on
the displacement tank side, and closes the
valve on the mixing tank side.

Open Closed

Figure 5-11. Pressurizing Pump Valve and Schematic

40  |  Control Console

5.4.4 Quick water shutoff–rear and front
The air switch in the UP position opens
the injection centrifugal pump suction and
discharge valve. The switch in the DOWN
position closes the pump suction and discharge

5.4.5 Quick cement shutoff–rear and front

This switch (Fig. 5-12) allows quick shutoff of
dry cement in the mixing system.


Open Closed

Figure 5-12. Quick Water and Cement Shut-off Valve

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  41

5.4.6 Slurry recirculation valve
This valve (Fig. 5-13) starts the slurry
recirculation in the mixing system.


Starts the slurry


Figure 5-13. Slurry Recirculation Valve and Schematic

5.4.7 Injection pump PTO engage/ 5.4.8 Rear engine–pressurizer pump PTO
disengage engage/disengage
To the left of the control console are four PTOs • Putting the air switch (Fig. 5-14) up
actuators, one for each centrifugal pump. engages the pressurizer centrifugal pump.

The PTOs transfer power from the engine to the • Putting the switch down disengages the
centrifugal pump. pump.

The PTOs must be engaged with the engine Note:

The engine must be shut down
before engaging the PTO.
The air switch in the up position engages the
injection centrifugal pump. The switch in the
down position disengages the pump.

42  |  Control Console

Power take-off (PTO)

To the left of the control console are four PTO actuators, one
for each centrifugal pump.

The PTO’s transfer power from the engine to the centrifugal


The PTO’s must only be engaged with the engine stopped.

Backup injection Injection pump

Engage (only with
the engine stopped)
Disengage Disengage
5x6 backup 5x6 front
pressurizing pressurizing
pump pump
Engage (only with
the engine stopped)
Disengage Disengage

Figure 5-14. PTO Actuators

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  43

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44  |  Control Console

6.0  Starting Unit Up

After the prejob inspection has been performed 6.1 Checking overpressure shutdowns
the unit is prepared for the job. Follow this
(Martin Decker digital gauges)
procedure to start it up.
Follow this procedure to check  overpressure
shutdowns in models with Martin Decker digital
STEP 01 Open the air-supply valve. gauges.

STEP 02 Open the fuel supply valves.

STEP 01 Switch the master power switch
on the control console on. This action supplies
STEP 03 Place transmission in the neutral 24 VDC to the console and unit. Both front
position and throttles in the idle position. and rear engine throttles should be at the idle
STEP 04 Turn on power to console.
STEP 02 Turn both Martin Decker digital
STEP 05 Disengage all PTOs. gauges on.

STEP 06 Check overpressure shutdowns STEP 03 Throttle the front engine to

and reset if necessary. 1,000 rpm.

STEP 07 Close all butterfly valves. Open STEP 04 Go to high alarm mode on the
all discharge valves and bleed the valve choke front-engine Martin Decker gauge.
valve. Close downhole valves.
STEP 05 Set the high alarm to 00000 psi
STEP 08 Inform all personnel of the and press ACK on the gauge. The front engine
impending startup. goes to idle (700 rpm).

STEP 09 Pull start button for each engine. STEP 06 Reset high alarm to 1,000 psi and
press ACK on the gauge.
STEP 10 Perform all preoperation
checklists that require the engine to be running. STEP 07 Turn the front-engine throttle
counterclockwise to reset overpressure trip.
STEP 11 Start up the CemCAT recording The front engine will be able to throttle up.
system and check its proper functioning.
STEP 08 Throttle the front engine to idle.

STEP 09 Throttle the rear engine to

1,000 rpm.

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  35

STEP 10 Go to hi alarm mode on the rear
Martin Decker gauge.

STEP 11 Set the high alarm to 00000 psi

and press ACK on the gauge. The rear engine
goes to idle (700 rpm).

STEP 12 Reset the high alarm to 1,000 psi

and press ACK on the gauge.

STEP 13 Turn the rear-engine throttle

counterclockwise to reset overpressure trip.
The rear engine will be able to throttle.

STEP 14 Throttle the rear engine to idle.

36  |  Starting Unit Up

7.0  Priming

The goal of priming is to remove trapped

air from the components and lines in the
cementing unit. Generally, priming involves
pumping water from one displacement tank
through the suction lines, pumps, high‑pressure
manifold and discharge line, and back to the
other displacement tank, (see Fig. 7-1).

Figure 7-1. Piping for CPS-361

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  37

Priming involves the primary steps listed below.
Figure 7-2 shows the flow for priming.

STEP 01 First, prime the low-pressure 5x6-

pressurizing pump.

STEP 02 Next, prime the high-pressure

triplex pump.

STEP 03 Finally, prime the mixing system.

You will eventually drive all the air out of the


Figure 7-2. Priming Flow for CPS-361

38  |  Priming
7.1 Priming 5x6 C-pump 1. Open the water supply valve to allow
water to enter the selected tank.
Follow this procedure to prime up the 5x6
C-pump. Figure 7-3 shows the flow. 2. When the tank is full, close the supply
valve to avoid an overflow.

Note: 3. Select the other tank and follow the

When the high-pressure triplex same procedure to fill it.
pumps draw water from the 5x6
pressurizing pump, it is called
pressurizing feed. When they
draw water directly from the
displacement tanks, it is called
gravity feed.

STEP 01 Fill displacement tanks. To fill

a tank with water do the following (see also
Fig. 7-4):

1. Close the discharge valves on both


2. Select a tank using the tank selector


Figure 7-3. Priming 5X6

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  39

supply Tank selector
valve valve



Water supply

Figure 7-4. Filling Displacement Tank

STEP 02 Engage front 5X6 PTO. While

filling the displacement tank with water, do the Note:
following: Before opening the front triplex
suction valve and throttling up the
1. Make sure the front engine is not run- front engine, select the empty tank
ning. If it is, shut it down. to receive the returning water. Air
bubbles should be visible in the
2. Engage the front 5X6 pressurizing pump return water. When the bubbling
PTO. The front engine must be stopped completely ceases, priming is
before you engage the PTO. complete.

3. Restart the front engine.

STEP 04 Switch displacement tanks
STEP 03 Pump through the front triplex (Fig. 7- 6). Pump water for about 2 min or 2 bbl
pump. Pumping through the front engine until bubbles can no longer be seen in the
powers the 5x6-pressurizing pump. Throttling return water.
up the front engine increases the pump’s
speed. The 5x6 pump pumps water through the
front triplex pump and back to the displacement
tank. Figure 7-5 shows the correct valve
settings for pumping through the front triplex

40  |  Priming
Left tank Discharge Suction valve open Suction valve closed
is filling is open on mixing tank side on mixing tank side
Figure 7-5. Pumping Through Front Triplex

Figure 7-6. Switching Displacement Tanks

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  41

STEP 05 Pump through the rear triplex
pump. After water is pumped through front Note:
triplex pump, it is pumped through the rear Always set the overpressure
triplex pump (Fig. 7-7). To switch to the rear shutdown at 1,000 psi or less when
triplex pump, complete the following steps: priming the positive displacement
triplex pumps.
1. Close the front triplex suction valve to
the mixing tank.

2. Open the rear triplex suction valve to

STEP 01 Pressurize feed. When the
pressurizing feed, (Fig. 7-8) water is drawn from
the mixing tank.
the displacement tank by the 5x6 pressurizing
pump. The 5x6-pressurizing pump feeds the
7.2 Rear triplex priming procedures water to the rear triplex pump. The rear triplex
pump is running.
Now you will learn how to prime the rear triplex
pump. This procedure consists of three tasks. The front engine powers the
5x6‑pressurizing pump. The rear engine
powers the rear triplex pump.

Suction to mixing Suction to mixing

tank is closed tank is open

Figure 7-7. Pumping Through the Rear Triplex Pump

42  |  Priming
Rear triplex pump STEP 03 Start gravity feed. During the
transmission gravity feed (Fig. 7-9), the triplex pump draws
water from the displacement tank and pumps it
through the high-pressure manifold and back to
the displacement tank.

Powers the rear Powers the 5x6 front

Rear throttle
triplex pump pressurizing pump
Figure 7-8. Pressurizing Feed

STEP 02 Run the triplex pump. When

starting, always shift the triplex pump into the
highest (5th) gear because the highest gear Mixing
delivers the lowest pressure and the highest tank

flow rate. Then shift the transmission to 2nd

gear. Next, increase the 5x6 pressurizing pump Displacement
rate by throttling up the front engine to FULL. tank
Finally, throttle up the rear engine (Fig. 7-9)
to 1,800 to 1,900 rpm. You should now see a
flow rate of 2.5 bbl, which is the maximum flow Rear pump suction valve
rate for the 2x1 valves in the high-pressure
manifold. Figure 7-9. Rear Throttle

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  43

Figure 7-10. Gravity Feed

7.3 Priming front triplex pump 7.4 Priming mixing system

Prime mixing system according
Note: to the following steps:
In the pressurizing feed task,
the front engine powers both the STEP 01 Prime the recirculation line with
front triplex pump and the 5x6- only 3 bbl of water in the mixing tank. Do not fill
pressurizing pump. the mixing tank more than that.

STEP 02 Pump 1 bbl more into the mixing

tank through the mix water line. This primes the
The front triplex priming procedure is injection piping.
similar to the rear triplex priming procedure,
except that you are pumping with and
through the front triplex pump.
STEP 03 Prime the mixing system through
the rear triplex pump.

Remember to watch the water
levels in the displacement tanks
and mixing tank. Do not let them
get too much water in them.

44  |  Priming
Figure 7-11. Mixing System Prime-up

For practice on prime-up, refer to CemSIM

1.0, Computer-based Cementing training
simulator, InTouch Content ID# 4074850.

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  45

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46  |  Priming
8.0  Pressure Testing Equipment and Lines

Pressure testing ensures that the equipment

will withstand the pressures required during the
cement job.
Figure 8-1 shows pressure testing equipment.

Figure 8-1. Pressure Testing Equipment

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  43

8.1 Set up high-pressure manifold
Before pressure testing, set the high-pressure
manifold valves in preparation for flushing the
treating line between the cementing unit and
the cement head (Fig. 8-2). Open the downhole
line valve to open the treating line for flushing.

It is important to close the sacrifice and

triplex washout valves to prevent flow to the
upper half of the high-pressure manifold
and back to the displacement tank.

Open this valve Close these valves

Figure 8-2. High-Pressure Manifold Setup

44  |  Pressure Testing Equipment and Lines

8.2 Flush high-pressure lines After flushing the treating line, reset the
overpressure shutdown to pressure test
Flushing drives air out of the treating line and the unit. The overpressure shutdown
ensures that there are no obstructions. should be set to a pressure that is equal
to the testing pressure plus 500 psi.
To flush the treating line with water, engage
the 5x6 centrifugal pump and pump 2 bbl
of water through the rear triplex pump
and into the treating line (Fig. 8-3).

The rear engine is not started
during this procedure because the
rear triplex pump is not pumping.
Only the 5x6 pressurizing pump is
working. In the field, it is important
to verify that the treating line is
clear by observing water exiting
the open end of the line near the
cement head manifold.

Figure 8-3. Flush High-Pressure Lines

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  45

8.3 Pressure test 8.4 Pressure bleedoff
After pressure testing, you must bleed
Note: off the pressure in this system before
proceeding (Fig. 8-4). It is important
The rear engine is idling during this
to follow this procedure exactly.
procedure. Do not throttle up the
rear engine during the pressure
test. Shifting the rear triplex gears STEP 01 Open the front and rear washout
is sufficient to safely provide the valves fully.
required pressurized increase.
STEP 02 Open the sacrifice valve slowly
until fully open.
After priming the unit completely, pressure test
by following these steps: STEP 03 Ensure that the pressure on the
Martin Decker gauges is at zero.
STEP 01 Maintain the engine speed at idle

STEP 02 Place the transmission in the

highest gear.

STEP 03 Allow the pressure to increase

slowly until the pressure test limit is met or the
pump stalls out, whichever occurs first.

STEP 04 If the pump stalls out before the

pressure test limit is reached, shift to the next
gear down while the engine remains at idle

STEP 05 Allow the pressure to increase

until the pressure test limit is met or the pump
stalls out, whichever occurs first.

STEP 06 Repeat Steps 4 and 5 until the

pressure test limit is reached.

46  |  Pressure Testing Equipment and Lines

Open these valves first Open this valve slowly

Figure 8-4. Pressure Bleedoff

8.5 Treating line pressure test STEP 06 Put the pump into 3rd gear and
flush lines with ±3 bbl of water.
STEP 01 Open downhole 2x2 valves and
open valves on the line to the wellhead or tank. STEP 07 Stop pumping.
Reconfirm that they are open.
STEP 08 Close valve at wellhead. Use clear
STEP 02 Use the front pump to perform the and correct hand signals. Confirm that the valve
pressure test. Set up the low-pressure valves is closed. Move the helper away from the line.
to suck from the displacement tank by gravity.
Close the return line 2x1 valves. STEP 09 With engine idling, put mixing/
front pump into 5th gear. Check for plunger
STEP 03 Check and adjust the movement. The pressure will begin to increase.
overpressure shutdown to 500 psi above the Allow pressure to stabilize.
test pressure.
STEP 10 Bring engine down to 4th gear
STEP 04 Check that acquisition function on and check for plunger movement. Pressure will
the CemCAT is working properly. increase again. Allow pressure to stabilize.

STEP 05 Put mixing/front pump into 5th. STEP 11 Bring engine down to 3rd gear
gear. Check pressure, plunger movement, and and check for plunger movement. Pressure will
water level in the displacement tank. increase again. Allow pressure to stabilize.

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  47

STEP 12 Bring engine down to 2nd gear STEP 17 Once you confirm there are no
and check plunger movement. Pressure will leaks in the line, open the first 2x1 return line
increase again. Allow pressure to stabilize. valve quickly. Then open the bleedoff valve
slowly until all the pressure has been released.
STEP 13 Bring engine down to 1st. gear
and check for plunger movement. Pressure will STEP 18 Check the gauge/Martin Decker/
increase fairly quickly at this moment; therefore, CemCAT for zero pressure.
be prepared to change to neutral at 200 to
300 psi from required pressure. Allow pressure STEP 19 Open the valves to the tank or
to stabilize. wellhead.

STEP 14 If the pressure is still not as STEP 20 Reconfirm that the valves are
required, go back to 1st gear and check for open.
plunger movement.
STEP 21 Close the two 2x1 return line
STEP 15 If the pressure is still not as valves.
required, then in neutral increase the engine
rpm to around 800 to 900 rpm (200 to 300 For pressure testing and location
more than idling). Repeat step 13 to step 18. safety always follow Safety Standard 5:
Pressure Pumping and Location Safety,
STEP 16 When the pressure has been InTouch Content ID# 3313681.
reached, wait 10 min. Check for leaks if the
pressure bleeds off more than 100 psi. To For practice on pressure testing refer to
check quickly if there are no apparent leaks, CemSIM 1.0 (Computer Based-Cementing
bring the pressure back up to the original value. Training Simulator), InTouch Content
Some air is still in the lines, the pressure will ID# 4074850.
stabilize without bleeding off.

48  |  Pressure Testing Equipment and Lines

9.0  Mixing and Pumping Cement

Mixing and pumping cement follows this STEP 04 Mix the slurry to the desired
basic procedure (Fig. 9-1). After dropping density.
the bottom plug, clean the displacement
tanks of any remaining spacer. Mix the lead
slurry to the desired density, and then pump STEP 05 Mix the slurry in the recirculation
downhole. Mix the tail slurry to the desired line until the desired density is achieved. You
density, and then pump downhole. Tail slurry are not yet pumping downhole.
has a higher density than lead slurry does.
STEP 06 Pump the slurry downhole.
Mixing and pumping requires the following
specific steps: STEP 07 Crosscheck your density with
the pressurized mud balance to the electronic
STEP 01 Transfer 3 bbl of water from the densitometer on the unit.
displacement tank to the mixing tank.
STEP 08 When you have achieved the
STEP 02 Start recirculating the water. desired density, switch the rear triplex pump
suction to the mixing tank and pump the slurry
STEP 03 Start adding dry cement.

Figure 9-1. Mixing and Pumping Cement

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  47

While mixing and pumping slurry, monitor the
• displacement tank water level
• knife gate adjustment for correct metering
• mixing tank slurry level
• pump pressure gauges
• slurry density
• triplex pump plunger movement.
When you have pumped the design volume,
stop continuous mixing and then stop pumping.
For practice in job execution, refer to CemSIM
1.0 (Computer Based Cementing Training
Simulator), InTouch Content ID# 4074850.

48  |  Mixing and Pumping Cement

10.0  Completing Displacement

After mixing and pumping are complete, the top

wiper plug is dropped from the cement head.
The displacement tanks are then filled with
drilling mud, the most commonly used fluid. The
rig pump, which is not part of the CPS-361, can
also be used for larger displacement volumes.

The 5x6-pressurizing pump feeds

displacement fluid to the rear triplex pump,
which is shifted into the desired gear. The
rear engine is then throttled up to achieve
the design displacement pump rate.

When the top plug reaches the bottom plug

at the float collar, there is a pressure rise
indicating that displacement is complete. At that
point, throttle down the rear engine to idle and
shift the rear triplex pump into neutral. Then,
throttle down the front engine. Finally, bleed off
the pressure from the casing. As the pressure
is bleeding off, monitor the returns from the well
and ensure that 3 to 5 bbl is not exceeded.

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  49

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50  |  Completing Displacement

11.0  Washing Up and Shutting Down

When the job has been properly finished, STEP 06 Repeat the procedure in step 05
complete the following steps to wash up the twice more times with the RB2x3 pump still
unit. shutoff.

11.1 Cleaning up the mixing system STEP 07 At the end of Step 5, the mixing
system should be sufficiently clean.
STEP 01 Before starting this procedure,
make sure the trips are set as low as possible
(no more than 1,500 psi for this unit). Leave the 11.2 Washing up the triplex suctions
recording unit running.
STEP 01 Shut drain valve off (it is a
manually operated butterfly valve located
STEP 02 Engage both main centrifugal underneath the displacement tanks).
pumps (pressurized and injection).
STEP 02 Leaving the RA5x6 pump
STEP 03 Follow the same procedure as engaged, open rear pressurizing suction and
the one used to mix cement: throttle up front rear triplex suction drain valves at the same
engine; open both recirculation valves; switch time. Throttle up front engine gently until the
5x6 suction to mix tub to start recirculation. water leaver drain line is clean.

STEP 04 Use the RB2x3 pump to clean STEP 03 Repeat the same procedure for
up the injection hoses and to make sure the the other side: open front pressurizing suction
injection pump is clean. and front triplex suction drain valves.
At the end of step 3 the suction of each triplex
STEP 05 Shut the RB2x3 pump off, shut should be clean enough
the injection valves, and pump the content of
the mix tub to leave it empty:
11.3 Washing up the high-pressure
1. Open the pressurizing suction for rear manifold)
engine. Follow this procedure to wash up
the high-pressure manifold.
2. Switch to 5th gear; come down to 3rd
STEP 01 In the high-pressure manifold:
3. Throttle up.
1. Open the drain 2x1 hammer valve.
4. When the volume is getting low, turn
recirculation off and when the tub is 2. Open both 2x1 control valves.
empty, shut triplex off and close all the

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  51

3. Close the splitter 2x2 valve, close the 11.5 Draining up the CPS
2x2 downhole valve, and keep the
sacrifice valve closed. To drain up the CPS, complete the following
4. Using each triplex, one at a time, pump
gently (do not exceed 2.5 bbl/min) by STEP 01 Remove all caps from both pump
gravity until water coming out of the suctions, the primary 5x6 suction, and the
drain line is visibly clean. 2x3 suction between the motors. Disconnect
the 2-in high-pressure discharge line from the
STEP 02 Configure the manifold to high‑pressure manifold.
recirculate back to the displacement tanks:
close the downhole valve, open the sacrifice STEP 02 Open all air valves on the main
valve, open both control valves, and open the console.
splitter valve. The water should come back to
the displacement tanks totally clean. STEP 03 Open all air valves on the
displacement tank console.
When the wash-up is complete, shut down the
engines and then disengage the centrifugal
pumps. STEP 04 Open the manual displacement
tank valves.

11.4 Shutting down STEP 05 Make sure that the crossover

The following procedure should be followed valve on the displacement tank is open.
when shutting the CPS-361 down:
STEP 06 Make sure that the main waterline
is disconnected and open the butterfly valves
STEP 01 Place transmission in neutral with
for water and the mud line.
engines idling.

STEP 02 Close fluid make-up valves.

STEP 07 Function the displacement tank
valve several times to drain all the water out.

STEP 03 Close pump suction valves.

STEP 08 Open the jet line valve and the
thin-up line valve.
STEP 04 Open bleed valves.
STEP 09 Disconnect the jet line and thin-up
STEP 05 Close discharge valves. line hoses.

STEP 06 Shut down engines. STEP 10 Open all 2x2 and 2x1 plug valves.

STEP 07 Shut off power to console. STEP 11 Disconnect the 2-in rubber return
line from the high-pressure manifold.
STEP 08 Shut off air supply-valve.
STEP 12 Disconnect the 4-in recirculation
STEP 09 Shut off fuel supply valves. line from the 5x6 to mixer and leave it hanging
straight down.

52  |  Washing Up and Shutting Down

STEP 13 Remove the 2 drain plugs from
the bottom of the mixing bowl.

STEP 14 Open all manual butterfly valves.

STEP 15 Open drains on both 5x6 and

2 x 3 x 11 C-pumps

STEP 16 Disconnect the high-pressure

iron from the bottom of both pumps where it
connects to the bottom of the high-pressure
manifold. Turn each line down so that it will

STEP 17 Place both pumps in 5th gear and

fan the pumps until they are dry.

STEP 18 Trip the suction valves.

STEP 19 Disconnect the discharge line all

the way to the wellhead and drain out all the

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  53

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54  |  Washing Up and Shutting Down

12.0  Postjob Inspection

After the job is finished, complete a postjob

inspection as follows.

STEP 01 Wash up the mixer.

STEP 02 Check mixer for leaks.

STEP 03 Check mixing pump bearing lube.

STEP 04 Grease and check knife-gate


STEP 05 Check water-metering valve on


STEP 06 Check densitometer and cables.

STEP 07 Grease the bearings of the 5x6

pressurizing pump.

STEP 08 Check Martin Decker diaphragms

and pressure transducers (triplex pump).

STEP 09 Winterize unit if needed.

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  55

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56  |  Postjob Inspection

13.0  Maintenance and Troubleshooting

13.1 Mark III mixer jet nozzle • C-pump and volutes are new, but pump
pressure does not return and mix rate does
The old SLURRY CHIEF worked on a volume not increase.
principle. The ID of the jet was 1.98 in and
was a straight outlet to the jet bowel. Now • C-pump output pressure is getting lower,
Mark III mixer has a jet nozzle. The mixer and the new pump is shimmed up and
performs on a pressure principle. The Mark III checked out.
jet has an ID of 1.625 in. It also has an outlet • Mule shoe inside jet bowel is thinning or
of 1.704 in. This sizing allows for a spread of is paper thin (Fig. 13-2 and 13-3). This
the fluid exiting the jet. It also allows the fluid to causes the mix water and circulated
fill the 5-in pipe at the end of the mixer tube. slurry to cross paths, and results in mixer
throat splash back into the jet bowel. This
drastically reduces the mixer performance
by reducing the mix rate.
• Jet nozzle is not to spec: the ID is over
1.625 in When the ID increases, the fluid
spread is reduced. This reduction causes a
straight stream, which does not fill the gun
barrel (Fig. 13-2 and 13-3). This reduces
the amount of vacuum draw at the inlet.

Figure 13-1. Jet Bowl Splash Back

The following are signs of wear and that the net

nozzle needs to be replaced.
• Mixer jet is splashing back into the bowl
(Fig. 13-1).
Figure 13-2. Jet Nozzle and Mule Shoe Washed
• The knife collects cement and needs
• Heavyweight cement not mixing as fast as
in the past.
• Tub action is not as good as in the past
and a slight reduction in C-pump pressures

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  57

• Water will read high ±9 ppg when 8.3 ppg
is the normal reading.
• Slurry will read low ±15.6 ppg, when
16.4 ppg is the normal reading.
This scale can be removed by periodic
acidizing with L001 (iron stabilizing agent).

As with any chemical, follow MSDS
PPE requirements and handling.

Figure 13-3. Mule Shoe Paper Thin at 1.75 in • 10 lbs L001 per bbl of fresh water
• 100 lbm in one displacement tank
13.2 Maintenance summary Follow these steps for cleaning:
Review Maintenance Bulletin 1165, InTouch
Content ID# 3754376. STEP 01 Dissolve 100 lbs L001 in 10 bbl
fresh water.
Measure the ID of the jet nozzle and mule shoe
every 30 days, or when the performance level STEP 02 Circulate through the NRD
is not to par. and any other piping you want cleaned for
approximately 2 to 3 hrs.
When mixing a large quantity of CRETE* jobs,
with your FSM’s approval have a new jet ready
for a swap out if necessary.
STEP 03 Shut down and allow the solution
to soak for up to 24 hrs.
C-pump pressure should be above 65 psi
minimum with a Mark III mixer. STEP 04 Drain and flush thoroughly with
fresh water.

13.3 Density-related troubleshooting STEP 05 Check NRD reading and repeat if

If all density readings are too low/high, necessary.
there is a electronic calibration problem–
contact electronics technician (ET). Considerations when using L001 follow:

If the density does not change, then one or • Citric acid reacts with brass; do not
both tubes are plugged; replace the NRD. circulate solution if packing is leaking.
• Reaction with cement scale will produce
If low densities are too high, or high densities hydrogen gas; leave all BFVs except drains
are too low; NRD tubes may be coated with open.
scale: you clean them in the field. Over time,
• Maintain adequate ventilation.
scale may build up inside the NRD tubes.
• Post warning signs if leaving unit

58  |  Maintenance and Troubleshooting

14.0  References

All Schlumberger employees must be Safety Standard 17: Storage and Handling of
familiar with the relevant safety regulations Oxidizers, InTouch Content ID# 3313693
and precautions because of the many
hazards involved in the oilfield industry. Safety Standard 18: HAZCOM,
InTouch Content ID# 3313694
Be sure that you know the relevant
contents of the material data safety sheet Safety Standard 22: Coiled Tubing
(MSDS) regarding required personal Operations, InTouch Content ID# 3313710
protective equipment (PPE) and handling
procedures when handling chemicals. Safety Standard 26: Air Tanks and
Receivers, InTouch Content ID# 3313706
OFS QHSE Standards
Safety Standard 27: Inspection and
Standard S001: Journey Management and
Testing of Pressure Relief Valves and
Driving, InTouch Content ID# 3051691
Gauges, InTouch Content ID# 3313707
Standard S002: QHSE Reporting,
Safety Standard 30: Pumping
InTouch Content ID# 3260257
Combustible and Flammable Fluids,
InTouch Content ID# 3313709
Standard S003: Personal Protective
Equipment, InTouch Content ID# 3260259
JET Manuals
Standard S004: Emergency Response, InTouch JET Reference Page, ID#4178854
InTouch Content ID# 3253244
Additional Important Documents
Standard S013: Mechanical Lifting,
CPS-361 Cementer, Double Pump,
InTouch Content ID# 3260276
Skid Mounted Operator Manual,
InTouch Content ID# 3015881
Well Services Safety Standards
CPS-361 Cement Pumper Skid Maintenance
Safety Standard 4: Facilities and Workshops,
Manual (Vol. 3), InTouch Content ID# 3017096
InTouch Content ID# 3313678
CPS-361 Cement Pumper Skid Maintenance
Safety Standard 5: Pressure Pumping and
Manual (Vol. 2), InTouch Content ID# 3017095
Location Safety, InTouch Content ID# 3313681
CPS-361 Cement Pumper Skid
Safety Standard 11: Pumping Nitrogen,
Maintenance Manual (Vol. 1), Version 2,
InTouch Content ID# 3313684
InTouch Content ID# 3017094
Safety Standard 15: Lockout/Tagout,
CPS 361 Correct Wash Up Procedure in
InTouch Content ID# 3313691
Spanish, InTouch Content ID# 3946866

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  69

CPS-361A Cement Pump Skid Parts
Manual, InTouch Content ID# 3015447

CemSIM 1.0 (Computer based

Cementing training simulator),
InTouch Content ID# 4074850

Maintenance Bulletin 1165, InTouch

Content ID# 3754376.

70  |  References
15.0  Check Your Understanding

1. What are the functions of the 5x6 5. Which component is exploded in this
C‑pumps? Select three correct answers. photo?
A. recirculates slurry from mixing tank to
the mixing bowl and back to tank
B. takes on water
C. provide backup
D. pressurizes the triplex pump suction

2. The injection pump pumps water from the

displacement tanks to the mixing bowl
through the jet or mix water line.
A. true
B. false

3. The slurry is recirculated by the A. front engine transmission

_________ from the mixing tank to the
B. centrifugal 5x6 pressurizing pump
mixing bowl for mixing with more dry
cement and water. C. mixing bowl
A. high-pressure triplex C-pump D. hydraulic tank
B. injection C-pump
C. 5x6 pressurizing C-pump 6. Which two of the following are
components of the SLURRY CHIEF
D. front engine transmission
A. knife gate
4. What oil is used on the hydraulic tank?
B. mixing bowl
A. SAE 30
C. mix tank
B. SAE 10
D. surge can
C. SAE 20

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  71

7. What do the proximity switches do? 11. What do you check for at the location
A. activate the engine air-start pilot valve shown in this photo?
B. control pump rate signal for counting
volume pumped
C. verifies the operation of the unit
indication LEDS
D. none of the above

8. How and where is density measured?

a. densitometer in the recirculation line
b. densitometer in the triplex pump
c. densitometer in the cement head
d. densitometer in the mix tank

9. What indicates the condition of the air a. oil level in air system lubricator
filter? b. transmission oil
a. lights in the control console c. moisture in air tank
b. sight glass d. condition of air filters
c. yellow plate
d. none of the above 12. What do you check for at the location
shown in this photo?
10. If the oil level is low in the chain case,
what type of oil should you add?
a. SAE 10
b. SAE 30
c. SAE 40
d. engine oil

a. moisture in air tank

b. engine oil level
c. power end oil level
d. packing oil level

72  |  Check Your Understanding

13. What do you check for at the location 15. When the front pump suction valve is set
shown in this photo? to displacement tank, which valve is open
(see photo)?

Glass level indicators

a. 5x6 pressurizer section valve for

a. engine oil level displacement tank
b. packing oil level b. 5x6 pressurizer suction valve for mixing
c. power end oil level tank
d. moisture in air tank c. triplex pump suction valve for
displacement tanks
d. triplex pumps suction valve for mixing
14. What does the valve circled on the control tank
panel below control?

16. What is the purpose of the PTO

a. to quickly cut off the supply of cement
to the mixing bowl
b. to run all the pumps
c. to run all the C-pumps
d. to run the triplex pumps

a. overpressure shutdown
b. power to the centrifugal pumps
c. power to the triplex pumps
d. emergency kill

JET 18 - Cement Pump Skid, CPS-361  |  73

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74  |  Check Your Understanding