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# 1.

## What are the main difference between deductive

and inductive arguments?
 A deductive argument is the one whose conclusion is claimed to follow
from its premises with absolute necessity.
 Deductive argument is an argument, which makes a claim that the conclusion
follows from the reason, evidences or premises with the force of necessity.
 Inductive argument is an argument, which makes the claim that the
reasoning, evidences or premises offered in support of the conclusion with the
force of probability.
 Inductive argument is one whose conclusion is claimed to follow from its
premises only with probability.
 Deductive is the reasoning from the general to specific while inductive is the
reasoning from the specific to general .
 In deductive arguments ,the conclusion is certain while in inductive
arguments,the inference is probable.
 In inductive argument the inference may be true even if some of the evidence
Is false; how eve, in deductive argument, if the evidence is false, it will lead to
false inference.
 The basis of deductive argument depends on facts and rules but inductive
argument is pattern.
 Inductive argument ,the inference drawn are probably. as opposed,in
deductive argument the inference made necessarily true if the premises are
correct.
 Deductive is the basis of the scientific method while inductive is not .
 In ductive ,the conclusion is accepted as the logical result of the premises
while in inductive the conclusion is formed from individual premises which
may support it but does not make it true.
 Write six examples for deductive and inductive arguments?
 Examples of deductive argument
1) Addis ababa is the biggest city than Debre Berhan.
Bahir dar is the biggest city than addis ababa.
Therefore,bahir dar is the biggest city than debre berhan.
2) All things created by GOD are good. I am created by GOD. Therefore,I
am good.
3. All professional football players are married.
Ronaldo is a professional foot ball player.Therefore , Ronaldo is married.
4. Acute angles are less than 90 degrees.This angle is 40 degrees, so
it must be acute.

5. Cacti are plants and all plants perform photosynthesis; therefore ,cacti
perform photosynthesis.

6. All noble gases are stable.helium is a noble gas ,so helium is stable.
 Examples of inductive argument
1. Most Ethiopian runners are faster. Almaz Ayana is Ethiopian runner.
Therefore , Almaz Ayana is faster.
2. In the past five years, practice of good governance in Ethiopia is
appreciative this year too there is practice of good governance in
Ethiopia. therefore, probably next year there will be practice of good
governance in Ethiopia.
3. Maximilian is a shelter dog. he is happy.
so, all shelters dog are happy.
4. Most of our snowstorms came from the north. It’s starting to snow.
this snowstorm must be coming from the north.
5. My mother is Irish. She has blond hair. Therefore, my mother has
blond hair.
6 Some Ethiopians are poor. geremew is an Ethiopian .so, geremew is
poor.

## What are the main criteria in classifying arguments in to

deductive and inductive? explain each criteria briefly ?
 Arguments can be classified as deductive and inductive .an argument is
the process of reasoning or inference that proceeds from certain evidence
to a certain conclusion.however, the process of reasoning to arrive at a
certain conclusion is not uniform.
 Absence of uniformity in arguments is basically caused by the nature of the
connection between the premise and conclusion.

## Classifying arguments based on:

1. using indictor words.
2. Studying the actual strength of the premises and the conclusion.
3. The character or form of argumentation the arguer uses.
So, look each argument one by one ……

##  the following words are signal deductive arguments:

 Necessarily.
 certainly
 Absolutely
 Definitely, etc.

## Example: kebede is a member of the republican party. all members of the

republican party are conservatives. Therefore, it necessarily follows that
kebede is conservative.

argument.

## 2.studying the actual strength of the premise and conclusion

 If the conclusion actual does follow with strict necessity from the
premises,then the argument is clearly deductive.
 Example: all saleswomen are extroverts.
Abebech molla is saleswoman.
Therefore, Abebech molla is an extrovert.

In this example, the conclusion follows with strict necessity from the premises. If
we assume that all saleswomen are extrovert and that Abebech molla is a sales
woman, then it is impossible that Abebech molla not be an extrovert. thus, the
argument interpreted as deductive.

## 3.The character or form ofargumentation the arguer uses

When an argument contains no indicator words and the conclusion does not
follow necessarily from the premises, we use the following typically deductive
forms of argumentation. the deductive argumentation forms that the arguer uses
include: argument based on mathematics, an argument from definition, a
categorical syllogism, a hypothetical syllogism, and a disjunctive syllogism.

##  Now let us see the character of each one by one.

 An argument based on mathematics is anargument in which the
conclusion depends on some purely arithmetic geometric coputation or
measurement. numbers show the reality and essence of things. therefore,
there is accuracy in numerical expressions. Example:
Jemal has 3 apples in his left pocket and 4 oranges in his right pocket. Therefore,
Jemal’s pockets contain 7 pieces of fruits.

Note: all arguments in pure mathematics are deductive while arguments that
depend on statistics are usually best interpreted as inductive .statistical
arguments are based on random sampling of data gathering, it is impossible to
arrive at absolutely certain conclusion.

##  An argument from definition is an argument in

which the conclusion is claimed to develop merely on
the definition of some word or phrase contained in the
premises or this is an argument whose conclusion is
reached by defining a fundamental word in the premise.
Example:

Some one might argue that because Alemu is mendacious, it follows that he
tells lies. This argument is deductive because its conclusion follows with necessity
from the definition of mendacious.

##  A categorical syllogism is a syllogism that consists

of exactly two premises and one conclusion on which
each statement begins with one of the quantifiers ;all;
“no ‘’,or “some’’. Example
Some merchants are pirates.
All merchants are stingy.
Therefore, some stingy are pirates.
 A hypothetical syllogism is also syllogism having a
conditional statement for one or both of its premises.
Example
If we eat variety of food items, then we would be healthy. if we are
healthy, then we would be productive. therefore, if we eat variety of food
items, then we would be productive .
 A disjunctive syllogism is a syllogism having a
disjunctive statement, that is an “either…or
….statement’’, for one of its premises.
Example: people are either good or evil. John is not good. Therefore, he
is evil.
 Inductive argument
Inductive argument is an argument ,which makes the claim that the reasoning,
evidences offered in support of the conclusion with the force of probability.
Example: some Ethiopian are poor. demeke is an Ethiopian.so, demeke is poor

## 1.Using indicator words in inductive argument

The following words signal inductive arguments:

Probably Improbably
Plausible likely
Implausible unlikely etc..
Example: the rain fall in Hawassa has been more than 20 inches every year
for the past ten years. Therefore, the rain fall next year will probably be
more than 20 inches.
2.studying the actual strength of the premises and the
conclusion
If the conclusion actual does not follow with strict necessity from the
premises but does follow probably, then it is usually best to consider the
argument inductive. Example: the vast majority of sales women are
extroverts. Almaz alemu is a sales woman. therefore, Almaz alemu is an
extroverts.
 In this example, the conclusion does not follow with strict necessity,
but it does follow with some degree of probability.
 If we assume that the premises are true, then based on that
assumption it is improbable that the conclusion is false. Thus, it is
interpreted as inductive argument.
3.the character or form of argumentation the arguer
uses
 When an argument contains no indicator words and the conclusion
does not follow probably from the premises, in this case we use the
following typically inductive forms of argumentation.
 The inductive argumentation forms that the arguer uses include: an
argument based on prediction, an argument from analogy, an
inductive generalization, an argument from authority, an argument
based on signs and argument based on casual inference .
 An argument based on prediction, the premises deal with some
known event in the past or present, and the conclusion moves beyond this
event to some event in the future.
 Therefore, arriving at conclusion about the future
condition based on the past and present condition will
not be certain rather it is probable or likely to happen.
Example
 Yesterday, there was rain fall in our city. today also there is rain
fall . therefore ,there will be rain fall tomorrow.
 An argument from analogy is an argument that depends on the
existence of an analogy or similarity, between two things. Because of the
existence of this analogy, a certain condition that affects the better-known
thingo or situation is concluded to affect the similar, lesser-known thing or
situation.

## Example: the encyclopedia Britannica has an article on symbiosis. The

encyclopedia Americana, like Britannica,is an excellent work. Therefore, the
Americana probably also has an article on symbiosis.

##  An inductive generalization (an argument based on statistics) is an

argument that proceeds from the knowledge of selected sample to some
claim about the whole group. In other word, a reasoning process that
proceeds from particular facts to general truths is called inductive
generalization. Example: there are 45 students in this class. I have
evaluated the answer sheets of 20 students and all of them scored above
85%.it implies that all students of this class are smart.
 An argument from authority is argument based on citation, interview, or
witness of a person who has a better position or access to the required
qualification. Or, this is an argument whose conclusion depends upon a
statement made by some presumed authority or witness. Example:
According to ato dereje who is a lawyer in bahir dar city.Abebe
committed murder because an eye witness testified to that effect
under oath.
 An argument based on signs is an argument from the that proceeds
knowledge of a certain sign (may be it is atraffic sign, a trademark, a
cautionary mark,a symbol,) to a knowledge of the thing or situation
symbolized by the sign. Example : the package material says that ‘’keep it
out of the reach of children.’’ Therefore, this package must consist of some
sort of medicine.
 An argument based on causation is an argument that proceeds from the
knowledge of a cause to knowledge of the effect, or conversely, from the
knowledge of an effect to the knowledge of a cause.
Example: the cloud is becoming dark and the thunder is roaming.so, let us go
home quickly, the rain is inevitable.
2.What are the role of logic in enhancing effective communication?
 Logic is important in effective communication. these are
 Helps to avoiding foolish personal decision.
 Free us from unexamined assumptions, biases, superstition etc..
 If there is no logic, there is simply no scope for effectiveness of
commumication. Because it is important in correct reasoning to be
appliedin the thought language and action.
 Helps to communicate clearly and effectively.
 It is important to convice the other based on rationalty and reasonably.
 It is increase confidence when we advance arguments of our own and
criticize the arguments of others.
 Helps us to develop skills like;the skill of defending one’s own well
supported argument, problem solving skill rhetoric(art of persuasion).
 Logic is the science of rational thinking.so, logic teachs us how to analyze
things and problems to understand them before we could communicate
with others.
 Logic is important inorder to helps us critical thinking and critical thinking