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Synopsis of the Chapter:

30th September 1947: Pakistan joined the United Nations.
August 1947- October 1948: War with India on Jammu and Kashmir.
January 1948: Pakistan and India signed Ceasefire papers on Kashmir. LOC was created.
1949: Pakistan’s first Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan received invitation from the Soviet Union.
January 1950: Pakistan recognized Communist government in China.
1950: Liaquat Ali Khan visited US instead of USSR.
September 1954: South East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO) was established and joined by Pakistan.
1955: Central Asia Treaty Organization was formed with Britain, Iran, Iraq and Pakistan.
1956: Pakistan joined Commonwealth. Pakistan also supported Egypt on the matter of Suez Canal.
May 1960: U2 Incident. Cold War started between USA and USSR. Pakistan was in trouble.
September 1960: Indus Water Treaty was signed between India and Pakistan on the matter of rivers.
1962: Indo-Sino War. Pakistan supported China.
1963: Siachen Glacier was given to Pakistan from China. Trade agreements were signed.
1963: USSR declared Kashmir as a neutral issue between India and Pakistan.
July 1964: Regional Co-operation for Development between Pakistan, Iran and Turkey was formed.
1964: Pakistan voted for China for its permanent seat in UN Security Council. Pakistan also supported Chinese policy for Taiwan. China
supported Kashmir Policy of Pakistan.
September 1965: War with India. Trade Embargo by US on Pakistan.
January 1966: Tashkent Declaration was signed in USSR between Pakistan and India.
December 1971: Civil war in East Pakistan, War with India.
January 1972: Simla Accord signed between India and Pakistan. Pakistan left Commonwealth.
February 1974: Second Summit of OIC was held at Lahore with 34 Muslim countries.
June 1974: Bhutto’s visit to Bangladesh.
1974: Pakistan started its nuclear programme with the help of China.
December 1979: The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan.
1981: UK Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher visited Pakistan.
1984: Pakistan was blamed by India for the murder of Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi.
1985: Pressler Act of USA brought sanctions on Pakistan.
1989: Pakistan rejoined Commonwealth.
1999: May-July, Kargil Conflict of Pakistan with India.
February 1999: Lahore Declaration with India.


Pakistan and the United States share a number of strategic partnerships. The relationship started in 1949 when Liaquat Ali khan received an
official request from USSR but the anti-communist alliance put him to pay the first official visit to the US. The US has been a major country
which provided funds and aid to Pakistan. However, their relation has been under a zig zag over the years.
Positives of Pakistan-USA relations:
 In 1950, Pakistan Embassy was established in Washington after Liaquat Ali Khan’s visit. Pakistan joined the Capitalists group
under USA and asked USA for more aid for its military and economy.
 In May 1954, Pakistan and USA signed Mutual Defence Assistance Programme under which Pakistan received US military
weapons and training for its soldiers. This was a major move in the relationship of the two countries.
 In September 1954, South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was signed with France, Philippines, Thailand, New Zealand,
Australia and Pakistan also joined. It was mainly an agreement for the spread of trade. It was signed by Pakistan on the request of USA and
Pakistan entered anti-Communist Pact.
 In 1955, Turkey and Iraq signed the Baghdad Pact against anti- Communism of the Soviet Union. It was joined by UK, Iran and
Pakistan and was named as Central Asia Treaty Organization (CENTO). Pakistan signed CENTO for its friendship with USA.
 In December 1979, USA provided aid and took Pakistan as its major ally during the USSR-Afghanistan War. Pakistan became a
highlight of USA for the aid of 4 billion dollars. Pakistan opened its border for Afghan refugees and got aid of $ 4 billion which boosted its
 The relations improved with the arrival of Benazir Bhutto in the office of the Prime Minister as she visited USA in 1994 and
continued to seek the help of US on the Kashmir issue to mediate and resolve the matter.
 In 1996, USA first lady, Hillary Clinton and her daughter, Chelsea visited Pakistan. This visit helped Pakistan and USA in bringing
good relations and Pakistan started to receive the aid of F-16 Planes after the Brownian Amendment. It had been stopped under the
Pressler Amendment of 1985.
Negatives of Pakistan-USA relations:
 Pakistan hoped USA aid of weapons during 1965 and 1971 wars but it was not provided because India was not a communist
country. Instead India was given aid and weapons in 1962 during its war with China. This displeased Pakistan as India was able to stop
Pakistan’s aid from USA. Bhutto withdrew from SEATO in 1972.
 The weak USA support of CENTO never gave any hope to Pakistan. This not only affected Pakistan for not being able to develop
good relations with USSR but also kept it under the direct influence of USA.
 The ‘U2 Affair’ of May 1960 raised many questions when a spy plan launched from Peshawar was shot down by USSR in its
territory. It grew more tensions between the USA and USSR. USA claimed it had no connection to the spy plan.
 General Ayub Khan paid a visit to China in 1962 and to USSR in 1965 was not liked by USA as that visit broke the ice of Pak-
Russian relations. USA had imposed trade embargo on Pakistan which enabled it to develop good relations with USSR.
 Zia ul Haq’s policies were never welcome by the USA. However, during Afghanistan-Soviet War 1979-1988, Pakistan became the
third largest recipient of US aid and received $ 4 billion. After the war, USA dropped its aid dramatically by the end of the war.
 In November 1979, US embassy was attacked in Islamabad after the news was spread that USA was involved in the attack of
Haram Mosque. Though USA was not involved in the incident but the reaction in Pakistan resulted in four deaths including two US citizens.
 In 1985, under the Pressler Amendment, USA refused to give aid to a country that had a nuclear programme. However, India was
not affected because of that. This affected Pakistan to get its military needs and it was not able to develop good relations with USSR being an
US alley.
 USA President, George H.W. Bush refused to deliver 28 F-16 planes for which Pakistan had already paid. It was given in 1996 after
Benazir Bhutto’s visit to the USA under the Brownian Amendment.
 In 1992, the USA came close to declaring Pakistan as a state sponsor of terrorism and placed economic sanctions on the country.
This hurt Pakistan’s policy as India was already claiming Pakistan as terrorist country and USA followed it.
 In 1998, after the nuclear tests, USA banned many of the military aid programmes to Pakistan. Many of the educational, medical
and military programmes were directly affected due to that.


Pakistan tried to establish its ties with the USA in the late 1980’s. The USSR wished to bring Pakistan close. Their relationship remained in halt
for many years. Some experts still say if Pakistan had created good ties with the Soviet Union, it would have played a strong role in Pakistan’s
Positives of Pakistan-USSR relations:
 In 1949, USSR offered Pakistan’s Prime Minister, Liaquat Ali Khan for a visit to Moscow to develop relations with Pakistan. It
wanted to develop good relations with Pakistan and India both being the strongest country in the region.
 In 1963, USSR withdrew its open support to India over Kashmir and called it a neutral issue. This supported Pakistan on the
international platforms on the matter of Kashmir and helped to gain more support from other countries.
 In 1965, General Ayub Khan visited USSR and signed agreements on oil exploration. Russia also announced to help Pakistan in
establishing Pakistan Steel Mills worth $ 1 billion.
 In January 1966, Tashkent Declaration was signed between General Ayub Khan and Indian Prime Minister, Lal Bahadur Shastri
after the Indo-Pak War which was organized by USSR Premier Kosygin. USSR urged both countries to stop war and they agreed to come back
to pre-war condition.
 In 1972, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto visited USSR. Steel Mills Karachi was established by USSR in 1976. It was the largest Steel Mills in the
regions which helped Pakistan in developing its economy. Bhutto was inspired by the system of government in USSR.
Negatives of Pakistan-USSR relations:
 In 1949, Liaquat Ali Khan refused to pay visit to Moscow as Pakistan was not in favour to go for Communist government of Russia.
This made USSR remain in disagreement with Pakistan when Liaquat Ali Khan paid a visit to United States in 1950.
 USSR opposed Pakistan over SEATO and CENTO inclusion in 1954 and 1955 respectively because it believed it favoured USA only.
It assumed that both these treaties were signed to strengthen USA in the region and Pakistan had been an important ally of US policy.
 In 1955, USSR backed India on the matter of Kashmir as Pakistan was getting aid from the USA. This was in reaction of Pakistan’s
signing anti-Communist pacts and treaties under the US influence.
 In May 1960, the U2 Affair spy plane deteriorated the relations of the two countries. Pakistan showed ignorance for the fact that
the plane had launched from Peshawar however, USSR had clues from its radar system. Pakistan wanted to clarify the condition however,
USSR remained suspicious on the role of Pakistan.
 In 1971, when Pakistan tried to bring a peace treaty between USSR and China, USSR was offensive over Pakistan’s ties with
China and USA. Similarly, at the time of Indo-Pak War of 1971, India was fully supported by USSR whereas when Pakistan looked for support
from China, USSR forced China to withdraw from its role in the war.
 During 1979-1988 of USSR invasion of Afghanistan, Pakistan paid its support to USA and its allies against Communism. Pakistan
became a barrier for Afghanistan and full moral and official support was provided to back it. USSR’s plans did not work due to USA support
with Afghanistan and Pakistan indirectly.


Their relation started from the time of Mughals when Hindus were angered of the Muslim rule. During the British Raj, Congress and Muslim
League contested on the point of language and religion. From 1947 to 1999, there had been sweet and sour relations between the two
Points and reasons of weak relationship:
 Refugees: About six million of migrants came to East and West Pakistan before and after 1947 and many of them were brutally
killed by Hindus and Sikhs in the Punjab and other bordering areas.
 Boundary Issues: India created issues on boundary with Pakistan. Siachen Glacier is just one example of that where the two forces
often fight together. Areas of Punjab and Calcutta were handed over to India.
 Kashmir Problem: since partition, Kashmir has been a root cause of almost every problem in the region. India blames Pakistan for
supporting the anti-government groups in India. According to the UN decisions, the referendum has never been conducted in Kashmir.
 Division of assets: Pakistan did not its share in assets and military equipment from India which created a problem between the
two countries.
 Canal Water Dispute: Since partition, canal water has been a problem for Pakistan. Indus Water Treaty tried to settle down the
confusion a little. However, India still insisted to hold back all rivers coming to Pakistan. Every year, India lets flood water into Pakistan
affecting its agriculture and economy adversely.
Positives of Pakistan-India relations:
 1947: Pakistan’s inclusion in the UN on 1st September 1947 was supported by India. India was already a member of the United
Nations and wanted to retain its name however it agreed to vote for Pakistan in the UN. Its support made it easy for Pakistan to gain more aid
and loans for building its economy in the early years.
 1948: Though the issue of Kashmir was opened in the UN by India but in January, Ceasefire papers were signed by Pakistan and
India on Jammu and Kashmir. After the United Nations intervened into Kashmir War and both countries signed for ending the war and Line
of Control was created.
 1950: On 8th April, Liaquat-Nehru Pact was signed to solve water crisis as well as it sorted out the refugee problems between the
two countries. Both countries agreed to remain peaceful at the borders. Both agreed to establish their High Commission offices in New Delhi
and Karachi to be able to deal with visa policy.
 1960: On 19th September, Indus Water Treaty was signed to sort out canal water dispute between the two countries. Prime
Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and President Ayub Khan met in Karachi to sign the treaty organized by World Bank. Three rivers were given to
Pakistan and later Pakistan made two dams, five barrages, seven link canals and one gated siphon to solve irrigation water problems. This
resulted in a big change in Green Revolution in Pakistan.
 1966: In January, Tashkent Declaration was signed between General Ayub Khan and Lal Bahadur Shastri after 1965 War under
USSR sponsorship. Both countries promised to hand over each other’s confiscated areas and not to fight on Kashmir. This declaration helped
in developing good relations between the two countries.
 1972: In January, Simla Accord was signed between Indira Gandhi and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto after 1971 war. It was mainly signed to
bring back 93,000 captives of the war by India and Bhutto agreed for not raising Kashmir issue on international platforms. It made the two
countries come close after the war.
 1987: At the time of Cricket Diplomacy by Zia, in December 1987, President Zia has a visit to India and met Prime Minister Rajiv
Gandhi. They pledged not to attack each other’s nuclear amenities. In 1984, Indira Gandhi had been assassinated in India and India blamed
Pakistan for its involvement and blames on Khalistan Movement, Sikh separatists by India were ignored by Pakistan.
 1999: Lahore Declaration of 21st February 1999 between Nawaz Sharif and Atal Bihari Vajpaee sorting out many issues between
the two counties including the Kargil War. Atal Bihari Vajpaee came to Lahore through Wagah Border and several projects including Lahore-
Agra Bus Service, Train Service were started and trade agreements were signed. Both countries announced each other as the most favourable
for trade.
Negatives of Pak-India relations:
 Wars of 1948, 1965 and 1971: Both Pakistan and India have faced three major wars. Heavy budgets had to be kept in maintaining
and developing their military expanse. 1965 War remained a major one in which both countries fought badly and confiscated each other’s
vast areas. Kargil Conflict in Siachen Glacier also caused tension. Lives of hundreds of soldiers from both countries were lost and the
relations remained in serious conflicts all the time.
 Pakistan’s support of China during Indo-China war of 1962 was disliked by India. When Pakistan supported China at the time of
war, India claimed that it was involving in India’s internal matters. China handed over Siachen Glacier to Pakistan in 1963 which became a
major reason of 1965 Indo-Pak War.
 Pakistan blamed India in supporting Mukti Bahini in liberating freedom in East Pakistan in 1971. Pakistanis were killed and
massacred in East Pakistan by the civilian dressed army officers of India and it led to the separation of Bangladesh in December 1971.
 India started its nuclear programme in 1974 which developed pressure on Pakistan to develop its nuclear programme too. As a
result, both countries are now declared nuclear powers and spend a huge amount of their budget on military and defence.
 Terrorism- Both countries blame each other for spreading and having a hand in terrorism in their countries. Talks between the
two have sorted out the conditions however, the issue remains a burning problem. India blame Pakistan on its hand in Kashmir and Khalistan
Movement. Pakistan blames India for its involvement in Balochistan and Karachi.
 During 1980s, India blamed Pakistan for supporting Khalistan Movement (a Sikh Movement in Indian Punjab) in 1980s which
declined in 1992.
 India blamed Pakistan for assassination of Indian Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi in 1984 and blamed Pakistan’s military
government of Zia behind the assassination.
 Pakistan and India had talks on Kashmir in 1989 and 1990s but due to Kashmiri mujahideens activities, India kept on coming out
of the talks. Pakistan’s ISI was blamed for providing financial and military support to Kashmiri mujahideens.
 1990: Babri Masjid demolition in India spoiled the relationship further. Pakistani government raised the issue internationally which
spoiled the relations further.
 In 1999, Siachen Glacier’s Kargil Peak remained a war zone for both India and Pakistan. Hundreds of soldiers from both sides
were killed and it remained a big reason for tough relations of the two countries.


Pakistan and China share strong ties of bondage and relationship. More or less, they both support each other on all international forums.
China plays a great role in making a number of developmental projects in Pakistan.
Positives of Pakistan-China relations:
 After Pakistan’s independence, China was amongst the first countries to recognize Pakistan. In January 1950, Pakistan recognized
China after China developed itself as People’s Republic and the foreign relations of the two countries started.
 In 1962, during India-China war, Pakistan paid its full support to China. Despite being a member of anti-Communist pacts of
SEATO and CENTO, Pakistan’s support to China started as a point of new relations between the two neighboring countries.
 In 1963, a series of trade agreements were signed and loans were announced to Pakistan by China. This helped Pakistan in
building up its economy better. China also handed over the area of Siachen to Pakistan which was taken over by China during Indo-Sino War
of 1962.
 In August 1963, Pakistan’s national flag carrier, PIA started flying to many cities of China. This helped not only the trade and
tourism but also economic activities got a boom.
 In 1964, China declared its policy over Kashmir supporting Pakistan. Pakistan also supported China’s entry as the permanent
member to the United Nations Security Council which also gave a strong support of Pakistan’s Kashmir Policy in the UN. Pakistan also
supported China over the matter of inclusion of Taiwan from the United Kingdom.
 China gave full military support in 1965 War which really helped Pakistan in making its defence stronger against India. However, it
could not do much due to Soviet Union threat in 1971.
 In February 1972, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto paid a visit to China. China turned all previously given loans into grants. It also supported
Bhutto for Pakistan’s nuclear programme which China started in 1974 at Karachi.
 In 1978, the Karakoram Highway was opened between China and Pakistan. It was mainly made by Chinese money and its
engineers. It also gave an access to both countries for their trade and promoted tourism.
 In 1986, Zia ul Haq paid his first visit to China making China the most important country for military after USA had imposed
sanctions on getting its military weapons under the Pressler Act of 1985.
 Several projects including the Pakistan’s satellite Badr-1, Heavy Mechanical Complex Taxila, Gazi Barotha Hydel Project, Motorways,
Gwadar Port were completed with the aid and assistance of China.
 China funded and supported Pakistan at the time of May 1998 Nuclear tests at Chaghai. It also aided Pakistan at the time of
sanctions imposed by many other countries after the tests.
Negatives of Pakistan-China relations:
 Pakistan delayed its foreign policy on China after it became the People’s Republic in 1950 which gave an advantage to establish
itself an ally of not only USSR but of China as well. India has accepted the Communist government of China in 1949.
 Pakistan kept an unclear policy on Taiwan inclusion to China for many years as it had US influence against Communism. Taiwan
was under the control of the UK and China wanted her allies to support her. Due to being a member of the Commonwealth, Pakistan
supported it quite later in 1964.
 China could not help Pakistan at the time of Indo-Pak War of 1971 due to Russian threat which disappointed Pakistan’s


Pakistan and Britain shared a complicated relations and it has been fluctuating over years. Since Pakistan was under British Raj for 90 years, it
wanted to stay disconnected from many of their acts. However, it remained a dominion state under Commonwealth until 1956.
Positives of Pakistan-Britain and the Commonwealth:
 In 1950, the ‘Colombo Plan’ was set up and Pakistan received loans and grants from members of Commonwealth countries.
These loans and grants helped Pakistan in establishing its army and economy on a better scale.
 In 1955, Malik Ghulam Mohammad attended the Coronation Ceremony of Queen Elizabeth as a part of foreign delegation and the
two countries improved their relations further. Pakistan and Britain joined CENTO (Central Treaty Organization) in 1955 along with Turkey
and Iran to be able to fight against Communism.
 In 1960, the Indus Water Treaty was signed between India and Pakistan due to the involvement of many countries and Britain.
Later Pakistan received loans to establish dams and barrages from those countries in which Britain played a major role.
 The commonwealth Immigration act of 1962 introduced a voucher scheme which gave Pakistanis in Britain the opportunity to
arrange jobs and vouchers for friends and family to move here. Thus immigration was extremely easy and the people were welcomed.
 After the war of 1965, the final agreement was signed between India and Pakistan due to Britain’s effort. Since Britain was a
ruling power in the regions some years back, it used its influence in stopping the war.
 During the Afghan Crisis of 1979-1988, Britain supported Pakistan with a loan of 30 million pounds as Pakistan received Afghan
immigrants and was not able to accommodate them.
 The British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher visited Pakistan in 1980 and visited Pak-Afghan border along with General Zia to
meet the refugees of Afghanistan after their 1974 Earthquake and Afghan miracle.
Negatives of Pakistan-Britain and the Commonwealth:
 Since the state of Jammu and Kashmir was not handed over by the Radcliffe Award to Pakistan, Britain was blamed for spoiling the
peace of the region in 1947.
 Though Pakistan joined Commonwealth in 1956, but still did not get its due support from members of Commonwealth on
Kashmir as it remained under military rule (Ayub Khan 1958-1969, Yahya Khan 1969-1971, Zia ul Haq 1977-1988) and had to withdraw its
membership in 1972 after Bangladesh establishment and was withdrawn from its membership 1998 after the nuclear tests.
 Britain supported India in 1965 War though it had signed CENTO with Pakistan. It also sold weapons to India at the time of war.
 On 2nd February 1972, when Bangladesh was accepted by Britain as an independent country, Pakistan withdrew from
Commonwealth in reaction. Pakistan rejoined Commonwealth in 1989 after Zia ul Haq’s rule was over as particularly India opposed any
country under military rule for being a member of Commonwealth.
 Despite of being the members of SEATO and CENTO, Pakistan opposed Britain invasion over Suez Canal in 1956 and supported
Egypt on the matter of its control. This made the government of Britain displeased with Pakistan.
 In May 1998, when Pakistan conducted nuclear tests, Britain imposed sanctions and stopped many programmes of aid and trade
whereas the same sanctions were not imposed on India.


Both Pakistan and Bangladesh shared the same rule of British raj and were made independent as one unit. However, a number of political,
cultural and economic differences made them fall apart in December 1971.
Positives of Pakistan-Bangladesh relations:
 In 1972, when Bhutto came to power, he released Sheikh Mujeeb-ur Rehman in January 1972 from Adyala Jail, Rawalpindi, who
later resumed as the Prime Minister of independent Bangladesh which was an ice breaking of the relations.
 In February 1974, Mujeeb-ur-Rehman was invited to the meeting of Second Summit of Organization of Islamic Countries making
Bangladesh recognized in the eyes of Pakistan. The two countries announced to open their embassies in Islamabad and Dhaka.
 In June 1974, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto visited Bangladesh and announced to have cordial relations and to establish trade.
 In August 1975, after Sheikh Mujeeb-ur-Rehman’s murder by a group of Bangladesh army, the new leader, Khondekar Mushtaq
wished to keep positive in relations with Pakistan.
 In 1985 and 1988, Bangladesh faced severe weather conditions and millions of people were affected. Pakistan became the first
country to give aid to Bangladesh for which the Bangladeshi government remained obliged.
Negatives of Pakistan-Bangladesh relations:
 In 1974, at the time of Second Summit of OIC, Bangladeshi leader, Mujeeb ur Rehman demanded half of the assets as Pakistan
had in 1971 but Bhutto denied for it and called it unrealistic. The two countries had a deadlock on the start of bilateral talks at that point of
 Bangladesh also claimed all non-Bangladeshis to go to Pakistan which was also considered impractical and unrealistic. Several
leaders were punished and hanged who were in support of unity of Pakistan at the time of Indo-Pak War of 1971.


Afghanistan and Pakistan share a border of 2430 kilometres and decades of relationship. However, there is a lack of trust particularly at
Afghanistan end which never let the two countries come close as friends.
Positives of Pakistan-Afghanistan relations:
 After the establishment of Pakistan, Afghan leaders were called in Karachi for talks with Jinnah in 1947. They were asked to drop
the claim of Pakhtoonistan and were told to have access to the sea.
 Afghanistan announced that it will remain neutral for both India and Pakistan at the time of 1965 War despite pressure from
India and Russia. On the matter of Kashmir, Afghanistan supported Pakistan’s policy.
 Afghanistan received a severe earthquake in 1974 in which thousands of people lost their lives. Bhutto extended full financial and
military aid to help to Afghanistan.
 Sardar Daud visited Pakistan to attend the Second Summit of OIC in 1974 and it was an important stone of relationship building
between the two countries. Pakistan made generous contribution at the time of Afghanistan earthquake in 1974.
 In 1976, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto visited Afghanistan on the encouragement of Shah of Iran.
 During the Afghan Crisis 1979-1988, Afghanistan appreciated Pakistan’s role against communist USSR and its point of unity with
Afghanistan. 3 million refugees from Afghanistan settled in Pakistan and it extended all possible support to Afghanistan. Pakistan became
the largest country with the highest number of foreign immigrants.
 In October 1977, General Zia visited Kabul which was followed by Daud’s visit in March 1978. These visits made the two countries
close and Afghanistan asked for border security from Pakistan’s officials.
 Pakistan was the first Muslim country to establish relations with Taliban government of Afghanistan and the Embassy was opened
in Islamabad.
 Afghanistan became the member of ECO in 1992 with Pakistan, Iran Turkey and Central Asian Republics after its reservations were
made clear by Pakistan’s government.
Negatives of Pakistan-Afghanistan relations:
 Soon after independence of Pakistan in 1947, Afghanistan claimed its territory on some parts of NWFP to be called as
‘Pakhtoonistan.’ Pakistan Government did not approve this claim which resulted in the initial problems of the relationship of the two
countries. The afghan tribe also rejected Jinnah’s offer for using Karachi as their trading seaport.
 On 30th September 1947, Afghanistan became the only Muslim country to vote against Pakistan’s membership in the UN in
reaction of not being given Pakhtoonistan. It claimed Pakistan as British colony even after its independence.
 Afghanistan rejected Pakistan’s offer of transit trade and made an agreement with Soviet Union.
 In October 1951, when Liaquat Ali Khan was killed by an Afghan national, Afghanistan did not accept the responsibility and
called Pakistan as ‘a British Colony’ which spoiled the foreign relations of the two countries.
 In March 1955, Pakistan embassy was attacked in Kabul and Iskander Mirza showed agitation over Afghanistan’s negative policy
for Pakistan.
 At the time of 1965 War, Afghanistan’s neutral stance affected Pakistan’s blames on India. Similarly, at the time of 1971 War with
India, Afghanistan accepted that Pakistan had kept an ignorant behaviour with the people of East Pakistan.
 Afghanistan refused to join RCD in 1964 and claimed it did not want to join it as Pakistan was a member.
 Nawaz Sharif faced Kalashinkov culture from Afghanistan after the Afghan immigrants settled in Pakistan and spoiled the internal
peace. Afghanistan violated Pakistan airspace and bombed Pakistani areas.
 Benazir Bhutto’s view of creating friendly relations with Talibans which gave a series of fundamentalist groups in Pakistan. Later
she considered it a mistake after that.


Pakistan and Iran have shared strong and supportive ties over a long period of time. They have been together on various forums and
communities. Iran has always supported Pakistan on the matter of Kashmir.
Positives of Pakistan-Iran relations:
 In 1947, Iran was the first country which started to develop good relations with Pakistan soon after independence. Iran also
opened its consulate in Karachi.
 In 1955, Pakistan and Iran, along with Turkey and Britain signed CENTO which was an important factor of uniting the two
countries. General Iskander Mirza developed very good relations with Iran.
 After the effort of General Ayub Khan Pakistan, Iran and Turkey signed RCD on 21st July 1964. It really gave a boost to their
relations and many departments of Turkey and Iran started to help Pakistan for its economic growth.
 Iran supported Pakistan unconditionally on the matter of Kashmir and in the 1965 and 1971 wars. It gave 5000 barrels of oil to
Pakistan unconditionally and stopped the sale of its oil to India.
 Iran funded Pakistan in 1973 to put down an uprising in Balochistan when the tribal groups were disturbing Iran’s areas. Iran paid
200 million dollars and 30 cobra helicopter to Bhutto’s government be able to fight with those tribes.
 At the time of 1998 nuclear tests, when sanctions were imposed on Pakistan by many countries, Iran supported Pakistan and
gave crude oil as grant to help the economic sanctions.
Negatives of Pakistan-Iran relations:
 1973, before Bhutto started military operation in Balochistan, Iran was constantly complaining that the elements from Pakistan
were involved in spoiling law and order in their lands.
 In the Second Summit of OIC in February 1974, Iran refused to attend as Pakistan had invited (Moammer Gaddaffi) Libya who had
bad relations with Shah of Iran.
 Both Pakistan and Iran were the members of Baghdad Pact which later became the CENTO however, the organization dissolved
quietly in 1979 after the Iran’s revolution when Shah of Iran was removed and Imam Khomeini came to power.
 After the Iran Revolution in 1979, the new government under President Ayatullah Khomeini found Pakistan suspicious as
Pakistan had great support from the previous Shah of Iran. Shah of Iran was more close to USA whereas the new government under
President Imam Khomeini was not happy with USA and Pakistan’s military government under Zia was liked by USA at that time.


Pakistan is a major Muslim country that shares its close ties with almost all Muslim countries. Since 1947, Pakistan played a strong role in
keeping all Muslim countries under one banner.
Positives of Pakistan-Muslim Block relations:
 In 1955, Pakistan joined CENTO (previously known as the Baghdad Pact) with Iran and Iraq against any possible invasion from
Communist countries.
 In July 1964, Pakistan, Iran and Turkey joined Regional Co-operation for Development to help each other in the areas for
 In 1969, Pakistan joined OIC with 24 other Muslim nations at Morocco. Later Pakistan held the Second Summit of OIC in Lahore in
1974 after the Arab Israel War of 1973 in which Palestinians were fighting against Israel and some Muslim countries joined together in support
of Palestine.
 In 1971, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto toured many Islamic countries for gaining support on Kashmir policy and to retain Pakistan image
after its defeat in 1971.
 The Arab Israel War of 1973 brought Pakistan into the limelight when Bhutto gathered support of all Muslim countries to help the
Palestinians against the brutal killings of Israel. Pakistan also accepted independent Palestine in 1974 and brought various points of
reconciliation and freedom rights of the Palestinians in the United Nations.
 In February 1974, Pakistan hosted 2nd Summit of OIC at Lahore and supported Palestinian Issue after the 1973-Isaerli-Arab War.
34 leaders of Muslim countries including King Faisal (Saudi Arabia), Mahateer Mohammad (Malaysia), Sardar Daud (Afghanistan), Yasir Arafat
(Palestine), Anwar-us-Sadaat (Egypt), Mujeeb-ur-Rehman (Bangladesh) and Moammer Qaddaffi (Libya). All Muslim leaders agreed to develop
unanimous foreign policy, Muslim army and unanimous currency. Pakistan was able to gain a leadership role in the Muslim world.
 Pakistan received more loans from Saudi Arabia, Iran, UAE and Libya than the West after its positive role in OIC in February
1974. Shah Faisal Mosque, Pak Arab Oil Refinery and many other important projects were started in Pakistan.
 Pakistan played a very positive role at the time or Iran-Iraq War of 1980s and supported Iran in the War as it had strong relations
with Pakistan.
 During the Gulf War 1990-91, Pakistan played an important role in minimizing the tension between Iraq and Kuwait-Saudi
Arabia. Pakistan army played the role in peace keeping at the religious sites of Saudi Arabia.
 Pakistan gave military assistance and its military expertise to many Muslim countries. Peace keeping missions were sent to
Somalia, Libya, Syria etc.
Negatives of Pakistan-Muslim Block relations:
 Afghanistan had remained disagreed with Pakistan since 1947 over many issues with Pakistan particularly the issue of
Pakhtoonistan and attack at Pakistan’s Embassy at Kabul weakened the strength of two Muslim countries in the region. Afghanistan did not
join RCD in 1964 due to Pakistan’s involvement in it.
 Egypt was not pleased with Pakistan’s weak role during Suez Canal Issue in 1956 as Pakistan was a member of the
Commonwealth and could not oppose Britain openly.
 Bangladesh’s independence in 1971 created pressure on Pakistan when many Muslim countries like Saudi Arabia urged Pakistan
to accept it as an independent country.
 Iran did not attend the Second Summit of OIC of February 1974 at Lahore which weakened the plans of Muslim World’s army and
one currency.
 During Iran-Iraq War, Pakistan kept its side more with Iran which did not please Iraq. Pakistan’s unanimous support for Iran was
opposed by some western countries.
 During the Iraq-Kuwait War of 1990-91, Pakistan joined the international coalition which was feared by some elements in

PAKISTAN AND UNITED NATIONS: The League of Nations was termed as the United Nations after the World War II in October 1945. It has
aims to save the world from any possible war, to have equal rights for all people and nations, to ensure all countries respect international laws
and to higher the standards of living and social progress. The Unites Nations work under the following heads:
Security Council: There are five permanent members (USA, China, Russia, UK and France) and ten non-permanent members which are chosen
for two years.
There are other organizations and agencies like International Court of Justice, The Economic and Social Council, The United Nations Children’s
Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO). International Labour Organization (ILO), International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World
Bank (IBRD).
 Pakistan joined the United Nations on 30th September 1947 as Pakistan was in desperate need of financial resources for building
its economy and wanted to solve Kashmir issue which had started soon after independence. After joining the United Nations, many of the
problems were solved as Pakistan got loan and aid for different projects. Ceasefire in Jammu and Kashmir was signed in January 1948 due
to the UN.
 Pakistan made its image by working on international affairs and gave its input in every possible way.
 Pakistan has been a member of the 15-member non-permanent Security Council on five occasions in the past, 1952-53 (Malik
Ghulam M), 1968-69 (Ayub Khan), 1976-77(Bhutto), 1983-84 (Zia) and 1993-94 (Benazir/Nawaz) during the period 1947-99. It helped Pakistan
is raising the matter of disputed Jammu and Kashmir at the international platform.
 Pakistan had worked on several peace keeping missions under the United Nations’ Forces in Bosnia, Libya, Somalia and Saudi
Arabia during Gulf War.
 Pakistan raised Palestine issue in the UN and spoke against Israel illegal invasion. This has helped Palestinian cause in staying
active for UN resolutions.
 Pakistan supported freedom movements in Morocco and Algiers.
 The UN aided Pakistan under World Food Programme for Afghan refugees during 1979-1988 as well as at the time of floods.
 In 1960, the UN solved Canal Water Dispute between Pakistan and India and the President of the World Bank made a
recommendation that it should provide financial and technical support to resolve the disagreement.
 The UN ran many social and educational welfare programmes in Pakistan and helped during floods and other disasters that struck
 Kashmir Dispute was not solved by UN even after the cease fire in 1948 and 1965 wars. India ignored UN resolutions for holding
a plebiscite in Kashmir however, no major effort was done by UN regarding it.
 Pakistan showed its concern when Bangladesh was made the UN member in September 1974.


SAARC was established in December 1985 at Dhaka with seven under-developing countries of the region, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri
lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and the Maldives. Its basic purpose was to uplift the economies of all nations in order to bring economic development as
this region is considered as one of the most under-developed. The programme includes exchange of ideas, visits of delegations and to work on
joint ventures. Pakistan hosted 4th SAARC Conference during 29–31 December 1988 at Islamabad. However, SAARC remained ineffective due
to the issues of India and Pakistan.