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1872 Cavite mutiny

The Cavite mutiny of 1872 was an uprising


of Filipino military personnel of Fort San
Felipe, the Spanish arsenal in Cavite,[1]:107
Philippine Islands (then also known as
part of the Spanish East Indies) on
January 20, 1872. Around 200 locally
recruited colonial troops and laborers rose
up in the belief that it would elevate to a
national uprising. The mutiny was
unsuccessful, and government soldiers
executed many of the participants and
began to crack down on a burgeoning
Philippines nationalist movement. Many
scholars believe that the Cavite Mutiny of
1872 was the beginning of Filipino
nationalism that would eventually lead to
the Philippine Revolution of 1896.[2]
Cavite mutiny

Part of the Philippine revolts against Spain

"Ang Pag-aaklas sa Kabite ng 1872" historical


marker for the Cavite mutiny at Fort San Felipe in
Cavite City, 1872
Date January 20, 1872

Location Fort San Felipe, Cavite, Spanish East


Indies (Philippine Islands)

Result Spanish victory

Execution of Gomburza
Forced exile of many Philippine
liberals to Hong Kong, Japan,
Marianas and other places.
Beginning of Filipino nationalism
leading to the Philippine
Revolution of 1896 and later the
Philippine–American War (1899–
1902)

Belligerents
Kingdom of Spain Filipino workers and
Spanish Empire military personnel

Commanders and leaders


Felipe Ginoves Ferdinand La Madrid

Strength

One regiment, four Around 200 soldiers


cannons and laborers

Causes
The primary cause of the mutiny is
believed to be an order from Governor-
General Rafael de Izquierdo to subject the
soldiers of the Engineering and Artillery
Corps to personal taxes, from which they
were previously exempt. The taxes
required them to pay a monetary sum as
well as to perform forced labor called, polo
y servicio. The mutiny was sparked on
January 20, when the laborers received
their pay and realized the taxes as well as
the falla, the fine one paid to be exempt
from forced labor, had been deducted from
their salaries.

Battle
Their leader was Fernando La Madrid, a
mestizo sergeant with his second in
command Jaerel Brent Pedro, a moreno .
They seized Fort San Felipe and killed
eleven Spanish officers. The mutineers
thought that fellow Filipino indigenous
soldiers in Manila would join them in a
concerted uprising, the signal being the
firing of rockets from the city walls on that
night.[1]:107 Unfortunately, what they
thought to be the signal was actually a
burst of fireworks in celebration of the
feast of Our Lady of Loreto, the patron of
Sampaloc. News of the mutiny reached
Manila, the Spanish authorities feared for
a massive Filipino uprising. The next day, a
regiment led by General Felipe Ginovés
besieged the fort until the mutineers
surrendered. Ginovés then ordered his
troops to fire at those who surrendered,
including La Madrid. The rebels were
formed in a line, when Colonel Sabas
asked who would not cry out, "Viva
España", and shot the one man who
stepped forward.[1]:107 The remainder were
sent to prison.[1]:107

Aftermath
In the immediate aftermath of the mutiny,
some Filipino soldiers were disarmed and
later sent into exile on the southern island
of Mindanao. Those suspected of directly
supporting the mutineers were arrested
and executed. The mutiny was used by the
colonial government and Spanish friars to
implicate three secular priests, Mariano
Gómez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora,
collectively known as Gomburza. They
were executed by garrote on the Luneta
field, also known in the Tagalog language
as Bagumbayan, on 17th February
1872.[1]:107 These executions, particularly
those of the Gomburza, were to have a
significant effect on people because of the
shadowy nature of the trials. José Rizal,
whose brother Paciano was a close friend
of Burgos, dedicated his work, El
filibusterismo, to these three priests.

On January 27, 1872, Governor-General


Rafael Izquierdo approved the death
sentences on forty-one of the mutineers.
On February 6, eleven more were
sentenced to death, but these were later
commuted to life imprisonment. Others
were exiled to other islands of the colonial
Spanish East Indies such as Guam,
Mariana Islands, including the father of
Pedro Paterno, Maximo Paterno, Antonio
M. Regidor y Jurado, and José María
Basa.[1]:107–108 The most important group
created a colony of Filipino expatriates in
Europe, particularly in the Spanish capital
of Madrid and Barcelona, where they were
able to create small insurgent
associations and print publications that
were to advance the claims of the seeding
Philippine Revolution.
Finally, a decree was made, stating there
were to be no further ordinations
/appointments of Filipinos as Roman
Catholic parish priests.[1]:107 In spite of the
mutiny, the Spanish authorities continued
to employ large numbers of native Filipino
troops, carabineros and civil guards in
their colonial forces through the 1870s–
1890s until the Spanish–American War of
1898.[3]

Back story
During the short trial, the captured
mutineers testified against José Burgos.
The state witness, Francisco Saldua,
declared that he had been told by one of
the Basa brothers that the government of
Father Burgos would bring a navy fleet of
the United States to assist a revolution
with which Ramón Maurente, the
supposed field marshal, was financing
with 50,000 pesos. The heads of the friar
orders held a conference and decided to
dispose Burgos by implicating him to a
plot. One Franciscan friar disguised as
Burgos and suggested a mutiny to the
mutineers. The senior friars used an una
fuerte suma de dinero or a banquet to
convince Governor-General Rafael de
Izquierdo that Burgos was the mastermind
of the coup. Gómez and Zamora were
close associates of Burgos, so they too
were included in the allegations.

See also
Philippine revolts against Spain
Fort San Felipe (Cavite)
Mutiny

References
1. Foreman, J., 1906, The set course for her
patrol area off the northeastern coast of
the main Japanese island Honshū. She
arrived, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
2. Chandler, David P. In search of Southeast
Asia: a modern history. University of Hawaii
Press. ISBN 0-8248-1110-0.
3. Field, Ron. Spanish–American War 1898.
pp. 98–99. ISBN 1-85753-272-4.

External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related
to 1872 Cavite mutiny.

The Cavite Mutiny - 12 Events That Have


Influenced Filipino History

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