You are on page 1of 79

Nahar Spinning Mills Ltd.

Textile Internship Report

Under the guidance of:-

Mr Gangadhar Malik

(Assistant professor,

NIFT-Bhubaneswar)

Ms.Sulagna Saha

(Assistant professor

NIFT-Bhubaneswar)

Submitted By:

Aarushi Susovita

Annupriya

Priyal Nakil

Rasmita Das

Department Of Fashion Technology


CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report is based on our original research work, conducted under
the guidance of Mr Gangadhar Malik and Ms Sulagna Saha towards partial fulfillment of the
requirement for award of
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to thank Nahar Spinning Mills LTD, Ludhiana for giving us the opportunity to
undergo training at the textile department and for extending their support towards us all
throughout our internship.

We would also like to thank National Institute of Fashion Technology Bhubaneswar, for giving
us this opportunity and facilitating our internship.

It was a great learning experience throughout to see one of the most well planned and advanced
textile units. We take the opportunity to thank all the people who guided us through the entire
process and made our training a success by sharing their knowledge.

We would like to thank Mr. Anil Sharma, Vice Chairman at NAHAR without whose support
and guidance the internship couldn’t have been completed.

We are also grateful to our college mentors Mr. Gangadhar Malik & Mrs. Sulagna Saha for
guiding us at every stage and making this wonderful learning experience a great success.
OBJECTIVE:
The project is based on a two week internship, in Nahar Spinning Mills. It covers all the
information and learning experience related to manufacturing of textiles.

 Spinning
 Knitting
 Dyeing
 Finishing
 Testing
 Packaging

The main objective of the internship was to understand

 Basic principles of production of textiles


 In depth study and understanding of all process involved in textile production and the
machinery & equipments used.
 Knowledge about the company
 Understanding the company process flow in production
 Study the work environment and practice followed for textile production.
 Asses the faults and critical factors of production and determine the practices adopted by
Nahar Spinning Mills Ltd.
CONTENT

SL NO TITLE PAGE NUMBER

1 INTRODUCTION 1

2 RISHAB SPINNING MILL (INTRODUCTION) 2

3 VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS 4

4 LAYOUT OF THE UNIT 5

5 PROCESS FLOW OF MATERIAL 6

6 MACHINE DETAILS OF UNIT 7

7 SPINNING PROCESS 8 – 44

8 TESTING MACHINES 44 – 49

9 KNITTING 50 – 53

10 DYEING METHODS & MACHINERY 54 – 60

11 FINISHING 61 – 67

12 TESTING OF FABRIC 68

13 OBSERVATIONS & SUGGESTIONS 69

14 REFRENCE 70
INTRODUCTION

The company was established in 1949 on a small scale with a big vision. The burning desire to evolve, grow
and one-day position itself as a responsible and repute corporate entity play out its role in
improving the people’s quality of life through their products service remained a driving force.
With Great Spirit enterprise, boundless enthusiasm, grit and determination the company was able
to ass new dimension to their philosophy ‘’WHERE COMMITMENT LEADS ACHIEVMENTS
FOLLOWS´.

Nahar started its industry with 800 spindles and is now a conglomerate with a wide
ranging portfolio from Spinning, Knitting, Fabrics, and Hosiery Garments to Sugar. The turnover
of the group is $ 450 million inclusive of export turnover of $ 115 million. The markets of the Nahar are spread
all over the world. The objective is meeting the buyers expectations with consistent quality backed by
R&D division equipped with latest equipment, cream of highly qualified technocrats adhering to
timely schedules.

Nahar has capacity to produce 40,000 pieces of Garment per day. India’s one of the largest
Hosiery/Knitwear Manufactures and exporters, having prestigious buyers like I-ZOD, OLD
NAVY, GAP, CHAPS, PHILIPS-VAN-HEUSEN etc.

In domestic market it holds its own Hi-Profiled Top rated brands - MONTE CARLO,
CANTERBURY and COTTONCOUNTY for wide range of garments. It has been recognized as
a STAR EXPORT HOUSE awarded by govt. of India. The production facilities have been awarded
ISO 9002/ ISO 14002 Certification and Okotex Certification. Jawaharlal Oswal public
charitable trust which runs free dispensaries in remote areas to fulfill the medical needs of the
under privileged and Mohanlal Oswal memorial hospital, promoted by oswal woolen mills,
but run as charitable institution catering to vast cross section of society.
RISHAB SPINNING MILL
Rishab Spinning Mills, Jodhan is a Unit of Nahar Group of Companies, which was established in
the year 1991 with 25000 spindles and it has now 91104 spindles and is producing 55 tons of
cotton, Blended Melange and other various type of yarn. It is exporting its 60% products to
several countries like USA, UK, France, Netherlands, Japan, Canada, Korea, Taiwan, Hong-
Kong, Singapore, Egypt, Russia, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The bulk of the remaining 40% of
the production is used as captive consumption to meet the requirements of its own for knitting &
hosiery items which are exported to the above mentioned countries in the form of fabric and
Garments. The small residual quantity of yarn is sold in the domestic market. The Mill is
professionally managed and has adopted modern managerial techniques for selection,
recruitment, training/development and motivation of the entire workforce and enjoys very
pleasant, peaceful and harmonious industrial relations.

AWARDS : Certified By: B.I.S. New Delhi

1. ISO 9001: 2008 (Quality Management Sys.)


2. ISO14001: 2004(Environmental Management Sys.)
3. OEKO-TEX Standards 100(Shirley tech. Ltd. U.K.)
(Confidence in Textile, Tested for harmful
substance)

4. CONTROL UNION Certification (GOTS, OE &


OCS)
5. ECO-CERT Certification (GOTS, OE & OCS)
6. USTERIZED (Uster tech. Switzerland)
(An authorization to use the Usterized by Uster tech)
7. COOLMAX(DuPont Inc., U.S.A)

NAME : Rishab Spinning Mills Ltd


BUSINESS : Manufacturing of 100% Cotton,
Blended Yarn & Slub Yarn
CORPORATE OFFICE : 373, Industrial Area “A” Ludhiana (Punjab)
WORKS : Vill. Jodhan, Distt. Ludhiana (PB)
EMPLOYEE STRENGTH : 1500
TURN OVER : 150 Crore
AREA : 55 Acre
CAPACITY : 119904 Spindles
Unit 1 - 42192 unit 2 - 24912
Unit 3 - 24000 unit4 – 28800
EXPORT MARKET : USA, UK, RUSSIA, EGYPT, BANGLADESH, SRI
LANKA, PAKISTAN, TAIWAN, HONGKONG,
SINGAPORE, GERMANY, FRANCE, NETHERLAND,
MOURITIUS AND KOREA
ELECTRIC SUPPLY
Mill has its own power supply from power station and by diesel generator (D.G.) also.

MILL CAPACITY (SPINDLES)


UNIT NO. OF SPINDLES
1 ST 42192
2 ND 24912
3 RD 24000
4 TH 28800
TOTAL 119904

ACTUAL RUNNING PRODUCTION


80 Tons/day

PRODUCTION
Ring Spun 100% Cotton Combed Yarn
Ring Spun 100% Cotton Carded Yarn

THREE SHIFTS
Shift Time
Morning 7.00 A.M. to 3.00 P.M.
Evening 3.00 P.M. to 11.00 P.M.
Night 11.00 A.M. to 7.00 A.M.
VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS OF THE MILLS

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT
1. To make best quality yarn.
2. To give maximum production & reduce waste.
3. To handle man power effectively so as to get maximum production.

MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT
1. Routine checkup of the machine.
2. To change the spare parts as per requirement.
3. Oiling & greasing of the machine as per schedule.
4. Keep machine healthy and productive for both quality and production wise.

PERSONNEL AND ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENT


1. Recruitment of various employees, workers & officers.
2. Placements at proper place & their training and development.
3. Record attendance.
4. Maintain industrial relationship & welfare.
5. Implementation of management decisions / policies.
6. Dispersement of salary & wages.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT


1. To check quality of input material, in process & final product.
2. Standardization of saleable waste.
3. Standardization of quality standards.
4. To assure the quality of product at various stages of spinning process.

COMMERCIAL DEPARTMENT
1. Receive the raw material, other materials and stacking in raw material go downs
2. Quality wise & in main stores.
3. Issue of raw material & other materials.
4. Stocking of finished goods in go downs & dispatch to the buyers.

ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
1. To ensure optimum use of plant and machinery.
2. To ensure power supply.
3. To ensure optimum efficiency of machines.
LAYOUT OF THE UNIT
PROCESS FLOW OF MATERIAL
DETAILS OF THE MACHINES IN THE UNIT
NO OF
SL NO M/C NAME COMPANY MODEL YEAR
M/C’s

1 BALE PLUCKER M/C LAKSHMI, INDIA LA23/S 2011 1

2 VARIO CLEAN M/C LAKSHMI, INDIA LB9/2 2011 1

3 UNIMIX M/C LAKSHMI, INDIA LB7/4 2011 2

SUPREMO CLEAN
4 LAKSHMI, INDIA LB10/2 2012 4
M/C

CONTAMINATION
5 LOPTEX, ITALY HRS120 2011 2
CONTROLLING M/C

6 CARDING M/C LAKSHMI, INDIA LC333 2011,12 24

BREAKER RIETER,
7 SB20 2011 3
DRAWFRAME M/C SWITZERLAND

RIETER,
8 OMEGA LAP M/C E35 2011 2
SWITZERLAND

RIETER,
9 COMBING M/C E66 2010,11 12
SWITZERLAND

FINISHED DRAW RIETER,


10 RSB-D40C 2011 7
FRAMEM/C SWITZERLAND

11 SIMPLEX M/C LAKSHMI, INDIA LF400/A 2011 6

12 RING FRAME M/C LAKSHMI, INDIA LR9/AXL 2011 20

MURATEC,
13 WINDING 21C 2011 20
JAPAN

YARN ELGI WELKER,


14 VAPOFIX 2011 1
CONDITIONING M/C INDIA

RAW MATERIAL
Introduction
Raw materials are direct input with pre requirement to produce output of desired quality and
characteristics. Raw material department has to endure extreme pressure generated in view
present international scenario where „consistent quality‟ is the success slogan. The mixing
department takes this care of.

Role of raw material department


 It ensures regular flow material to the production unit. It has to maintain the stock
position of various raw materials and send it to corporate raw material department for
day-to-day planning and decision making raw material.
 It also ensures proper storage of raw material; cotton.

Type of cotton used


 J-34 (Indian cotton)
 S-6 (Indian cotton)
 H4 (Indian cotton)
 100% organic (Indian cotton)

Various cotton stations


 J-34 Bhatinda, Bhocho,
 DBC, Mahsa, Maurmandi,
 Bareta H-4 Beed, Sihorbangla, kasoda, Phoolbari , Nagardewla, Jarbhani
 MECH-1 Gevro , sonadetch ,
 ABD S-6 Babra , Kadi , Botod, Saper , Godawari

Raw Material Sampling and Testing Procedure


 Generally a lot comprises 55 bales or 75 bales or 100 bales. To prepare 10 to 20% of total
bales are selected at random. Station no. is present on lots.
 For testing the sample hood is broken & sample from sides is collected to make a sample
of 9 to 9.5 gm.
 Sample forwarding is done with each sample to be packed in polythene bag engraved
with following information.

Bale No., Quality, Mill, and Lot No. , P.S. No. , Station, Bargain No. , P mark, Season. Reports
is prepared in comparison with the set standard by R&D department and then forwarded to
mixing department for preparing a mix of same properties & prevent variation in yarn.

MIXING
Objective of Mixing
 To reduce cost of working.
 To have uniform distribution type of cotton so as to prevent quality variation in yarn.
 To remove contamination & waste by sorting.
 Price & grade of cotton is also kept in mind while laying mixing.

Mixing
100% J-34 Cotton used

Types of mixing
 Fix Mixing - No. of bales are fixed
 Tapper Mixing - Day-to-day, no. of bales are changed

General Bale Details

 No. of bales 120


 Avg. wt. of J-34 bale 165 Kg
 Size of bale 127cm*56*45cm

Type of Contamination Removed in sorting

 Plastic dori
 Thread (color)
 Paper
 Yellow cotton
 Cloth
 Wood
 Polythene
 Leather
 Wires
 Hair
 Feather
 Sutli

Limitations
 Fiber must have same origin.
 Trash content should not be very high.
 3. Color grade in raw material must be comparatively same.
 4. Fineness of cotton must be nearly same.
Temperature and Humidity

 Temperature: 28-38 o C
 Humidity: 50-55 %

BLOWROOM
In processing the material, different types of machines are necessary, namely those suitable for
opening, those for cleaning and those for blending. Different intensities of processing are also
required, because the tufts continually become smaller as they pass from stage to stage.
Accordingly, while a coarsely clothed cleaning assembly is ideal after the bale opener, for
example, it is inappropriate at the end of the line. Therefore, there are no universal machines, and
a blow room line is a sequence of different machines arranged in series and connected by
transport ducts. In its own position in the line, each machine gives optimum performance – at
any other position it gives less than its optimum. Also there may be advantages in different
modes of transport, feeding, processing, and cleaning and so on from one machine to another
along the line. Finally, the assembly of a blow room line depends among other things on:

 the type of raw material.


 the characteristics of the raw material.
 waste content.
 dirt content.
 material throughout.
 the number of different origins of the material in a given blend.

Objectives of Blow room Opening of fibers.

 Cleaning of fibers.
 Proper blending of fibers.
 Removal of dust & dirt.
 Removal of heavy waste and seeds etc.

The above is achieved by the following processes in the blow room :-


 Pre opening
 Pre cleaning
 Mixing or blending
 Fine opening
 Deducting
Pre Opening
Effective preopening results in smaller tuft sizes, thus creating a large surface area for easy and
efficient removal of trash particles by the fine openers.

Pre Cleaning
Pre cleaning should be gentle, since removing fine trash particles is difficult, seeds and bigger
trash particle should not be broken.

Blending
To mix the different varieties of cotton bales thoroughly. This will give a homogeneous
distribution of fiber in the yarn cross section.

Cleaning Efficiency
 Cleaning efficiency of the machine is the ratio of the trash removed by the machine to
that of total trash fed to the machine, expressed as percentage
 Cleaning efficiency % = ((trash in feed % - trash in Del %) x 100) / (trash in feed %)
 Cleaning efficiency of blow room = 40%- 60%

Fire Prevention System Available


 Fire bucket water
 Bucket sand
 Fire extinguisher of different types
 Fire diverters ELGI ARGUS
 Hose Reel
 Hose Pipe
PROCESS FLOW OF A BLOWROOM LINE
BALE PLUCKER
Bale Plucker is a fully automatic machine manufactured by LAKSHMI. It is important section of
Blow Room line in spinning department. It is bale-plucking device. Simultaneously mixing is
done by this machine. By using this machine we can directly take the cotton tuft from bale &
send it for further processing. It can move left & right traverse and pluck the bale cotton.

Objectives of Bale Plucker


 The basic objective of bale plucker is to open the bales into smaller & lighter tufts.
 To transfer this material to various other machines of blow room line for further
processing.

Salient features of Bale Plucker


 Opening the raw material into extremely small tufts by means of whirl disc beater secure
homogeneous blending, intensive yet gently cleaning, and maximum deducting thereby
laying the foundation for very high yarn regularity.
 The special design of the opening roll enables to be worked off in both direction traverses
as essential production.
 Retaining roll enables all the material to be worked off completely, down to floor.

The setting of BALE PLUCKER system depends upon two factors:-


 Overall production of unit
 Length of belt

AEROTEC
From Bale Plucker material passes through Aerotec. It has eight grid bars in which first three
narrow width and last five are greater width. Impurities and heavy particles falls down through
grid bars by gravity force. Material is fed by air suction and delivered by air suction. The
impurities fallen down in the waste box.

VARIO CLEAN
The cotton enters the beater chamber through inlet pipe & comes immediately under the action
of the Twin element Beater, rotating at 500 rpm.Due to power sweeps of blades, there is both the
reduction in size & mass of cotton & high extraction of trash. There is minimum fiber loss with
maximum trash content in the dropping, which is collected in the trash box.
Objectives of Varioclean

 It opens and cleans all types of cotton.


 It gives an efficient cleaning.
 It opens the cotton lumps with the help of pin type beater.

Salient Features of Varioclean

 Higher Production up to 1500 kg /hr.


 Twin element Beater for gentle cleaning and effective opening.
 Opening, cleaning and de-dusting combined.
 Effective micro-dust and seeds removal.
 Roller type waste collection system.
 Cleaning efficiency up to 40%.

UNIMIX
The material supplied is segregated into layers by the partition. Mixing occurs by displacement
of the material entry and material exit. The spike lattice remove material simultaneously from al
layers so that homogenous mixing occur. The take off roller removes the material from the spike
lattice while the tufts are pneumatically sucked off.

Objectives of Unimix

 To achieve extremely good homogenous and consistent blend of material.


 Large amount of tufts volume is to be achieved with space required.
 Intensive blending through simultaneous feeding of the entire vertical
 Fiber deposing in chutes by turbulent airflow.

In UNIMIX turbulent air system is used to feed fiber into six vertical trunks. The m/c is made up
of three parts:-

 A Storage section
 An Intermediate chamber
 Delivery section

Salient Features of Unimix


 Production up to 600 kg / hr. (without opening roller) 400 kg/hr. (with opening roller).
 Infinitely variable production to meet any requirement.
 Larger buffer volume
 Integrated Cleaning Connected to an Automatic Waste Removal System
SUPREMOCLEAN
It is a fine cleaning machine with a high productivity & cleaning efficiency. The availability of
different types of opening roller ensures optimum & gentle opening & maximum cleaning
efficiency for wide variety of fibers. Thus results in lower maintenance & operating cost.

Objectives of Supremoclean
 To clean efficiently.
 To transfer the material for further processing.

A fan draws the flocks by suction from the preceding machine and ejects them into a filling
chute. The rear wall of the chute consists of individual aluminum lamellae with slot openings
through which the air can escape.

Salient Features of Supremoclean


 Production up to 600 kg / hr. with minimum space requirement.
 Infinitely variable production achieved by inverter drive.
 Controlled fibre feed for optimum opening and maximum cleaning efficiency.
 Fine opening achieved by Saw tooth beaters

LOPTEX

 This is the latest technology machine which separates the colour or colour less
contamination by sensor. This machine is fully electronic controlled. There is sonic and
optical system placed upon it which analyzes the raw material passing through the duct.
 3000 optical sensors are there to detect the colour material on the basis of colour
principle. Cotton is in white or in dull white colour while impurities which are in other
colour are separated by this sensor. There are 6 tube lights used inside the loptex for
better identification between cotton and color less contamination.
 The sorter of the Loptex integrates the detection & rejection system of foreign material
into the duct of the preparation line with no alteration to the transport speed.

Objectives of Loptex

 It actually separate out the color contamination.


 It has a camera through which it can supervise the material.
 As soon as it seen any colored thing, It separate that portion of material.
 It is useful for color contamination.

Salient features of Loptex


 It has rectangular section.
 Standard florescent light tubes and photo sensor located on both side of fibre flow.
 The light level detected relate to the difference in brightness between contamination and
normal fibres.
 The contaminated material is ejected in to waste by high speed value.
 A computer with key board & display controls the system & visualize the respective data.

CARDING
"Card is the heart of the spinning mill" and "Well carded is half spun" are two proverbs of the
experts. The blow room process opens the compressed bale of cotton into small tufts. it removes
the 65%to 75%trash present in the cotton. Due to its higher rates of production, fibre to fibre
separation & complete trash cannot be achieved in the blow room. The condition of fibres at this
stage is not suitable for drafting & spinning. They need additional processes like carding and
drawing.

Objectives of Carding

 To open the flocks in individual fibres.


 Cleaning or elimination of impurities.
 Reduction of neps.
 Elimination of dust.
 Elimination of short fibres.
 Fibre blending.
 Sliver formation.

Salient Features of Carding

 High Production.
 Modular Construction.
 PLC system ensures leveled material.
 Aluminum alloy cylinder cover plates.
MATERIAL FLOWING IN CARDING
ACTION IN CARDING MACHINE
The following actions take place in a carding machine:-
 Combing action.
 Carding action.
 Stripping action.
 Doffing action.

Combing action
Combing action takes place feed roller & taken in. Here the pin directions of two surfaces are the
same. Combing is the straightening & paralleling of fibers & the removal of short fibers &
impurities by using a comb or combs which is assisted by roller & brushed.

Carding action
Carding action takes place between flat & cylinder. In carding action,
 Directions of wire in two surfaces are opposite.
 The moving directions of roller are also opposite.
 One roller is slower & other is faster.
So carding action is known as “Point against point” action.

Stripping action
Stripping action takes place between,
 Taker in and Cylinder &
 Doffer and stripper.

In stripping action,

 Wire direction will be the same.


 Roller moving direction will be the same.
 One roller will be faster than another.

So stripping action is known as “Point back point” action.

Doffing action
This action takes place between cylinder & doffer. In this place fiber is transferred from cylinder
to doffer. Low speed doffer is called fiber form of high speed cylinder & makes a condensed web
for formation of sliver.
BREAKER DRAW FRAME (SB-20)

Draw frame is a very critical machine in the spinning process. Its influence on quality, especially
on evenness is very big. If Draw frame is not set properly, it will also result in drop in yarn
strength and yarn elongation at break. The faults in the sliver that come out of Draw frame
cannot be corrected. It will pass into the yarn.
The SB-20 machines unite the fed sliver; draft them into drafting arrangement& delivers them
into form of sliver coiled in a can. In whole spinning process we always reduce the linear density
of raw material.

In carded sliver variation is more in density, so to get uniform sliver, this process of drawing the
sliver has to be carried out. Here the drafting and doubling occurs together sliver mixing is also
done in this process, hence it is of great importance to carry out the process of DRAWING.

Objectives of Breaker Drawframe

 To parallelize and straighten the fibers in card sliver along the sliver axis.
 To improve the regularity in linear density of card sliver by doubling.
 To lay the sliver in can with uniform coils forming a clear center hole.
 Micro dust removal.
 Blending of material in sliver form.
 To improve the sliver quality.

Salient features of the machine

 Antifriction bearing with continuous lubrication has been used whenever possible.
 The drafting system is spring weighted.

Material flow in SB-20

Can Capacity

 Length of sliver : 8500 meter


 Weight of sliver : 47 Kg
 Can height : 40 inch
 Can diameter : 48 inch

Stop Motions

 When selected length of material is deposited in machine will stop on the empty can
absent.
 Top roller comes in contact with feed roller if any sliver break.
 In case of lapping, spring holder too comes in contact with feed roller if any sliver break.
If the sliver jams between the coiler in contact with table.
 If the creel roller comes in contact with table.
 Optical stop motion if the sliver breaks between can and creel roller.

Suction System

 There are suction points at various places


 Top and bottom of drafting system.
 Top suction box to open with 3 suction nozzles.
 Bottom suction funnel.
 End of sliver tube.
 Sliver funnel.
 Calendar rolls.

OMEGA LAP
The carded and drawn material is further attenuated on the speed frame and ring frames. The
quality of yarn of spun by using sequence of processing does not reach high level. This is
because of the presence of short fiber in the sliver. The process of combing is introduced for
reducing the short fiber content in the material and for improving the fiber configuration.
Consequently, combed material gives more even and stronger yarn which contains less neps as
well. Omega lap is used for making laps of sliver by doubling and compression.
Objectives of Omega lap

 The main object of this machine to convert the sliver into lap sheet.
 Improve the regularity of card sliver.
 Improve the orientation of fibres.
 Combining a number of slivers into a lap that is ideal for the combing operation.
 Creating a batt with sufficient cohesion to ensure good lap winding.
 Orienting the fibers to the point that they are optimal for both the lap condition and
combing action.

MATERIAL FLOW IN OMEGA LAP


COMBER
The carded and drawn material is further attenuated on the speed frame and ring frames. The
quality of yarn of spun by using sequence of processing does not reach high level. This is
because of the presence of short fiber in the sliver. The process of combing is introduced for
reducing the short fiber content in the material and for improving the fiber configuration.
Consequently, combed material gives more even and stronger yarn which contains less NEP as
well.

Objectives of Comber

 Parallelization of fibers
 Elimination of predetermined short fiber.
 Elimination of remaining impurities.
 Removal of large proportion of napes and hooks in the fiber material.
 Formation of sliver having maximum possible evenness.

Types of feeding in Comber

Forward Feeding - It is widely used feeding. It is the feeding which takes place during forward
movement of nipper. It is better as compared to backward feeding.
Backward Feeding - In this feed the material enters only during backward movement of nipper. It
increases the amount of noil as compared to forward feed. In this feeding is more per revolution
of nipper.

In forward feed - Higher the feed length, lesser the waste %.


In backward feed - Higher the feed length, higher the waste %.

The no. of teeth on ratchet wheel is high, the feed length reduces and lesser is the feed length
better is the quality in both type of feed. The feed length is high, higher production and lesser
cleanliness of combed sliver. With modern high performance machine (combing operation and
combers) this usually no longer applies.

Main parameters influencing Combing

Raw material:-

 fiber type;
 fiber fineness (Micronaire);
 fiber length;
 uniformity of fiber length (CV);
 fiber stiffness;
 moisture content;
 Foreign material associated with the fibers.

Material preparation:-

 parallelization of the fibers in the sheet (batt);


 butt thickness;
 butt evenness;
 Orientation of the hooks.

Factors associated with the machine:-

 condition of the machine;


 condition of the combs;
 speeds;
 operational performance of the combs;
 type of sliver forming element (diagonal shift of the piecings);
 accuracy of the settings;
 drafting arrangement;
 movement of the elements;
 weight of the elements.
Ambient conditions:-
 room temperature;
 relative humidity in the room

MATERIAL FLOW IN COMBER


FINISHER DRAWFRAME (RSB-D-40C)

The Draw frame is a one-delivery draw frame with leveling system. This model is equipped with
4-over-3 draft system with pressure bar as well as with cleaning and suction systems.

Objective of Finisher Draw frame

 To parallelize cress-cross fiber in the sliver.


 To improve the regularity in length/weight of the sliver.
 Remove the hooks present in the sliver and hence to straighten the fiber.
 Thoroughly mix different type of fiber so as to give homogenous blending.
 More than 80% of incoming dust is extracted.

Important Features and Advantage


 The high delivery speed of up to 500 m/min and a production of up to 360kg/hr.
guarantee high efficiency.
 The pneumatically loaded 3 cylinder pressure bar drafting system make the processing of
noils as well as fiber of a staple length of up to 75mm possible.
 The labor cost is considerably reduced by an increase of the can content.
 This is achieved by means of sliver compression before coiling and a can movement
supper imposed over the normal circular movement of the can.
 The efficiency of the draw frame can be increased by adding the modular automatic can
changer

Dust removal
The draw frame is provided a suction system in drafting zone which removes the dust, short
fibers tending to adhere to the roller during drafting.

MATERIAL FLOW OF FINISHER DRAWFRAME


SPEED FRAME (LF 4200/A)
The draw frame produces a sliver that already exhibits all the characteristics required for the
creation of a yarn, namely an ordered, clean strand of fibers lying parallel to one another. It is a
fair question to ask why this sliver is not used as in feed material for the ring spinning machine,
instead of being processed in an expensive manner to create a roving as feed for spinning. The
roving machine itself is complicated, liable to faults, causes defects, adds to production costs and
delivers a product that is sensitive in both of the winding and unwinding. Use of the machine is
forced upon the spinner as a necessary evil.
Objectives of Speed Frame

 To reduce the thickness of D/f sliver to from a relatively fine fibrous strand of the
material know as ROVING.
 To insert amount of twist into the drawn out thinned material in order to avoid breakage.
 To wound the delivered roving into a bobbin suitable for the next m/c.

Function of the Builder Motion

 Reversing the carriage motion after each traverse.


 Shortening the traverse after each reversal.
 Shifting of cone belt after each traversing winding.

Automatic Doffing of Speed frame


Automatic roving tension control
Roving tension is maintained at an optimal level by means of two Automatic roving tension
controllers and through the individual servo motors. Automatic roving tension controller fine
tunes bobbin drive and controls uniform tension throughout bobbin build which results in better
stretch% values.

Important Features and Advantages

 3 roller drafting system with higher draft (max 16).


 Herring bone fluted rollers.
 Top rollers of reduced width.
 Individual floating condensers.
 Positively driven top
 Bottom cleaning devices.
 Modified creel suitable for 20” dia. can (max).
 Pneumatic suction for roving as well as top
 Bottom clearer device.

Parts of Machine

 Creel
 Transport Roller
 Sliver Guide
 Sliver Sensor
 Drafting Rollers
 Pressure Arm
 Top Roll Clearer
 Bottom Roll Clearer
 Cradle
 Twist Master
 Flyer
 Finger
 Bobbin
 Spindle

Material flow of Speed frame

Change Places

 Draft change gear.


 Twist change gear.
 Cone change gear.
 Winding pitch carriage gear.
 Traverse change gear.
Stop motion

 Roving break stop motion.


 Bobbin safety stops motion.
 Cover stop motion.
Roving Capacity
 Length of roving : 2350 meter
 Weight of sliver : 1.73 Kg

RING FRAME (LR 9/AXL)


Ring spinning is a method of spinning fibers, such as cotton, flax or wool, to make a yarn. The
ring frame developed from the throttle frame, which in its turn was a descendant of Arkwright's
water frame. Ring spinning is a continuous process, unlike mule spinning which uses an
intermittent action. In ring spinning, the roving is first attenuated by using drawing rollers, then
spun and wound around a rotating spindle which in its turn is contained within an independently
rotating ring flyer. Traditionally ring frames could only be used for the coarser counts, but they
could be attended by semi-skilled labor.
Objectives of Ring frame
The spinning process basically consists of three slangs:-

 Reduction of thickness of the supplied roving of the required yarn count... This is usually
done by drafting roller with some means of fiber control such as double apron.
 The prevention of further fiber slippage by twisting the fiber strand and hence increasing
the interfere cohesion.
 Winding onto a package which is convenient for handling and which protects the yarn.

MATERIAL FLOW IN RINGFRAME


WINDING SECTION

Process Coner
Yarn produced at ring frame is taken out in the form of processing and transportation. During
winding various faults such as naps, long thick, short thick, thin places, variation in color of yarn
contamination in yarn etc. are removed.
Objectives of Process Coner

 To produce a package with long continuous length of yarn.


 To produce cone or cheese of specific length.
 To remove weak places, slubs etc. i.e. the yarn should be free from all types of
imperfections.

Precautions to be taken during winding


 Quality of splicing should be such that it does not spoil the appearance and at the same
time the strength loss in spliced yarn should be minimized.
 Important yarn properties like yarn strength, elongation at break, appearance should not
be deteriorated.
 Package should not contain winding faults i.e. hairiness and the no. of neps should not
increase during winding.
 The bobbin is held in the bobbin holder called peg. The bobbin during unwinding
remains stationary.

Bobbin Change
The winding unit computer initiates the bobbin change. If no yarn is present in measuring lot of
the lower end yarn sensor. The winding unit bobbin change linkage ejects the empty bobbin and
checks a new bobbin from the circular magazine in which we can keep at maximum 5 bobbins
and one has to leave empty.

Yarn Guide Drum


The guide grooves of the yarn guide drum place the yarn in cross wound layers on the delivery
package. Simultaneously the circumference of the yarn guide drum drives the delivery package.
This type of package drive has the advantage that the winding speed remains uniform from the
starting to the finishing of the package regardless of the diameter. The yarn guide drum rotated in
opposite direction while the splicing of broken end is to carry out.

Yarn Tensioner
The yarn Tensioner applies uniform winding tension to the yarn in order to remove the thin
places and to obtain desired density of delivery package. At the top there is a sensor, which
senses the tension in the yarn & tries to control the tension around the specified value, which has
been feed in the informatory of the machine.

Electronic Yarn Clearer

To remove the objectionable faults present in the yarn, the electronic yarn clearer is provided.
Following are the common faults-

 Short thick faults


 Long thick faults
 Thin faults

We have decided the setting in the electronic yarn clearer to remove the type and size of faults as
per requirement. The clearer efficiency varies from 80%-90%. Depending on the winding speed
the clearer recognizes the predetermined limits of yarn. At reorganization of the yarn fault
beyond these limits the clear instantly cuts the yarn initiating a winding unit stop and a
subsequent joining cycle.

Splicing Of Yarn
Utilizing compressed air, the splicer whirls the yarn ends together forming knot less yarn. The
tensile strength of the splice is nearly identical to yarn strength. The two cut ends are inserted
either into a mechanical device which tapers them and intermingles the fibers or into air vortex
tube which untwists them and extracts the loose fibers thereby forming two correct lengths for
splicing. Splice testing takes place automatically at the winding unit start as the splice pass
through the clearer’s measuring slot.

Auto Speed Reduction:


Automatic reduction of speed when the yarn exceeded from a particular decided length on
bobbin. For example- if we have set a length of 5200m. Then after consuming or winding the
5200m length yarn of bobbin the speed of groove drum automatically reduces to 80% for the rest
length of yarn on bobbin.

MATERIAL FLOW IN PROCESS CONER


Function of waxing

 Yarn strength increases


 Removes the hairiness of yarn
 Improves the shining of yarn
 Used for hosiery yarn

Yarn Fault Removed By Autoconer

 N/S/L Thick places


 T Thin places
 C/CC/PC Count pearl
 FD Foreign matter dark
 FL Foreign matter light
 J/U Channels, cleaning fancy yarn

CONDITIONING
Objectives of Conditioning

 To improve yarn quality i.e. hairiness is reduced.


 Strength of yarn is increased.
 Weight of package is increased.
 To give the moisture to yarn.

Xorella (machine used for conditioning)

Check Point
Cones are checked by using ULTRA VOILET RAY. If in a trolley a different count yarn cone is
remained it will be determined because in UV ray different count yarn give different brightness.

Pre-Conditioning

In Preconditioning Room There Are Two Nozzles, Nozzles Spray Water And Heaters Convert
Waters To Water Vapor. Cones Truly Remain In This Room For Two Hours.
PACKING

Cones obtained from the conditioning are sent to the packing section. There are two types of
packing :-

 Domestic packing
 Export packing

Parameter Domestic Packing Export Packing


Packing device Carton & Bag Carton
Cones 24 24
Cone Weight 2kg 1.89kg
Packing Weight 48kg 45.360kg

 Dimensions of carton = 770*390*510 mm


 Proper care is taken for packing the material export purpose.
 The packed material obtained is kept in the go down and transport to its destination
afterwards.

Different Types of Testing Machine

AFIS (ADVANCE FIBRE INFORMATION SYSTEM)

This machine is used for the fiber testing which is goes to the mixing. In these machine, the
module are used.

 Nep module
 Length module
 Maturity module

Sample Size: - 0.5gm

These m/c gives the following testing parameter :-

 Neps
 Short Fibre Content By Weight
 Short Fibre Content By Number
 Seed Cots Neps
 Upper Quartel Length (Wt.)
 Upper Quartel Length (No.)
 CV%
 Fineness
 Immature Fibre Content
 Maturity Ratio

USTER HVI 1000 (HIGH VALUE INSTRUMENT)


USTER® HVI 1000 is the global reference tool for cotton classification, producing accurate and
reliable results. USTER® HVI 1000 is founded on more than 60 years of fiber testing expertise
and over 30 years of cotton classing experience worldwide. These m/c is also used for the fibre
testing.

In this machine, the module are used.

 Length strength
 Micronaire
 Color+Trash
 Sample size :- 10gm

These m/c gives the following testing parameter:-

 Upper Half Mean Length


 Uniformity Index
 Strength
 Elongation
 Short fibre
 Moisture regain
 Micronaire
 Brightness
 Yellowness
 Grade
 Trash count
 Trash Grade
 Maturity

TENSORAPID
The USTER® TENSORAPID is the most versatile strength tester– for both staple and filament
yarns. These m/c is used for following testing of yarn :-

 Strength of yarn
 Elongation of yarn

Yarn is 10 time tested for accurate testing.


50 cm length of yarn is stretch in these m/c.
USTER TESTER 5
The USTER® TESTER 5 is acknowledged throughout textiles as the global standard in evenness
testing. It means spinners can control yarn quality levels precisely. So it‟s a basis for optimizing
profitability. These tester is used for sliver, roving and yarn testing.

Yarn testing

Yarn speed :- 400m/mint


Yarn length check :-400m

Roving Testing

 Roving speed:-50m/mint
 Roving length check:-50m
Sliver Testing

 Card Sliver speed :- 50m/mint


 Draw Sliver speed :- 25m/mint
 Card sliver length check :- 50m
 Draw sliver length check :- 25m

These m/c gives the following testing parameter :-

 Thick places
 Thin places
 Neps
 Uster%
 CV%

CASCADE MACHINE
These m/c is used for the following testing :-

 Wrapping of yarn
 Strength of yarn
DHANDARI UNIT – KNITTING UNIT
At dhandari unit both circular knitting as well as flat knitting machines are present along with the
variations.

In circular machines the variations present are:-

 Single jersey machine


 Double jersey Machine
 Lycra rib machine
 Auto stripper single jersey machine
 Auto stripper double jersey machine
 Fully jacquard machine

Circular Single Jersey Machine


It is a basic mechanical machine which has 120 feeders and could knit a fabric of 30 diameter &
24 gauges. Except for single jersey the other fabrics that can be made are Pique, Honeycomb,
Terry and Fleece.
For making fleece fabric poly cotton is used at the back and for making terry cotton is used at the
back. Except for this, mechanical single jersey machine the other single jersey machine is also
present which has old mechanism. It has 90 feeders the diameter of the fabric which it produced
is less and its output is also less compared to the fabric which is made in the fully automatic in
the new circular machine.
Lycra ribbed Knitting machine
It is also known as all needle knit machine, because all the needles knit in this machine. It is used
to make 1*1 rib or 2*2 rib etc. In this machine both cylinders and dial work at one point.
Pique Machine
In this pique fabric is made. During our visit, a striper was being made in it. This machine is also
same as single jersey.

Auto Striper Machine


Single jersey type

It has 48 feeders always. It makes the fabric of diameter 30. It can make maximum 5 color
stripper at one time. We can make any kind of stripper on this machine. The cones which contain
the yarn are placed in such a manner on the pole in which the stripper is to be made. In auto
stripper the cutting line is already there.

Double jersey machine;-

It is available in 20.24 & 18 diameter. Cylinder could make 2 shades and dial 1.
0
Fully Automatic Jacquard Machine
In this machine only mercerized yarn is used, it is also known as power flat machine. We can
make fabric for garment body, tape, rib, collar etc. There are 30 power flat machines at dhandari
unit and there are 20 mechanical flat machines. Also there are 30 to 35 power flat machines
present at pearl unit in one hall. At dhandari unit 100 circular machines are installed.

DYEING METHODS AND MACHINERY (DHANDARI UNIT)


Processing sequence

Fabric from Knitting



Inspection of fabric in Grey house, lot preparation & Issue for processing

Loading in the machine

Scouring

Bleaching ( Only when Light and medium shade dyed)

Dyeing

Squeeze the fabric

Continuous Washing

Drying

Stentering (Only if Buyer Requirement )

Compaction

Sueding

Raising

Final Inspection

It was found that winch dyeing machine was used previously which was a manual process.
Colors and chemicals were added manually and there was no parameters of adding water. As
there were some inherent problems. So the Jet dyeing machines were introduced in Nahar which
was fully automated. Jet dyeing machine is the most modern machine used for the dyeing of
polyester using disperse dyes. In this machine the cloth is dyed in rope form which is the main
disadvantage of the machine.

Working Process
In this machine, the dye tank contains disperse dye, dispersing agent, leveling agent and acetic
acid. The solution is filled up in the dye tank and it reaches the heat exchanger where the
solution will be heated which then passed on to the centrifugal pump and then to the filter
chamber. The solution will be filtered and reaches the tubular chamber. Here the material to be
dyed will be loaded and the winch is rotated, so that the material is also rotated. Again the dye
liquor reaches the heat exchanger and the operation is repeated for 20 to 30 minutes at 135
degree Celcius. Then the dye bath is cooled down, after the material is taken out. Metering wheel
is also fixed on winch by external electronic unit. Its purpose is to record the speed of the fabric.
The thermometer, pressure gauge is also fixed in the side of the machine to note the temperature
and pressure under working. A simple device is also fixed to note the shade under working.

Advantages Jet Dyeing Machine


 Dyeing time is short compared to beam dyeing.
 Material to liquor ratio is 1:5 (or) 1:6
 Production is high compared to beam dyeing machine.
 Low consumption of water

Disadvantages Jet Dyeing Machine

 Cloth is dyed in rope form


 Risk of entanglement
 Chance for crease formation.
 High initial investment and maintenance cost is high

Ring soft flow

The automatic machine which is a type of jet dyeing machine used in the dhandari dyeing
department. Here loading and unloading is done manually and it functions automatically. Nahar
has almost 17-18 automatic machines. These machines are specially Hongkong based and
Korean based.In the soft flow dyeing machine water is used for keeping the fabric in circulation.
The conceptional difference of this equipment from a conventional jets that operates with a
hydraulic system is that the fabric rope is kept circulating during the whole processing cycle
(right from loading to unloading).
There is no stopping of liquor or fabric circulation for usual drain and fill steps. The principle
working behind the technique is very unique. There is a system for fresh water to enter the vessel
via a heat exchanger to a special interchange zone. At the same time the contaminated liquor is
allowed channel out through a drain without any sort of contact with the fabric or for that matter
the new bath in the machine.

Key Features of the Machine


 Significant savings in processing time.
 Savings in water that is around 50%.

Excellent separation of different streams results in optimum heat recovery and a distinct
possibility of further use or a dedicated treatment.Textile material can be dyed using batch,
continuous or semi continuous process.
High temperature high pressure soft flow dyeing machine
The vigorous agitation of fabric and dye formulation in the cloth increases the dyeing rate and
uniformity. It minimizes creasing as the fabric is not held in any one configuration for very long.
The lower liquor ration allows shorter dye cycles and saves chemicals and energy.
In soft flow dyeing machines the fabric is transported by a stream of dye liquor. However, the
transport is assisted by a driven lifter reel. These machines use a jet having lower velocity that
that used on conventional jet dyeing machines.The soft flow machines are gentler on the fabric
than conventional jet machines.

Machinery used in mills for processing of knitted good


DYEING DEPARTMENT :

Mostly the Knitted fabric is produced is P/C fabric (Polyester/ Cotton). Because it is very
comfortable to produce T-shirts, Lowers, Swat-shirts, Laggings, Undergarments etc from P/C
fabric. Poly cotton blends do tend to cost less than comparable garments made of 100% cotton
and they provide much more comfort. The 65/35 blend of cotton and polyester is the most
popular for work garments, particularly because of price, durability and a larger color selection
being available for purchase. The Dyes used for Cotton Fabric are Reactive Dyes & Dyes used
for Poly fabric is Disperse Dye. Also the Temperature is very important factor for dyeing of
Poly/ cotton Fabric. Because for cotton fabric the temperate is required abut 130^c and for cotton
Dyeing the temperature is required 60^c.

Normally dyeing of polyester/cotton blended fabric is dyed in two steps. The cost of double bath
dyeing is quite higher than the one step or single bath dyeing. The continuous dyeing technique
of polyester/cotton blended fabric providing advantages of improvement in productivity with
reduced dyes and auxiliary cost and reduce material handling with minimum process time.
However, double bath dyeing of polyester/cotton blend fabric gives far better results in terms
uniformity of shades in both light and dark shades, Also the water consumption in double bath
dyeing is more as comparatively to single bath dyeing.

The machine used for Single bath dyeing of Poly/ Cotton fabric is HTHP Soft Flow Dyeing
Machine.
For Dyeing of P/C Fabric the first step is to Dye Polyester part and then Cotton part. Because we
need temperature about 130 degree Celsius for Polyester dyeing & For Cotton Dyeing the
Temperature is to require only 60 degree Celsius. The Reactive Dye we use for cotton is stable
at only below 100 degree Celcius. After that the color start bleeding. So that’s why we dye
Polyester part first then cotton.

Also the dyeing Recipe of Poly/ Cotton Fabric depends on shade of the color. The shades of
colors are in following category.

 Light Shade
 Medium Shade
 Dark Shade
 Extra Dark Shade

COTTON DYEING PROCESS (RECIPE)


 Its dyed with reactive dye
 Check the shade-light, medium, dark, extra dark
 For light shade semi bleach is done
 For dark and extra dark scouring is done
 Then drying happens
 Process of semibleach-soap-1.5%,soda-ash-2%,hydrogen peroxide-2%,temperature-95
degree Celsius, hold time-45 mins,drain-2 time wash, cold wash and hot wash, neutralize
with acetic acid-2%,temperature-75mins,hold time-20mins,drain,two time wash-cold and
hot wash,
 Then it’s ready for dyeing.
 Then wetting agent is added(0.5%) and anti creasing(0.5%) at temperature-40 degree
celsius.
 Then dyeing is started.
 Color compound are tested and dozing is done
 Then it is injected in the machine (20mins time)
 Common salt is added(L.S:20-40GPL,M.S:40-60GPL,D.S:60-80GPL,E.D.S:80-100GPL)
 Soda ash is added(L.S:20-40GPL,M.S:40-60GPL,D.S:60- 80GPL,E.D.S:80-100GPL)
 Temp taken -60 degree Celsius and hold time-30mins
 Sample checking is done
 Soaping is done-1.5% used
 Temp-98 degree Celsius
 Hold time-20mins
 Drain & then two time wash(cold wash and hot wash)
 Neutralise with acetic acid,temp-75 degree Celsius, hold time-20mins
 Final sampling is done
 Then softening agent is used
 Fabric is out and then its hydro washed, squeezed, dried, fused and finished

POLYESTER DYEING PROCESS


 Disperse dye used
 Then scouring is done followed by anti creasing
 Leveling agent is used at temp 60 degree Celsius
 Temperature is increased
 Holdtime-45mins
 Temp-130 degree Celsius is perceived
 Cooling is done and temp is decreased to 80-85 degree Celsius
 If pressure inc and automatic sensor does not work then value erupts
 Drain at 85 degree Celsius for 5 minutes
 One time cold wash and one time hot wash is done
 Reduction cleaning
 Shade check
AFTER DYEING PROCESS
We all know that the fabric from circular Knitting machine is in the form of a Tube. So it
depends on the buyer in what form do they need the fabric, in Tube form or in Open Form.
Depending of the type of the processing, the sequence is differs. The fabric is dyed in the tube
form and after that according to its requirement it can be processed.

Continuous washing machine:-

The classic open-width washing machine consist of a series of top and bottom parallel rollers, the
lower set being immersed in the liquor. The fabric passes alternatively between top and bottom
rollers, being subjected to a series of immersion in the liquor. The top rollers are driven usually
by chains or V-belts in a bank of five or six, which make up a compartment or unit. The bottom
rollers free-wheel and the bearings are sealed and self-lubricating. The bearing of the top rollers
are usually mounted outside the wash box to permit ease of maintenance and lubrication. Both
top and bottom rollers should be of the largest practicable diameter, say 12-13 cm, and the
distance between top and bottom roller kept to a minimum to reduce the tendency for fabric
creasing or edge curling.
Processing of fabric in open form

After the dyeing if the requirement of the fabric is in open form, these below machines used for
prepare fabric in open form.
OPEN SQUEEZER
After the Dyeing the fabric is passed from the above machine – OPEN SEQEEZER, In this
machine there is a sensor cutter, when the fabric passes the sensor cutter detects the cutting line
and cuts the fabric at this line. After cutting the fabric now the fabric is in open form and then the
fabric passed from the squeezing rollers and the water is to be removed. In this machine only
60-70% water is to removed and remaining water is removed from the fabric in Dryer.

CYLINDRICAL DRYER
After the open squeezer the fabric is passed through the cylindrical dryer. In this machine the
fabric is passed over the heated rollers. It dries the fabric completely so there is no water.
Now the fabric is free from water and it is ready for finishing process. For the finishing of the
fabric stentering and compaction machines are used. The following process takes place in the
machine.

Shrinkage Control
Shrinkage is very important factor in wet knitted fabric processing, because in every stage of
processing the fabric is passed from water so it will shrink in Finishing process. It is very
important to control the shrinkage because after that the fabric is ready to be converted into a
garment. The Shrinkage will be controlled by passing the fabric from a heating zone. The fabric
is to be passed in starched condition, this way the knit of the fabric is set and the shrinkage will
be controlled.

Diameter Control - During finishing the diameter of the fabric is to be controlled according to the
buyer requirement.

Repeat Set - In Striper Knitted fabric there is chances in striper repeat during washing and other
treatments, so to set the repeat length according to buyer requirement the stentering and
compaction is done.

GSM Control - The GSM of the fabric is also controlled during finishing.

Surface Smoothening: During finishing the surface of the fabric is made smooth for the hand to
get better.
FINISHING

STENTER
The below Machine Stenter is to be used for finishing purpose. The Stentering of the fabric is
done according to the buyer requirement. In this machine the heated oil is used for heating the
plates from which the fabric is passed. This machine is used for Polyester Cotton Blended fabric
and Only Polyester fabric. For 100% Cotton fabric there is no need of stentering. In this machine
at 150 – 170 degree Temperature the fabric is to passed .

The oil used in stentering machine is heated in thermo pack and then it comes in Stentering
machine after passing from machine this oil is go back in thermo pack for reheating.

The maximum temperature in stentering machine is 200 degree and the maximum speed of
machine passing the fabric is 65 mt/min. The temperature and the speed of the machine is set
according to the type of the fabric.
COMPACTION:-
Compactor is a textile finishing machine which is designed especially for compacting 100%
cotton knitted fabric like jersey, pique, interlock, plush, rib and sinker etc. Compactor machines
are of two types.

Tubular compactor - In the compaction of fabric takes place if the requirement of the fabric is in
tube form.

Open compactor - In this the fabric is to be compacted in open form means after Open Squeezer,
Dryer.
Compactor is an important machine in knit fabric finishing process. There is a lot of technical
work done by the compactor machine. The work done by compactor machine is pointed out
below:
 GSM control of the knitted fabric. For high GSM, overfeed is increased and fabric width
is decreased. For low GSM, overfeed is decreased and fabric width is increased.
 Control shrinkage
 Increase smoothness of fabric
 Heat setting is done of fabric etc

Checking Parameters of Compactor Machine -

 Shade Check: Shade of the compacting fabric is checked in the delivery side of the
machine. The operator collects the fabric and compare the shade of the fabric with the
buyer’s approved swatch.
 Width Check: Operator measures the width of the fabric with the measuring tape and
compares it with the buyer’s requirement.
 Weight Check: Weight of the fabric is determined by GSM check. Operator checks the
GSM of the fabric by GSM cutter and electric balance.
 Edge Line Checking: Two edges of the fabric is check in delivery side. If any fix line is
identified, which normally occurs from the expander it should be connected.
 Design and Slanting: Operator checks design and slanting of the fabric in the delivery
side of the machine.
 Fabric Faults: Various types of fabric quality are measured in the delivery side of the
fabric.
 After Compaction if everything is correct accordingly buyer requirement the fabric is to
be packed and ready for next garment process.

SUEDING
Sueding is a mechanical finishing process in which a fabric is abraded on one or both sides to
raise or create a fibrous surface. In the textile industry, the process of sueding is also commonly
known as "sanding" or "emerizing". Normally this process is done only for buyer requirement.

A sueder is sometimes referred to a s a sander since the machine consists of one or more rolls
covered with sand paper as the abrasive. Fabrics traveling over these rolls develop a very low
pile and the materials surface can be made to feel like suede leather. The hand will depend on the
fiber composition, the filament count in the yarn and the intensity with which the fabric is
worked.
Objective
This fibrous surface improves the fabric appearance, gives the fabric a softer, fuller hand, and
can mask fabric construction and subdue coloration. These improved aesthetics can increase the
value of a fabric in the marketplace. It is brushed lightly with a nylon brush.

RAISING
Raising machine is using in textile mill by fabric manufacturers which is an industrial equipment
of textile industry used in textile finishing process of textile sectors. This machine raises the
surface of fiber passage using the method of textile technology over rapidly revolving cylinders
covered with metal points or teasel burrs. This is a very old technique known also to romans is
used for textile design. During those last year’s this process has also been apply on viscose
blends and acrylic fabrics in textile mill. This machine is used after Open Width
Compactor or Tubular Compactor.

Function
Raising Machine for textile mill mainly used on raising for fleece, the pile of blanket and cotton
flannel fabric in textile finishing department of textile mill. Raising machines textile use in
textile factory for textile finishing process for textile design.
TESTING OF FABRIC:-

Buyers follow different standards like ASTCC etc and then testing is done. In house testing
comprises of colour fastness to washing, colour fastness to rubbing, water and perspiration.

Washing - Laundrometer is used

Recipe

 Take a sample in beaker


 Take 200ml soap solution per sample
 Hold time-45min and temperature-60 degree Celsius
 Then wash and dry
 Then check whether the color is bleeding or not

Perspiration - Perspirometer is used

 Make a solution of mono HCL(0.25ml), hydrogen phosphide (1gm),lactic


acid(1ml),common salt(10gm) and add water(1ltr).
 Keep the sample in solution for 30min
 Temperature is 35 degree Celsius and keep it for 6hours

Digital bursting strength tester

The bursting strength compares the material quality as compared to others. It is used to measure
the strength of the fabric by submitting it to an increasing uniform hydraulic pressure. They used
presto digital bursting strength tester

Other various departments -

 Hank dyeing lab


 Cone dyeing lab
 R.F dryer dept
 Grey yarn winding dept
 Workshop
 Cone dyeing and fiber dryer dept
 Color store dept
Observation and suggestions:

Q) How they calculate the % of cotton and polyester in a P/C swatch?

a) Firstly fabric GSM is calculated and 60-40% of H2SO4 and water is added. It boils and
temperature is increased. Then temperature has to decrease to 70 degree Celsius. Swatch is made
wet where the part of cotton is dissolved and part of the polyester gets dried. So weight of the
polyester is measured and accordingly the percentage is taken out.

Fabric inspection department: Here in this department we noticed that they don’t have an
inspection machine and they do the inspection manually 24hours through naked eye detection for
what wastage is more and time consumption is more. They also had very less manpower for what
their efficiency was low. They follow cut to waste ratio method which their main method to
reduce waste. If they find that 80% of the fabric is good and 20% of fabrics are defected then
they do 20% of more production so as to reduce their wastage but productivity becomes low.

The main advantage of Nahar is they produce their own electricity. They have set up non
convention energy generation by putting up rice husk which is used as a fuel for heating water
and circulation of steam

For eg:1 unit electricity production cost is Rs 5.08

From outside electricity production is Rs 7.08

So they save Rs 2.08 which is their biggest advantage.

They make soft water from hard water for dyeing unit as they have a softening plant.
REFERENCE

www.owmnahar.com