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Evaporator selection

The selection of the most suitable evaporator type for a particular application will depend
on the following factors:
1. The throughput required.
2. The viscosity of the feed and the increase in viscosity during evaporation.
3. The nature of the product required; solid, slurry, or concentrated solution.
4. The heat sensitivity of the product.
5. Whether the materials are fouling or non-fouling.
6. Whether the solution is likely to foam.
7. Whether direct heating can be used.
A selection guide based on these factors is given in table given below

Table .Evaporator selection guide

Auxilliary equipment
Condensers and vacuum pumps will be needed for evaporators operated under vacuum. For
aqueous solutions, steam ejectors and jet condensers are normally used. Jet condensers are
direct-contact condensers, where the vapour is condensed by contact with jets of cooling
water. Indirect, surface condensers, are used where it is necessary to keep the condensed
vapour and cooling water effluent separate.
Crystallisation is used for the production, purification and recovery of solids. Crystalline
products have an attractive appearance, are free flowing, and easily handled and packaged.
The process is used in a wide range of industries: from the small-scale production of
specialised chemicals, such as pharmaceutical products, to the tonnage production of
products such as sugar, common salt and fertilisers.
Wet scrubbers (washing)
In wet scrubbing the dust is removed by counter-current washing with a liquid, usually water,
and the solids are removed as a slurry. The principal mechanism involved is the impact
(impingement) of the dust particles and the water droplets. Particle sizes down to 0.5 _m can
be removed in suitably designed scrubbers. In addition to removing solids, wet scrubbers can
be used to simultaneously cool the gas and neutralise any corrosive constituents.
Spray towers, and plate and packed columns are used, as well as a variety of proprietary
designs. Spray towers have a low pressure drop but are not suitable for removing very fine
particles, below 10 _m. The collecting efficiency can be improved by the use of plates or
packing but at the expense of a higher pressure drop. Venturi and orifice scrubbers are simple
forms of wet scrubbers. The turbulence created by the venturi or orifice is used to atomise
water sprays and promote contact between the liquid droplets and dust particles. The
agglomerated particles of dust and liquid are then collected in a centrifugal separator, usually
a cyclone.
Crushing and grinding (comminution) equipment
Crushing is the first step in the process of size reduction; reducing large lumps to manageable
sized pieces. For some processes crushing is sufficient, but for chemical processes it is
usually followed by grinding to produce a fine-sized powder.
Pump selection
Pumps can be classified into two general types:
1. Dynamic pumps, such as centrifugal pumps.
2. Positive displacement pumps, such as reciprocating and diaphragm pumps.
The single-stage, horizontal, overhung, centrifugal pump is by far the most commonly used
type in the chemical process industry. Other types are used where a high head or other special
process considerations are specified. Pump selection is made on the flow rate and head
required, together with other process considerations, such as corrosion or the presence of
solids in the fluid.

Figure Centrifugal pump selection guide. ŁSingle-stage >1750 rpm, multi-stage 1750 rpm

Centrifugal pumps are characterised by their specific speed. In the dimensionless form,
specific speed is given by:

where N = revolutions per second,

Q = flow, m3/s,
H = head, m,
g = gravitational acceleration m/s2.
Pump manufacturers do not generally use the dimensionless specific speed, but define
it by the equation:

Ns = revolutions per minute (rpm),
Q = flow, US gal/min,
h = head, ft.
Values of the non-dimensional specific speed, as defined by equation 5.1, can be converted to
the form defined by equation 5.2 by multiplying by 1.73 d 104. The specific speed for
entrifugal pumps (equation 5.2) usually lies between 400 and 10,000, depending on the type
of impeller. Generally, pump impellers are classified as radial for specific speeds between
400 and 1000, mixed flow between 1500 and 7000, and axial above 7000. states that below a
specific speed of 1000 the efficiency of single-stage centrifugal pumps is low and multi-stage
pumps should be considered.
Positive displacement, reciprocating, pumps are normally used where a high head is required
at a low flow-rate. The selection of the pump cannot be separated from the design of the
complete piping system. The total head required will be the sum of the dynamic head due to
friction losses in the piping, fittings, valves and process equipment, and any static head due to
differences in elevation. The pressure drop required across a control valve will be a function
of the valve design. Sufficient pressure drop must be allowed for when sizing the pump to
ensure that the control valve operates satisfactorily over the full range of flow required. If
possible, the control valve and pump should be sized together, as a unit, to ensure that the
optimum size is selected for both. As a rough guide, if the characteristics are not specified,
the control valve pressure drop should be taken as at least 30 per cent of the total dynamic
pressure drop through the system, with a minimum value of 50 kPa (7 psi). The valve should
be sized for a maximum flow rate 30 per cent above the normal stream flow-rate. Some of the
pressure drop across the valve will be recovered downstream, the amount depending on the
type of valve used.