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GPRS/EDGE performance analysis

1. Introduction
As the development of the network, mobile subscribers have higher requirement on data service. However, the
existing GPRS network cannot provide satisfactory services to users. To be specific, the network has lagged
behind in equipment capability, network quality, network resource, and parameter configuration. Hereunder
details the problems.

2. GPRS Network Optimization Principle

The major GPRS network optimization principles are as follows:

 Fully use the existing equipment resources and spectrum resources; enhance the investment-to-profit
ratio and meet the service development requirements.
 Enhance the GPRS service quality as much as possible while ensuring the quality of the GSM circuit
 Act optimization strategies upon the GPRS network according to GPRS development stage.
2.1 GPRS Network Optimization Target
The major GPRS network optimization targets are as follows:

 Adjust the parameters and resources configured for the radio access network according to market
position and GPRS network operation.
 Enhance the GPRS network quality and service quality continuously and ensure the quality of end-to-
end services through enabling the close cooperation of ICP (Internet Content Provider) and ISP
(Internet Service Provider).
 Collect and analyze the data concerning system performance, resource configuration, network
capacity, and the behaviors of data service subscribers according to network operation for the
establishment and research of mobile data service models.
 Accumulate GPRS network optimization experiences for the transition of 3G services.
2.2 Traffic Statistical Indexes
2.2.1 System Performance Indexes
The system performance indexes include the followings:

 PDCH number in service state

 RLC data block throughput (by uplink, downlink, and coding schemes)
 Uplink packet service requests (by CCCH and PACCH)
 Uplink TBF establishment successes
 Packet paging requests
 LLC PDU packets, throughput (by uplink and downlink)
 Packet paging requests
2.2.2 Maintenance Indexes
The maintenance indexes include the followings:

 Retransmission rate of RLC data block (by uplink, downlink, coding schemes)
 Change rate of coding scheme (by uplink, downlink, and coding schemes)
 Uplink TBF establishment rejects (by CCCH and PACCH)
 TBF establishment failure rate (by uplink and downlink)
 TBF interruption rate (by uplink, downlink, and cause)
 Downlink LLC PDU retransmissions
 Number of downlink LLC PDUs discarded due to time out of life cycle

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2.2.3 Reference Indexes
The reference indexes include the followings:

 PDCH utilization rate: PDCHs in service state/available PDCH

 RLC data block utilization rate (by coding scheme)
 Ratio of MAC blocks to RLC data blocks (by uplink and downlink)
 Ratio of downlink TBF establishment during PCH, AGCH, PACCH, and T3192
 Ratio of uplink TBF establishment during AGCH and PACCH
 Mean throughput and mean duration of TBF (by uplink and downlink)
 Mean number of TBF occupied PDCHs (by uplink and downlink)
 Mean length of LLC PDU (by uplink and downlink)
2.2.4 Other Indexes
The following two indexes are quite important for capacity planning. The system performance will deteriorate
sharply if they are not properly planned

 Mean length of LLC PDUs (by uplink and downlink)

 Uplink and downlink TBF overhead on CCCH

The following two indexes can work as reference for network expansion.

 PDCH utilization rate

 Uplink TBF establishment rejects
2.3 GPRS/EDGE Network Optimization Adjustment
This section aims to analyze network problems and provide the related suggestions on GPRS network

Before locating the areas that have to be optimized and defining the optimization target, you need to estimate
the total network quality. After that, you should analyze the specific data and design the adjustment solutions
based on the data analysis.

The measures can be used for the optimizationadjustment include:

 Enhancing the efficiency of the switching system

 Expanding the capacity
 Adjusting the number of channels
 Changing BTS location
 Changing antenna position
 Changing title angle
 Changing handover parameter, frequency parameter, and cell parameter
 Adding channels or setting micro cells to the areas where there is dead zone and the traffic volume is

After the adjustment, you should confirm if the adjustment measures function and if the network performance
has been optimized. If you discover any problem, you should continue the adjustment.

Similar to GSM network, GPRS network is quite sensitive to the adjustment of radio parameters. These
parameters have great effect on cell coverage, signaling flow distribution, and service performance, so the
adjustment of radio parameters is an important part of GPRS network optimization.

The adjustment of radio parameters aims to improve communication quality and service performance and
enhance equipment utilization rate through adjusting the related parameters according to channel

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characteristics, traffic characteristics, and signaling flow. In essence, the basic principle of radio parameter
adjustment is to enhance the average service level of the network through efficiently using the existing radio

In addition, you should monitor the signaling load for Gb and Gn interfaces, because the configuration
adjustment and capacity expansion performed at the two interfaces is also an important part of GPRS network
optimization. You should begin the Gb interface optimization from adjusting the service load of BSS. That is,
you should adjust the BVC physical bearer bandwidth and parameters at the BSS side and adjust the number of
BVC and NSVC for the Gb interface to optimize the signaling flow at the Gb interface.

2.3.1 Optimization Adjustment Type

There are two adjustment types in terms of the nature of the problems to be solved. One type is responsible
for static problem. That is, solve the commonly seen problems through measuring the average traffic volume
and signaling flow in each area and correcting the traffic models used in system design. The other type is
responsible for bursting network problems or random problems.

For the former type, the operator can adjust the parameter configurationthrough periodically measuring the
network only. For the later type, the network administrator needs to perform real-time parameter adjustment
according to the bursting network problems or random problems.

2.3.2 Optimization Adjustment Prerequisite

The optimization adjustment prerequisites are as follows:

 Understanding the functions of each radio parameters

 Understanding the results of the adjustment
 Having rich experience in the types of the radio parameters concerning network problems.

In addition, you need large amount of actual data related to the network operation. Generally, the data can be
obtained from either OMC or from OMC-R. Other data, such as cell coverage and communication quality, is
obtained from field measurement and experiment. Therefore, if operators intend to adjust radio parameter
efficiently, they need to perform longtime and periodical measurement.

2.3.3 Precaution
In GSM and GPRS system, a great many of radio parameters are set for a BTS or for an area, but one BTS and
one area are always related to other BTSs and areas. Therefore, when adjusting parameters, you should pay
attention if the parameters have negative effect against the total network.

If any problem is found in an area, you should first make clear if it is equipment failure (including connection
failure) that causes the problem. Only when the problem is caused by service failures, you should perform the

3. GPRS/EDGE CSSR and access

3.1 Service access procedure
The following figure shows the MS-initiated packet data service access procedure.

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Only when the MS is in an MM state, it can initiate the packet data service.

 When the MM state is Idle, the MS will first perform attach procedure to enter Ready state, and then
it will perform the PDP context activation procedure.
 When the MM state is Standby and if the location area does not change, the MS will begin the service
procedure with GPRS attach. If the location area changes, the MS will perform location update, and
then it will request SGSN to activate the PDP context.
 When the MM state is Ready, the MS will begin the service with requesting PDP context activation
from SGSN.

The network can initiate the packet data service to the MS that has static PDP address in an MM state. The
following figure shows the procedure, which is similar to the MS-initiated packet data service access procedure.
The difference is that when the MM state is Standby, the network will perform packet paging procedure first.

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 When the MM state is Idle, the network cannot page the MS, so it cannot initiate the packet data
 When the MM state is Standby, the network will page the MS first, and then activate the PDP context,
as shown in the above figure.
 When the MM state is Ready, the network will not page the MS in the RA.
3.2 Low attach success rate
3.2.1 Problem analysis
The art design of “GPRS” and other related marks are grey or cannot be seen after the MS is powered on; or
the art design of “GPRS” flashes after the MS is powered on.

3.2.2 Analysis and solution

Generally, attach failure is divided into individual failure, area failure, and total network failure. If it is an
individual failure, first you should analyze the MS. If it is the area failure, you should analyze the cell and PCU. If
it is the total failure, you should analyze the core network first.

3.2.3 Individual failure

 The MS is incorrectly set.
 The MS is incompatible with the network.
 Frequent cell reselection makes the MS difficult to attach the network in time.
 The MS does not support GPRS.
 The visit class control is access-restrictive.
3.2.4 Area failure

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Area failure means that PCU layer has problems or radio layer has problems. The reason is that the BSC
function is unstable, or some cells have problems. A small number of users will complain about area failure.

Hereunder lists the solutions to area failure:

 Check if the GPRS function has been enabled for the cell where the subscriber is in.
 Check if the GPRS resource is available; check if the GSM TCH is congested. If the TCH is congested and
no PDCH is available, it will be hard for the MS to attach the network.
 Check if the traffic flow on the PCU uplink and downlink is normal through the traffic statistics or
related commands. Especially when there is heavy traffic flow on the uplink but there is no traffic flow
on the downlink, it means that the PCU has problems.
 Check if the user complaints belong to the same BSC or are under the control the same PCU; check if
the status of the Gb interface is normal.
 If the coverage of the GPRS network is poor, the MS cannot necessarily attach the network.
3.2.5 Total network failure
For total network failure, the SGSN does not stable, and the signaling network data is incomplete or wrong. In
this case, a great number of subscribers will complain about the network.

 The signaling network data is incomplete or wrong: If the SGSN GT routing analysis data of the
HSTP/LSTP misses or data error occurs, the subscribers of some number segments (one or more HPRs)
cannot perform registration when roaming to the coverage areas of some SGSNs. In this case, you
should check if the data configured for the new SGSN GT number segments added to the STP signaling
route is right. If the SGSN provides a core network for IMSI analysis itself, you should update the IMSI
data of the SGSN when new IMSI number segments are added to the local network; otherwise the
SGSN cannot handle the GPRS subscribers of the new number segments. If a local network enables
HLR hot backup, you should consider if the SGSN supports backup translation. If not, you should
consider transferring the GT translation function to other signaling equipment; otherwise the HLR hot
backup function cannot enable the GPRS service
 SGSN subsystem number of STP (Ox95) is incorrectly configured: If the SGSN subsystem number of the
HSTP/LSTP is incorrectly configured, all the signaling links passing through the STP will fail. In this case,
the GPRS subscribers of the local network cannot roam to any other local networks.
 Gr signaling plane failure: If a plane between SGSN and signaling network fails, but the opposite
equipment only sends back messages to the failed plane statically, the route between the HLR and
SGSN cannot be established. In this case, subscriber registration may be impossible. If the GT routing
data misses or data error occurs, the subscribers of some number segments (one or more HLR) cannot
perform registration when roaming to some coverage areas of the SGSN.
 SGSN and HLR are incompatible: The addressing formats of some operators’ SGSNs are incompatible
with that of other operators’ HLR.

In addition, the attach failure may be resulted in authentication failure. If the attach failure happens frequently
in a cell, you should check if the corresponding network interfaces or links work normally and if the HLR data is

3.3 Low random access rate and low immediate assignment success rate
3.3.1 Problem description
Generally, if both the random access rate and the immediate assignment success rate are quite low, the
reasons are probably that the channels are unavailable and the system is unstable. In actual conditions,
interference is always the major reason.

3.3.2 Analysis and solution

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If the traffic statistics shows that the random access rate and the immediate assignment success rate cannot
meet the requirements, you need to carefully check the signaling flow to judge the reasons. Hereunder lists the
possible reasons:

 RACH or AGCH is not properly configured: If you find that the access failure is caused by heavy load,
you should adjust channel configuration according to actual conditions.
 Access parameters are not properly configured: You should adjust the MAXRET to a proper value. If
this parameter is set to a large value, the access success rate may become great, but the channel load
may also increase. Therefore, balance consideration should be given to the setting of this
parameter.You can adjust the Tx-Integer to reduce the probability of access collision. In this case,
random access success rate can increase.If TA restriction parameters are not properly set, the MS
cannot access a cell
 Messages cannot be decoded due to radio interference or equipment failure: If the problem is caused
by interference, you need to locate and eliminate the interference source and reduce the path
interference. If the problem is caused by equipment failure, you need to fix the problem as soon as
 Unbalanced uplink and downlink: You should check if the uplink and downlink are balanced
 Timers are rationally set: You can optimize the access performance through setting the timers
(including T3103, T3142, T3172, T3146, T3170, and T3186) to proper values. In addition, you are
suggested to monitor the RACH load of other cells and check if timer problems are present.
3.4 Low PDP activation success rate
3.4.1 Problem description
After the MS attaches the GPRS network successfully, no response is made in a long period of time or a
rejection message is generated directly

3.4.2 Analysis and Solution

The reasons at the MS side are as follows:

 APN is incorrectly configured.

 QoS mismatches the MS
 IP address of the MS is incorrectly set.
 Subscriber behaviors are abnormal

The reasons concerning the PCU are as follows:

 The resolution function of the DNS is abnormal

 The GTP between SGSN and GGSN is abnormal
 The filtering strategies of the Gi and Gn interfaces of the SGSN and GGSN are inaccurately set.
 The firewall may work abnormally.
 CMNET problems are present.
 GRE routing problems are present.

To solve the problem, you need to do the following jobs:

 Check if the authority of APN application is given to subscribers; check if the GPRS-related
configuration and APN are correctly configured; check if there is fixed IP address and if the QoS
configuration is correct. If the subscriber intends to use Internet services but uses the “CMWAP”APN
to request the service during PDP activation, the connection can be established successfully but the
Internet service is inapplicable.

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 Check if the DNS query function of the APN has problem. If the subscriber uses “CMNET” or “Internet”
as APN for IP activation, the subscriber cannot obtain the DNS from the network. In this case, high
layer problems will occur. In addition, the network resources requiring domain names cannot be
 Check if the configuration for APN of GGSN is completely configured.
 Check if any problem occurs at the DHCP or RADIUS.
 Check the PDP definition data corresponding to the APN during subscriber activation in the HLR.
 Check if the HLR and SGSN are compatible with wildcard format of APN.
 Check if the GTP signaling of SGSN is compatible with that of the GGSN.
 Check if the MS and GGSN are compatible with IPCP.
3.5 Low packet paging success rate
3.5.1 Problem description
The system sends a packet paging message but the PCU fails to receive the access request message returned by
MS due to various reasons.

3.5.2 Analysis and solution

 There is dead zone in the coverage area

When the MS enters a dead zone, SGSN will page the MS in the old routing area because the periodical routing
area update is not due. Therefore, the subscriber cannot make any response and the page will fail after the
counter expires. Dead zones often appear at cell edges andspecial areas. In addition, if some parameters are
not set properly, the dead zone will also be generated.

 PCH-AGCH congestion or PPCH-PAGCH congestion: For PCH (PPCH) congestion optimization, you
should consider if the PCH (CCCH/PCCCH number, BS AG BLKS RES, and BS PA MFRMS) and the routing
areas are rationally set. If a routing area is too small, the MS will perform more frequent routing area
updates, which will increase the signaling flow. In addition, paging failures will occur when the MS is
performing routing area update. If the routing area is too large, the same paging message will be sent
in multiple cells when the MS is moving. In this case, both the PCH signaling load and the Abis
interface signaling load will become heavy. The mobile telecommunication is characterized by liquidity
and burst, so there is no standard adjustment method. Instead, you should decide whether to adjust
the size of the routing area according to the PCH load and signaling load. If the PCH load is heavy, you
can adjust the routing area to a smaller size, otherwise you should adjust the routing area to a larger
size. In addition, you should take geographic environment into consideration during routing area
 Timers are not properly set: The following timers are related to paging process.T3113 starts when the
network sends PAGING REQUEST messages and stops when the network receives the PAGING
RESPONSE message. If the timer expires, the PAGING REQUEST message will be resend. Therefore, if it
is set to a small value, the PCH load will increase. If it is set to a large value, the average response
latency will increase.T310 starts when the network sends the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message and
stops when the MS seizes the channel successfully. The value of the timer should be larger than
maximum time for L2 establishment attempt. Generally, it is set to 1.8s. If the signaling resource is
inadequate and the resources are seriously reallocated, you are recommended to set the timer to 3s.
3.6 Low random access rate
After the called party sends a channel request message on the RACH/PRACH, the network cannot decode the
message due to radio interference or equipment failure. To solve the problem, you should integrate
interference band of the cell and ratio of TCHs seized by circuit service handover to the TCHs used for direct
access into consideration.

3.7 High immediate assignment failure rate caused by packet pages

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When analyzing the immediate assignment failure rate, you should check if the immediate assignment success
rate for the circuit services decreases.

 GPRS cell reselection: During GPRS cell reselection, the MS will release the channel for the old service
cell and attempts to listen to the system information of the target service cell. During this period of
time, the MS can neither receive the BCCH information of the target cell nor access the network. In
this case, no response will be made for the paging message and the system performance will decrease.
 Interference: Interference will cause paging problems. If the paging messages sent by the network and
submitted by the MS are interfered, the MS cannot read the information carried in the paging
messages. In this case, normal signaling procedures cannot be performed.
 Irrational paging strategies: If the paging strategies are irrational, the paging success rate will be
 Frequent location update: It will take several seconds for a location update. Therefore, the MS cannot
respond to the paging messages normally, which will result in low paging success rate.
 Inadequate PCU storage: The paging messages from the SGSN will be stored in the PCU before sent to
BTS. Therefore, the capacity of the PCU must meet the requirement. If the capacity of the PCU is too
small, the paging messages may be missing. After the GPRS DTX function is activated, this problem will
occur more easily
 Incomplete paging process caused by heavy traffic load: In GPRS system, the first LLC frame (it is sent
by the MS) received by SGSN will be taken as the mark for successful page. Therefore, if the traffic
load on the TCH is too heavy, the paging process cannot be completed.
4. Analysis and Adjustment Suggestions for GPRS/EDGEData Transfer Performance
4.1 GPRS data transfer procedure
Different from GSM data transfer, the GPRS data transfer is divided into uplink transfer and downlink transfer,
which will be detailed hereunder.

4.2 Uplink transfer procedure

After the MS accesses the network successfully and enters Ready state, the network will send a Packet Uplink
Assignment message carrying PDCH list and the USF corresponding to each PDCH to the MS. Only a TFI (it is
contained in the RLC data block and control block related to this TBF) is allocated to the MS. After that, the MS
begins to monitor USF on the allocated PDCH and send radio blocks according to USF indication. For the GPRS
uplink transfer procedure, see the following figure.

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MS Network
Access and Assignment

Data Block
Data Block
Data Block (last in send window)
Packet Uplink Ack/Nack
Data Block
Data Block
Data Block
Packet Uplink Assignment
Packet Control Acknowledgement
Data Block
Data Block (last)
Packet Uplink Ack/Nack (final) PACCH

4.3 Downlink transfer procedure

When the network transfers packet data to a Ready MS, it will send a packet downlink assignment message. If
another uplink transfer is ongoing, the network will send the packet downlinkassignment message on PACCH. If
PCCCH is provided, the network will send the packet downlink assignment message on PCCCH; otherwise the
network work will send the immediate assignment message in CCCH.

The packet downlinkassignment message contains the PDCH list needed for downlink transfer. If possible, this
message can contain TA and power control message. The MS will obtain the information, including PDCH list,
TA, and power control message, by responding a packet control acknowledgement message.

The network will send polling messages to the MS in necessary time to notify the MS to send the packet
downlink ack/nack message. If the MS intends to send the message or uplink data, it will carry them in a packet
downlinkack/nack message.

The following figure shows the downlink transfer procedure.

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4.4 Problem analysis and solutions
In GPRS system, the factors affecting data transfer rate include cell reselection, RLC retransmission, coding
scheme, system bottleneck, channel configuration, and so on. Hereunder details them.

4.4.1 Cell reselection

Frequent cell reselection has great effect against data transfer rate. On the one hand, cell reselection is related
to cell reselection parameters. For example, if the CRO and CRH are too small, frequent cell reselection will
occur. If the CRO and CRH are too great, voice quality will be affected. Therefore, you should find a balanced
value. On the other hand, cell reselection will also be affected if the BTS site is irrationally selected. In addition,
C31 and C31 are provided for cell reselection recently in GPRS protocols. At present, however, the network
does not support network-controlled cell reselection. The GPRS-attached MS uses the same cell reselection
procedure as GSM MS does. Therefore, you are recommended to use proper traffic guide strategies based on
overall consideration.

4.4.2 RCL retransmission

If the RLC retransmission rate is high, it is mainly because the C/I fails to meet the requirement.

 The signals of the service cell are poor: If the signals of the service cell are poor, the C/I will become
small. In this case, the RLC retransmission rate will be high. To solve this problem, you should enhance
the signal strength of the service cell through adjusting antenna tilt angel, azimuths, transmit power,
and so on.
 Intra-network interference is great: If the interference signals of the neighboring cells are strong, the
C/I will become mall. In this case, the RLC retransmission rate will be high. To solve the problem, you

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should check if the intra-frequency interference is great. If the intra-frequency interference is great,
you should plan frequency allocation. In addition, you should also enhance the signal strength of the
service cell through adjusting antenna tilt angel, azimuths, transmit power, and so on.
 Outside interference is great: The outside interference will also reduce the C/I of the make the RLC
retransmission rate become high. To solve this problem, you should find out the interference source
and eliminate the interference.
 Cell coverage is irrationally planned: If the cell coverage is irrationally planned, dead zones will appear
in the coverage area, and so will overlap areas. In this case, the cell reselection rate and the LLC
retransmission rate will be high. To solve this problem, you should adjust the coverage area through
establishing new BTSs, adjusting antenna tilt angel, azimuths; transmit power, and so on. In addition,
you should also adjust cell selection parameters, including Cell_Reselect_Offset, Temporary_Offset,
and Penalty_Time. If the network supports C31 and C31, adjust them to proper values.
 Micro cells are densely distributed: If the micro cells are densely distributed, the number of overlap
areas will increase. In this case, the cell reselection rate and the LLC retransmission rate will be high.
To solve this problem, you can adjust cell selection parameters. In addition, you can also adjust
CELL_BAR_ACCESS and Cell Bar Quality to proper values, and set related access levels.
 Retransmission strategies are inconsistent: The retransmission strategies may vary with operators. In
this case, the transmission latency will be great. Therefore, operators should cooperate with each
other to solve this problem.
4.4.3 Coding scheme (CS)
Packet service channels can use CS1, CS2, CS3, and CS4 to bear RLC data blocks, and the corresponding CS rate
is 9.05kb/s, 13.4kb/s, 15.6kb/s, and 21.4kb/s respectively. However, the CS3 and CS4 requires high C/I, so they
are used in the areas near the BTS. When the subscriber is at cell edge or in the areas where the signals are
poor, the data transfer rate will drop remarkably.

For CS1 and CS2, the corresponding CS rate is 9.05 Kbit/s and 13.4Kbit/s respectively. However, if you intend to
ensure 100% or 90% of the cell coverage, the C/I must reach 12dB, which is also the GSM requirement.

4.4.4 System bottleneck

The GPRS bottleneck mainly exists at Um interface and Gb interface, in which the Um interface is the key
interface in the GPRS system. The performance of Um interface directly affects the data transfer rate. If there is
no PDCH preserved or the number of PDCHs preserved is small, the data transfer rate will drop remarkably.

The setting of Gb interface depends on operators’ parameters. The parameters having little effect against the
data transfer rate should be selected. At present, the PCU processing capability deserves special attention.

4.4.5 TBF establishment failure rate is high

At present, the high TBF establishment failure rate is caused by the incompatibility between MS and network
equipment. Therefore, this point can be excluded when network problems occur. In addition, you should
consider the effect from radio environment and system resources.

4.4.6 Other causes

 The TLLI mismatches the required ones.
 The MS cannot support the assigned frequencies
 The MS cannot seize channels
 The MS sensitivity to radio transmission quality can be controlled through adjusting the parameters
 The timers (including T3141, T3164, T3168, T3180, T3182, and T3184) are not properly set
 T3192 is not properly set. You should properly set T3192 and adjust the signaling load on PDCH and
AGCH. T3192 will start after the MS releases the TBF. If new downlink data is not available until T3192

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expires, the network can send the downlink immediate assignment message on PACCH directly. If the
T3192 is set to a large value, the TBF establishment time can be reduced in some occasions, but the
radio resources may be wasted. Therefore, you can adjust the signaling load on PDCH and AGCH. If
T3192 expires, the MS will stop detecting the assigned PDCHs and begin to check the PCHs.
 T3168 is not properly set. You should properly set T3168 and adjust the signaling load on PDCH and
RACH. If the upper layer requires another LLC PDU to be transferred after the MS releases the
downlink TBF, the T3168 will start. In this case, the network will send a PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK
message carrying Channel Request Description information element. This message is sent on PACCH. If
the MS receives a PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT message before T3168 expires, the network can
perform uplink TBF establishment. Therefore, if the T3168 is set to a large value, the latency for uplink
TBF establishment will decrease, which will waste radio resources. In this case, you can adjust the
signaling load on PDCH and RACH.
5. Analysis and adjustment suggestions for abnormal TBF drop
TBF drop means that the TBF is released abnormally due to other reasons. For TBF re-establishment, the
corresponding data needs to be retransmitted, but the PDP context needs not to be re-established. The
reasons for high TBF drop rate are as follows:

 The voice traffic load is great.

 Cell reselection happens frequently.
 When the class B MSs are downloading data, the voice page and data transfer pause will cause TBF
 The MS makes no response due to bad radio environment or MS problems.

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