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H ow Phased A rrays W ork

and W hatC an They do?


H ouston O pen H ouse
January 15-17,2003
Phased arrays – a definition
 A m osaic oftransducerelem entsin which
the tim ing ofthe elem ents'excitation can
be individually controlled to produce certain
desired effects,such assteering the beam
axisorfocusing the beam .

Source: NDT On-line


Illustration -Beam G eneration and Focusing
Beam shaping is
performed by pulsing
the elements with
different time delays.
This picture shows the
elements in the array,
and the delay applied
to each element
These time delays
(green histogram)
generate a focused
normal beam, from the
symmetrical
“parabolic” time
delays
Illustration -Beam D eflection

For shear waves,


the time delay
pattern has a
“slant” as shown
here.
Focusing can be
performed by
using “parabolic”
time delays (see
previous slide),
as well as the
slant.
Illustration -Beam D eflection and Focusing

The picture shows the


generated beams in very
early, mid-stage, late and
at focus.
For angling and focusing,
we use a combined slant
and parabola.
Beam Generation
Physics ofPhased A rrays
H ow Phased A rrays W ork

 U ltrasonic phased arraysconsistofa seriesof


individualelem ents,each with itsown connector,
tim e delay circuit,and A /D converter.
 Elem entsare acoustically insulated from each
other.
 Elem entsare pulsed in groupswith pre-calculated
tim e delaysforeach elem ent,i.e.“phasing”.
 Foreconom ic reasons,pulsersare usually
m ultiplexed.Instrum entation nom enclature such
asa FO CU S 32/128 refersto an instrum entwith
32 m ultiplexed pulsersand a totalof128
ultrasonic channels.
H ow Phased A rrays W ork

 The elem entsare purchased asan “array” with


known geom etry.
 These arraysare m anufactured using several
“designs”,and each array isspecifically builtfor
the application,aswith conventionalultrasonic
transducers.
 Typicalarray designsare:
– Linear
– M atrix
– Circular
– Sectorial-annular
C om m on Probe G eom etry’s
Y=8.0

Y=1.9

4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32
 Linear
3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 – 1 D linear 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30

array 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29

X=-3.9, Y=-1.9 --> X=3.9

– 2 D m atrix
X=-7.9, Y=-8.0 --> X=7.9

Y=6.5
47 46
48 45
Y=4.4 30 29
49 44
31 28

16
15
• C ircular 50 32 18
17 16
15 27 43
14 8 7
13
12
11

6
7
8
9
10
– 1 D annular 51 33 19 9 3 2 6 14 26 42
5
4 1

1
2
3
array 52 34 20 10 4 5 13 25 41 61

11 12
– 2 D sectorial 53 35 21
22 23
24 40 60

36 39
annular 54

55
37 38
58
59

56 57

X=-6.5, Y=-6.5 --> X=6.5


X=-4.4, Y=-4.4 --> X=4.4
Phased-array probe

Basically, a phased-array is a long conventional probe

Cut into many elements


H ow Phased A rrays W ork

 Lineararraysare the m ostcom m on type,and can


perform scanning in one dim ension only.Linear
arraystypically m inim ize the num berofelem ents
required,and hence cost.
 M atrix arrayscan scan in two dim ensions,and
offerconsiderably m ore flexibility,albeitata price.
 Circularand sectorial-annulararraysare specific
fornorm albeam inspections,e.g.billets,forgings.
H ow Phased A rrays W ork

 The operatorinputsthe focaldepth(s),inspection


angle(s)and/orcouplant,plushow m any and
which elem entsare to be fired.
 The operatoralso m ustinputdetailson the array
and wedge.(Thisinform ation isengraved on the
side ofthe array and wedge.)
 The phased array calculatorcalculateswhattim e
delaysto apply to each elem ent.
 The operation ofthe calculatorisshown in the
nextslides.
 Forstandard scans(e.g.electronic orsectorial),
the set-up isessentially straightforward.
Operator defines depth and refracted angle

The calculator searchs the Snell point. It considers the center of the active aperture
(from elements2 to 7 in this example).
Then, the X, Z point of the focal point is determined
The wedge delay is calculated and the focal law is offset accordingly

Snell point Xaxis or Scan axis


interface
law scan offset

Depth
Focal point(X,Z)
Angle
H ow Phased A rrays W ork

 The calculatorproducesa file called a


FO C A L LA W ,which definesthe elem ents
to be fired,tim e delays,voltages,forboth
the transm itterand receiverfunctions.
 Thisisan A SCIIfile,and can be edited,e-
m ailed etc.asrequired.
Phased Array Basics

•For linear scans, arrays are multiplexed using the same Focal Law.
•For sectorial scans, the same elements are used, but the Focal Laws are
changed.
•For DDF, the receiver Focal Laws are changed in hardware.
Phased Array Beamforming

Beamforming requires precise pulsing and time delays.


Receiving is the reverse of pulsing.
U T Phased-A rray
Principles & C apabilities
Introduction

 Phased-array technology isthe ability to m odify


electronically the acoustic probe characteristics
 Probe m odificationsare perform ed by introducing
tim e shiftsin the signalssentto (pulse)and
received from (echo)individualelem entsofan
array probe.
 A ny U T technique forflaw detection and sizing
can be applied using phased-array probes.
C onventionalW aveform ing

Delay
Excitation pulse

Crystal
Wedge
A B C

Material
A B C
Location
Wave front

 Beam steering using conventionalU T probe (EM ISSIO N ):


– acoustic beam generated by H uyghensprinciple
– angled wedge introducesappropriate delaysduring em ission to
generate angle beam
Phased-A rray W aveform ing

Delay

Time
Focal law

Wave front
Element

 Beam steering using phased-array probe (EM ISSIO N ):


– acoustic beam generated by H uyghensprinciple
– appropriate delaysintroduced electronically during em ission to
generate angle beam
Phased-A rray W aveform ing

 Beam steering using phased-array probe (RECEPTIO N ):


– appropriate delaysintroduced electronically during reception
– O nly signals“satisfying” delay law shallbe “in phase” and generate
significantsignalaftersum m ation
Phased-A rray W aveform ing

G lobaloverview ofphased-array signalprocessing


D esign Param eters ofPhased-A rray Probes

A
e

p g
Beam Focusing

 Isthe capability to converge the acoustic energy


into a sm allfocalspot
 A llowsforfocusing atseveraldepths,using a
single probe
 Sym m etrical(e.g.parabolic)focallaws(tim e delay
vs.elem entposition)
 Islim ited to near-field only
 Can only perform ed in the steering plane,when
using a 1D -array
Beam Steering

 Isthe capability to m odify the refracted angleof


the beam generated by the array probe.
 A llowsform ultiple angle inspections,using a
single probe
 A ppliesasym m etrical(e.g.linear)focallaws
 Can only be perform ed in steering plane,when
using 1D -arrays
 Can generate both L (com pression)and SV (shear
vertical)waves,using a single probe
Electronical(Linear) Scanning

 Isthe ability to m ove the acoustic beam along the


axisofthe array withoutany m echanicalm ovem ent.
 The beam m ovem entisperform ed by tim e
m ultiplexing ofthe active elem ents
 Scanning extentislim ited by :
– num berofelem entsin array
– num berof“channels” in acquisition system
C om bined Beam Processing

 The phased-array technique allowsfor


alm ostany com bination ofprocessing
capabilities:
– focusing + steering
– linearscanning + steering
–…
O ther Types ofA rray Probes

D U A L-A RRA Y PRO BES :


 Consistofseparate transm itter(T)and
Receiver(R)arrays
 In side-by-side configuration,allconsiderationsfor
conventionalTRL probesrem ain valid :
– Pseudo-focusing effect
– A bsence ofinterface echo
– Im proved SN R in attenuating m aterials
 In addition,alladvantagesofthe PA technique
are available
W hatPhased A rrays C an D o
H ow Phased A rrays W ork

 Thissection illustratestypicalscansthatcan be
perform ed using phased arrays:
– Electronic (linear)scans
– Sectorial(azim uthal)scans
– Transverse scans
– D ynam ic D epth Focusing
– Tim e-O f-FlightD iffraction
 W ith the Tom oview software,operatorscan
custom -design theirown scan patterns,displays
and output.
Electronic or Linear Scanning

M ultiplex A Single FocalLaw


A crossthe A rray
Electronic Scanning

 The ability to m ove the beam


along one axis ofan array w ithout
any m echanicalm ovem ent.
 The m ovem entis perform ed only
by tim e m ultiplexing the active
elem ent
 The beam m ovem entdepends on
the probe geom etry and could be
–linear scanning
–sectorialscanning
–lateralscanning
–a com bination
Electronic Scanning

This animation shows a conceptual weld inspection using electronic


(linear) scanning. This approach can easily emulate typical ASME-
type 45 and 60 shear wave inspections, and is much faster than raster
scanning.

Typical weld inspection requires two or more angles with implied


raster size, step size etc. Need to cover weld, HAZ, any position
errors => significant amount of scanning.
Electronic (linear) Scanning on
C ircular C om ponents

Electronic scanning permits very rapid scanning of components


with constant geometry, e.g. tubes, pipes.
Tandem Probes for V erticalD efects
Sectorial(A zim uthal) Scanning

Changing the Inspection A ngle


withoutM oving the A rray
Illustration ofSectorialScanning
SectorialScanning

 Sectorialscanning isthe ability to scan a


com plete sectorofthe volum e withoutany
probe m ovem ent.
 U sefulforinspection ofcom plex geom etry’ sor
those with space restrictions
 Com binesthe advantage ofwide beam and/or
m ultiple focused probesin a single phased array
probe

N
2......
1
Sectorial(A zim uthal) Scans

Sectorial scanning – by changing the


incident angle without changing position –
can be used for a variety of inspections.
SectorialScanning A nim ation

This illustration
shows a turbine blade
root being inspected
using S-scans
(sectorial scanning).
Turbine Welded Rotor Inspection

Phased-array inspection:
•Sectorial scan 30-60 SW
•Step of 1 degree
•Mechanical scan along the
circumferential axis

Phased-array probe:
5 MHz, 16 elements, 16 mm x
16 mm
mounted on a wedge

Calibration block:
EDM notches 2 mm x 0.5 mm
Electronic/SectorialScanning A nim ation
C om bined S-Scan and Linear Scan

 Com bined scans


offerunique
im aging
possibilities
D ynam ic D epth Focusing

Extending the FocalRange


Electronically
Schematic Representation of
Dynamic Depth Focusing
DDF is an
excellent way
of inspecting Mechanical Displacement

thick
components in
a single pulse.
The beam is FOCUS DEPTH (PULSER)

re-focused
Beam displacement

electronically
DYNAMIC FOCUSING (RECEIVER)

on its return
c = velocity in material
D ynam ic D epth Focusing

Standard phased Phased A rray with


array D ynam ic D epth
Focusing
D ynam ic D epth Focusing A nim ation
Tim e-O f-FlightD iffraction

O ptim um Sizing Technique for


ThickerCom ponents
TO FD using Phased A rrays –
sam e as conventionalU T
Transmitter Receiver
Lateral wave

Back-wall reflection

LW BW

Upper tip Lower tip


W hatD o TO FD Scans Look Like?
Lateral wave is clearly
seen in a good TOFD
scan (top signal).
Backwall signal is
strong (bottom signal).
Both typically used
for calibration.
On clean material,
defects show up well.
Backwall is always
strong. Watch for
perturbations due to
surface-breaking
defects (also on lateral
wave).
R /D Tech Products

H ardware and Software A vailable for


YourA pplication
Leader in Phased A rray Technology
 Firstsystem on site
1993
 M ore than 400 PA units
sold
 Im proved technology
4th generation
 A dvanced PA
technology
 D D F-V FT-TRM
FO C U S Phased A rray System

FOCUS Phased Array


System
 PC interface
 Up to 128 channels
 20 kHz PRF and
 20 MHz bandwidth
IndustrialProductLine
An economical
solution for
industrial
requirements, e.g.
in-line inspections
on production plant.
Rack-mounted.
Similar capabilities
to FOCUS, but less
flexible.

QuickScan PA
Omniscan – Portable PA Unit
Function keys and knob interface for field used
Menu Cursors ™Data on RDTIFF exportable and compatible with
™ Tomoview
™Multiview
™remote console for easy operation with only one operator.
™E-Z View™ for adequate viewing and control in operation
ACCEPT ESC

conditions
Start/ Store /
Stop Print
---> <--- ™Interfacesimilar to
1 2 3
conventional flaw
CONFIG
ABC
FILE
DEF
DISPLAY
GHI
detectors
4 5 6 –Panametrics
TOOLS Utilities AXIS
JKL MNO PQR
–Krautkramer
7 8 9
USER FREEZE CALIB
STU VWX YZ –Mouse and Keyboard
+/- 0 . compatible interface
CHANNEL CLEAR
_ %# .* CLR –SVGA output
Instrum entation N om enclature

 Phased array units(FO CU S orQ uickscan)


are defined astwo num bersdivided by a
backslash,e.g.32/128.
 Thisrefersto an instrum entwith 32
m ultiplexed pulsersand 128 individual
channels.
 R/D Tech instrum entsare supplied in binary
sizes,e.g.16/64,16/128,32/256 … .
 Instrum entsare custom -builtforthe
application.
Softw are

Tom oview:phased array software,


which can be set-up ortailored to
yourrequirem ents.
TomoView
PC-based UT software
 Real-tim e,m ultichannel,
angle-corrected top,side,
and frontviews
 Pulse-echo and TO FD functions
 Logarithm ic and linear
12-bitdata
 RF,com pressed,and C-scan data
 W eld overlays
 U ser-defined screen and report
layouts
 H andlesG B-size data files
 O nline and offline m odes
C orrected S-scan V iew
M erging ofdata

 Raw U T data generated by differentfocal


laws(angles,focusing depths)can be
m erged off-lineto generate new U T data
 M erged data contain m axim um am plitude
ofthe differentfocallaws
 M erged data can be treated asregulardata,
and visualised asV C Top (C-scan),Side (B-
scan)and End (D -scan)V iews
 Tim e-saving during data analysis
Sum m ary – FO C U S,Q uickscan & Tom oview
 FO CU S:
– Com m ercialsystem ,~ fouryearsold
– O vertwo hundred and fifty sold
– In service 24/7 in severalindustries
 Q uickscan:
– Industrialversion ofFO CU S
– 19” rack-m ounted
– Lessflexible than FO CU S,butcheaper
 O m niscan:
– N ew,portable phased array system
 Tom oview :
– Established com m ercialsoftware
– W idely used on hundredsofsystem s
– V ery flexible forinspections,displays,windowsetc.