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Control Engineering

Dr. Ramkrishna Pasumarthy


Department of Electrical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
Chennai – 600 036.
Module 8
Design using the Root Locus

Lecture 1
Introduction to design in the time domain

Control Engineering Module 8 – Lecture 1 Dr. Ramkrishna Pasumarthy 1


Recap of Module 7
 Dominant closed-loop poles

 Proportional, Integral and Derivative control actions

 Issues in the implementation of PI, PD and PID controllers

 Lead and Lag compensators

 Performance specification in the time and frequency domains

Modules 8

Design of Lead and Lag compensators using the Root Locus Technique.

Control Engineering Module 8 – Lecture 1 Dr. Ramkrishna Pasumarthy 2


Design using the root locus technique
Consider the closed loop system

𝑅 𝑠 𝐸 𝑠 𝑈𝑝(𝑠) 𝑌 𝑠
+- 𝐺𝑐 (𝑠) 𝐺(𝑠)

 The plant 𝐺 𝑠 may not be capable of meeting the specifications.

 It is expensive and inconvenient to alter the plant 𝐺(𝑠) in many cases. A Proportional controller does not
always achieve specifications.

 We need a compensator 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 to compensate for the shortcomings of the plant in meeting specifications.

 In Module 7, we discussed the effects of adding poles and zeros to the open-loop transfer function,
specifically on the Root Locus of the system.
The Root Locus based design involves the addition of poles and zeros to the open-loop transfer function,
such that the Root Locus passes through the desired pole locations.
Control Engineering Module 8 – Lecture 1 Dr. Ramkrishna Pasumarthy 3
Transient response specification
 We specify the desired transient performance of a closed-loop control system through the
standard second order system.

 We reshape the root locus so that the closed-loop system has a pair of dominant closed loop
poles, in which case, the specifications are closely met.

𝑅 𝑠 𝐸 𝑠
𝜔𝑛2 𝑌 𝑠
+- 𝑌(𝑠) 𝜔𝑛2
𝑠(𝑠 + 2𝜁𝜔𝑛 ) =
𝑅(𝑠) 𝑠 2 + 2𝜁𝜔𝑛 𝑠 + 𝜔𝑛2

𝜁𝜋

1−𝜁2 4 𝜋−cos−1 𝜁
Overshoot 𝑀𝑝 = 100 𝑒 % Settling time 𝑡𝑠 = 4𝜏 = Rise time 𝑡𝑟 =
𝜁𝜔𝑛 𝜔𝑛 1−𝜁 2

 These specifications are translated to the positions of dominant closed-loop poles −𝜁𝜔𝑛 ± 𝑗𝜔𝑛 1 − 𝜁 2.

 The final design must ensure the dominance of the closed-loop poles nearest to the 𝑗𝜔 axis.
Control Engineering Module 8 – Lecture 1 Dr. Ramkrishna Pasumarthy 4
Position of the dominant closed-loop poles

Given 𝜁 and 𝜔𝑛 Given ranges for 𝜁 and 𝜔𝑛 Given specifications 𝑀𝑝 < 𝑐1


and 𝑡𝑠 < 𝑐2
𝜔𝑛 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝑝1 < 𝜔𝑛 < 𝑝2
𝑀𝑝 < 𝑐1

𝜁 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑐1 < 𝜁 < 𝑐2


𝑡𝑠 < 𝑐2

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Steady state performance specification
The steady state requirements will be specified through the error constants 𝐾𝑝 , 𝐾𝑣 and 𝐾𝑎.

𝑅 𝑠 𝐸 𝑠 𝑈𝑝(𝑠) 𝑌 𝑠
+- 𝐺𝑐 (𝑠) 𝐺(𝑠)

𝐾𝑝 = lim 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 𝐺 𝑠 𝐾𝑣 = lim 𝑠𝐺𝑐 𝑠 𝐺 𝑠 𝐾𝑎 = lim 𝑠 2 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 𝐺 𝑠


𝑠→0 𝑠→0 𝑠→0

Type of the 𝑒𝑠𝑠 to unit step input 𝑒𝑠𝑠 to unit ramp input 𝑒𝑠𝑠 to unit acceleration
system 𝑟(𝑡) = 1 𝑟(𝑡) = 𝑡 1
input 𝑟(𝑡) = 𝑡 2
2
Type 0 1 ∞ ∞
1 + 𝐾𝑝
Type 1 0 1 ∞
𝐾𝑣
Type 2 0 0 1
𝐾𝑎
Control Engineering Module 8 – Lecture 1 Dr. Ramkrishna Pasumarthy 6
Example 1
Consider the closed loop system

𝑅 𝑠 𝐸 𝑠 𝑈𝑝(𝑠) 1 𝑌 𝑠
+- 𝐺𝑐 (𝑠)
𝑠(𝑠 + 1)

Transient specifications :- Percentage overshoot 𝑀𝑝 < 10% and Settling time 𝑡𝑠 < 5 sec.

Steady – state specification :- Velocity error constant 𝐾𝑣 = 10 𝑠𝑒𝑐 −1.

Closed-loop pole locations :-

𝑀𝑝= 10% and 𝑡𝑠 = 5 𝑠𝑒𝑐 ⇒ 𝜁 = 0.5912 and 𝜔𝑛 = 1.3532.

The dominant closed loop poles are at −𝜁𝜔𝑛 ± 𝑗𝜔𝑛 1 − 𝜁 2 = −0.8 ± 𝑗1.0914.

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The root locus of the system does not pass through the desired pole locations.

At 𝑠𝑑 we test the angle criterion.

∠𝐾𝐺 𝑠𝑑 = −205.85 ≠ −180°

The root locus must be pulled to the left by adding a compensator.

Control Engineering Module 8 – Lecture 1 Dr. Ramkrishna Pasumarthy 8


Recap
Module 7 :- Effects of adding a zero to the open-loop transfer function
 The addition of a zero to an open-loop transfer function has the effect of pulling the Root
Locus to the left. This improves the relative stability.

 The effect of the zero is prominent when it is close to the imaginary axis.

 We begin with a third order system and add a zero at different locations on the real axis to
illustrate these points.

1 𝑠 +7 𝑠 +3 𝑠 +1
𝐺 𝑠 = 𝐺 𝑠 = 𝐺 𝑠 = 𝐺 𝑠 =
𝑠(𝑠 + 2)(𝑠 + 5) 𝑠(𝑠 + 2)(𝑠 + 5) 𝑠(𝑠 + 2)(𝑠 + 5) 𝑠(𝑠 + 2)(𝑠 + 5)

Control Engineering Module 8 – Lecture 1 Dr. Ramkrishna Pasumarthy 9


The open-loop transfer function with the compensator is 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 𝐺 𝑠 . For the point 𝑠𝑑 to
be on the root-locus, it must satisfy the angle criterion.

𝑠𝑑
∠𝐺𝑐 𝑠𝑑 𝐺 𝑠𝑑 = −180° ⇒ ∠𝐺𝑐 𝑠𝑑 + ∠𝐺 𝑠𝑑 = −180° −0.8 + 𝑗1.0914

∠𝐺 𝑠𝑑 = −∠ 𝑠𝑑 + 1 − ∠ 𝑠𝑑 + 0 = −79.6157° − 126.2415°
ˣ
𝜙
𝜙 = ∠𝐺𝑐 𝑠𝑑 = −180° + 205.8573° = 25.8573° 𝜃
ˣ
−𝑧𝑐 −1 ˣ𝑂
The compensator must contribute an angle of 𝜙 = 25.8573° at 𝑠𝑑 .

Let the compensator be 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = 𝐾 𝑠 + 𝑧𝑐 . ˣ


Using the sine rule

𝑧𝑐 𝜔𝑛 sin(𝜃 + 𝜙)
= ⟹ 𝑧𝑐 = 𝜔𝑛 = 3.0518
sin(𝜋 − 𝜃 − 𝜙) sin(𝜙) sin(𝜙)

Control Engineering Module 8 – Lecture 1 Dr. Ramkrishna Pasumarthy 10


The open-loop transfer function of the compensated
system is

(𝑠 + 3.0518)
𝐺𝑐 𝑠 𝐺 𝑠 = 𝐾
𝑠(𝑠 + 1)

We find 𝐾 using the magnitude criterion.

(𝑠 + 3.0518)
𝐺𝑐 𝑠 𝐺 𝑠 = 𝐾 =1
𝑠(𝑠 + 1)

𝑠 𝑠+1
𝐾= = 0.6
𝑠 + 3.0518

Control Engineering Module 8 – Lecture 1 Dr. Ramkrishna Pasumarthy 11


The closed–loop system is

𝐺𝑐 𝑠 𝐺 𝑠 0.6(𝑠 + 3.0518)
=
1 + 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 𝐺 𝑠 𝑠 𝑠 + 1 + 0.6(𝑠 + 3.0518)

0.6(𝑠 + 3.0519)
= 2
𝑠 + 1.6𝑠 + 1.831

Compensated system 𝑀𝑝 = 11% and 𝑡𝑠 = 4.08 sec.

The system has a zero along with the dominant second


order system.

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Module 7 :- Effects of the addition of a LHP zero to the dominant second order system
𝑠
1 +1
Dominant second order system 𝐺 𝑠 = . 𝐺(𝑠) with a zero ∶ 𝐺 ′ 𝑠 = 𝑎
𝑠2 +𝑠+1 𝑠2 +𝑠+1

We see the following major effects


• 𝑦1 𝑡 is the step response of 𝐺 𝑠 .
 Increased overshoot • 𝑦2 𝑡 = 𝑦1 𝑡
 No significant change in the settling time • 𝑦 𝑡 is the step response of 𝐺 ′ 𝑠 .
 Faster response
 As 𝑎 → ∞, the contribution of the zero to the system response decreases and we get back the
original system behaviour.
Control Engineering Module 8 – Lecture 1 Dr. Ramkrishna Pasumarthy 13
In Module 7 - Lecture 2, we saw the problems with the
transfer functions of the form 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = 𝐾(𝑠 + 𝑧𝑐 ).

We must add a pole to make the transfer function


realizable. 𝑠𝑑
ˣ
Consider 𝜙
𝑠 + 𝑧𝑐
𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = 𝐾
𝑠 + 𝑝𝑐 𝜇2 𝜇1 𝜃

This compensator must contribute a positive angle at the


ˣ𝑝
𝑐 𝑧𝑐 𝑂

desired pole location.

∠𝐺𝑐 𝑠𝑑 = ∠ s + 𝑧𝑐 − ∠ 𝑠 + 𝑝𝑐 > 0
ˣ
𝜙 = 𝜇1 − 𝜇2
𝜙 = 𝜇1 − 𝜇2
This implies 𝑧𝑐 < 𝑝𝑐 . Therefore the compensator is a lead
compensator.
Control Engineering Module 8 – Lecture 1 Dr. Ramkrishna Pasumarthy 14
Overview
Module 8

Lecture 1 : Summary Lecture 2

 Transient and steady-state specifications  Design of Lead compensators to improve the


transient response
 Introduction to Lead compensation

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