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KUWAIT OIL COMPANY (K.S.C.)

Engineering Group

Specificstion Number

Shell and Tube Exchangers

1 5 JUL 94 ISSUED AS KOC ENG. GROUP SPEC.


0 7 MAR 93 ISSUED FOR INVITATION TO BID WA ATG

Rev Date Revision BY Chkd Section PE Client


Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
Ensmering Gmup
015-EH-1001 1 05-7-94 2 of 29
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CONTENTS

1.0 SCOPE ............................................... 4


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
I
2.0

3.0 SERVICE CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6


I
4.0 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

5.0 DESIGN PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

6.0 CORROSION ALLOWANCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

.............................................. 7
7.0

8.0
DESIGN

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
I
8.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
8.2 Tubes and Tube Bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
8.3 Tube Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8.4 Shells and Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2
8.5 Girth Flanges and Bolting ............................. 14
8.6 Floating Heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8.7 Nozzles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15

9.0 GASKETS FOR GIRTH FLANGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18


10.0 INSPECTION AND TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
10.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
10.2 Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
10.3 Testing Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
10.4 Nameplate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
10.5 Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
10.6 Radiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
10.7 Ultrasonic Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
10.8 Magnetic Particle Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
10.9 Hardness Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
10.10 Non-Destructive Test (NDT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
10.1 1 Production Test Coupons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

11.0 PWHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2

12.0 WELDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2

13.0 MISCELLANEOUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2
I
I
I
14.0 IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
I
Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
Enginedng Gtwp
01 5-EH-1001 1 05-7-94 3 of 29
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15.0 PACKING. MARKING AND DOCUMENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23


16.0 SPARE PARTS AND MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

17.0 PAINTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3

APPENDIX 1 : ADDITIONAL MATERIALS AND FABRICATION REQUIREMENTS


FORSOURSERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

APPENDIX 2: NOZZLE LOADS FOR VESSEL .......................... 27


Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
Engineering Group
specifi&n 01 5-EH-1001 1 05-7-94 4 of 29

1.0 SCOPE

1.1 This specification covers the minimum requirements for design, fabrication,
testing and preparation for shipment of TEMA (Tubular Exchanger
Manufacturers' Association) type shell and tube exchangers for installation
at the Facility in Kuwait.

1.2 Lube oil and seal oil coolers are not covered by this specification.

1.3 The supply of shell and tube exchangers shall fully comply with all relevant
contractual requirements specified in the Scope of Work and Technical
Specification of the Contract.

2.0 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS

2.1 TEMA-type shell and tube exchangers shall conform in design, materials
and performance, except where otherwise specified, with the current issue
and amendments of the following documents prevailing on the effective
date of the Contract:

2.1.1 International Standards

ASME V Non-Destructive Examination

ASME Vlll Pressure Vessels


Div 1

ASME Vlll Pressure Vessels


Div 2 (Alternative Rules)

ASME IX Welding and Brazing Qualifications

ANSl 816.5 Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings

ANSl 831.3 Chemical PlantIPetroleum Refinery Piping

ASTM A388 Specification for Ultrasonic Examination of


Heavy Steel Forgings

ASTM A435 Specification for Straight Beam Ultrasonic


Examination of Steel Plates for Pressure
Vessels

ASTM A578 Specification for Straight Beam


Level 1 Ultrasonic Examination of Plain and Clad S t e e l
Plates for Special Applications
Specification Number Rev Date Sheet

01 5-EH-1001 1 05-7-94 5 of 29

ASTM A770 Specification for Through Thickness


Tension Testing of Steel Plates for Special
Applications

NACE MR0175 Sulphide Stress Cracking 6.S.C) Resistant-


Metallic Materials for Oilfield Equipment

WRC Bulletin Local Stresses in Spherical


No. 107 and Cylindrical Shells Due t o External Loading

TEMA Standard of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers'


Association

EJMA Standard of Expansion Joint Manufacturers'


Association

2.1.2 British Standard

BS 5500 Unfired Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels

2.1.3 Engineering Group Specifications

All equipment and accessories covered by this specification shall


comply with all relevant Engineering Group specifications of which
the following are specifically referenced in this specification:

Basic Design Criteria

International Codes and Standards

The Use of Brackish Water for the Site


Hydrotesting of Equipment

Spare Parts and Maintenance Requirements

Piping Material Classes

Thermal and Acoustic Insulation

Packing, Marking and Documentation

Welding Procedure Approval and Welding Quality


Requirements

TubeITube Sheet Seal Welding General


Requirements
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01 5-EH-1001 1 05-7-94 6 of 29
SpeMcation

0 1 5-XH-1005 Shop and Field Painting

2.2 All exchangers covered by this specification shall be designed and


fabricated in accordance with the latest editions and addenda of ASME
Section VIII, Div. 1 and TEMA Class R.

2.3 Compliance with this specification shall not relieve the Contractor of its
responsibility t o supply equipment suited t o meet the specified service
conditions and applicable regulations.

2.4 Where conflicts exist between this specification and other Drawings,
standards, codes and specifications, the most stringent shall apply.

3.0 SERVICE CONDITIONS

3.1 The equipment shall be suitable for continuous operation at a desert


location under high ambient temperatures and humidity. The atmosphere
at the Facility is generally dusty and corrosive and may contain traces of
hydrogen sulphide.

3.2 TEMA-type shell and tube exchangers shall in all respects be suitable for
continuous operation in the service conditions stated in the Engineering
Group Specification entitled "Basic Design Criteria" (Number 0 1 5-AH-
1001).

4.0 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

4.1 Materials

Materials shall be as specified on the exchanger data sheets. The


use of A51 5-Gr 7 0 for any component is not permitted; nor is the
use of structural quality steel plate for any pressure containing
part.

All materials shall preferably be in accordance with ASTM


specifications. Substitute materials may be used subject t o the
approval of the Company. The design stress values for substituted
material shall not exceed those as specified in the ASME code for
the type and grade of material under consideration.

Welded carbon-manganese steels shall have a maximum carbon


content of 0.23%.

Carbon Equivalent (CE) = 0.43% maximum (ladle analysis).

Where:
F

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01 5-EH-1001 1 05-7-94 7 of 29
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4.1.4 Material t o be used in sour service must comply with the


requirements of Appendix 1 of this specification.

4.1.5 Material Certificates (General Services)

Material t o be used for pressure-containing parts must have the


following certificates as a minimum:

a. Chemical composition.

b. Mechanical properties.

c. Non-destructive examination (NDE).

d. Impact test.

4.1.6 lmpact testing and values shall be per ASME code.

4.1.7 Where impact tests are required, they shall be applied t o the
welds, heat-affected zones (HAZ) and parent plate.

4.1.8 The material selection for shell and tube sides in water service
shall ensure galvanic compatibility and shall be subject t o
Company approval.

5.0 DESIGN PRESSUREITEMPERATURE

5.1 The design pressure and temperature shall be as specified on the


exchanger data sheets.

5.2 Unless specified otherwise, the design pressures/temperatures for tube


sheets and floating heads shall be taken as the worst combination of the
specified shell-side and tube-side design pressure and temperature
conditions.

6.0 CORROSION ALLOWANCES

6.1 Unless otherwise indicated on individual data sheets, the minimum


corrosion allowance for all carbon steel parts (except tubes) shall be 3 mm.

6.2 When the corrosion allowances specified exceed that specified in TEMA,
the minimum shell thickness given in TEMA shall be increased by the
difference in corrosion allowances.

7.0 DESIGN

7.1 Fouling factors where specified on data sheets are a minimum and should
be confirmed as being adequate for the fluids being handled. Where no
fouling factors are specified, TEMA recommendations shall apply.
d
Specification Number Rev Date Sheet

01 5-EH-1001 1 05-7-94 8 of 29
SpeMc~ztion

The preferred exchanger configuration/TEMAdesignation shall be as shown


on the exchanger data sheet.

Alternative types of construction may be offered for Company approval


where process or economic considerations favour them provided they meet
the requirements of any other section of this specification.

For any group of heat exchanger units where shells and tube bundles are
similar, standardisation and interchangeability of these parts, tube sheet
gaskets and closures shall be considered.

In general, exchangers with removable bundles shall be designed with


symmetrical layout t o permit 180° rotation in order t o facilitate
maintenance and distribute wear evenly.

Exchangers (including supports) shall be designed for a future hydraulic


test in the fully corroded condition.

To reduce the formation of scaling, water should be avoided as a cooling


medium at temperatures greater than 200°C.

Design velocities in tubes for brackish water service shall be chosen t o


avoid any possible erosion of tube ends. For this purpose, the following
shall not be exceeded.

Material of Tube I
I
Velocity
I Non ferrous 1 2.5 mls. I
I Carbon Steel 1 3.0 mls. I
Stainless Steel 3.7 mls.
Titanium 6.0mls

For multi-pass exchangers, tube side, the difference between the number
of tubes at each pass and the difference between the number of tubes of
t w o successive passes shall be less than or equal t o 1 0 % of the theoretical
number of tubes of each pass.

8.0 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

8.1 General

8.1.1 Depending on the construction1materiaIs of the heat exchanger,


if necessary, cathodic protection should be provided by sacrificial
anodes in salty water service, even if protective coating is used.

8.1.2 Heat exchangers with salty water flowing in the tubes should not
be of U-tube construction.
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Specifica?bn 01 5-EH-1001 1 05-7-94 9 of 29

All exchangers shall preferably be of the floating head, removable-


bundle type and fixed tube sheets which require the use of
bellows should be avoided.

The preferred tube diameters are 1 in. in for handling viscous


fouling fluids. Shell and tube exchangers with fouling service on
the shell side shall have square pitch. Fouling service shall
normally be on the tube side.

The tube bundles shall be maximum 6 m long.

Lifting lugs, eye bolts, jack screw and other handling devices shall
be designed for twice the dead load.

8.2 Tubes and Tube Bundles

Seamless single extension tubes shall be used unless specified


otherwise on the exchanger data sheet. Extension welded tubes
are not permitted.

The tube-to-tubesheet joint shall be as specified on the exchanger


data sheet.

The size and material for tubes shall be shown on the individual
data sheets. The tube outside diameter (OD) and thickness shown
will be for straight tube design. If U-tube construction is
indicated, the Contractor shall determine whether or not heavier
wall tubes must be used at the inner rows due t o thinning of the
tube walls as defined in TEMA. The minimum bend radius shall
not be less than twice the tube OD. The bent position shall be
free of cracks, fissures, blisters or other defects detrimental t o the
quality of construction.

All exchangers shall be fitted with impingement plates at the shell


inlet nozzle. The width of such plates shall be the greater of 1.25
times the shell inlet nozzle diameter, or nozzle diameter plus 5 0
mm. Perforated impingement plates shall not be used.

The dispersal area below the inlet nozzle on the shell side shall be
at least equal to the inside areas of the inlet nozzle.

Bundle inlet and exit areas shall be in accordance with the


requirements of TEMA.

The minimum thickness of the impingement plate baffle shall be


6.5 mm plus an appropriate corrosion allowance applied t o both
sides. Due t o bundle interchangeability reasons, where t w o
impingement baffles are installed on a tube bundle, they must be
Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
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designed t o prevent detachment and subsequent blockage of the


shell outlet.

-2.8 To prevent the bypassing of shell-side fluid, sealing devices as


permitted by TEMA shall be provided where necessary on
exchangers other than reboilers and evaporators. When
longitudinal bypass sealing devices are furnished at the periphery,
the minimum number of seals provided shall be t w o for shell sizes
up t o and including 610-mm OD and four for sizes above 610-mm
OD. However, for bundles with a baffle cut equal t o or exceeding
45%, only t w o seals shall be provided. Strips shall be located in
slots cut in each baffle, back welded or brazed on one side and
shall be flush with the OD of the baffle.

8.2.9 Tube bundles shall be designed so as t o prevent tube damage


which may be caused by flow-induced vibration.

8.2.10 For all exchangers, after thermal design has been completed, the
probability of flow-induced tube vibration should be analyzed by
using Company-approved computer software. If analysis indicates
that possible tube vibration could occur, a solution t o avoid the
problem shall be implemented. The solution method t o reduce
induced tube vibration shall be reviewed and approved by the
Company.

8.2.11 Tube bundle runners shall be provided for ease of bundle


withdrawal in the case of large and heavy bundles.

8.2.12 On no account shall the spacing between adjacent baffles be such


that the unsupported tube length exceeds the recommendations
of TEMA.

8.2.13 The inlet, outlet and central baffle spacings shall be restricted to
less than 4 0 % of the unsupported tube length as given in TEMA
Table R4.52.

8.2.14 In addition t o normal design loads, exchangers shall be designed


t o withstand the greater of the following:

a. A horizontal pulling load of 1.5 times the bundle's weight.

b. A horizontal pulling load of 2230 N (500 Ib).

8.3 Tube Sheets

8.3.1 All tube sheets shall be manufactured from forged material only.

8.3.2 Design of fixed tube sheet exchangers shall take into


consideration the most stringent of the following criteria:
Speciflcation Number Rev Date Sheet
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0 1 5-EH-100 1 1 05-7-94 1 1 of 29
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Normal operating conditions.

Shell-side startup.

Tube-side startup.

Shell side pressure failure t o atmospheric.

Tube-side pressure failure t o atmospheric.

Steamout or chemical cleanout when specified.

Hydrotest.

Tube sheet calculations shall be based on the above conditions in


both corroded and uncorroded states.

For fixed tube sheet exchangers for use in low-temperature service


(O°C and below) or where 100% radiography is mandatory by
code rules or by the requirements of this specification, the
attachment of the tube sheet t o the shell shall be of the hub-type
construction for butt welding attachment.

Hubs shall be integrally forged with the tube sheet. Hubs made
from weld metal buildup are not permitted.

As an alternative where 100% radiography is not applicable due


t o code or service conditions, direct fillet weld attachment of the
tube sheet t o the shell is permitted. Ultrasonic examination,
however, is required.

For exchangers with removable tube bundles, the tube sheets shall
be provided with eye bolts t o facilitate pulling of exchanger
bundles.

Pull-through U-tube tube sheets shall be provided with tubesheet


and tube bundle alignment devices t o ensure correct assembly.

Tubes shall be assembled in tube sheets either by tube expanding


and seal weld or by resistance welding after tubes are seated in
their housing.

Tube joints t o be welded shall be previously lightly expanded in


the tube sheet for 9 0 % of the thickness with a maximum of 50
mm.
8.4 Shells and Channels

Exchangers shall be designed, as far as possible, t o reduce shop


welds and heat treatments t o the minimum.

Joints of longitudinal welds must be staggered; crossing lines of


weld are not allowed.

Shells 400-mm nominal diameter and smaller may be constructed


from seamless drawn pipe or longitudinally welded pipe. ERW
pipe shall not be used.

Shells 450-mm nominal diameter and larger shall be constructed


from welded rolled plate.

Longitudinal shell weld shall be ground flush.

On multi-shell units where shells are stacked, the superimposed


loads must be considered in design so that distortion of shells and
binding of tube bundles during removal is avoided.

Bolting for flanges of mating connections between stacked


exchangers shall be removable without moving the exchanger.

Where exchangers are stacked, the centre line of the uppermost


exchanger shall be not more than 3700 mm above grade unless
this is approved by the Company.

The maximum number of shells which may be stacked shall be


three.

When arranging stacked shells, differential expansion between


shells shall be considered. On high-temperature duties, nozzles
connecting t w o shells shall be at the channel ends t o minimise
expansion stresses.

Suitable arrangements for expansion shall also be provided for


exchangers in a horizontal train which are coupled directly t o one
another by flanges or welding without the use of intermediate
piping.

Prior t o shipment all stacked units shall be trial assembled for


alignment checks.

Heads shall preferably be 2:l ellipsoidal, but torispherical heads in


accordance with ASME Code requirements are acceptable.

Channel and shell cover shall be provided with lifting lugs for
handling purposes.
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Baffle, tie-rod and spacer materials shall be selected for their


resistance t o corrosion of the shell side fluid and depending on
bundle material.

Metal hardness of baffles shall be less than tube metal hardness.

Baffles and support plates shall be provided with slots for drainage
purposes.

Tie-rod nuts shall be locked by a suitable means (punched or spot


welded).

Pass partition baffles shall be fully welded on both sides t o


channel sections, bonnets and floating head covers, and shall be
machined t o a common plane as the gasket face. A drain hole 6-
mm diameter shall be provided in each plate.

Where pass partitions are t o be welded t o sections fabricated from


materials which require preheat, due consideration shall be given
t o the welding procedures and electrodes used when installing the
partition plates. After completion of welding, the welds shall be
subjected t o magnetic particle (or dye penetrant in the case of
non-ferrous materials) examination.

For the design of fixed tube sheets where thermal expansion has
t o be accommodated, a shell expansion joint may be proposed
subject t o the prior approval of the Company. Expansion joints
shall meet the requirements of the EJMA.

Where used, expansion joints shall be of the thin-wall, multi-


convolution type and shall be designed for minimum fatigue life of
7000 cycles at normal operating pressureltemperature conditions.

The diametral tolerance on shells with removable bundles shall be


such that at any section the minimum internal diameter(lD) is not
less than the nominal ID and the maximum ID shall not exceed the
value given in the following table:

Nominal ID (mm) Maximum Plus


Tolerance (mm)
Up t o 625 3

875 and above 1 6.5


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8.4.24 Pass partition plates shall be designed to withstand the differential


pressure due to the pressure drop between successive tube
passes.

8.4.25 Allowable design stresses for local loading such as nozzle


loadings, major attachments and structural discontinuities shall be
the basic allowable stress of Division 1 (ASME Section VIII),
multiplied by the applicable factor given in Division 2, provided the
stress distribution is also within the limit of Division 2.

8.4.26 When not covered by ASME Section VIII, acceptable design


methods may be evaluated using either one of the following
methods:

a. BS 5500 Appendix G: stresses from local loads, thermal


gradients, etc.: recommended methods of calculation.

b. Welding Research Council Bulletin No. 107.

8.4.27 Exchangers shall be designed for the minimum nozzle loadings


defined in Appendix 2, Table 1.

8.4.28 Horizontal exchangers shall be provided with fixed saddles


supporting about a third of the circumference. Wear or
reinforcement plates of the saddles shall be welded to the shell by
continuous line of weld for shell-side service temperatures less
than 70°C. Intermittent welding may be used for temperatures
above 70°C.

8.4.29 Basic allowable stresses for non-pressure parts are 113 of the
ultimate tensile strength, 213 of the yield strength, or that stress
which produces a creep rate of I% in 10,000 hours, whichever
is lowest (all stresses being taken at design metal temperature of
the part).

8.5 Girth Flanaes and Bolting

8.5.1 All girth flanges shall be of the weld-neck type and shall be
manufactured from forged material only.

8.5.2 Lap-joint flanges are not permissible.

8.5.3 All flange bolting shall be through bolted only.

8.5.4 The minimum permitted bolt diameter shall be 0.75 in., and the
preferred maximum bolt diameter shall be 2 in.

8.5.5 The maximum permitted spacing of girth flange bolts shall not
exceed four times the bolt diameter.
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Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
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8.5.6 For multipass exchangers, the design of exchanger flange bolting


shall take into account the effect of gasket seating at the pass
partitions.

8.5.7 The use of "Nubbins" t o facilitate gasket seating per ASME


Section VIII, Div. 1, Table 2.5.2, Figs. 1C, 2, 3 are not permitted.

8.5.8 All studbolts shall be threaded full length. Thread form shall be
UNC Series except 8 threads per inch (TPI) required for 1 in.
diameter and larger. All nuts shall be Heavy Series.

8.5.9 Space shall be provided wherever practical for the use of air-
operated impact wrenches on main exchanger flange bolting, with
particular attention t o multi-shell arrangements.

8.5.10 When bolting exceeds 2-in. diameter, tensioning of the cover and
channel bolts shall be by directly applied hydraulic loading devices.

8.5.1 1 Flange pairs shall have a gap of at least 3116 in. at their periphery.
Jack screws shall be provided at all flanged girth joints t o facilitate
dismantling.

8.6 Floatina Heads

8.6.1 The design of floating-head assembly shall be as indicated in


ASME Section VIII, Div. 1, Fig. 1.6(d) of Appendix 1.

8.6.2 The crossover area between passes shall be equal t o 1.3 times the
total tube area in each pass.

8.6.3 The minimum permitted bolt diameter shall not be less than 0.75
inch.

8.6.4 The floating-head bolting shall be readily accessible when the shell
cover is removed.

8.6.5 Where exchanger shells andlor channels need t o be 100%


radiographed, the floating-head cover shall be attached t o the
flange by butt welding only and 100% radiographed.

8.7 Nozzles

8.7.1 All nozzle flanges shall be forged weld-neck type conforming t o


the corresponding mating piping class.

8.7.2 Unless otherwise specified, flanges shall be according to:

a. ANSI 816.5 up t o 2 4 in.


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QKOC Engineering Gmup


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b. ASME B16.47 over 24 in.

8.7.3 * Length of all nozzles shall be measured from outside surface of


shell t o the flange gasket face. Unless otherwise indicated on the
Drawings, lengths in mm shall conform t o the table below:

I Rating
-
Nozzle Diameter
150# 3 0 0 # 400# 900# 1500#

dia>8" to dia = 16" 1 250 250 1 300 300

dia > 20" to dia = 24" 300 300 400 400


dia> 24" See Data Sheet

8.7.4 Nozzles less than 16-in. nominal bore (NB) shall be fabricated from
seamless pipe attached by full-penetration butt weld t o a standard
weld neck flange.

8.7.5 Nozzles 16-in. NB and above may be fabricated from rolled plate
and double butt welded provided the weld seam is subjected to
the same radiographic examination as the barrel section t o which
it is attached.

8.7.6 The minimum thickness of nozzle necks including corrosion


allowance shall be the greater of that calculated by ASME Section
VIII, Div. 1, para. UG-45 or the thickness listed below:

a. Carbon and Low Alloy Steel

1. For sizes up t o and including 3-in. NB use schedule


160 pipe.

2. For sizes over 3-in. NB up t o 10-in. NB, use schedule


8 0 pipe.

3. For sizes over 10-in.NB, use 13-mm minimum


thickness.

8.7.7 All inlet and outlet connections of the exchanger 3-in. NB and
above shall be fitted with the following instrument connections:

a. 1 x 314-in. 6000-lb coupling for a pressure gauge.

i
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Specific~tbn 01 5-EH-1001 1 05-7-94 17 of 29

b. 1 x I-in. 6000-lb coupling connection for a thermowell; all


others instrument nozzle shall be ANSl 300 Lb minimum.

On multi-shell units, thermowells are required at the inlet and


outlet of each exchanger unit only, unless otherwise specified.

All couplings shall be fitted with plugs and made from bar stock
and shall have a minimum length of 100 mm.

For exchangers in H,S or gas service, all instrument connections


shall be flanged, ANSl 300 Ib minimum.

Where chemical cleaning is specified on the exchanger data sheet,


2-in. NB flanged connections shall be provided on the exchanger
inlet and outlet nozzles 4-in. NB and above.

All nozzle attachment welds shall be subjected to crack detection


examination (magnetic particles for carbon and low- alloy steel or
dye penetrant for stainless steels) before and after stress relieving.

All nozzle flange faces shall conform to the Engineering Group


Specification entitled "Piping Material Classes" (Number 01 5-LH-
1001).

When the Contractor proposes to provide reinforcement by


thickening the nozzle neck, the thickness of the nozzle shall not
exceed the thickness of the vessel to which it is attached by more
than 25%.

Beyond this limit, any further reinforcement required shall be


provided by means of reinforcing rings or thickening of vessel
wall, or a combination of both as calculated in accordance with
code rules.

Self-reinforcing nozzles must be used for shell thickness greater


than 40 mm. Connection configuration should be similar to details
( f l ) , (f3), (f4) of Fig. UW-16.1 of ASME Section VIII, Div. 1.

When used, reinforcing pads shall be provided with a tell-tale hole


according to ASME Section VIII, Div. 1, paragraph UW-15.

All reinforcing pads shall preferably be made in one part and have
one 10-mm diameter tell-tale hole. Tell-tale vent holes shall be left
open when exchanger is in service.

For nozzles whose nominal diameterlshell diameter ratio is equal


to or greater than 50%, the nozzle attachment shall be subject to
Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
Engindng Group
01 5-EH-1001 1 05-7-94 1 8 o f 29
SpeMmtJon

proof testing. Proof tests shall be made by using strain gauge


technique.

8.7.20 If t w o or more exchangers are t o be stacked and have


interconnecting nozzles, they shall be fitted with spectacle blinds.

9.0 GASKETS FOR GIRTH FLANGES

9.1 Gasket material shall be as specified on the exchanger data sheets.

9.2 The gaskets shall be of one piece construction, i.e., with no welding.

9.3 Spiral-wound gaskets when used shall be supplied with retaining rings t o
prevent over compression or distortion, or alternatively located in grooved
t u be-sheetlflange faces.

9.4 Compressed Asbestos Fibre (CAF) gaskets shall not be used.

9.5 For stacked exchangers, gaskets for the interconnecting nozzles shall be
the spiral-wound type.

10.0 INSPECTION AND TESTING

General

Where tube end welding has been performed, the welds shall be subjected
t o a 1.0 barg air and soapy water test before hydrotesting.

Testing

Each exchanger shall be hydrostatically tested in accordance with ASME


Code and TEMA requirements. Each fluid space shall be given a separate
and individual test.

Testina Procedure

In the testing of fixed tube exchangers, the location of tube leaks shall be
established by pressurizing the shell side up t o the tube side design
pressure. Where the shell design pressure is inadequate, then the use of
a halogen test gas with a gas detector shall be used.

10.3.1 Quality Control, Inspection and Testing

a. Shop hydrotest water shall be potable quality.

b. In the event of site hydrotesting, brackish water with


chemical inhibitors shall be used in accordance with the
Engineering Group Specification entitled "The Use of
Brackish Water for the Site Hydrotesting of Equipment"
(Number 0 1 5-CG-1001).

Test pressure shall be maintained for at least 2 hours.

Nozzle reinforcements shall be tested with compressed air at


a pressure of 1.0 barg and tightness shall be checked with
soapy water.

The final dimensional check and visual inspection shall be


performed after the hydrostatic test.

10.4.1 Upon successful completion of inspection and testing, a


nameplate of corrosion-resisting material shall be prepared and
attached t o the exchanger.

10.4.2 The nameplate shall specify the following data:

Company name.

Purchase order number.

Equipment number and service.

TEMA type and year of manufacture.

Design codes.

Design pressures for shell and tubes.

Design temperatures for shell and tube.

Test pressures for shell and tubes.

Corrosion allowances for shell and tubes.

Radiography.

Post-weld heat treatment (PWHT).

Name of Inspection Authority and stamp.

Exchanger weights.

ManufacturerIVendor name.
Specification Number Rev Date Sheet

QKK Enginawing Gmup


Spdficatbn 015-EH-1001 1
05-7-94 20 of 29

Test Eauioment

10.5.1 Unless otherwise, specified the following shall be provided:

a. Test rings for each size of floating head exchanger and test
flanges for each size of U-tube bundle with bonnet-type
channels.

b. Where shells requiring identical test rings or flanges are used


in series in any exchanger unit, the number of rings or
flanges shall equal the maximum number of shells in series.
However, when spades can conveniently be inserted to
isolate some shells, the number of rings or flanges shall be
sufficient t o test simultaneously any group of shells.

10.5.2 Where the use of a floating head-type bundle for a kettle type
reboiler is proposed, the method of testing the bundle and the test
equipment t o be supplied shall be specified by the Contractor.

10.6.1 A minimum of 1 0 % of radiography shall be applied t o butt welds


in shells and channels, including weld intersections.

10.6.2 Minimum requirements shall be spot radiography, except for


exchangers in H,S service, which shall be 100% radiographed.

Ultrasonic Examination

10.7.1 For plates and forging exposed t o sour service, refer t o Appendix
1 of this specification.

10.7.2 In all other cases, the following shall apply:

a. Plate Material

Plates 25 mm and over in nominal thickness shall be


ultrasonically examined in accordance with ASME code,
Section V and ASTM A435 (periphery and grid pattern).

b. Forgings

Forgings 5 0 mm and over in nominal thickness shall be


ultrasonically examined in accordance with ASTM A388, and
the acceptance standard shall be in accordance with ASME
Section VIII, Div. 2, paragraph AM.203.2 (c).
Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
Engineering Gmup
01 5-EH-1001 1 05-7-94 21 of 29
SpeCrmtbn

c. Nozzle Connection t o Shell

1. All welds of category D not readily radiographed t o


code standard t o form a corner joint fully penetrated
shall be 100% ultrasonically examined where the
thickness of the thicker part t o be welded exceeds
25 mm.

2. This provision shall apply t o ferritic steel irrespective


of design condition.

Maanetic Particle Examination

10.8.1 All welds connecting nozzles t o main shell or tubes t o tube sheets
shall be 100% examined using magnetic particle or dye penetrant
methods.

10.8.2 The attachment welds between structural components and


pressure parts of ferritic material used on pressure exchangers
shall be 100% examined by magnetic particle examination.

Hardness Test

For sour service, see Appendix 1 of this specification.

Non-Destructive Test (NDT)

All acceptance NDT shall be carried out after PWHT.

Production Test C o u ~ o n s

In addition t o code requirements, production test coupons


shall be provided in the following cases:

When the exchangers or part of the exchangers are subject


t o PWHT.

When manufactured from base material of P number equal or


higher than P3.

For each exchanger and for each qualified welding procedure


used, the test plate taken from the heats of steel used in the
fabrication shall be welded as an extension t o the end of
production joint category A.

For category B joints that are welded using a different weld


procedure than used on category A, the coupon shall be
welded concurrently with the production.
Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
E n g l d n g Gmup
015-EH-1001 1 05-7-94 22 of 29
I
I

10.1 1.4 The production weld coupons shall be subjected t o the same
PWHT as the exchanger itself, if any.

10.1 1.5 After NDE, the mechanical tests t o be performed shall be the
same as those required on the relevant qualified welding
procedure and their results shall comply with the same
acceptance criteria.

11.0 PWHT

11.I Heat treatments shall be performed per ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code Section VIII, Div. 1 or 2 or in accordance with specific requirements
shown in the Engineering Group specification and/or design Drawings.

11.2 In no case shall the stress relieving performed be less than that required by
the specified code.

11.3 All U-tubes bends made from carbon steel or low-alloy steel shall be stress
relieved.

12.0 WELDING

All welding, welding qualification and testing shall conform t o the requirements of
ASME Section IX and the Engineering Group Specification entitled "Welding
Procedure Approval and Welding Quality Requirements" (Number 0 1 5-WH-1001).
All welding procedures and PQRs shall be submitted t o the Company for approval
prior t o manufacture.

13.0 MISCELLANEOUS

All surfaces shall be thoroughly cleaned of weld spatter. All scale and
debris shall be removed from the internal surfaces of the exchanger and the
external surface of all welded joints.

The use of gasket adhesive other than graphite and oil or grease is
prohibited and shall not be used under any circumstances.

On completion of all work, vessels shall be cleaned and dried out, flange
faces coated with grease or easily removable rust preventative. Prior t o
shipment, nozzles are t o be fitted with bolted metal or wooden blanks to
protect the machined surfaces and screwed couplings are t o be fitted with
plugs t o prevent the ingress of dirt or moisture.

Two earthing clips shall be provided and welded on the exchanger support.

Bolted assembly of the various parts of the exchanger shall be made by


prior greasing of stud bolts with molybdenum disulphide or equal,
depending on the bolting seivice temperatures, and with uniform tightening
of the same bolted assembly.
Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
E ~ ~ Group
n g
015-EH-1001 1 05-7-94 23 of 29
SpeMa&n

14.0 IDENTIFICATION

14.1 All material supplied shall be easily identified by indicating the order
references and item numbers in white paint on:

14.1.1 Exchanger shell.

14.1.2 Parts and accessories delivered separately.

14.1.3 All additional packages.

15.0 PACKING, MARKING AND DOCUMENTATION

For all relevant requirements, refer t o the Engineering Group Specification entitled
"Packing, Marking and Documentation" (Number 01 5-UH--1001).

16.0 SPARE PARTS AND MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS

For all relevant requirements, refer t o the Engineering Group Specification entitled
"Spare Parts and Maintenance Requirements" (Number 01 5-KH-1902).

17.0 PAINTING

For all relevant requirements refer t o the Engineering Group Specification entitled
"Shop and Field Painting" (Number 015-XH-1005).
Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
Engineering Gmup
0 1 5-EH-1001 1 05-7-94 24 of 29
Spedikathn

APPENDIX 1

ADDITIONAL MATERIALS AND FABRICATION REQUIREMENTS


FOR SOUR SERVICE

A. -
PLATE CARBON STEEL

Process of Manufacture

Plate shall be supplied in the normalized condition and shall be produced


by a low-sulphur and low-phosphorous refining process, e.g., electric
furnace with double deslagging or in the basic oxygen furnace.

Through Thickness Z Testing

Plates over 19-mm thickness shall be tested in the through thickness


direction t o ASTM A770. Minimum reduction of area shall be 20%.
Frequency of testing shall be one test for each plate.

Ultrasonic Testing

Ultrasonic testing of plates is required in accordance with ASTM A578


Level 1.

Hardness

The hardness across the width and thickness of each plate shall not
exceed 235 HBN.

Weld repairs t o plate are not permitted without the express written
permission of the Company in each and every case.

B. PLATE - STAINLESS STEEL

B.l Process of Manufacture

All stainless steel plate shall be used in the fully solution treated condition.
This includes nickel-based alloys.

B.2 Chemical Analysis

L grades shall be used where Type 3 0 4 or 31 6 stainless is specified and


is subject t o welding.
C. BOLTING

C. 1 Internal Bolting

General

All internal bolting shall comply with NACE MR0175 requirement


when in contact with any concentration of hydrogen sulphide.

Ferritic Steel Bolts

Ferritic steel bolts shall meet the requirements of ASTM A-193


Grd B7M or ASTM A-320 Grd L7M (low-temperature bolting).
Nuts shall meet ASTM A-1 9 4 Grd 2HM requirements for sour and
low-temperature service.

Austenitic Steel Bolts

Bolts shall be Class 1A of ASTM A-1 93, e.g., B8MA, and shall be
solution heat-treated after all cold work, including thread forming.

Nuts shall Class A of ASTM A-1 94, e.g., Grade 8MA and shall be
solution treated after all hot or cold working.

C.2 External Bolting

Generally, external flange bolting is not required t o meet the requirements


of C . l for sour service. However, for bolting in buried or insulated
equipment, or inside flange protectors not freely vented t o the atmosphere,
the requirements of C.l shall be applied.

D. FABRICATION REQUIREMENTS: VESSELS

D.l PWHT

All carbon steel vessels shall undergo PWHT after completion of all
welding.

D.2 Avoidance of Crevices

Design and welding fabrication shall be such that crevices are avoided.
Internal and external fittings and attachments welded t o pressure parts
shall have full-penetration fillet welds on both sides of the attachment.

D.3 Production Welds

Production weld zone hardness shall be checked after PWHT. No hardness


value shall exceed 235 HBN.
Specification Number Rev Data Sheet
Englneerlng Group
Sp&Mcatibn 0 15-EH-1001 1 05-7-94
26 of 29

D.4 For carbon steels, welding consumables containing deliberate additions of


molybdenum or more than 1% nickel are not permitted.

E. FABRICATION REQUIREMENTS: HEAT EXCHANGERS

PWHT

All carbon steel vessels shall undergo PWHT after completion of all
welding.

Avoidance of Crevices

Design and welding fabrication shall be such that crevices are avoided.
internal and external fittings and attachments welded t o pressure parts
shall have full-penetration fillet welds on both sides of the attachment.

Production Welds

Production weld zone hardness shall be checked after PWHT. No hardness


value shall exceed 235 HBN.

For carbon steels, welding consumables containing deliberate additions of


molybdenum or more than 1% nickel is not permitted.

Tube t o tube sheet welds in carbon steel shall undergo PWHT. Hardness
of the weld zone shall not exceed 235 HBN.

A l l bent tubes shall be heat treated after bending t o relieve cold work and
induced stresses. Heat treatment procedures shall submitted t o Company
for review and approval.
Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
Engindng Gmup
SpeMc~tbn 01 5-EH-1001 1 05-7-94 27 of 29

APPENDIX 2

NOZZLE LOADS FOR VESSEL

1.0 GENERAL

1.I The criteria specified shall apply to nozzles above 2-in. NB for vessel
constructed of steel or alloy steel.

1.2 Nozzles shall be designed to withstand forces and moments from the
thermal expansion and dead weight of piping. Piping reactions shall be
computed in conformance with ANSI 831.3 and shall be designed within
the limiting criteria set by this standard.

1.3 The forces contained herein are considered minimum criteria in order to
allow for an economical design of the connecting piping.

2.0 EXTERNAL FORCES AND MOMENTS ON NOZZLES

2.1 Each nozzle shall be capable of withstanding forces from external piping
under the design conditions and considered to be acting at the intersection
of nozzle and shell in corroded condition.

The value "D" in the formulae below is the nominal nozzle diameter in
inches. The &values in the formulae depend on the rating of the nozzle
flange and are as follows:

Flange Rating B-value of Columns


and Drums
Class 150 I 0.6 I
Class 300 1 0.7 I
Class 600 1 0.8 I
Class 900 1 1.O I
Nozzle to Shells

Longitudinal bending moment ML = 13.130.D2 Nm

Circumferential bending moment M0 = 1 3 . 1 0 0 . ~ ~


Nm

Resultant bending moment M b = ( M ~ ~ + ~ r a ~ ) " = R . 1 6Nm


4.D~

Torsional moment Mt = 1 3 . 1 5 0 . ~ ~Nm

Longitudinal shear force FL=13.2000.D N

-
Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
3mup
015-EH-1001 1 05-7-94 28 of 29

Circumferential shear force F0 = 13.1500.D N

Resultant shear force +


Fr = (FL2 Fa2)" = 13.2500.D N

Axial tension or
compression force

2.4 Nozzles to Formed Headg

Resultant bending moment +


Mb = (Mx2 Mz2)"= R. 164.D2 Nm

Torsional moment Mt = 13.1 50.D2 Nm

Resultant shear force Fr = (Fx2+F Z ~ ) "= 13.2500.D N

Axial tension or
compression force FA=R.2000D N

2.5 The above-mentioned loading shall be considered as being caused by 67%


thermal and 33% dead weight load. These are piping loads onto the
vessel. Pressure forces will be negligible.

2.6 The basic stress intensity limits shall be as per ASME Section VIII, Div. 2,
Appendix 4.

3.0 ADDITIONAL REINFORCEMENT

3.1 Whenever stresses based on paragraph 2.0 exceed the allowables,


the Contractor shall apply a reinforcing pad.

3.2 Actual nozzle loadings from connected piping shall be submitted to


the Approved Manufacturer when calculated loadings exceed those
set forth in paragraphs 2.3 and 2.4 above. In this instance the
actual loadings and the proposed measures to be taken to
incorporate these loads within the vessel design shall be submitted
for Company approval.
APPENDIX 2

NOZZLE LOADING GEOMETRY