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KUWAIT OIL COMPANY (K.S.C.)

Engineering Group

Specification Number
0 15-WH- 1004
Tube/Tube Sheet Seal Welding
General Requirements

1 5 AUG 94 ISSUED AS KOC ENG. GROUP SPEC.

0 7 MAR 93 ISSUED FOR INVITATION TO BID

Rev Date Revision BY Chkd Section PE Client


Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
Engineering Group
01 5-WH-1004 1 05-08-94 2 0 f 17
Spew'fication

CONTENTS

PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .......................... 4

1.0 SCOPE ........................................... 4

2.0 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

3.0 SEAL WELDING PROCEDURE REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

4.0 TEST PIECE REQUIREMENTS ............................ 7

5.0 ACCEPTANCE OF SEAL WELDING TESTS ................... 8

6.0 RETESTS .......................................... 8

7.0 PACKING. MARKING AND DOCUMENTATION ................ 9

ATTACHMENT 1: TEST PIECES .............................. 10

PART 2: CARBON AND CARBON 112% MOLYBDENUM MATERIALS .. 11

1.0 SCOPE .......................................... 11

2.0 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURES AND OPERATORS ... 11

3.0 SEQUENCE OF CONSTRUCTION ......................... 11

4.0 PREPARATION OF TUBES AND TUBE SHEETS ................ 11

5.0 POSITIONING OF TUBES ............................... 12

6.0 SEAL WELDING ..................................... 12

7.0 TUBE EXPANSION AFTER SEAL WELDING (IF APPLIED) ......... 12

8.0 INSPECTION AND TESTING ............................. 13

9.0 REPAIR OF SEAL WELDING ............................. 13

PART3: CUPRO NICKEL. MONEL AND MONEL-CLAD MILD STEEL


MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1.0 SCOPE ........................................... 14


Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
Engineering Group
01 ~-WH-IOO~ 1 05-08-94 3 0 f 17
Speci'fication

QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURES AND OPERATORS .... 14

SEQUENCEOFCONSTRUCTION .......................... 14

PREPARATION OF TUBE AND TUBE SHEETS ................. 15

POSITIONING OF TUBES ............................... 15

SEALWELDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
TUBE EXPANSION AFTER SEAL WELDING (IF APPLIED) . . . . . . . . . 15

INSPECTION AND TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

REPAIRS OF SEAL WELDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17


Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
w i n g Group
I - L ~~eaication o 1~ - W H - I O O ~ 1 05-08-94 4 o f 17

PART 1 : GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

1.0 SCOPE

This specification covers the design and seal welding of tube t o tube
sheets of tubular heat exchangers for installation at the Facility in
Kuwait.

The seal welding of tubes t o tube sheets shall fully comply with all
relevant contractual requirements specified the Scope of Work and
Technical Specification of the Contract.

Welding requirements in this specification shall be used for the seal


welding of tubular heat exchangers, boilers, other pressure vessels and
equipment t o ensure that the quality of seal welding is at all times,
during manufacture, adequate for the designed requirements.

Where welds are included in tube sheet strength calculations, the test
requirements of the design code shall be applied in addition t o this
specification.

2.0 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS

2.1 The seal welding of tube t o tube sheets of tubular heat exchangers shall
conform in design, materials and performance, except where otherwise
specified, with the current issue and amendments of the following
codes and standards prevailing on the effective date of the Contract:

2.1.1 International Standards

ASME IX Welding and Brazing Qualifications

2.1.2 Engineering Group Specifications

0 1 5-AH-1001 Basic Design Criteria

0 1 5-AH-1002 International Codes and Standards

0 1 5-XH-1005 Shop and Field Painting

0 1 5-KH-1902 Spare Parts and Maintenance Requirements

0 1 5-UH-1001 Packing, Marking and Documentation

0 1 5-WH-1001 Welding Procedure Approval and Welding


Quality Requirement
Specification Number Rev Date Sheet

QKOC Engineering Group


Specification 01 5-WH-1004 I 05-08-94 5 of 17

2.2 Compliance with this specification shall not relieve the Contractor of its
responsibility t o supply equipment suited t o meet the specified service
conditions and applicable regulations.

2.3 Where conflicts exist between this specification and other Drawings,
standards, codes and specifications, the most stringent shall be applied.

1 3.0 SEAL WELDING PROCEDURE REQUIREMENTS

3.1 Since the inspection of seal welding presents problems which cannot be
resolved satisfactorily by visual, non-destructive, hydraulic or pneumatic
testing the additional strict adherence t o t w o fundamentals is required:

3.1.1 A qualified welding procedure.

3.1.2 An operator's qualification test.

3.2 The qualified welding procedure shall be the method and sequence t o
be adopted t o achieve a satisfactory seal-welded joint when carried out
by competent workmen under the expected conditions of manufacture.
This procedure shall be substantiated by testing and accepted by the
Company before manufacture commences.

3.3 The operator's qualification test shall be used t o demonstrate that the
welding operators and/or welding machines consistently produce
satisfactory welds before and during the course of manufacture. The
operator's qualification test shall be substantiated by tests and accepted
by the Company during the course of manufacture. Then the Company
shall issue a test certificate for the qualified operator.

3.4 Qualification of the welding procedure shall be carried out before


fabrication commences for the following:

3.4.1 Each welding process to be employed.

3.4.2 Each type of tube sheet material t o be employed.

3.4.3 Each size and type of tube material t o be employed.

3.4.4 Each tube wall thickness differing by more than one gauge of
wall thickness.

Example: 16 swg will qualify 15 swg and 1 7 swg but not


1 4 swg or 18 swg.

3.4.5 Each type of tubeltube sheet combination welding profile


preparation to be used during construction.

A
3.4.6 Each welding position required by the tube sheet being flat
vertical or overhead.

3.4.7 Each combination of welding electrodes or filler wires used for


depositing weld metal.

3.4.8 Each shielding gas type or mixture used in tungsten inert gas
(TIG) or metal inert gas (MIG) welding process, e.g. # argon,
argon plus 1 0 % hydrogen, carbon dioxide, etc.

3.5 Qualification of operators (manual welding) and procedure settings


(machine automatic welding) shall be carried out before and during the
course of manufacture according to the duty defined below:

3.5.1 A Duty: 1 testJ500 welds.

A Duty is defined as service where:

a. Failure of tubes can cause major or serious plant


shutdown.

b. Failure of tubes.involves the hazard of fire or explosion,


e.g., hydrogen service, acetyleneJsteam.

3.5.2 B Duty: 1 test/1,000 welds.

B Duty is defined as service where:

a. Failure of a small number of tubes involves plant shutdown


before planned maintenance is effective.

b. Duty involving severe corrosion where tube failure can


involve further damage t o other parts of the equipment
and/or ancillaries.

c. Seal-welded joints relying on the quality of seal welding for


strength, pressure tightness or corrosion resistance.

3.5.3 C Duty: 1 test/2,000 welds.

C Duty is defined as service where:

a. Duty is not as severe as A Duty or B Duty.

b. Planned maintenance can rectify leaking welds during


shutdown periods.

c. Seal welding is used for tightness on light duty where


expanded joints are ineffective due to relaxation from
temperature effects.

3.6 The procedure adopted for seal welding shall be carried out as detailed
in the relative tubeltube sheet combination specifications.

The use of alternative seal welding methods shall be accepted providing


that in each and every case:

3.6.1 They fully comply with paragraph 2.1 and paragraph 2.2.

3.6.2 The required acceptance standards can be achieved and


maintained during manufacturing operations.

3.6.3 The alternative has been reviewed and accepted by the


Company.

4.0 TEST PIECE REQUIREMENTS

For each procedure and operator qualification, a test piece shall be


manufactured as shown in Attachment 1, Fig. 1 or 2, and shall consist
of a minimum of nine welds (square pitch) or eight welds (triangular
pitch).

The tubes for this test shall be taken from tubes supplied t o the same
size and specification as those intended for construction with an
allowable wall thickness variation of not more than 1 standard gauge if
matching gauge tube is not readily available.

The tube sheet material shall be of the same thickness and specification
as the tube sheets intended for construction up t o 63 mm thick. For
tube sheets over 63-mm thickness, the sample need not be thicker than

6 3 mm, always providing it is of the same material specification and


includes any surface cladding (if specified) t o the full-designed
thickness.

Each joint of the test sample shall be completed in the proposed


manufacturing sequence, including preparation of tubes, tube holes,
positioning of tubes, welding and final expansion (if specified).

The completed test sample shall be sectioned by sawing or machining


as shown in Attachment 1, Fig. 3 or 4. To provide:

4.5.1 Macro specimens, of which one specimen is t o include a


transverse section of one weld startlstop for microscopic
examination.

4.5.2 Two specimens for tear testing.


4.5.3 Hardness testing of weld metal, heat affected zone (HAZ) and
base metalloverlay using a Vickers hardness testing machine
with a 5-kg load (if specified on the data sheet).

5.0 ACCEPTANCE OF SEAL WELDING TESTS

Visual examination shall show the welding t o have even contour


without excessive reinforcement and be free from cracks, blowholes
and spatter. The bores of the tubes shall be free from spatter and
obstruction. Dressing of welds t o remove weld metal overhang shall
not be permitted.

The specimen intended for microscopic examination shall be filed,


polished, t o at least 00 emery finish and etched t o show weld metal
and any heat effects. All welds shall be free from cracks, tears, lack of
fusion, gross inclusions, trapped slag and gross porosity.

Small gas pores shall not form the basis of rejection provided that in
every case the pores are isolated, spherical in shape and a minimum
leak path between the working surface and the pore periphery, at least
equal t o the tube wall thickness, can be seen.

The minimum leak path shown by all sections shall be not less than the
tube wall thickness.

The tube section of the tear test specimen shall be tongue bent t o show
the extent of weld penetration. The underside of the weld shall be free
of trapped flux and show evidence of even and adequate weld
penetration.

The contact surface of the tube with the tube sheet shall show a
correct amount of deformation into the tube sheet holes grooves
without evidence of over expansion.

6.0 RETESTS

6.1 Failure of any specimen from the welding procedure test shall require
complete requalification.

6.2 Failure of any specimen from the operator qualification test shall require
the examination of both discard test pieces each consisting of three
sectioned welds.

6.3 The discards shall be examined microscopically as required by paragraph


5.2 and 5.4 and cut t o give twelve tear tests. Failure of any retest shall
require rejection of the whole operator qualification test and the
production welds covered by this test.
Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
Engineering Group
01 5-WH-1004 1 05-08-94 9 of 17
SpecrTication

6.4 In the event of the operator's qualification test failure, the Contractor
shall rectify the welds involved at its own expense and furnish further
satisfactory tests before production may proceed.

7.0 PACKING, MARKING AND DOCUMENTATION

For all relevant requirements, refer t o the Engineering Group Specification


entitled "Packing, Marking and Documentation" (Number 0 1 5-UH-1001).
Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
Engineering Group
Spew'fication 01 5-WH-1004 1 05-08-94 10 of 17

ATTACHMENT 1

TUBEITUBE SHEET SEAL WELDING


GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

FIG. 2
T e s t specimn - triangular p i t c h

FIG. 4 FIG. 5
FIG. 3 Tear test
Square p i t c h Triangular p i t c h
PART 2: CARBON AND CARBON 112% MOLYBDENUM MATERIALS

1.0 SCOPE

1 .I This specification shall be used for the seal welding of carbon steel
tubes into carbon steel tube sheets.

1.2 This specification shall be used in conjunction with Part 1 of this


specification (General Requirements).

2.0 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURES AND OPERATORS

2.1 The requirements of Part 1, General Requirements, shall be completed


before fabrication commences and the results accepted as satisfactory
by the Company.

2.2 Only qualified procedures and operators shall be used for the seal
welding of carbon steel materials.

2.3 The qualified operator production tests shall be carried out during the
course of fabrication as defined by the equipment duties of A,B or C.

3 . 0 SEQUENCE OF CONSTRUCTION

3.1 The sequence of manufacturing operations t o be carried out shall be as


described in the following sections 4 t o 9 and shall be :

3.1.1 Preparation of tubes and tube sheets.

3.1.2 Positioning of tubes.

3.1.3 Seal welding.

3.1.4 Expanding t o complete the joint.

3.1.5 Inspection and testing.

3.1.6 Repair of leaks.

4.0 PREPARATION OF TUBES AND TUBE SHEETS

4.1 The tubes intended for seal-welded construction shall be cleaned and
degreased both inside and outside for a minimum length of the tube
sheet thickness plus 25 mm.

4.2 The tube sheet shall be machined, drilled, reamed t o the required
tolerances and grooved in accordance with the relevant Drawings and
specifications. The required welding preparation shall be machined on
Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
Engineering Group
Spm'fitxtion 01 ~-WH-IOO~ 1 05-08-94 12 of 17

the tube side, and tube holes shall be radiused 1.6 mm on the shell
side t o remove any burr or sharp corners. The tube sheet shall be
cleaned free of swarf, grit, loose scale and foreign matter and
thoroughly degreased, including the machined weld preparations and
tube holes.

5.0 POSITIONING OF TUBES

5.1 Tubes shall be positioned prior t o seal welding by light expansion only
t o give metal-to-metal contact. No further tube expansion is required
(for non-ferrous material)

5.2 No lubricant shall be used for the operation specified in paragraph 5.1.

6.0 SEAL WELDING

6.1 The tube shall be welded into position using the approved procedure.
All welding shall be carried out in the downhand position with the tube
sheet horizontal.

6.2 All joints shall be welded individually with a sequence t o give minimum
tube sheet distortion.

6.3 Figure-eight welding is specifically prohibited.

6.4 No welding shall be carried out when the temperature of the tube sheet
is below 50°F.

7.0 TUBE EXPANSION AFTER SEAL WELDING (IF APPLIED)

Light tube expansion after seal welding shall be limited t o the tube area
between 10 mm from the weld junction to 3 mm from the back of the
tube sheet.

The equipment used for the tube expansion shall be of the mandrel and
parallel roller type incorporating limiting controls t o give a predetermined
amount of tube wall thinning, e.g., controlled torque equipment.

The amount of tube wall thinning shall be 5 - 7% of the original tube


wall thickness, and the machine settings t o achieve this thinning shall
be determined and checked during procedure testing by micrometer
measurements as follows:

7.3.1 Diameter of tube hole 'ID"........mm


7.3.2 Outside diameter of tube "d" ........mm

7.3.3 Difference "D-d" ......mm


7.3.4 Inside diameter (ID) of tube after
expansion "T" ........mm

7.3.5 ID of tube before


expansion "t"........mm
7.3.6 Difference "T-t" ......mm

7.3.7 Tube wall thinning = jT-t) - (D-d)mm


2

8.0 INSPECTION AND TESTING

The tube-sheet face, the seal welds and the internal tube surface t o a
depth of about 15 mm must be cleaned thoroughly by a suitable
method and examined visually followed by dye penetrant or magnetic
particle testing for surface defects which should be repaired if any.

Air-leak testing shall be carried out by applying a pressure of 0.5 bar.


Any leaks shall be repaired and retested until all faults are remedied.

The hydrostatic test at the design test pressure shall be applied on the
shell side using water containing 1% by volume of approved wetting
agent.

After maintaining the test pressure for a minimum period of 4 hours, the
welds and bores of the tube shall be examined for leaks. The location
of all leaks shall be marked on the tube sheet and recorded on the tube
sheet drawing.

All leaks shall be repaired. Such repairs shall be subjected t o further


pressure testing. This procedure shall be repeated until all faults are
rectified.

9.0 REPAIR OF SEAL WELDING

9.1 Defective welds found during inspection shall not exceed 5% of the
total number of welds on any tube sheet. When more than 5%
defective welding is found on inspection, the whole tube sheet and all
tubes shall be re-prepared and re-welded.

9.2 The costs of all repairs shall be borne by the Contractor.

9.3 Welding defects found during inspection shall be removed t o sound


metal and rewelded by hand.

9.4 Welding found t o contain cracks require the whole of the weld profile
and tube t o be re-prepared and re-welded. Dye penetrant or magnetic
Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
Engineering Group
14 of 17
Sp8~~fi~ation 015-WH-1004 1 05-08-94

particle inspection, if requested, shall be used to ascertain that all


cracks have been removed.

PART 3: CUPRO NICKEL, MONEL AND MONEL-CLAD MILD STEEL MATERIALS

1.0 SCOPE

1.1 This specification shall be used for seal welding of cupro nickel or monel
tubes into cupro-nickel, monel or monel clad tube sheets.

1.2 This specification shall be used in conjunction with Part 1 of this


specification (General Requirements).

2.0 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURES AND OPERATORS

2.1 The requirements of Part 1, General Requirements, shall be completed


before fabrication commences and the results accepted as satisfactory
by the Company.

2.2 Only qualified procedure and operators shall be used for seal welding of
materials covered by this specification.

2.3 The qualified operator production tests shall be carried out during the
course of fabrication as defined by the equipment duties of A, B or C.

2.4 Only welding procedures incorporating TIG or MIG equipment shall be


used for seal welding materials covered by this specification.

3 . 0 SEQUENCE OF CONSTRUCTION

3.1 The sequence of manufacturing operations to be carried out shall be as


described in the following sections 4 t o 9 and shall be:

3.1.1 Preparation of tubes and tube sheets.

3.1.2 Positioning of tubes.

3.1.3 Seal welding.

3.1.4 Expanding t o complete the joint.

3.1.5 Inspection and testing.

3.1.6 Repair of leaks.


Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
Engineering Group
QKOC SpeciRcation o 15-WH-1004 1 05-08-94 15of 17

4.0 PREPARATION OF TUBE AND TUBE SHEETS

4.1 The tubes intended for seal-welded construction shall be cleaned and
degreased both inside and outside for a minimum length of the tube
sheet thickness plus 25 mm.

4.2 The tube sheets shall be machined, drilled, reamed t o the required
tolerance and grooved in accordance with the relevant drawings and
specifications. The required welding preparation shall be machined on
the tube side and the tube holes be radiused 1.6 mm on the shell side
t o remove any burr or sharp corners. The tube sheet shall be cleaned
free of swarf, grit, loose scale and foreign matter and thoroughly
degreased including the weld preparations and tube holes.

4.3 Special care shall be taken t o ensure that paint, crayons, etc. containing
lead, sulphur or compounds of lead and sulphur are not used at any
stage before, or during the fabrication of monel or cupro-nickel
materials.

5.0 POSITIONING OF TUBES

5.1 Tubes shall be positioned prior to seal welding by light expansion t o


give metal-to-metal contact. No further tube expansion is required (for
non-ferrous material).

5.2 No lubricant shall be used for the operation specified in paragraph 5.1.

6.0 SEAL WELDING

6.1 The tubes shall be seal welded into position using the approved
procedure. All welding shall be carried out in the downhand position
with the tubesheet horizontal.

6.2 All joints shall be welded individually with a sequence t o give minimum
tube sheet distortion.

6.3 Figure-eight welding is specifically prohibited.

7.0 TUBE EXPANSION AFTER SEAL WELDING (IF APPLIED)

7.1 Light tube expansion after seal welding shall be limited t e tube area
between 10 mm from the weld junction t o 3 mm from the back of the
tube sheet.

7.2 The equipment used for tube expansion shall be of the mandrel and
parallel roller type incorporating limiting control t o give a predetermined
amount of wall thinning, e.g., controlled torque equipment.
Specification Number Rev Date Sheet
Group
01 5-WH-1004 1 05-08-94 16 of 17

7.3 The amount of tube wall thinning shall be 5 - 7% of the original tube
wall thickness, and the machine settings to achieve this thinning shall
be determined and checked during procedure testing by micrometer
measurements as follows:

7.3.1 Diameter of tubehole "D". .......mm


7.3.2 Outside diameter (OD) of tube "dm.. ......mm
7.3.3 Difference l'D"-"d"....mm

7.3.4 ID of tube after expansion "T". .. .....mm


7.3.5 ID of tube before expansion "t" ........mm

7.3.6 Difference l'T"-l't"....mm

7.3.7 Tube wall thinning = IT-t) - (D - d! mm


2

8.0 INSPECTION AND TESTING

The tube-sheet face, the seal welds and the internal tube surface to a
depth of about 15 mm must be cleaned thoroughly by a suitable
method and examined visually followed by dye penetrant or magnetic
particle testing for surface defects which should be repaired if any.

Air-leak testing shall be carried out by applying a pressure of 0.5 bar.


Any leaks shall be repaired and retested until all faults are remedied.

The hydrostatic test at the design test pressure shall be applied on the
shell side using water containing 1 % by volume of approved wetting
agent.

After maintaining the test pressure for a minimum period of 4 hours, the
welds and bores of the tube shall be examined for leaks. The location
of all leaks shall be marked on the tube sheet and recorded on the tube
sheet Drawing.

All leaks shall be repaired; such repairs shall be subjected to further


pressure testing. This procedure shall be repeated until all faults are
rectified.
Specification Number Rev Date Sheet

QKOC Engineering Group


Spewfication 01 ~ - W H - I O O ~
1 05-08-94 17 of 17

9.0 REPAIRS OF SEAL WELDING

9.1 Defective welds found during inspection shall not exceed 5% of the
total number of welds on any tube sheet. When more than 5%
defective welding is found on inspection, all tubes and the whole
tubesheet shall be re-prepared and re-welded.

9.2 The costs of all repairs shall be borne by the Contractor.

9.3 Welding defects found during inspection shall be removed t o sound


metal and welded by hand.

9.4 Welding found t o contain cracks shall require the whole of the weld
profile and tube t o be re-prepared and re-welded. Dye penetrant shall be
used t o ascertain that all cracks have been removed.