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Different Vedanta school/philosophy explains the relation among above three

entities/elements differently as
1. Identical(अद्वै त) [non-duality] 2.Different(द्वै त) [duality]
Actually the answer to the question Difference between them is Too Broad; Though
visit Schools of Vedanta to get the overview of these different philosophies and respected
article (on each school) to know the principle, thoughts and practices followed by
respected schools.
Overview of different Vedanta philosophies:

 Advaita
According to Advaita, there is only one absolute and ultimate truth - Brahman.
 ब्रह्म सत्यं जगत् मिथ्या which means only Brahman is real and universe is unreal.
Universe is appeared/realize due to ignorance (अज्ञान/अविद्या) only [Snake & Rope
Analogy], it is unreal and just like dream. After attaining the jnana and satya
universe/world doesn't exist.
 जीवो ब्रह्मै व नापरः which means ultimately there is no difference between Jiva
(Ataman) and Brahman. The individuality of soul is also due to ignorance and after
attaining jnana the non-duality (अद्वै त) of Ataman and Brahman is realized.
 Advaita emphasise/insist on self-realization/jnana (आत्मज्ञान)

 Vishishtadvaita
According to Vishishtadvaita, Brahman (Paramatma/Sriman Narayana) is the supreme
and inner soul of universe as well as jivatma. Universe and Jivatma have body-soul
(Sharira-Shariri) relationship with Brahman. Jivatma and Universe is the body and
essential part of Brahman.
 Universe is not unreal, it is the transformation of Brahman and Brahman (in its
pure form) dwells inside it.
 Jivatma (individual soul) and Brahman (supreme soul) are different and
Brahman dwells inside Jivatma.
 It is known as qualified (मवमिष्ट) non-dualism (अद्वै त) as it asserts the non-duality of
Jivatma and Brahman in qualified way. (i.e Jivatma and Paramatma doesn't exist
differently - Paramatama always dwells inside Jivatma - both can't exist separately.
But Jivatma and Parmatma are (not same) different.
 Vishishtadvaita emphasise/insist on Complete surrender (Sharanagati /िरणां गमत)
to Vishnu.

 Shuddhadvaita
According to Suddhadvaita, Brahman without maya is the cause for Universe. Maya is
not unreal but it is shakti (energy) of Brahman. Apparent manifestation or dvaita
prapanch (द्वै त प्रपंच) is not due to maya or unreal but it is the wish of Brahman/Krishna

 Jagat (universe/world) and Samsara (metempsychosis) are different. Jagat is

manifestation (without relation with maya) of Brahman and is real. Samsara is due
to ignorance/nescience of real nature and is unreal. samsar has Uttpatti
origination and Lay destruction; whereas jagat has only Avirbhav
manifestation and Tirobhav disappearance.
 Jiva is not different from Brahman as it is a portion/part of Brahman (not
reflation). The relation between Brahman and Jiva is like fire and spark. Jiva
and world emanate from Brahman and conceal/absorb in Brahman. Jiva is not
Brahman as it is in later condition (separation from Brahman).
 Shuddhadvaita emphasis/insist on Bhakti and the path is
called Pushtimarg (पुमष्टिागग)
Source: Suddhadvaita Brahmavad, Jagatswarup, Jivaswarup and Introduction to Suddhadvaita

 Dvaita
According to Dvaita, Universe and Jiva are separate from Brahman/Vishnu. All these
three elements (Jiva, Universe and Brahman) are real and different (द्वै त) from each
 There are five types of difference described between 1.Jiva-Ishwar, 2.Jiva-
Jiva(Individual souls), 3.Jiva-Jagat, 4.Ishwar-Jagat and 5.Jagat-Jagat(Matter-Matter)
 Brhaman/Saguna-Ishwar is creator-foster-destroyer (governor and controller) of
Universe. Jiva/Atman and Brahman/Vishnu is completely different and eternal.
Madhvacharya classified Atman into three categories (Nitya, Mukta and Baddha)
which is different from all other beliefs/philosophies. Devotion to Vishnu leads to
 Dvaita also emphasis/insist on Bhakti (devotion and surrender) to Vishnu.

 Dvaitadvaita
According to Dvaitadvaita, Brahman is the highest reality and nothing is superior to
Brahman. Brahman is material and efficient cause (creator-maintainer-destroyer) of
universe. Jiva and Brahman can be considered different and non-different.
 There is Dharmin-Dharma (धर्मी-धर्मम ) nature-relation between Jiva and jnana(ज्ञान).
Just like sun is both light and source of light, Jiva is knower, can be knowledge and
the processor of knowledge at the same time. Jiva is Knower(ज्ञाता), the doer(कताम )
and the experiencer(भोक्ता). Ishwar is Controller(वनयंता), filler(भताम ) and
 Jagat is of three different kinds viz. prakrta(प्राकृत), aprakrta(अप्राकृत), and
kala(काल). Prakrat forms Prakriti/Jagat, Aprakrut forms the body of Brahman.
 Jiva and world are part of Brahman. Brahman transforms (as of just his nature) into
chit (sentient) and achit (insentient) world and also remains in his true nature or
nirvikar. Thus universe and Jiva are karya(work/effect) of Brahman. they
are different(द्वै त) and also identical(अद्वै त) to their karan(cause) Brahman.
 Dvaitadvaita emphasis/insist on Bhakti as well as Jnana.

 Achintya Bhedabheda

Achintya Bhedabheda refers to inconceivable(अवचन्त्य) oneness(अभेद) and

difference(भेद). (The nature of relationship between Jiva and Brahman is inconceivable
to human mind). According to Achintya Bhedabheda, Brahman is simultaneously one
with and different from his creation.
 Brahman/Krishna (in his pure form) is separate from his creation - simultaneously
creation is never separated from Brahman. It is explained something like "As the
spider sends forth and draws in its thread, as plants grow on the earth, as hair grows
on the head and the body of a living man—so does everything in the universe arise
from the Imperishable" Mundaka Upanishad 1.1.7
 The relationship between Brahman and Jivatman is like Sun and Sunshine.
Qualitatively the Sun and the Sunshine are not different, but as quantities they are
very different. Similarly Jivatman and Brahman/Krishna is are of similar quality but
there is a vast difference in quantity.
 Chaitanya Mahaprabhu emphasis/insist on Bhakti (like of Radha) to Krishna and
attaining the devotion of Krishna leads to Moksha.