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A Mini Project Report on


Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements
for the degree of
Bachelor of Engineering
Mechatronics Engineering
Submitted to
(Department of Mechatronics Engineering)
Semester 8

Subject code: MTL805

For academic year 2018-2019

Department of Mechatronics Engineering


Plot No.12, Sector-22, Phase II, Nerul (W), Navi Mumbai-400706

Department of Mechatronics Engineering

Mini Project Report


This is to certify that the project report entitled “Servo motor position control using IC 555
timer”is report of mini project done by “Mr. Rushabh M. Gajjar” (TU6S1617025),during
academic year 2018-2019.

Prof. Dattatray Shinde

(Project Guide)

University of Mumbai



This is to certify that the project entitled “Servo motor position control using IC 555
timer”for the degree of “Bachelor of Engineering” in “Mechatronics Engineering”
Submitted to the University of Mumbai by of “Mr. Rushabh M. Gajjar” (TU6S1617025), a
bonafide student of Terna Engineering College, Nerul, Navi Mumbai has been approved for
the award of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechatronics Engineering.

Prof. Dattatray Shinde Prof. Vikram Vyawahare

(Project Guide) (Head of Department)

Dr. L.K. Ragha


Department of Mechatronics

Terna Engineering College


I declare that this written submission represents my ideas in my own words and where other’s
ideas or words have been included, I have adequately cited and referenced the original
sources. I also declare that I have adhered to all principles of academic honesty and integrity
and have not misrepresented or fabricated any idea in my submission. I understand that any
violation of the above will be cause for disciplinary action by the Institute and can also evoke
penal action from the sources which have thus not been properly cited or from whom proper
permission has not been taken when needed.

Mr. Rushabh M. Gajjar(TEC)



I place on record and warmly acknowledge the continuous encouragement. Invaluable

supervision, timely suggestions and inspired guidance offered by project guide Prof.
Dattatraya Shinde, Departments of Mechatronics Engineering , at Terna Engineering College
, Nerul in bringing this report to a successful completion.

I am grateful to Prof. Vikram Vyawahare, Head of Department of Mechatronics Engineering

for permitting me to make use of the facilities available in the department to carry out the
project successfully.

Vaishnav G. Dalvi



1. Introduction
2. Literature survey
3. Block Diagram/ Circuit Diagram
4. Software requirements
5. Components Required
6. Simulation of project
7. Advantage and Disadvantages
8. Application
9. Future scope

The 555 timer IC is an integral part of electronics projects. Be it a simple project

involving a single 8-bit micro-controller and some peripherals or a complex one involving

system on chips (SoCs), 555 timer working is involved. These provide time delays, as an

oscillator and as a flip-flop element among other applications.

Introduced in 1971 by the American company Signetics, the 555 is still in widespread

use due to its low price, ease of use and stability. It is made by many companies in the

original bipolar and low-power CMOS types. According to an estimate, a billion units were

manufactured back in the year 2003 alone.

Depending on the manufacturer, the standard 555 timer package includes 25

transistors, 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dual-in-line

package (DIP-8). Variants consist of combining multiple chips on one board. However, 555 is

still the most popular. Let us look at the pin diagram to have an idea about the timer IC

before we talk about 555 timer working.555 timer is used in almost every electronic circuit

today. For a 555 timer working as a flip flop or as a multi-vibrator, it has a particular set of

configurations. Some of the major features of the 555 timer would be,

 It operates from a wide range of power ranging from +5 Volts to +18 Volts supply
 Sinking or sourcing 200 mA of load current.
 The external components should be selected properly so that the timing intervals
can be made into several minutes along with the frequencies exceeding several
hundred kilohertz.
 The output of a 555 timer can drive a transistor-transistor logic (TTL) due to its
high current output.
 It has a temperature stability of 50 parts per million (ppm) per degree Celsius
change in temperature which is equivalent to 0.005 %/ °C.
 The duty cycle of the timer is adjustable. Also, the maximum power dissipation per
package is 600 mW and its trigger and reset inputs has logic compatibility.

Home automation is going to be an essential part of our future smart homes it’s a very god
use of technology wear with the help of home automation power saving can be done and it
can be also used for the security purpose for our home safety. The Home automation is an
attractive package for those ones who are dealing with busy life and also for the one with
physical Disability. Home automation system is also for the Elder peoples who are the
important part of our lives.

Generally the Art of controlling the home appliances automatically & sometimes remotely is
called home automation system. Home Automation systems are highly increasing to Comfort
in life and also improving of life. As we are in the Era of never ending growth of internet and
its applications So, the topic of home automation systems getting most popularity due to its
countless advantages quality. This paper focus on the studies and review of multiple home
automation systems designed for disable peoples from multiple features standpoints. This
research will be helpful for the disable persons to find an efficient and usable system with
respect to the categories divided for the comparison.

We can link the home automation with IOT(Internet Of Things) it can also be combine with
the different types of controllers, GHMI(Gesture Human-Machine Interface), Speech
Recognition and Machine Learning and it could help us in many ways not only limited to
home automation.


Proteus Design Suite:

The Proteus Design Suite is a proprietary software tool suite used primarily for
electronic design automation. The software is used mainly by electronic design
engineers and technicians to create schematics and electronic prints for manufacturing
printed circuit boards. It was developed in Yorkshire, England by Lab center
Electronics Ltd.
The Proteus Design Suite is a Windows application for schematic capture, simulation,
and PCB (Printed Circuit Board) layout design. It can be purchased in many
configurations, depending on the size of designs being produced and the requirements
for microcontroller simulation. All PCB Design products include an auto router and
basic mixed mode SPICE simulation capabilities.
The micro-controller simulation in Proteus works by applying either a hex file or a
debug file to the microcontroller part on the schematic. It is then co-simulated along
with any analog and digital electronics connected to it. This enables its use in a broad
spectrum of project prototyping in areas such as motor control, temperature control
and user interface design. It also finds use in the general hobbyist community and,
since no hardware is required, is convenient to use as a training or teaching tool.
Support is available for co-simulation of:
 Microchip Technologies PIC10, PIC12, PIC16, PIC18, PIC24,
 Atmel AVR (and Arduino), 8051 and ARM Cortex-M3 Microcontrollers
 NXP 8051, ARM7, ARM Cortex-M0 and ARM Cortex-M3 Microcontrollers.
 Texas Instruments MSP430, PICCOLO DSP and ARM Cortex-M3 Microcontrollers.
 Parallax Basic Stamp, Free scale HC11, 8086 Microcontrollers.


1. LM358 OP AMP:
LM-358 consists of two independent high gain frequency compensated operational amplifier.
They are specially designed to operate from a single supply or split supplies over a wide
range of voltages.

LM-358 have lot of amazing features associated with them. These features include wide
supply ranges, low supply current drain, independent of supply voltage, wide unity gain
bandwidth, ground includes I common mode input voltage range, low input bias, open loop
differential voltage gain, internally frequency compensation etc. LM 358 has a lot real life
applications e.g. Operational Amplifier (Op-amp) circuits, transducer amplifiers, DC gain
blocks etc. LM-358 is available in as small size as chip. It is most commonly used device
due to its cost efficiency.



A photoresistor (or light-dependent resistor, LDR, or photo-conductive cell) is a light-

controlled variable resistor. The resistance of a photoresistor decreases with increasing
incident light intensity; in other words, it exhibits photoconductivity. A photoresistor can be
applied in light-sensitive detector circuits, and light-activated and dark-activated switching

A photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. In the dark, a photoresistor can

have a resistance as high as several megohms (MΩ), while in the light, a photoresistor can
have a resistance as low as a few hundred ohms. If incident light on a photoresistor exceeds
a certain frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electronsenough
energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free electrons (and
their hole partners) conduct electricity, thereby lowering resistance. The resistance range
and sensitivity of a photoresistor can substantially differ among dissimilar devices. Moreover,
unique photoresistors may react substantially differently to photons within certain wavelength


A potentiometer is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding or rotating contact that forms an
adjustable voltage divider.[1] If only two terminals are used, one end and the wiper, it acts as
a variable resistor or rheostat.

The measuring instrument called a potentiometer is essentially a voltage divider used for
measuring electric potential(voltage); the component is an implementation of the same
principle, hence its name.

Potentiometers are commonly used to control electrical devices such as volume controls on
audio equipment. Potentiometers operated by a mechanism can be used as
position transducers, for example, in a joystick. Potentiometers are rarely used to directly
control significant power (more than a watt), since the power dissipated in the potentiometer
would be comparable to the power in the controlled load.


FIG. 5

Simulation of the home automation when it’s dark.

Fig. 6

Simulation of home automation while LDR senses light.



 Ease of use

 Reduced Installation costs

 Scalable & Expandable

 Security


 If not managed correctly it can go wrong

 You leave the house for a month and forget to switch off automation of light
getting on every night
 It may be irritating when you are reading quietly and presence sensor switches
off light thinking you are not there and so on.


 Lighting Control: Leaving the Dark Ages and Stepping Into the Light

 Operational Amplifier (Op-amp) circuits

 transducer amplifiers
 DC gain blocks

 We can add the remote controlling of the home appliances.

 It can be use by interfacing it with IOT.
 We can use it for physically disabled people.
 We can use it Home Automation System Based on Gesture Human-Machine Interface