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Chapter 6
Bosch Motronic MPi (35, 55 & BB-pin types)
Contents
Overview of system operation
Catalyticconverter and emission control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 6 ECM voltage supplies and earths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Control functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2 Fuel injector operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Fuel injection (MPi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5 Fuel pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '26
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 Hall-effect phase sensor (CID, GM 16-valve engines) . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Primaryand secondary ignition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4 Idle speed control valve (ISCV) 23
Primary trigger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3 Knock sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
(KS)
Adjustments MAP sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Adjustment pre-conditions 7 Oxygen sensor (OS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Idle adjustments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Primary ignition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Ignitiontiming checks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9 System relays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Throttle adjustments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8 Throttle potentiometer sensor (TPS) 22
System sensor and actuator tests Throttle switch (TS) 21
Air temperature sensor (A TS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 -
Pin table typical 35-pin (First Generation Motronic, BMW)
Airflow sensor (AFS) . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 -
Pin table typical 35-pin (Motronic 3.1, Citroen/Peugeot)
Carbon filter solenoid valve (CFSV) . . . . .-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 -
Pin table typical 55-pin (Motronic 1.5, Vauxhall)
CO potentiometer ('pot') 19 Pin table - typical 88-pin (Motronic MP3.1, BMW)
Coolant temperature sensor (CTS) 20 Fault codes .
Crank angle sensor (CAS) 11 Obtaining fault codes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Specifications
Vehicle Year Idle speed CO% .!I
BMW, Motronic First Generation
325i non-cat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 to 1986 760 :I:40 0.7:1: 0.5
325e.cat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 to 1991 700 :I:50 0.5 max
525e non-cat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1983 to 1985 700 :I:50 1.0:1: 0.5
525e .::at ................................................. 1986 to 1987 720 :I:40 0.5 max
525e non-cat . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1986 to 1987 720 :I:40 1.0:1: 0.5
535i/M535i non-cat. .. . ..... ..... . ...... .... .. ..... .... . ... 1982 to 1986 800 :I:50 1.0 :I:0.5
MS DOHC non-cat. . . . . . ',' . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 1985 to 1987 850 :I:50 1.5 max
BMW, Motronic 1.'3
316/318/518i non cat. . ..... .... .. ..... .... .. ..... .... .. .... 1988 to 1991 800 :I:40 0.7 :1:0.5
316/318/518i cat. !. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988 to 1991 800 :I:40 0.5 max
320/325i non cat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1986 to 1991 760 :I:40 0.7:1: 0.5
320/325i cat. .... .. ... ...... .. ... ...... .. ... ...... .. ... ... 1986 to 1991 760 :I:40 0.5 max
520/525i non cat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988 to 1991 760 :I:40 0.7:1: 0.5
520/525icat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988 to 1991 760 :I:40 0.5 max
530/535i non cat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988 to 1991 800 :I:50 0.7 :I:0.5
530/535i cat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988 to 1991 800 :I:50 0.5 max
BMW, Motronic 1.7
316icat................................................. 1991 to 1993 800 :I:40 0.7:1: 0.5
316i&Compact. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 to 1996 800 :I:40 0.7:1: 0.5
318is 16V cat. ............................................ 1990 to 1991 850 :I:40 0.7 :1:0.5
318i cat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 to 1993 800 :I:40 0.7:1: 0.5
318is &Compact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 to 1996 850 :I:40 0.7:1: 0.5
318i .,. 1993 to 1996 800 :I:40 0.7 :1:0.5
518i ........................... 1993 to 1996 800 :I:40 0.7:1: 0.5
750i & L & cat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1987 to 1994 700 :I:50 0.7 :I:0.5
850i ..................................................... 1991 to 1994 700 :I:50 0.7:1: 0.5
6-2 Bosch Motronic MPi (35, 55 and BB-pin types)

Vehicle Year Idle speed CO%


BMW, Motronic 3.1
320i 24V cat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 to 1993 700 :f: 40 0.7 :f: 0.5
320i 24V ................................................. 1993 to 1996 700:f: 40 0.7 :f: 0.5
325i 24V cat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 to 1993 700 :f: 40 0.7 :f: 0.5
325i 24V ................................................. 1993 to 1996 700:f: 40 0.7 :f: 0.5
520L&-.Touring 24V ......................................... 1990 to 1993 800 :f:40 0.7 :f:0.5
520i & Touring 24V ......................................... 1993 to 1996 700 :f:40 0.7 :f:0.5
525i & Touring 24V ... . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . .. . 1990 to 1993 800 :f:40 0.7:f: 0.5
525i & Touring 24V ... . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . ... . .. . ... . . ... .. . 1993 to 1996 700 :f:40 0.7:f: 0.5
BMW, Motronic 3.3
530i&Touring
V8 ... . ..... .... .. ..... . 1993 to 1996 600 :f:50 0.7 :f:0.5
540iV8 ................................................. 1993 to 1996 600 :f:50 0.7 :f:0.5
MS ...................................................... 1986 to 1988 850 :f:50 0.3 to 1.5
730i V8 cat. .. .... . ...... .... . ...... .... . ..... ..... . ...... 1992 to 1994 600 :f:50 0.7 :f:0.5
730i ..................................................... 1994 to 1996 600 :f:50 0.7 :f:0.5
740i iL V8 ................................................ 1992 to 1994 600 :f:50 0.7:f: 0.5
740i ..................................................... 1994 to 1996 600 :f:50 0.7:f: 0.5
840Ci ................................................... 1993 to 1996 600 :f:50 0.7:f: 0.5
CitroenlPeugeot, Motronic 1.3
Citroen BX19, ZX19 (8V), BX19 (16V) (M1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 850 to 950 0.8 to 2.0 (non-cat) 10.5 (cat)
Citroen BX19, ZX19 (8V), BX19 (16V) (A1) ....................... 800 to 850 0.8 to 2.0 (non-cat) 10.5 (cat)
Peugeot 205/309/4051.9 (8V)(M1) ............................ 850 to 950 0.8 to 2.0 (non-cat) 1 0.5 (cat)
Peugeot 205/309/405 1.9 (8V)(A1) . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . .-. . . . .. .. . 800 to 850 0.8 to 2.0 (non-cat) 1 0.5 (cat)
Peugeot 309/405 (16V)(M1) . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . .. . .. . 850 to 950 0.8 to 2.0 (non-cat) 1 0.5 (cat)
CitroenlPeugeot, Motronic 3.1
AX 1Ai K6B (fU3J2/K) ...................................... 1990 to 1991 880 1.0:f: 0.5
AX 1Ai cat KFZ (fU3J2IL.Z). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 to 1996 900 :f:50 0.5 max
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BX 1.9i XU9J2 (D6D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 to 1992 850 :f:50 1.5:f: 0.5
:1
ZX 1.9i XU9JA/K (D6E) ...................................... 1991 to 1992 850 :f:50 1.5 :f:0.5
XM 2.0i XU10J2Z (RFi) cat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 to 1992 875 :f:25 0.5 max
106 1Ai TU3FJ2 (K6B) ...................................... 1991 to 1992 920 :f:50 1.0 :f:0.5
1061.4icatTU3FJ2(KFZ)................................... 1991 to 1996 920 :f:50
4051.9i(XU9J2)
D6D ... .... .. ..... .... .. ..... ... 1990 to 1992 850 to 900 1.5:f: 0.5
605 2.Oi (XU10J2Z)RFZ cat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 to 1995 800 :f:20 0.5 max
CitroenlPeugeot, Motronic 3.2
Xantia 2.0i 16V cat
RFY (XU1 OJ4D/Z) ........................... 1993 to 1995 880 :f:50 0.4 max
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ZX2.Oi16Vcat RFY/RFT(XU10J4D/Z)......................... 1993 to 1995 880 :f:50 0.4 max
I 306 2.0i16V cat XU1OJ4/Z(RFY) .............................. 1994 to 1996 850 :f:50 0.5 max
I 405 2.0i 16V cat XU1 OJ4/Z (RFY) .............................. 1992 to 1995 880 :f:50 0.5 max
CitroenlPeugeot, Motronic 4.1
.I Citroen BX19 ............................................. 850 0.8 to 1.5
:I
I Peugeot 405 .............................................. 830 to 930 1.5 to 2.0
CitroenlPeugeot, Motronic 5.1
'.
:1
1.8i8Vcat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. Xantia LX/SX & Break 1993 to
1996 850 :f:50 0.4 max
Xantia 2.0i 16V & Break XU10J4RUZlL3 (RFV) ................... 1995 to
1996 800 :f:50 004max
XM2.0i16Vcat. ... ... . ... . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . " . .. . . . .. .. 1994 to
1996 800 :f:50 004max
ZX 1.8i Advantage, Aura, Furio cat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 to
1996 850 :f:50 0.4 max
3061.6i XL/XR/XS/XT, 1.8i cat XU7JP/z (LFZ). . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .... 1993 to
1996 850 :f:50 004max
405 2.0 XU7JPLIZ (LFZ) ..................................... 1992 to 1996 850 :f:50 0.4 max
605 SU 2.Oi16V
VauxhalVOpel, Motronic 1.5
C16SEI, MT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 820 to 980 1.0
20SEH MT 4x4 ............................................ 890 to 990 1.0
C20NEMT4x4 ............................................. 890 to 990 1.0
C24NE, MT ............................................... 820 to 880 1.0
C24NE, AT ............................................... 720 to 780 1.0
C26NE .................................................. 670 to 830 1.0
C30NE .................................................. 670 to 830 1.0
C30SE, SEJ .............................................. 570 to 730 1.0
All other models not listed above. ............................. 720 to 780 1.0

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Bosch Motronic MPi (35, 55 and BB-pintypes) 6-3

Vehicle Year Idle speed CO%


Vauxhall/Opel, Motronic 2.5
Allnon-cat models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860 to 1020 0.7 to 1.2 max
Allcat .models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860 to 1020 0.4 max
Vauxhall/Opel, Motronic 2.7
CavalierTurbo cat C20LET. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 to 1995 860 to 1020 0.3 max
Vectra-ATurbo cat C20LET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 to 1995 860 to 1020 0.3 max
Calibra Turbo 4x4 C20LET ...... .... .. ..... ..... . ..... ..... . . 1992 to 1996 860 to 1020 0.5 max
Vauxhall/Opel, Motronic 2.8
Cavalier2.5i 24VC25XE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 to 1995 620 to 780 0.3 max
Vectra-A2.5i 24VC25XE .................................... 1993 to 1995 620 to 780 0.3 max
Calibra 2.0 16V & 4x4 C20XE ..... ... ... ..... ... ... ..... ... ... 1993 on 860 to 1020 0.3 max
Calibra2.5i 24VC25XE ..................................... 1993 to 1996 620 to 780 0.5 max
Calibra2.5i 24VX25XE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997 620 to 780 0.5 max
Vauxhall/Opel, Motronic 2.8.1
Omega-B 2.5i X25XE ....................................... 1994 to 1997 570 to 730 0.5 max
Omega-B 3.0i X30XE ....................................... 1994 to 1997 570 to 730 0.5 max
Vauxhall/Opel, Motronic 2.8.3
Vectra-B 2.5i V6 24V X25XE~ .. .... . ...... .... .. ..... ..... . .. 1995 to 1997 570 to 730 0.3 max
Vauxhall/Opel, Motronic 4.1
Allvehicles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720 to 780 1.0
Volvo, Motronic
740 and 760 Turbo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 to 1989 800 to 850 0.5 to 2.0

Overview of system operation


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6
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10(": ...1
1 Introduction

Please read this overview of Motronic


operation in conjunction with Chapter 2,
which describes some of the functions in
more detail.
The name 'Motronic' describes a family of
EMS's that first saw light of day in the early
1980's. Motronic was one of the very first true
EMS's, and evolved from the well-tried 'L' and
'LE' Jetronic fuel injection systems which first
emerged in the mid 1970's. Motronic has
evolved considerably over the years, and is
now fitted to a wide range of European
vehicles.
When fitted to BMW vehicles, Motronic is
sometimes labelled 'DME' (Digital Motor
Electronics). Interestingly, the term DME is
generically applied to most versions of the
Motronic family fitted to BMW cars, and does
not label any particular Motronic system.
Currently there exists a variety of different
Motronic versions; First Generation, 1.5, 1.7,
1.8, 2.5, 2.7, 2.8, 2.8.1, 2.8.3, 3.1, MP3.1, 3.2,
4.1, 5.1, 5.1.1, etc (see illustration 6.1).
We can basically divide Motronic
descriptions into Motronic 'First Generation' 6.1 Typical Motronic system (1.5.2)
and Motronic MPi. Differences will be detailed
1 AFS 2 ATS 4 ISCV 6 CFSV
under these headings where descriptions 7 CTS
differ. (air mass type) 3 TPS 5 Distributor
6-4 Bosch Motronic MPi (35, 55 and BB-pin types)

Motronic 'First Generation' Motronic accesses a different map for idle This means that the engine may actually ru-
A 35-pin connector and multi-plug running conditions, and this map is quite well with failure of one or more minc'
connects the First Generation Motronic ECM implemented whenever the engine speed is at sensors. However, since the substitutec
to the battery, sensors and actuators. First idle. Idle speed during warm-up and normal values are those of a hot engine, cold startirt!;
Generation systems were mainly fitted from hot running conditions is maintained by the and running during the warm-up period ma,
1985 to 1987, and are characterised by idle control (not First Generation). Motronic be less than satisfactory. Also, failure of a
separate RPM and TOC sensors. All later also makes small adjustments to the idle major sensor, ie the AFS, will tend to make
models utilise a single CAS. speed by advancing or retarding the timing, driving conditions less easy.
and this results in an ignition timing value that
Motronic MPi is forever changing during engine idle. Adaptive systems
A 35-pin, 55-pin or 88-pin connector and Motronic is adaptive to changing engine
Basic ECM operation (typical) operating characteristics, and constantl)
multi-plug connects the Motronic ECM to the
battery, sensors and actuators. Motronic 4.1 A permanent voltage supply is made from monitors the data from the various sensors (ie
utilises a 35-pin multi-plug. Motronic 1.7 and the vehicle battery to the ECM (not First AFS or MAP, ATS, CTS. TPS etc). As the
MP3.1 utilises a 88-pin multi-plug and the Generation models). This allows the self- engine or its components wear, the ECM
ignition is OIS in operation. All the others, diagnostic function to retain data of an reacts to new circumstances by adopting the
including 3.1, utilise a 55-pin multi-plug. intermittent nature. Once the ignition is changed values as a correction to the basic
switched on, a voltage supply to the ignition map.
coil and to the ECM is made from the ignition
switch. This causes the ECM to earth the main Reference voltage
2 Controlfunctions fuel injection relay. A relay-switched voltage Voltage supply from the ECM to many of
supply is thus made to the ECM from the main the engine sensors is at a 5.0 volt reference
fuel injection relay. level. This ensures a stable working voltage,
The majority of sensors (other than those unaffected by variations in system voltage.
that generate a voltage such the CAS, KS and The earth return connection.for most engine
General OS), are now provided with a 5.D-volt sensors is made through an ECMpin that is
Motronic normally controls primary ignition, reference supply from a relevant pin on the not directly connected to earth. The ECM
fuelling and idle speed in the vehicles to which ECM. When the engine is cranked or run, a internally connects that pin to earth via one of
. jlj it is fitted. An automatic ISCV is directly speed signal from the CAS causes the ECM to the ECM pins that are directly connected to
actuated by the Motronic ECM to maintain a earth a pin so that the fuel pump will run. earth.
stable idle speed under all conditions of idle Ignition and injection functions ,are also
load. This is true of all late versions. activated. All actuators (injectors, ISCVetc), Signal shielding
J However, in some early First Generation are supplied with nbv from the main relay, and To reduce RFI, a number of sensors (ie
systems, the ISCV is actuated by a separate the ECM completes the circuit by pulsing the CAS, HES, KS, amplifier and OS) use a
Idle control ECM. Alternatively, an coolant- relevant actuator wire to earth. shielded cable. The shielded cable is
controlled AAV, not actuated by the Motronic connected to the main ECM earth wire at
It ECM, is utilised. Self-diagnostic function terminal 19 to reduce interference to a
JI The ignition point and injection duration are
(not First Generation) minimum.
jointly processed by the Motronic ECM so that The First Generation Motronic system does
, Vehicle speed sensor (VSS)
the best moment for ignition and fuelling are not have a self-test capability. All later
~I determined for every operating condition. Motronic systems are equippedwith a self- . The VSS is used to advise the ECM of
test capability that regularly examines the
. ~I
fl Signal processing signals from engine sensors, and internally
vehicle speed. It usually operates upon the
Hall-effect principle, and is mounted directly
!I Basic ignition timing is stored by the ECM logs a code in the event of a fault being upon the gearbox or on the back of the
in a three-dimensional map, and the engine present. This code can be extracted from the speedometer drive.
load and speed signals determines the Motronic serial port (SO connector) by a A voltage is applied to the VSS from the
ignition timing. The main engine load sensor is suitable fault code reader. system relay or ignition switch. As the
either an AFS or a MAP sensor, and engine Some systems utilise a warning lamp circuit speedometer cable turns, the Hall switch is
speed is determined from the CAS signal. so that when the ECM detects that a major alternately turned on and off to return a
Correction factors are then applied for fault is present, it earths the warning lamp pin square wave signal to the ECM. The
il starting, idle, deceleration, and part- and full- and the warning lamp on the dash will light. frequency of the signal is geared to so many
load operation. The main correction factor is The lamp will stay lit until the fault is no longer pulses per revolution of the speedometer
" engine temperature (CTS). Minor correction to present. If the fault clears, the code will cable, and is in direct proportion to the vehicle
q; timing and AFR are made with reference to remain logged until wiped clean with a speed.
"'
the ATS and TPS or TS signals. suitable FCR, or when the battery is
The basic AFR is also stored in a three- disconnected. In Citroen and Peugeot
~
dimensional map, and the engine load and applications, a number of faults are designate 3 Primarytrigger
speed signals determine the basic injection as minor faults. These faults do not turn on
pulse value. Motronic calculates the AFR from the warning lamp, although a fault code is still
the load signal and the speed of the engine logged by the ECM. The failure of many of the
(CAS). system sensors are designated as minor
The AFR and the pulse duration are then faults. CAS (not First Generation)
corrected on reference to ATS, CTS, battery The primary signal to initiate both ignition
voltage and position of the TPS or TS. Other Limp-home facility (LOS) and fuelling emanates from a CAS mounted in
controlling factors are determined by Motronic has a limp-home facility LOS). In proximity to the flywheel. The CAS consists of
operating conditions such as cold start and the event of a serious fault in one or more of an inductive magnet that radiates a magnetic
.warm-up, idle condition, acceleration and the sensors, the EMS will substitute a fixed field: A number of steel teeth are set into the
deceleration. default value in place of the defective sensor. periphery of the flywheel at equidistant

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Bosch Motronic MPi (35, 55 and BB-pin types) 6-5

and rotor), and serves to distribute the HT


current from the coil secondary terminal to
each spark plug in firing order. Ignition timing
is not adjustable.
Knock sensor
(some models only)
Many Motronic-equipped vehicles employ a
knock sensor. The knock sensor is mounted
on the engine block, and consists of a
piezoceramic measuring element that
responds to engine noise oscillations. This
H29293 signal is converted to a voltage signal by the
6.2 TDC (B) and RPM (D) sensors knock sensor, and returned to the ECM for
(First Generation Motronic). Reversing the 6.3 External amplifier used in some evaluation and action.
multi-plug connections to these sensors Motronic systems The following description fits the knock
will prevent the engine from starting Pin numbers shown control processor (KCP) found on GM
which then refers to a three-dimensional 16-valve engines. Knock control in other
intervals. As the flywheel spins, and the teeth
engines will function in a similar fashion. The
are rotated in the magnetic field, an AC digital map stored within its microprocessor.
voltage signal is delivered to the ECM to KCP analyses the noise from each individual
This map contains an advance angle for each
cylinder, and sets a reference noise level for
ildicate speed of rotation. In addition, two of operating condition, and thus the best ignition
the teeth are omitted as a reference mark to that cylinder based upon the average of the
advance angle for a particular operating last 16 phases. If the noise level exceeds the
TDC. As the flywheel spins, the two missing condition can be determined.
teeth cause a variance of the signal which is reference level by a certain amount, knock
returned to the ECM as reference to the TDC Amplifier control identifies the presence of engine
knock.
position. The Motronic amplifier contains the circuitry
The peak-to-peak voltage of the speed for switching the coil negative terminal at the Initially, timing will occur at its optimal
signal can vary from 5 volts at idle to over correct moment to instigate ignition. The ignition point. Once knock is identified, knock
100 volts at 6000 rpm. In the ECM, an signal received by the amplifier from the control retards the ignition timing for that
analogue to digital converter (ADC)transforms trigger is of an insufficient level to complete cylinder or cylinders by a set number of
:he AC pulse into a digital signal. the necessary coil switching. The signal is degrees. Approximately 2 seconds after
knocking ceases (20 to 120 knock-free
TDC and RPM sensors thus amplified to a level capable of switching
the coil negative terminal. combustion cycles), the timing is .advanced in
(First Generation only) Mainly, the amplifier is contained within the 0.750 increments until the reference timing
value is achieved or knock occurs once more.
The primary signal to initiate both ignition ECM, although some models utilise a 6
and fuelling emanates from two sensors separate amplifier mounted on a heat sink This procedure continually occurs so that all
"'!lounted in proximity to the flywheel. The plate adjacent to the coil. The ECM thus cylinders will consistently run at their optimum
sensors are used to indicate the position of calculates the correct ignition dwell time and timing.
If a fault exists in the knock control
~C and the engine RPM (see illustration 6.2). timing advance from data received from its
The TDC sensor consists of an inductive sensors, and sends a signal to the amplifier processor, knock control sensor or wiring, an
...,agnet that radiates a magnetic field. A which then switches the coil negative terminal appropriate code will be logged in the self-
reference mark to TDC (raised pin) is mounted (see illustration 6.3). diagnostic unit, and the ignition timing If
retarded by 10.50by the LOS program. \
~pon the flywheel- to indicate crankshaft Dwell operation in Motronic is based upon
:x>sitionas the flywheel spins. the principle of the 'constant-energy current- Octane coding
The RPM sensor' also consists of an limiting' system. This means that the dwell
.,ductive magnet that radiates a magnetic period remains constant at around 4.0 to It is not possible to adjust the ignition timing
~Id. A number of steel pins are set into the 5.0 ms, at virtually all engine running speeds. on Motronic systems. However, in some
oeriphery of the flywheel at regular intervals. However, the dwell duty cycle, when
3.sthe flywheel spins, and the pins are rotated measured in percent or degrees, will vary as
- the magnetic field, an AC voltage signal is the engine speed varies.
ilj!

::elivered to the ECM to indicate speed of


rotation. Ignition coil
I
The peak-to-peak voltage of the signals are The ignition coil utilises low primary ~~.

=airlysimilar and can vary from 5 volts at idle resistance in order to increase primary current
::>over 100 volts at 6000 rpm. In the ECM, an and primary energy. The amplifier limits the
arullogue to digital converter (ADC)transforms primary current to around 8 amps, and this
~e AC pulse into a digital signal. permits a reserve of energy to maintain the
required spark burn time (duration) (see
illustration 6.4).
4 Primaryand
secondary ignition Ignition system
Either a distributor or an DIS is employed
for ignition pl,Jrposes. Refer to Chapter 2 for I
more details on the DIS.
General H29294

Data on load (AFS or MAP), engine speed Distributor 6.4 coil used in Citroen
Ignition
!~;

:::;AS), engine temperature (CTS) and throttle Where fitted, the distributor only contains and Peugeot DISsystems
:x)Sition (TPS or TS) are collected by the ECM, secondary HT components (distributor cap (eg Motronic 5.1 and 3.1)
.1

J;
6.6 Bosch Motronic MPi (35, 55 and BB-pin types)

Vauxhall & Opel applications, an octane Once the injector is open, a second circuit
coding plug is provided to enable the ECM to rapidly pulses the injector to earth. The
adopt different characteristics to suit various switching is so rapid that the injector is
operating conditions. effectively held open, and less current is
required during the operation. Advantages of if'
this arrangement include a reduction in
injector operating temperature, and
5 Fuel injection (MPi) immediate injector closure once the holding
circuit is switched off.
Banked simultaneous injection
The Motronic banked simultaneous
General injection system is a Multi-point injection
system, and pulses all injectors at the same
I
The Motronic ECM contains a fuel map with 6.5 Motronic distributor (GM, 2.5).
~ an injector opening time for basic conditions time - ie simultaneously and once per engine The Hall-effect phase sensor (CID)
I revolution. This means that half of the fuel for
of speed and load. Information is then multi-plug has been disconnected
the next power stroke is injected at each
I gathered from engine sensors such as the
AFS or MAP sensor, CAS, CTS, and TPS or opening of the injector and fuel lies briefly on configuration) (see illustration 6.5). Other
the back of an inlet valve until that valve engines (eg BMW) utilise an inductive device
TS. As a result of this information, the ECM
opens. The injector thus opens twice for every that serves the same purpose but identifies
will look up the correct injector pulse duration No 1 cylinder by generating an inductive pulse.
right across the engine rpm, load and engine cycle. During engine start from cold,
the pulse duration is increased to provide a
temperature range.
Fuel injectors
richer air/fuel mixture. During engine cranking Load sensors
(hot or cold), the number of pulses (frequency)
The fuel injector is a magnetically-operated is increased from once per revolution to twice The ECM requires a load sensor to detect
solenoid valve that is actuated by the ECM. per revolution. After 20 seconds of cranking, the flow of air into an engine. Once the volume
Voltage to the injectors is applied from the the pulse reverts to one pulse per revolution. of air is known, the correct amount of fuel can
main relay, and the earth path is completed by Although all four injectors are pulsed be looked up in the map. Several methods are
the ECM for a period of time (called pulse simultaneously, the injectors are arranged in used by the various Motronic systems to
duration) of between 1.5 and 10 milliseconds. two banks, with injectors 1 and 2 comprising measure load. The vane-type AFS, the hot-
The pulse duration is very much dependent wire air mass meter and the MAP sensor are
one bank, and injectors 3 and 4 making up the
upon engine temperature, load, speed and other bank. Each bank is connected to the the three types most usually found.
operating conditions. When the magnetic ECM via a separate ECM pin). Vane-type AFS
solenoid closes, a back-EMF voltage of up to Sequential injection The AFS is located between the air filter
60 volts is initiated. and the throttle body. As air flows through the
The Motronic sequential injection system is
Depending on model, there are several sensor it deflects a vane (flap).The greater the
I a Multi-point system that pulses the injectors
I different methods of firing the injectors. The volume of air, the more will the flap be
sequentially - ie in firing order and once per
methods are, simultaneous injection, banked deflected (see illustration 6.6). The vane is
I engine cycle. Each injector is connected to
simultaneous injection, and sequential connected to a wiper arm, which wipes a
I the ECM via a separate ECM pin). During
I injection. potentiometer resistance track and so varies
engine start from cold, the pulse duration and
Simultaneous injection the resistance of the track. This allows a
I number of pulses (frequency) are increased to
provide a richer air/fuel mixture. variable voltage signal to be returned to the
The Motronic simultaneous injection ECM.
system is a Multi-point injection system, and
I pulses all injectors at the same time - ie
Three wires are used by the circuitry of this
simultaneously and twice per engine cycle.
Cylinder identification sensor, and it is often referred to as a three-
(sequential injection only) wire sensor. A 5-volt reference voltage is
I Half of the required fuel per engine cycle is applied to the resistance track, with the other.
injected at each engine revolution. During In earlier Motronic systems, the ECM does
not recognise No 1 cylinder, or indeed even end connected to the AFS earth return. The
engine start from cold, the pulse duration and
the firing order. This is because it is actually third wire is connected to the wiper arm.
number of pulses (frequency) are increased to From the voltage returned, the ECM is able
provide a richer air/fuel mixture. unnecessary. When the crankshaft or
distributor provides a timing signal, the to calculate the volume of air (load) entering
The fuel injectors are mounted in the inlet the engine, and this is used to calculate the
stubs to the engine inlet valves, so that a correct cylinder is identified by the
mechanical position of the crankshaft, main fuel injection duration. To smooth out
finely-atomised fuel spray is directed onto the
back of each valve. Since the injectors are all camshaft, valves and ignition rotor. In
pulsed simultaneously, fuel will briefly rest systems where the injectors fire
upon the back of a valve before being drawn simultaneously, then the fuel will sit upon the
into 8:cylinder. back of an inlet valve until the valve opens.
Since fuel injection occurs on an individual
Simultaneous injection (First cylinder basis in sequential systems, the ECM
Generation) must be informed which stroke a cylinder is
The basic operation is similar to the actually on. On GM 16-valve engines, this is
simultaneous injection described above. achieved by a cylinder identification sensor
However, the injector is switched using two attached to the distributor, which works on the
circuits. Operation depends on the prim;:iple Hall-effect principle. The sensor identifies No 1
that more current is required to open an cylinder, and returns a signal to the ECM from
injector than to keep it open. This kind of which the identification of all the other cylinders AFS ASSEMBLY
system is often termed 'current-controlled can be calculated. The distributor is attached
.
injection' to the exhaust camshaft (the engine is DOHC in 6.6 Motronic type airflow sensor (AFS)
Bosch Motronic MPi (35, 55 and BB-pintypes) 6.7

nlet pulses, a damper is connected to the Burn-offwillnot occur if.the engine speed has As the CO pot adjustment screw is turned,
AFSvane.The AFSexerts a major influence not exceeded 1000 rpm and the coolant the change in resistance returns a voltage
on the amount of fuel injected. temperature is under approximately30°C. signal to the ECM that will result in a change
in CO. The CO pot adjustment only affects
Hot-wire or hot-film MAPsensor idle CO. On catalyst-equipped models, the
air mass meter (AFS) A vacuum hose connects the MAP sensor CO pot has no effect and the CO is thus non-
and the inlet manifold. Manifold vacuum acts adjustable.
The hot-wire air mass meter has replaced
the vane-type AFS fitted to earlier vehicles. upon the MAP sensor diaphragm, and the
The hot-wire air mass meter measures the ECM internally converts the pressure into an CO adjustment
mass of air entering engine, which allows an electrical signal. MAP is calculated from the (First Generation only)
accurate fuel injection pulse to be calculated. formula: Atmospheric Pressure less Manifold The vane type of AFS fitted to early systems
Hot-wire is a very accurate method of Pressure = Manifold Absolute Pressure. utilises an air bleed screw located in the AFS
calculating the engine load (air input) and Using the speed/density method, Motronic to trim the CO value. An air channel allows a
often excludes the need for additional sensors calculates the AFR from the MAP signal and small volume of air to by-pass the air flowing
to measure air temperature and air pressure. the speed of the engine (CAS). This method through the vane. As the by-pass is moved,
Automatic compensation for altitude is thus relies on the theory that the engine will draw in the air volume acting upon the vane is altered,
provided. The absence of moving parts a fixed volume of air per revolution. and the vane moves its position. The changed
improves reliability and lessens maintenance When manifold vacuum is high (ie idle position results in an altered signal to the
requirements (see illustration 6.7). .
condition), MAP is moderately low, and the ECM and a change in fuel volume injected.
Essentially, the hot-wire is so called ECM provides less fuel. When manifold
because a heated wire is placed in the air vacuum is low (ie wide-open throttle), MAP is Coolant temperature sensor
intake. As air passes over the wire, it has a high and the ECM provides more fuel. (CTS)
cooling effect in proportion to the mass of air. The inlet manifold on MPi models is a 'dry'
manifold. Since fuel does not enter the The CTS is immersed in the coolant
As air mass increases or decreases according system, and contains a variable resistance
to engine load, the ECM adjusts the current manifold - due to injection being made onto
flow to maintain the wire at its original
-
the. back of the inlet valve there is no risk of that operates on the NTC principle. When the
engine is cold, the resistance is quite high.
resistance and temperature. By measuring the fuel being drawn into the MAP sensor to
contaminate the diaphragm, and a fuel trap is Once the engine is started and begins to .
change in current flow, the ECM is able to warm-up, the coolant becomes hotter, and
not used.
determine the mass of airflow into the engine. this causes a change in the CTS resistance.
As the current" varies on the signal wire, so The MAP sensor may be located internally
As the CTS becomes hotter, the resistance of
does the voltage, and an indication of load in the ECM (no connecting wires) or located
the CTS reduces (NTC principle) and Jhis
can be assessed bi measuring the variable internally in the ECM. When located
externally, a 5-volt reference voltage is returns a variable voltage signal to the ECM
voltage signal. Voltage is applied to the based upon the coolant temperature
sensor from the system relay. Operation of the supplied to the sensor, with the other end
connected to earth. The third wire is The open-circuit supply to the sensor is at a
hot-film AFS is very similar to hot-wire.
If a fault exists in the hot-wire AFS or wiring, connected to a transducer which converts the 5.0-volt reference level, and this voltage [__JI
6t!

manifold pressure signal into a voltage. As the reduces to a value that depends upon the
an appropriate code will be logged in the self- resistance of the CTS resistance. The signal is
diagnostic unit, and a substitute value pressure in the manifold varies, so too does
the signal voltage returned to the ECM. approximately 2.0 to 3.0 volts at an ambient
provided by the LOS program. temperature of 20°C, and reduces to between
0.5 to 1.0 volt at a normal operating
Hot-wire burn-off Air temperature sensor (ATS) temperature of 80 to 100°C. The ECM uses
The ATS is mounted in the AFS inlet tract, the CTS signal as a main correction factor
Over a period of time, deposits tend to build
up upon the hot-wire, and this can lead to and measures the air temperature before it when calculating ignition timing and injection
contamination of the hot-wire. This is avoided enters AFS. Because the density of air varies duration.
with a 'burn-off' function, controlled by the in inverse proportion to the temperature, the
ECM during engine shutdown. Approximately ATS signal allows more accurate assessment Throttle potentiometer sensor
four seconds after the engine has been of t~e volume of air being introduced to the (TPS)
switched off, the ECM rapidly pulses the hot- engine. A TPS is provided to inform the ECM of idle
wire terminal 4 of the AFS for 1.5 seconds. The open-circuit supply to the sensor is at a position, deceleration, rate of acceleration
5.0-volt reference level, and the earth path is and full-load (WOT) conditions. The TPS is a
through the AFS earth return. The ATS potentiometer with three wires. AS-volt
operates on the NTC principle. A variable
reference voltage is supplied to a resistance
voltage signal is returned to the ECM based track, with the other end connected to earth.
upon the air temperature. This signal is The third wire is connected to an arm which
approximately 2.0 to 3.0 volts at an ambient wipes along the resistance track, and so
temperature of 20°C, and reduces to about varies the resistance and voltage of the signal
1.5 volt as the temperature rises to around returned to the ECM.
40°C.
From the voltage returned, the ECM is able
to calculate idle position (approximately
CO potentiometer ('pot') 0.6 volts), full-load (approximately 4.5 volts)
The CO pot mixture adjuster is lo~ated in and also how quickly the throttle is opened.
the AFS, and is a three-wire potentiometer During full-load operation, the ECM provides
that allows small changes to be made to the additional enrichment. During closed throttle
idle CO. A 5.0-volt reference voltage is operation above a certain rpm (deceleration),
applied to the sensor, and earth is via the AFS the ECM will cut off fuel injection. Injection will
6.7 Hot-wire or hot-film air mass meter (1) earth return circuit. The third wire is the CO be reintroduced once the rpm returns to idle
and ATS (2) in Motronic 1.5.2 pot signal. or the throttle is opened.

I1
6-8 Bosch Motronic MPi (35, 55 and 88-pin types)

Throttle switch (plternative to TPS)


A throttle swit0tJ; with dual contacts is
provided to inform1he ECMof idle position,
deceleration, cruising and full-load (WOT)
conditions. When the engine is at idle, the idle
contact is closed and the full-load contact is
open. As the throttle is moved to the fully
open position, the full-loadcontact closes and
the idle contact becomes open. Under
cruising conditions with a part-open throttle,
both contacts are' open. During full-load
operation, the ECM provides additional
H29295
I'
enrichment. During closed throttle operation
above a certain rpm (deceleration), the ECM 6.9 Idle speed control valve, three-wire 6.10 The multi-plug for the 15-pin relay
will cut off fuel injection. Injection will be Pin numbers shown
reintroduced once the rpm returns to idle or
the throttle is opened. ISCV(3-wire rotary type) resistance. The resistance is heated by
The ISCV is a rotary actuator that the voltage ~nd the gate valve slowly closes so
Idle speed control that it is totally closed once the engine attain~
Motronic ECM uses to automatically control
Motronic uses various methods to control normal operating temperature., Radiated heat
idle speed during normal idle and during
the idle speed during engine start-up, the engine warm-up. The ISCV is located in a from the engine will affect valve operation,
warm-up period and normal hot idle. hose that connects the inlet manifold to the air and allow the valve to remain closed when the
When an electrical load, such as headlights filter inside of the throttle plate. engine is hot and is not being operated.
or heater fan etc are switched on, the idle The rotary ISCV.isa DC motor that the ECM
speed would tend to drop. The ECM will can rotate either clockwise or anti-clockwise.
Relays (typical operation)
sense the load and actuate the ISCVto
II increase the airflow through the valve and
Rotating in one direction will open the valve; Depending on system, the Motronic
electrical system is controlled by either a
rotating in the opposite direction will cause it
thus increase the idle speed. When the load is to close. A voltage supply is applied to the single system relay with dual contacts, or two
.1 removed, the ECMwillpulse the valve so that ISGV from the battery, and the earth for the separate relays (main system relay and fuel
I the airflow is reduced. Normal idle speed motor is made through two connections to the pump relay). Whatever, the general mode of
~ should be maintained under all cold and hot operation is similar for all types. Although the
I ECM (see illustration 6.9).
operating conditions. If the ISCVfails, it will Rotation of the motor in the appropriate following method of operation is fairly typical
, , fail-safe, with the aperture almost closed. This of a two relay operation, there are many
t willprovide a basic idle speed.
ISCV (2-wire solenoid valve type)
direction is accomplished by actuating the
motor through one or the other of the earth
circuits. In reality, the two circuits are
variations on the theme. The relay terminal
numbers are those used in the European Din
f The ISCVis a solenoid-controlled actuator
that the ECM uses to automatically control
opposed. This prevents the valve from being
fully opened of closed in one particular
specification (see illustration 6.10).
A permanent voltage supply is made to
direction. The valve will thus take up an main relay terminals 30 and 86 and fuel pump
idle speed during normal idle and during relay terminal 30 from the battery positive
'engine warm-up (see illustration 6.8). The average position that reflects circuit bias to be
open or closed. Normally, this bias would be terminal. When the ignition is switched on, the
ISCV is located in a hose that connects the
inlet manifold to the air filter side of the towards the open position. ECM earths terminal 85 through an ECM pin
A duty cycle can be measured on each which energises the first relay winding. This
throttle plate. A voltage supply is applied to causes the. main relay contacts to close, and
the ISCVfrom the battery, and the earth for earth circuit to determine the opening or
closing time period as a percentage of the the supply through relay terminal 30 is
the motor is made through a connection to connected to the output circuit at terminal 87.
the ECM. total time available.
A voltage supply is thus output at main
A duty cycle can be measured on the earth Auxiliary air valve terminal 87. Terminal 87 supplies voltage to
circuit to determine the opening or closing (mainly First Generation) the injectors, ECM, ISCV and the CFSV'(when
time period as a percentage of the total time The AAV is found in vehicles that do not fitted). In addition, voltage is applied to the
-available.
have any form of idle speed regulation. An fuel pump relay contact terminal 86.
electrically operated gate control valve is used When the ignition is switched on. the ECM
to increase the idle speed during cold engine briefly earths pump relay contact 85 at an
operation. The AAV is mounted in a hose that ECM pin. This energises the pump relay
by-passes the throttle plate. The valve winding, which closes the relay contact and
responds to temperature and allows extra air connects voltage from supply terminal 30 to
to by-pass the throttle when the engine is output terminal 87, thereby providing voltage
cold. Extra air entering the inlet manifold to the fuel pump circuit. After approximately
causes the idle speed to increase which one second, the ECM opens the circuit and
prevents low idle speed and stalling with a the pump stops. This brief running of the fuel
cold or semi-cold engine. pump allows pressure to build within the fuel
During cold engine operation, the valve is pressure lines, and provides for an easier
open and so engine idle speed is increased. start.
As the engine warms-up, the valve gradually The pump relay circuit will then remain
closes until it is fully closed at normal open until the engine is cranked or run. Once
operating temperature. the ECM receives a speed signal from -the
6.8 Idle speed control valve (arrowed), The AAV resistance is connected to the CAS, the pump relay winding will again be
seen from underneath vehicle -two-wire relay output terminal. Once the engine has energised by the ECM, and the fuel pump will
Motronic 2.5 (GM) been started voltage is applied to the AAV run until the engine is stopped. In addition, the

~".~.:~J..'4
Bosch Motronic MPi (35, 55 and BB-pin types) 6-9

os heater circuits is usually wired to the thus returned to the fuel tank via a return pipe. connected), the fuel pressure will be
pump circuit so that the OS heater will only In fact, a maximum fuel pressure in excess of approximately 0.5 bar under the system
operate whilst the engine is running. 5 bar is usually possible. To prevent the pressure.
possibility of pressure loss in the supply
Fuel pressure syst~m system, a non-return valve is provided in the
6 Catalyticconverter and
~ -~- I.
The fuel pressure systems in Motronic- fuel pump outlet. When the ignition is
equipped vehicles all function in a similar switched off, and the fuel pump ceases emission control
fashion. The main difference concerns the operation, pressure is thus maintained for
location of the fuel pump which may be some time. J
mounted externally, or internally in the fuel
tank. The types are described as follows. Fuel pressure regulator Catalytic converter
External pump Fuel pressure in the fuel rail is maintained at Versions with a catalytic converter will also
a constant 2.5 or 3.0 bar (depending upon be fitted with an oxygen sensor so that
The roller type fuel pump, mounted close to
vehicle) by a fuel pressure regulator. The closed-loop control of emissions can be
the fuel tank, draws fuel from the tank and
pressure regulator is fitted on the outlet side implemented. The OS is heated so that it will
pumps it to the fuel rail via a fuel filter.
of the fuel rail, and maintains an even reach optimum operatinQ temperature as
Internal pump pressure of 2.5 or 3.0 bar in the fuel rail. quickly as possible after the engine is started.
The fuel pump is mounted vertically in the A vacuum hose connects the upper The OS heater supply is usually made from
fuel tank, and is of the gerotor type. Fuel is chamber to the inlet manifold, so that the fuel pump relay. This ensures that the
drawn. through the pump inlet, to be variations in inlet manifold pressure will not heater will only operate whilst the engine is
pressurised between the rotating gerotor affect the amount of fuel injected. This means running.
teeth and discharged from the pump outlet that the pressure in the rail is always at a Carbon filter
into the fuel supply line. constant pressure above the pressure in the
inlet manifold. The quantity of injected fuel
solenoid valve (CFSV)
Fuel transfer pump An CFSV and activated carbon canister are
thus depends solely on injector opening time,
In some models, a secondary in-tank fuel also be employed to aid evaporative emission
as determined by the ECM, and not on a
transfer pump aids the external pump. The control. The carbon canister stores fuel
variable fuel pressure.
internal fuel pump assembly operates on the vapours until the CFSV is opened by the EMS
At idle speed with the vacuum pipe
gerotor principle .described above. under certain operating conditions. Once the
disconnected, or with the engine stopped and
Fuel pump (all) the pump running, or at full-throttle, the CFSV is actuated by the EMS, fuel vapours
The fuel pump normally provides much system fuel pressure will be approximat~ly are drawn into the inlet manifold to be burnt
more fuel than is required, and surplus fuel is 2.5 bar or 3.0 bar. At idle speed (vacuum pipe by the engine during normal combustion.

Adjustments
b) If the cooling fan operates during TPS or TS fully anti-clockwise and .1
7 Adjustment pre-conditions adjustment, wait until it stops, re-stabilise re-tighten the screws.
the engine and then restart the c) Unscrew the throttle stop screw until
adjustment procedure. there is a gap between the stop and
screw.
c) Allow the CO and idle speed to settle.
1 Ensure that all of these conditions are met d) Make all checks and adjustments within d) Gently turn in the screw until it just
30 seconds. If this time is exceeded, touches the stop.
before attempting to make adjustments
re-stabilise the engine and recheck. e) Turn-in the screw one further half turn
a) Engine at operating temperature. Engine when there should be an air gap of
oil at a minimum temperature of ao°c; a
journey of at least 4 miles is between 0.05 to 0.15 mm (0.002 tf) .f;;~
0.006'?betweenthe throttlecasingand .~....
recommended (particularly so if equipped
with AT).
8 Throttleadjustments the throttle plate.
~ Adjust the TPS or TS.
b) Ancillary equipment (all engine loads and g) Refit and readjust the throttle cable and' fit
accessories) switched off. . Elnew tamperproof cap to the throttle.
c) AT vehicles: Transmission in N or P. stop screw.
d) Engine mechanically sound. Throttle valve position
e) Engine breather hoses and breather
system in satisfactory condition. 1 Clean the throttle valve and surrounding
~ Induction system free from vacuum leaks. areas with carburettor cleaner. Blow-by from
g) Ignition system in satisfactory condition. the breather system often causes sticking
h) Air filter in satisfactory condition. problems here (see illustration 6.11).
i) Exhaust system free from leaks. 2 The throttle valve is critical and should not
j) Throttle cable correctly adjusted. normally be disturbed. A common fault is
k) No fault codes logged by the ECM. maladjustment of the idle speed by use of the
Q OS operating satisfactorily (catalyst throttle stop screw.
vehicles with closed-loop controlj. 3 Where adjustment IS required:
2 In addition, before checking the idle speed a) Disconnect the throttle cable, and remove
and CO values, stabilise the ~ngine as follows: the tamperproof cap from the throttle
a) StabilisM the engine. Raise the engine stop screw. H.2/205
speed to 3000 rpm for a minimum of b) Loosen the TPS or TS
30 seconds, and then let the engine idle. adjustment/retaining screws, rotate the 6.11 Throttle valve adjustment
6-10 Bosch Motronic MPi (35, 55 and BB-pin types)

'~.L
6.12 Adjust the TS with the aid of an 6.13 With the ohmmeter connected 6.14 Adjustment of the idle CO pot located
ohmmeter. With the ohmmeter connected between terminals 3 and 18 and the in the vane-type AFS
between terminals 2 and 18 and the throttle fully open, the ohmmeter should
throttle closed, the ohmmeter should indicate zero (continuity)
indicate zero (continuity)

Throttle switch 6 Increase the engine speed. The timing 9 Allow the CO value to settle, and check the
marks should smoothly advance. Expect idle CO value.
Conditions:enginestopped, throttleclosed,
TS disconnected. approximately 25 to 35° of timing advance at
4 Attach an ohmmeter between TS terminals2 3000 rpm. CO adjustment
7 If the timing is not being controlled properly (non-cat models only)
and 18. The ohmmeter should indicate zero
(continuity)(see illustration 6.12). by the ECM, suspect one of the following Air bleed screw
I . faults:
5 Open the throttle. The ohmmeter should (First Generation Motronic)
indicate an open-circuit (infinity)(also see a) The engine is in LOS, due to one or more
:11 serious sensor failures. 10 Where adjustment is necessary, remove
illustration 6.13). the tamperproof plug covering the CO
6 As soon as the throttle moves off its stop. b) TheECM is faulty. adjustment screw in the AFS.
An audible 'click' should be heard. 11 Stabilise the engine as above.
12 Turn the adjustment screw until the CO
ltdjust the TPS
10 Idleadjustments stabilises at the specified figure). Turn the
Conditions: Engine stopped, throttle closed, screw clockwise to increase the CO level, anti-
ignition'on'. clockwise to decrease the CO level.
7 Attach a voltmeter between the signal 13 If the CO level remains at a low level and'
terminal and earth and measure the voltage. does not respond to adjustment, check for an
8 The switch is requires adjustment if the Idle adjustment overview induction vacuum leak. The slightest leak will
voltage is greater than 0.60. 1 Refer to the test conditions described in adversely affect the idle mixture.
9 Loosen the two securing screws and adjust Section 7. CO pot in AFS (vane-type AFS)
the switch until the voltmeter indicates less 2 Checkthe that the throttle valve setting is
than 0.60 volts. correct as described above. 14 Slide back the rubber boot, and connect a
3 Check the TS or TPS adjustment as voltmeter between the signal wire and earth.'
described above. A voltage of approximately 2 to 3 volts should
9 Ignitiontimingchecks 4 Stabilise the engine. Raise the engine be obtained (see illustratiOn 6.14).
speed to 3000 rpm for a minimum of 20 15 If the voltage is outside of the stated
seconds, and then allow the engine to idle. parameters when the CO is correct, check the
Make all checks and adjustments within 30 system for:
1 The ignition timing is not adjustable, and seconds. If this time is exceeded, re-stabilise a) Vacuum leak.
marks are not always provided. However, it is the engine and recheck. If the cooling fan b) Incorrect AFS or MAP signal.
useful to make the following checks. If no operates during adjustment, wait untilit stops, c) Incorrect CTS signal.
marks are available,make your own marks on re-stabilise the engine and then restart the d) Fouled or leaking injectors.
the front damper and pulley. adjustment procedure. e) Incorrect fuel pressure.
2 Refer to the test conditions described in 5 Allowthe idle speed to settle, and check 16 Stabilise the engine as above.
Section 7. that the regulated idle speed is correct. 17 Remove the tamperproof cap and turn the
3 Allowthe engine to idle. 6 Ifthe idle speed is outside of the specified CO adjustment screw. Turn the screw
4 Connect a stroboscopic timing light. parameters, check the system sensors for clockwise to increase CO level and raise
5 Record the approx!J;nate base ignition faults. voltage, anti-clockwise to reduce CO level and
timing. Note: The marks willfluctuate by a few. 7 Connect a gas analyser to the exhaust lower voltage.
degrees as the ECM varies the timiMJto ~.. system. 18 Refer to the CO pot test if the voltage
control the idle speed. f 8 Stabilise the engine as above. does not vary or no voltage can be obtained.

-,-

.....
Bosch Motronic MPi (35, 55 and BB-pin types) 6-11

System sensor and actuator tests


!mportant note: Please refer to Chapter 4, which describes common test procedures applicable to this system. The routines in Chapter 4 should
:Je read in conjunction with the component notes and wiring diagrams presented in this Chapter. The wiring diagrams and other data presented in
;his Chapter are necessarily representative of the system depicted. Because of the variations in wiring and other data that often occurs, even
:Jetween similar vehicles in any particular VM's range, the reader should take great care in identification of ECM pins, and satisfy himself that he
185 gathered the correct data before failing a particular component.

3 An average signal voltage of approximately


11 Crank angle sensor (CAS) 13 Knock sensor (KS) 2.5 volts or an approximate duty cycle of 50%
should be obtained.

1 Refer to the note at the start of Section 11, 16 Airflowsensor (AFS)


General and refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 4.
1 Refer to the note at the start of this S~ction,
and refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 4.
2 CAS resistance measurements (ohms):
14 Fuel injector operation 1 Refer to the note at the start of Section 11,
and refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 4.
a) BMW, Motronic First Generation:
960 :I::96 The AFS may be of the vane, hot-wire or hot-
film type, depending on system.
b) BMW, Motronic 1.3, 1.7, 3.1: 1 Refer to the note at the start of Section 11,
550 :I:: 50
and refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 4.
c) Citroen/Peugeot, Motronic 4. 1: 2 The ECM may pulse the injectors fully open 17 MAP sensor
600 to 1600
or according to the current control principle
d) Citroen/Peugeot, Motronic 1.3, 3.1, 3.2, (First Generation Motronic).
5.1: 300 to 600
3 Where injection is of the current-controlled
e) Opel and Vauxhall, Motronic 1.5, 2.5, 4.1: kind, very few dwell meters may be capable of 1 Refer to the note at the start of Section 11,
500 to 800 registering the rapid pulsing to earth that and refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 4.
f) Volvo, Motronic First Generation: occurs during the second stage of the pulse
1000
2 The MAP sensor may be a separate sensor
duration. The meter may only register the located in the engine compartment, or might
switch-on circuit of approximately 1.0 or
be located internally in the ECM depending on
2.0%. This means that the injector duty cycle
system.
reading will be inaccurate, and not
representative of the total pulse width seen in
--
12 Primary ignition the circuit.
18 Air temperature sensor (ATS)
4 In some Motronic systems the frequency of
injection increases for several seconds during
initial cranking. -- oJ
1 Refer to the note at the start of Section 11,
and refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 4.
Injector resistance tests 1 Refer to the note at the start of Section 11,
5 Remove each injector multi-plug and and refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 4.
Many different combinations of primary
measure the resistance of the injector 2 The ATS may be located in the inlet tract of
Ignition layouts may be found in Motronic
between the two terminals. the AFS or in the inlet manifold, depending on
systems, and so select the test procedure for
a) First Generation Motronic: 4 ohms. system.
:he closest one to the system under test.
b) All other Motronic systems: 16 ohms.
2 ECM pin No 1 is connected to coil terminal 1
;" all versions of Motronic with internal 19 CO potentiometer ('pot')
amplifier that we checked. 15 Hall-effect phase sensor
3 ECM and amplifier terminals numbers may (CID,GM 16-valve engines)
vary depending upon Motronic system.
4 The majority of Motronic systems utilise a 1 Refer to the note at the start of Section 11,
CAS as the primary trigger. 1 Refer to the note at the start of Section 11, and refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 4.
S For the ignition coil resistance specifications, and refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 4. 2 The CO pot will either be located in the
-afer to the table below. 2 The HES is located in the distributor.
AFS, or might be a separate sensor located if!,
thEt engir~ compartment, depending on<.
CQilresistance measurements (ohms) Section 12 - ,~
. system.
Primary Secondary
BMW, Motronic First Generation 0.60 to 1.00 8250,~
BMW, Motronic 1.3,1.7,3.1 0.30 to 0.80 5000 tb iooo
CitroenlPeugeot, Motronic 4.1 0.80 6500
CitroenlPeugeot, Motronic 1.3, 3.1, 3.2, 5.1 (Valeo) 0.60 to 0.80 8600 to 9500
Opel and Vauxhall, Motronic 1.5, 2.5, 4.1 0.60 to 0.76 6400 to 11000
Volvo, Motronic First Generation 0.45 to 0.55 5400 to 6600 1 Refer to the note at the start of Section 11,
and refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 4.

I
I)
6-12 Bosch Motronic MPi (35, 55 and BB-pintypes)

~~ Throttle switQh .(TS) 24 ECMvoltage 26 Fuel pressure


supplies and earths

1 Refer to the note at the start of Section 11, 1 Refer to the note at the start of Section 11, 1 Refer to the note at the start of Section 11,
and refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 4. and refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 4. and refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 4.
.....

22 1"hrottlepotentiometer 25 System relays


~e"'$Or (TPS) 27 Oxygen sensor (OS)

1 Refer to the note at the start of Section 11, 1 Refer to the note at the start of Section 11,
and refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 4. and refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 4.
1 Refer to the note at the start of Section 11,
--~
i .
2 The majority of Opel and Vauxhall vehicles
and refer to the relevant Section of Ch'apter4.
utilise a single 6-pin relay with dual contacts.
23 Idle speed control valve Pin numbering is along the DIN lines. 2 The OS found in the majority of Motronic
,
~
(ISCV) 3 Many Citroen and Peugeot vehicles utilise a systems is a four-wire sensor.
single 15-pin relay with dual contacts. Num-
bering is from one to 15 (seewiring diagram).
1 Refer to the note at the start of Section 11, 4 Testing of multi- pin relays follows similar 28 Carbon filter
and refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 4. lines to that described in Chapter 4, and the
2 ISCV resistances: relay supplies, earths and outputs should be solenoid valve (CFSV)
a) 2-wire ISCV: 8 to 10 ohms checked for voltage. The relay can be by-
b) 3-wire ISCV: 40 ohms from middle passed as before with a jumper wire
terminal to either of the outer terminals, connecting the battery supply terminal to an 1 Refer to the note at the start of Section 11,
80 ohms between the two outer terminals. appropriate output terminal. and refer to the relevant Section-of Chapter 4.
.It

Pin table - typical 35-pin (First Generation Motronic, BMW)


Note: Refer to illustrations 6.15 to 6.19

1 Coilnegative 13 CTS supply loutput 25 TOC sensor return


2 TS idle contact 14 Injectors 1 to 3 (pulse) 26 TOC sensor signal
3 TS full-loadcontact 15 Injectors4 to 6 (pulse) 27 Rpm sensor return
4 Starter motor 16 Earth "
28 AIC
5 Earth 17 Earth 29 AIC
6 AFS return 18 Battery 30 -
7 AFS output 19 Earth 31 OS relay driver
8 RPMsensorsignal 20 FP relaydriver 32 - ' .
9 AFS supply 21 Tachometer 33 fSCV pulse
10 Earth(auto only) 22 ATS: (AFS) 34 ISCV pulse
11 Fuelconsumption gauge 23 RPM sensor shield 35 Supply from main relay'
12 Simplified CO testing 24 OS signal
. 0:<
". , _.
1 18

. " ..

(].c -,cccc~~=~~~c""cc~~c~,,;'c~
\
19
~ - ~~..
35
.
EQH619 "

6.15 Typical 35-pin multi-plug


Pin numbers shown
Bosch Motronic MPi (35,55 and SS-pin types) 6.13

Pin table - typical 35-pin (Motronic 3.1, Citroen/Peugeot)


Note: Refer to illustrations 6.15 to 6.19

1 Ignition output to amplifier, coil ~>ne 13 CTS supply /output 25 CAS supply/signal
2 Ignition output to amplifier, coil two 14 Injectors (pulse) 26-
3 TPS signal contact 15 - 27 Earth
4 Diagnostic socket 16 Earth 28 PIN switch (AT only)
5 Earth 17 Diagnostic socket 29 A/C switch
6 Sensor retum ATS, CTS, CO pot, TPS 18 Battery supply 30-
7 - 19 - 31-
8 - 20 FP relay driver 32 AlC compressor supply relay
9 Sensor supply CO pot, TPS 21 Tachometer 33 -
10 - 22 A TS supply/output 34 -
11 - 23 CAS return 35 Nbv supply from main relay
12 Diagnos"ocket 24 CO pot signal

EQH622
ECU
earth
5

33 35 16 19 20 18
ignition switch

fuel pump fuel injection


relay relay

injectors 5

igniOOnMoh: t15 EQte23


fuse
earth
r=-i
I~ -J
6.16 Typical 35-pin ignition wiring diagram 1 2 . ISOI 1 Ifuel pump
.
11

~'
,

11

6.17 Typical 35-pin relays and components wiring diagram


~

11

. ECM ECM \ EQH625


14 35 I
13 3397622 2 3

fuel
2 18 3 injection
2 11 11 13 12 14 15 (1) (2) (3:.
1 1
relay: t87

Earth

1 2 1 2 1 11 2 1 2
6.18 Typical 35-pin sensors Injectors
wiring diagram
2 3 4

6.19 Typical 35-pin injectors


wiring diagram
6.14 Bosch Motronic MPi (35, 55 and BB-pin types)

Pin table - typical 55-pin (Motronic 1.5, Vauxhall)


Note: Refer to illustrations 6.20 to 6.25

1 Coilnegative 18 Battery positive 41 AC pressure switch


2 Earth 19 Earth (main ECM) 42 Ignition switch
3 Relay earth 20 Coding earth (non-cat) 42 Coding earth (MT)
4 ISCV 21 Coding earth (cat) 43 CO - non-cat (AFS)
5 CFSV 22 Warning lamp 44 A TS (AFS)
6 4 WDunit,AT control unit 24 Earth 45 CTS supply/signal
7 AFS signal 25 Sensor return: AFS, A TS, CO 46 Octane adjuster
9 Road speed sensor 26 Sensor retum: CTS, TPS, OA 47 Earth (4x4)
10 OS return 27 Ignition switch 48 CAS return
12AFS supply 28 Oxygen sensor 49 CAS output
12 TPS supply 32 On board computer 51 A T control unit
13 Diagnosticsocket 34 AT control unit 53 Throttle pot signal
14 Earth 36 Relay earth 55 Diagnostic socket
16 Injectorpulse, bank number 1 37 Nbv supply from relay
17 Injectorpulse, bank number 2 40 AC cut-off switch

EQH620 19 1

ccccccccccc~ccccc
~cc~cccc~cc~~ccc~c
ccc~cccc~cc~~ccc~c

QO
55 38

6.20 Typical 55-pin multi-plug

ECM 14 47 48 1924 'Z1

SCREEN

.. +
o
FLYWHEEL
15

IGNITION --
BATTERY. - SWITCH
H29297

6.21 Typical 55-pin ignition wiring diagram

I
I
.........
1

Bosch Motronic MPi (35, 55 and 88-pin types) 6.15

battery
+1 30
ECM 14 24 27 r-f\ ignition

5 19 28 10 37 36 3 18
15 ~ switch

--~, 3 3
earth I fuel pump fuel injection
relay relay
4
5
IJ ~..J.~

injectors
W
I

EQH627

fuel pump MV earth

6.22 Typical 55-pin relays and components wiring diagram

EARTH

ECM H29367

21 I I I 1 V I
AMPLIAER:t4 I.
I
EARTH I I . I nl I I L...J r-= ',1 "\.11:)4 l.MA1N CONTROL
RELAY --r 1

(FUEL INJECTION) fer


FU
PUMP
RELAY
1 ./ r.
I'J

INJECTORS
.
f;.

EARTH
DDDMV CFSV OXYGEN SENSOR
0
FUEL PUMP

6.23 Typical 55-pin relay and components wiring diagram

ECM ECM

45 30 43 12 7 26 44 52
'I
53
I liT 16

2 11 h 13 12 14 15

AFS TS - tjtjtj
ISCV CFSV 1 INJECTORS

6.24 Typical 55-pin sensors 6.25 Typical 55-pin injectors


wiring diagram wiring diagram
6.1B Bosch Motronic MPi (35, 55 and BB-pin types)

Fault codes
d) After a moment the fuel injectors will
29 Obtainil19 fault codes function. This can be determined by
vibration and the sound of the injectors
clicking. Warning: Avoid the injection of
excess fuel into the cylinders by
completing the test quickly.
BMWand Volvo e) If the injectors fail to operate, refer to the
1 All of the Motronic EMS's fitted to these fuel injector tests.
vehicles ranges require a dedicated FCR to f) Continue with the next test to check the
access fault codes. Flash codes are not ACCESSORY ISCV.
SWITCH
av~ilable for output from any of these g) Close the accessory switch for three
systems. For the sake of completeness, we seconds once more.
have provided fault code charts for BMW
vehicles. At this time, code charts for the
other vehicles are not available. Note: Flash
codes are available for a small number of
l?l EARTH
h) After a moment the ISCV will function ana
vibrate to the touch.
i) If the ISCV fails to operate, refer to the
ISCV tests.
codes on BMW vehicles marketed in the USA.
These vehicles alone are equipped with a
6.28 Obtaining flash codes: Opel and Vauxhall vehicles
Citroen and Peugeot 5 If a FCR is available, it could be attached to
dash-mounted warning lamp.
the SO serial connector (the Vauxhall term fO"
dJ Open tile sWIYcll, tile wamlng (amp Wlr(;- tne SO p(ug is ALOLJ and used for tne
Citroen and Peugeot Flash once (indicating 10). following purposes:
2 If a FCR is available, it could be attached to Pause for 1.5 seconds.
a) Obtain fault codes.
the SO serial connector and used for the Flash twice (indicating 2). b) Clear fault codes.
following purposes: This indicates the code of twelve (12) c) Obtain Datastream information.
which is the test start code.
a) Obtain fault codes. d) Actuate the system actuators: Thismay
b) Clear fault codes. e) The waming lamp will extinguish. include one or more of the actuators on
f) Close the switch for three seconds (the the following list:
c) Obtain Datastream information.
dash warning lamp will remain off). Fuel injectors
d) Actuate the system actuators: Thismay
include one or more of the actuators on g) Open the switch, the warning lamp will ISCV
flash to indicate a code.
the following list: CFSV (where fitted)
Fuel injectors h) Once the lamp has extinguished, wait for
6 If a FCR is not available, it is still possible to
ISCV three seconds before continuing. obtain fault codes so long as the SO plug is of
CFSV (where fitted) ij Close the switch for three seconds &
the 10-pin type. A FCR is required for those
repeat the test to obtain further codes.
3 If a FCR is not available, it is still possible to systems equipped with the 16-pin SO plug.
When code 11 is obtained, this indicates
obtain fault codes so long as the SO plug is of End of Test. Obtaining codes without a FCR
the two-pin type. A FCR is required for those
j) After code 11 is obtained the complete 7 Use a jumper lead to bridge terminals A ana
systems equipped with the 16-pin SO plug.
4 When the ECM determines that a fault is test may be repeated. B in the SO (ALOL)plug. The codes are ther
k) If code 11 is the first code obtained after output on the instrument panel warning lamp.
present, it internally logs a fault code, and will By counting the flashes and referring to the
code 12, no faults are logged by the
also illuminate the diagnostic warning lamp if ECM. fault code table, faults can thus be
the fault is regarded by the system as major.
Clearing fault codes from the memory determined (see illustration 6.29).
Faults regarded as minor will not illuminate
the warning lamp, although a code will still be of the ECM
Ignition
logged. All of the various two-digit fault codes a) Repair all circuits indicated by the fault supply
in Citroen and Peugeot vehicles equippf'd codes.
with a Motronic system are of the 'slow' b) Switch on the ignition.
variety, and can be output as flash codes on c) Perform the test as detailed above to
the dash-mounted warning lamp. The first reveal code 11 with no fault codes
series of flashes indicates the number of tens, (optiona/).
the second series of flashes indicates the Earth
I. d) Close the accessory switch for more than
single units (see illustration 6.28). ten seconds. ALDL
I Obtaining codes without a FCR e) The warning lamp will remain
extinguished.
multiplug

a) Attach an on loft accessory switch


between the FCRgreen multi-plug Checking operation of the fuel Jumper
terminal 2 (see Diagram) and earth. injectors and ISCV without a FCR lead
!I
b) Switch on the ignition. a) Close the accessory switch
c) Close the switch for three seconds (the b) Switchtheignitionon. 6.29 Obtaining flash codes:
dash warning lamp will remain off). c) Wait 3 seconds.
GM (Opel & vauxht

11

I!I
W:.
Bosch Motronic MPi (35, 55 and 88-pin types) 6-19

Fault code table - BMW Motronic 1.1, 1.3


Flash codes (US)
Note: US vehicles only: These codes are available via the flashing of the dash-mounted 'Check Engine' warning lamp. Other codes are only
available when accessed by the Bosch KTS300 FCR or a BMW FCR.
Code Item
1 AFS
2 Oxygen sensor
:3 CTS
4 TS
Fault codes
Note: These codes are only available when accessed by the Bosch KTS300 FCR or a BMW FCR.
Note: Most of the fault code numbers co"espond to the ECM pin number. e.g. fault code 4 cOffesponds to ECM pin number 4.
C~6 ~m ~~
1 ECM Clear the fault code memory and read the codes again, if the code persists, replace ECM
3 Fuel pump relay Open-circuit or short to earth
4 ISCV Open-circuit or short to earth
5 CFSV Short to earth
7 AFS AFS signal less than 0.04 volts or greater than 0.95 volts
10 OS Exhaust emissions too rich or too lean
15 Warning lamp (US only) Short to earth
16 Injectors (cyl1 +3) Open-circuit or short to earth
17 Injectors (cyl 2+4) Open-circuit or short to earth
23 OS heater relay Short to earth, or short between ECM pin 23 and the OS relay
28 OS Open-circuit or short to earth
29 VSS No signal
33 Solenoid valve kick down prevent Open-circuit or short to earth (AT models)
37 ECM Supply exceeds 16 volts
43 CO pot (non cat models) Open-circuit or short to earth
44 ATS Open-circuit or short to earth
45 CTS Open-circuit or short to earth
51 Ignition timing intervention Short to earth (models with EGS only)
52 TS Idle contact short to earth
53 TS Full load contact short to earth
54 Torque converter clutch Models with EGS only: This code is stored when the ECM detects a closed torque
converter clutch or short to earth when the gear lever is in P or N
100 Output stage (Motronic 1.3 only) Loose contact
101 Engine operation not possible Check the following: ECM supply voltages, CAS signal, AFS signals, fuel pump relay
activation, injection output signal, injector valves, fuel pressure test
6-20 Bosch Motronic MPi (35, 55 and BB-pin types)

Fault code table - BMW Motronic 1.7, 3.1


Code Item Fault Code Item Fault
0 Undefined fault 50 Ignition amplifier cylinder No.4
1 Fuel pump relay/engine speed/CAS signal 51 Ignition amplifier cylinder No.6
2 Idle air control actuator 54 ECM
3 Supply
Injector Nos, 1 and 3 55 Ignition amplifier
4 Injector No. 3 62 Electronic throttle control
5 Injector No.2 64
6 Ignition timing (electronic AT) Interruption
Injectors 67
12 TPS Engine speed/crankshaft position sensor
70 Oxygen sensor
16 Camshaft position sensor 73 Vehicle speed sensor
18 Amplifier to ECM terminal 18 Short-circuit
19 ECM 76 CO potentiometer (non-cat)
Defective signal 77
23 Ignition amplifier No.2 cylinder Intake air temperature sensor
24 78 Engine coolant temperature sensor
Ignition amplifier No 3 cylinder
25 81 Alarm system signal
Ignition amplifier No.1 cylinder
26 ECM supply 82 Traction control Interrupted
29 Idle air control actuator 83 Suspension control Interrupted
31 Injector No.5 85 AC compressor
32 Injector Nos. 2, 4, or 6 100 ECM Defective signal
33 Injector No.4 200 ECM
36 EVAPcanister purge valve 201 Oxygen sensor control
37 Oxygen sensor Heating 202 ECM
41 AFS Volume/mass 203 Ignition primary circuit
46 ECM Defective signal 204 Electronic throttle control signal
48 AC compressor Cut-out 300 Engine Cannot be started

Fault code table - Citroen/Peugeot Motronic


Code Item Fault Code Item Fault
11 End of diagnosis No faults present 51x OS Circuit fault (cat models only)
12 Initiation of diagnosis 52 Mixture control Supply voltage/air/exhaust leak
13x ATS 53x Battery voltage Chargingibattery tests
14x CTS 54 ECM
'" ". ECM/ECM supply/injection relay
15 Fuel pump relay 55 Circuit fault
Supply fault CO pot
21x TPS/TS Idle contact 56 Immobiliser system
22 ISCV Supply fault 65 CID
25 ACAV 71 No 1 injector control
31 Idle switch fault Motronic 5.1.1 72 No 2 injector control
31 OS 73
Mixture regulation (check OS signal No 3 injector control
voltage) (Motronic 3.1, 3.2) 74 No 4 injector control
31 Mixture regulation Exhaust/inlet leak(s)or fuel
(cat models only) pressure/type (Motronic 1.3) 'x' Faults that typically will cause the ECM to enter LOS, and use a
32 Mixture regulation Exhaust/inlet leak(s)or fuel default value in place of the sensor
(cat models only) pressure/type Some faults are designated as major faults, and will illuminate the
33 CFSV Circuit fault (Motronic 5.1.1)
33x AFSIMAP warning lamp. However, major faults that will illuminate the warning
Circuit fault (Motronic 4.1, 3.2) lamp vary from system to system, and it is best to interrogate the ECM
34 CFSV
35 for codes if a fault is suspected.
TS Full-load contact
41 CAS Actuator selection code
42 Injectors 82 Injector
43x KS (Knock regulation) Knock sensor/engine temp/plugs etc 83 ISCV
44x KS (Knock detection) Knock sensor 84 CFSV
--------,

Bosch MotronicMPi(35,55 and BB-pintypes) 6-21

Fault code table - GM Motronic


Code Item Fault Code Item Fault
12 Initiation of diagnosis 65 CO potentiometer Low voltage
13 Oxygen sensor No change in voltage/open- 66 CO potentiometer High voltage
circuit 67 TS - idle contact Idle switch not opening
14 CTS Low voltage 69 ATS Low voltage
15 CTS 71 ATS High voltage
High voltage
16 Knock sensor No change in voltage 72 TS - full load contact Full load switch not opening
17 Knock sensor two No change in voltage 73 AFS Low voltage
18 Knock control unit 74 AFS High voltage
No signal: ECM fault
19 75 Transmission switch Low voltage
RPM signal Interrupted signal
21 76 AT torque control Engaged long
Throttle pot High voltage
22 79 Traction control unit Incorrect ignition/injector
Throttle pot Low voltage
cut-off
23 Knock control module
81 Injector number one Low voltage
24 Vehicle speed sensor 82 Injector number two Low voltage
25 Injector number one High voltage
83 Injector number three Low voltage
26 Injector number two High voltage
84 Injector number four Low voltage
27 Injector number three High voltage 85 Injector number five Low voltage
28 Injector number four High voltage 86 Injector number six Low voltage
29 Injector number five High voltage 87 AC cut-off relay Low voltage
31 Engine RPM signal No signal 88 AC cut-off relay High voltage
32 Injector number six Voltage high 89 Oxygen sensor Low voltage
33 Inlet manifold pressure sensor Voltage too high 91 High voltage
Oxygen sensor
34 EGR valve Voltage high 93 HES Low voltage
35 ISCV Poor or no idle speed control 94 HES High voltage
37 Engine self-diagnosis Low voltage 95 Hot start valve Low voltage
38 Oxygen sensor Voltage low (1990 model 96 Hot start valve High voltage
year on) 97 Traction control unit Incorrect signal
39 Oxygen sensor Voltage high (1990 model 98 Oxygen sensor Wiring break
year on) 99 Code unknown
41 Vehicle speed sensor Low voltage 113 Turbo boost control Boost pressure high
42 Vehicle speed sensor High voltage 114 Idle boost pressure Above upper limit 6
44 Air/fuel mixture too lean Below lower limit !..
Oxygen sensor 115 Full boost pressure
45 Oxygen sensor Air/fuel mixture too rich 116 Boost pressure Above upper limit
47 Air pump relay Low voltage 117 Wastegate valve Low voltage
48 Battery voltage Low voltage 118 Wastegate valve High voltage
49 Battery voltage High voltage 121 Oxygen sensor 2 Lean exhaust
51 Programmable memory PROM error 122 Oxygen sensor 2 Rich exhaust
52 Engine check light: final stage High voltage 123 Inlet manifold valve 1 Blocked
53 Fuel pump relay Low voltage 124 Inlet manifold valve 2 Blocked
54 Fuel pump relay High voltage 132 EGR valve Incorrect signal
55 ECM fault Renew ECM 133 Inlet manifold valve 2 High voltage
56 ISCV Short to earth 133 Inlet manifold valve 2 Low voltage
57 ISCV Interruption 134 EGR valve 2 Low voltage
59 Inlet manifold valve Low voltage 134 Inlet manifold valve 2 High voltage
61 FTVV Low voltage 135 'CHECK ENGINE' lamp Low voltage
62 FTVV High voltage 136 ECM
63 Inlet manifold valve High voltage 137 ECM box High temperature
-_J
~

Imprint Foreword to the 2nd Edition For your information:


Published by: Reproduction, duplication and transla- The "Automotive Handbook" is a Compared to the 1st Edition, we have
@ Robert Bosch GmbH, 1986 tion of this publication, including handy, concise, pocket-sized reference shortened the following subjects:
Postfach 50, D-7000 Stuttgart 1. .excerpts therefrom, is only to ensue work. Its primary purpose is to provide Tables for trigonometric functions.
Automotive Equipment Product Group, with our previous written consent and the automotive engineer, the mechanic, Physics (meteorology, nuclear
Department for Technical Information with particulars of source. Illustrations, the student and all those interested in physics).
(KH/VDT). ' descriptions, 'Schematic diagrams and technical 'matters, with a wealth of re- Ignition (magneto ignition, spark-plug
other data ser~ only for explanatory liable technical data.. as well as an matching) .
Edltor-in-Chief: .
purposes and for presentation of the insight into the present-day state-of-art Diesel fuel-injection pumps
Dipl.-Ing. (FH) U. Adler text. They cannot be used as the basis in automotive technology in the Federal (single-plunger pumps).
Editors: Motor traffic and motor-traffic
for design, installation and ,scope of Republic of Germany. With this assign-
Dipl.-Ing (FH) H. Bauer, delivery. We undertake no liability for . ment in mind, the scope of the theoreti- economics.
Dipl.-Ing. W. Bazlen t, conformity of the contents with national cal chapters dealing with passenger Various: nationality plates,
F. Dinkler, Marion Her:werth or local regulations. cars and commercial vehicles, as well racing classes. speeds,
Production management: '
We reserve the right to make changes. as the remaining contents, has been historical events.
G., Berger kept to the practical and necessary
Layout: . The brand names -given in the contents We have extended:
level.
Dipl.-Ing. (FH) U. Adler serve only as examples and do not Format (pocket-book format)
Within the framework of a pocket and contents.
G~'Berger represent the classification or prefer- book, it is impossible. to present a
Translation: ence for a particular manufacturer. Electrical engineering and electronics
detailed coverage of individual techni- Materials (materials tables,
Editor-in-Chief: Trade marks are not identified as such. cal subjects. On the other hand, with
P. Girling plastics abbreviations/trade
the very wide range of users in mind, names, lubricants).
Editor: . The following companies provided illus- 'We did not want to dispense with gen- Internal-combustion (le) engines.
J.-F. Salas tratons and informative material: .
erally applicable topics and data.
Fuel metering
Translated by: Audi AG, Ingolstadt; This 2nd English Edition was revised
(electronically controlled car!:>uretor,
IngenieurbGrQ fUr Technische und Bayerische Motorenwerke AG, Munich; and up-dated by specialists f~om the KE-/LH-Jetronic, single-point '
-Naturwissenschaftliche Ubersetzungen Mercedes-Benz AG. Stuttgart; Bosch Group. For certain chapters,
other firms also made contributions. At injection, LPG installations).
Dr. W.-D. Haehl GmbH, Stuttgart, J. Eberspacher. Esslingen; Electronic governors
Edward L. Crosby III Fichtel u. Sachs AG, Schweinfurt; this point, we would like to express our (for diesel fuel-injection pumps)
Technical graphics: Kienzle A~paratus GmbH, VS-Villingen; appreciation to all concerned.
Battery ignition (electronic ignition).
Bauer & Partner GmbH, Stuttgart Sekurit-Glas Union GmbH, Aachen; . Exhaust-gas techniques,
Joint production: Voith GmbH, Heidenheim; The Editors
Drive trains,
W. Wirtz Druck & Verlag, Speyer Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen AG. Undercarriage designs,
2nd corrected Edition based on the Friedrichshafen. Braking equipment,
20th German Edition. Printed in the . Lighting,
Federal Republic of Germany,. Vehicle hydraulics/pneumatics.
The worldwide selling rights and the .;
right to issue foreign-language licenses Imprime en Republique Fedeli8le " We have Introduced:
for the original German Edition (20th d'Allemag.ne. . , Control engineering,
Edition, 1987) are held by: Data processing (microcomputers),
Editorial closing: 25. ~. 1987 Sliding bearings and rolling bearings,
VDI-Verlag, GmbH
Verlag des Vereins Deutscher Threaded fasteners, Belt drives,
Ingenieure, Graf-Recke~Str. 85, Driving dynamics (commercial vehs),
D-4000 DGsseldorf 1, Hydrostatic drives, Hybrid drives,
ISBN 3-18-418Q06-9 Superchargers for IC engines,
Motronic,
Approved Editions under license: Vehicle bodies, passenger cars &
SAE Society of . commercial vehicles,
Automotive Engineers Inc. Vehicle glass windows, window and
ISBN 0-89 283;p18-6 lamp' cleaning,
Delta Press Limited
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC),
ISBN 1 85 226 O~L9, Trip recorders, Trip computers.
Electromechanical drives,
Passenger restraint systems.